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  1. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size, the Northern Cape (NC) Province has the smallest population of the ... whether skin cancer incidence in SA has followed the global trend.[12] ... high risk of mortality.[16] As ... 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases. .... majority of KSs occurred in the younger age group 30 - 39 years.

  2. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  3. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Geohydrological investigation of an uranium anomaly near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Talma, A.S.; Vogel, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    An anomaly, caused by low-grade uranium accumulations in organic-rich diatomaceous earth deposits, was located by an airborne radiometric survey near Vanzylsrus in the Northern Cape. Low-grade uraniferous calcrete also occurs in the vicinity of the anomaly. A significant uranium anomaly was found along the whole course of the palaeodrainage with the highest values occuring behind a dolerite dyke a few kilometres south of the confluence. A multidisciplinary approach in corporating geohydrology, water geochemistry, isotopic data and radiometric borehole logging studies was used to evaluate its potential

  5. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  6. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  7. Retrospective return on investment analysis of an electronic treatment adherence device piloted in the Northern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomhead, Sean; Mars, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The return on investment (ROI) for utilizing the SIMpill electronic treatment adherence solution as an adjunct to directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) is assessed using data from a 2005 pilot of the SIMpill solution among new smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Northern Cape Province. The value of this cost minimization analysis (CMA), for use by public health planners in low-resource settings as a precursor to more rigorous assessment, is discussed. The retrospective analysis compares the costs and health outcomes of the DOTS-SIMpill cohort with DOTS-only controls. Hypothetical 5-year cash flows are generated and discounted to estimate net present values (NPVs). Comparison between the DOTS-SIMpill pilot cohort and DOTS-only supported controls, for a hypothetical implementation of 1,000 devices, over 5 years, demonstrates positive ROI for the DOTS-SIMpill cohort based on improved health outcomes and reduced average cost per patient. The net stream is shown to be positive from the first year. Discounted NPV is ZAR 3,255,256 (US$ 493,221) for a cohort that would have started mid 2005 and ZAR 3,747,636 (US$ 487,339) starting mid 2010. This is an ROI of 23% over the 5-year period. The addition of electronic treatment adherence support technology can help to improve TB outcomes and lower average cost per patient by reducing treatment failure and the associated higher cost and burden on limited resources. CMA is an appropriate initial analysis for health planners to highlight options that may justify more sophisticated methods such as cost effectiveness analysis or full cost benefit analysis where a preferred option is immediately revealed. CMA is proposed as a tool for use by public health planners in low-resource settings to evaluate the ROI of treatment adherence technology postpilot and prior to implementation.

  8. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  9. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  10. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... ... of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at ... mortality rates were in the northern and eastern Cape. Conclusion. The perinatal ..... World Health Organisation. World Health Statistics Annual. Vol.

  11. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A descriptive study with analytic components. Characteristics of patients who died from the most ... authorities on how to collect data on maternal deaths throughout a whole region. This surveillance may be ... Following the publication of perinatal data from 18 ruraJ. hospitalsT in the Cape Province, the Continuing ...

  12. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  13. Mammals of the Kammanassie Mountains, southern Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regrettable as in the southern Cape, for example, the marked gradients in .... green plant material (leaves) and insects, using a stereo- scopic microscope with ..... cial and logistic support, especially Mr P. Ie Roux, the. Assistant Director, for his ...

  14. Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. ... to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to ... N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were ...

  15. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  16. Perceived HIV and Aids impasse in the eastern cape province and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on perceived HIV and AIDS impasse in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to explore perceptions of those students already known to be living with HIV and Aids. There are a myriad of risky behaviours observed amongst them that continue to persist unabated despite several ...

  17. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  18. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  19. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  20. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  1. The geology of the area south of Vioolsdrif, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.H.W.

    1977-10-01

    Geological reconnaissance of an area of 1 500 square km to the South of Vioolsdrif in northern Namaqualand has revealed that this region straddles the boundary between the upper crustal Richtersveld domain and the subjacent Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The Vioolsdrif batholith, which underlies much of the Richtersveld, is a composite body, essentially granodioritic, which was emplaced in a number of epizonal magmatic pulses into an overlying comagmatic canopy of intermediate to felsic lavas and pyroclastics during Bushveld times. It is unlikely that this volcanic carapace exceeded 9 km in thickness. During or following consolidation at about 1 800 Ma, the southern margin of the batholith was affected by a thermotectonic episode of regional extent during which the rocks of the igneous complex were foliated and lineated in sympathy with the dominant tectonic fabric of the contiguous metamorphic complex. Metamorphic mineral parageneses indicate that during the climax of this dynamothermal episode, rocks along the southern margin of the batholith were subjected to temperatures of 620 - 670 degrees and pressures of 0,4 - 0,5 MPa (4 - 5 kbar). During this deformational episode the batholith acted as a tectonic resister which preserved the overlying volcanics from incorporation into the metamorphic complex. More or less coincident with the boundary between the metamorphic complex and the Vioolsdrif batholith is a zone about 10 km in width which is characterised by the development of abundant pegmatites [af

  2. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 4 270 biopsies (13 cutaneous malignancies) were identified. The commonest was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), followed by basal cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and basosquamous carcinoma, in descending order. The odds of a white male developing ...

  3. Petrography, geochemistry, and geochronology of the Cenozoic Cape Crossfire, Cape King, and No Ridge igneous complexes (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, S.; Fioretti, A.M.; Cavazzini, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Meander Intrusive Group is the plutonic-subvolcanic counterpart of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, and extends along 200 km of the Ross Sea coast of Northern Victoria Land. The three largest occurrences of the Meander Intrusive Group between the Icebreaker and Borchgrevink glaciers are the Cape Crossfire, the No Ridge, and the Cape King igneous complexes. These have an area of 40-80 square km and are composed of dominant monzogabbros and monzodiorites along with minor syenites and alkali feldspar microgranites. A significant compositional gap exists between mafic and felsic facies, which show geometrical relationships varying from subhorizontal alternating layers to complex pillowing and fragmentation of the mafic into the felsic facies. Two whole rock biotite Rb-Sr internal isochrons constrain the cooling age of Cape Crossfire Igneous Complex at 31 Ma, a few million years older than No Ridge and Cape King igneous complexes. Thus, the ages of these complexes (≤ 31 Ma) are younger than the plutons and dikes (≥ 35 Ma) cropping out in the southernmost area between the Campbell and Icebreaker glaciers. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. The isotopic chemical and dissolved gas concentrations in groundwater near Venterstad, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.; Talma, A.S.; Heaton, T.H.E.

    1980-01-01

    Groundwater was collected for a multi parameter investigation from 27 boreholes within a radius of 120 km from Venterstad (Cape Province). The samples were analysed for the isotopes carbon-14, carbon-13, oxygen-18, tritium and radon-222, for the dissolved gases nitrogen, oxygen, argon, methane and helium and for the major ionic species. These data, with those collected during previous investigations of the flooding of the Orange Fish tunnel, are used to discuss the geohydrology of the area. Three water types of different origin were delineated

  5. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  6. Sm-Nd study of Precambrian crustal development in the Prieska-Copperton region, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Van Calsteren, P.; Scott, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Samples representing the major lithological units between Copperton and Prieskapoort in the Cape Province have been analysed for Sm and Nd concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions. The ∼ 3000 Ma Marydale Group is shown to extend without major chronostratigraphic breaks from slightly metamorphosed basalt and arkose west of the Doornberg Fault at Prieskapoort to highly metamorphosed gneisses east of the Brakbos Fault at Copperton. Evidence is found of plutonic alkaline igneous activity, and possibly volcanism, which occurred during the ∼ 1 900 Ma Kheis tectogenesis. Early Proterozoic material apparently dominates the lower crustal region of the eastern Namaqua Province sampled by kimberlites. Sm-Nd data for the Copperton Formation of the Namaqua Province places an upper limit of ∼ 1 514 Ma and lower limit of ∼ 1 350 Ma on its origin. Omission of basaltic samples from the isochron regression yields the younger age, which is more easily reconciled with Pb isotope data. Volcanism is envisaged from a mantle source with a history of light rare-earth depletion relative to the chondritic earth model. By analogy with modern tectonic environments, the Copperton Formation probably formed in an active continental margin or island arc environment

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Said, Halima; Gcebe, Nomakorinte

    2017-10-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E.C) Province of South Africa. Although the isolates were genotyped with variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, no detailed epidemiological investigation was carried out on the respective farms to unequivocally confirm or link humans as sources of TB transmission to cattle, a move that would have embraced the 'One Health' concept. In addition, strain comparison with human M. tuberculosis in the database from the E.C Province and other provinces in the country did not reveal any match. This is the first report of cases of M. tuberculosis infection in cattle in South Africa. The VNTR profiles of the M. tuberculosis strains identified in the current study will form the basis for creating M. tuberculosis VNTR database for animals including cattle for future epidemiological studies. Our findings however, call for urgent reinforcement of collaborative efforts between the veterinary and the public health services of the country.

  8. Incidence of haematological malignancies, Eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, Diana; Truter, Ilse

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of haematological malignancies in Africa's rapidly urbanising populations is insufficiently explored. Reliable population-based cancer statistics, however, continues to be a scarce resource in Africa and tends to be urban biased with limited rural coverage. In addition, many haematological malignancies are regarded as rare cancers, a sub-group that often affects the young disproportionately and require advanced diagnostic services and facilities able to deliver costly sophisticated treatments. This study provides a first attempt to estimate the incidence of haematological malignancies among the Eastern Cape Province population of South Africa. Multiple public- and private sector data archives and resources were utilised to optimise the identification of incident cases, including clinical records; bone marrow; cytology; histology; flow cytometry and cytogenetic records. Crude incidence, age-and gender-standardised rates are presented and comparison made with existing national data and select data from other economically developed countries and global institutions. A total of 3603 incident cases were identified between 2004 and 2013. Mature lymphoid malignancies accounted for approximately 60% (n = 2153), myeloma/plasma cell neoplasms 13% (n = 465), acute leukaemia 17% (n = 596), chronic myeloid leukaemia 4% (n = 155) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms 6% (n = 234) when stratified according to conventional groups. Most subtypes increase with age, with male excess. Haematological malignancies in the Eastern Cape Province show disparities in gender and pathology-specific incidence patterns. The present study suggest that haematological malignancies are not uncommon in this region and the incidence rate of at least one rare subtype, APL, is comparable with some European populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  10. Rabies in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - where are we going wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Van Sittert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a growing problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study investigated dog ecology, vaccination coverage and rabies neutralising antibody levels in 203 randomly selected dogs within a local municipality in the former Transkei area. Responses to vaccination were also evaluated in 80 of these dogs. The population was remarkably uniform in size, breed and condition. Slightly over 1/5th of the population was between 6 weeks and 1 year of age, while very few dogs reached 10 years or older. According to owner responses, the Animal Health Technicians achieved a total vaccination coverage of 65 % of owned dogs over several years, but only 56 % within the previous 12 months. Only 32%of dogs had adequate circulating rabies virus neutralisation antibodies (≥0.5IU/ℓ. After vaccination, 83 % had seroconverted to this level. The magnitude of seroconversion was independent of body condition or age. This study proposes a different approach to vaccination strategies than those currently employed in certain areas of the province.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  13. Social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrain T. Murire

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT framework was used as the theoretical foundation of the questionnaire that was distributed to 300 full-time staff members. A response rate of 39% was attained. Factor analysis was used to test the relationship between variables. Contribution: The study’s contribution is to the theoretical body of knowledge that affirms that the UTAUT framework is an appropriate tool to use to test adoption of social media at traditional universities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that academics are conversant with emerging technologies and could incorporate these technologies into academic settings with an aim to increase communication and interaction among lecturers and learners. The results revealed that performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and behavioural intention have a positive influence on social media adoption and continued use by academics in teaching and learning at traditional university. The facilitating condition scale was not statistically significant, but must be considered by management in order to improve the adoption of social media among lecturers.

  14. A mineralogical investigation of a uranium-bearing phosphatic siltstone from Tsongnapan, Northwestern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.

    1980-02-01

    A sample of uranium-bearing phosphatic siltstone from Tsongnapan in the Northwestern Cape Province was investigated mineralogically. The siltstone consists of cyclically alternating apatite- and calcite spherulite-rich layers. The calcite content of the rock is 11,4% and the apatite content is 42,1%. The groundmass shows the presence of the following elements: Si, Ca, P, Fe, Mg, K, Al, Cu and Zn. Detrital quartz, albite and magnetite are mainly confined to calcite spherulitic layers. The uranium content of the siltstone is 1 120 ppm U 3 O 8 and the thorium content 638 ppm ThO 2 . Both uranium and thorium occur mainly in the apatite-rich groundmass and to a minor extent in subsidiary monazite and zircon. Laboratory-scale metallurgical tests showed that the uranium is almost wholly leachable by hydrochloric acid while sulphuric and acetic acid dissolve only a small percentage of the uranium with concomitant formation of calcium sulphate. The rock probably formed in a low-energy regime in a marine environment where apatite and calcite spherulites crystallised from a possibly colloidal state [af

  15. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  16. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C

    2018-03-28

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  17. Barriers and Incentives to Potential Adoption of Biofuels Crops by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge; Mushunje, Abbyssinia; Taruvinga, Amon

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify barriers and incentives that influence the potential adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. The study utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to record responses from 129 smallholder farmers that were identified through a snowballing sampling technique. The respondents were from the Oliver Tambo and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A Heckman two-step model was applied to analyze the dat...

  18. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  19. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  20. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  1. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  2. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  3. Reproduction of the caracal Felis caraca] from the Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-10-31

    Oct 31, 1986 ... In spite of such predator control pro- grammes, the species remains common in the Cape Pro- vince (Stuart 1981, in press). Existing data on the reproduction of the caracal, which are based on a limited number of field obser- vations and observations of captive (zoo) animals, indi- cate that reproduction can ...

  4. Mental illness in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending routine HIV follow-up care in Cape Town had mental disorders, including ... e.g. alcohol abuse is associated with depression and anxiety disorders and is also a risk factor for .... Poorly trained nursing staff. Lack of appropriate ...

  5. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra

    2018-01-01

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  6. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  7. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  8. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  9. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A preceptor is a specialised tutor who provides practical training to students in the practice setting. They are frequently used to orientate nursing students to prepare them for their duties as professional nurses. In the Western Cape Province professional nurses attend a training programme to prepare them for the role of preceptor. After completion of the training it is unclear how the trained nurse preceptors perceive their preparation for the role. The perceptions of preceptors may influence their commitment to their role.Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions.Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role.Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  10. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa J. K. Anochie-Boateng W. JvdM Steyn C. Fisher L. Truter...

  11. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  12. Provincial–regional ANC politics in the Northern Cape: corruption or everyday informal practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thina Nzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government ANC politics and councillor representation, this prevents us from understanding the representational focus of ANC councillors in decision-making processes. This paper offers an ethnographic insight into experiences of ANC councillors and the political complexities involved in council decision-making. Using ethnographic research, this paper will analyse how a political decision by the ANC provincial party, which was supported by the ANC regional party at local level – to erect a statue of Nelson Mandela in one of the municipalities in the Northern Cape – generated tensions amongst ANC councillors who strongly viewed their primary role as promoters of better ‘service delivery’ rather than approving the allocation of scarce municipal resources for erecting a statue. The paper reveals how the dominant presence of ANC sub-regional structures at local level contribute to the complex interaction of both ANC party political and municipal organisational rules and norms that influence and shape councillors’ choices in decision-making.

  13. A PLIOSAURID TOOTH FROM THE ARGILLE VARICOLORI FORMATION NEAR CASTELVECCHIO DI PRIGNANO (MODENA PROVINCE, NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESARE A. PAPAZZONI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The first discovery of a Cretaceous pliosaurid tooth in Italy is reported. It comes from the Cenomanian-lower Campanian Argille Varicolori Formation near Castelvecchio di Prignano (Modena Province, northern Italy. Excepting this new specimen, Italy's only reported pliosaurid is a humerus from the Upper Cretaceous of Zavattarello near Pavia. The tooth morphology allows it to be ascribed to Polyptychodon interruptus Owen, 1841, a species only reported thus far from northern-central Europe (England, Germany, and the Czech Republic. This suggests the presence of marine reptile remains in the northern Apennines may have been underestimated. 

  14. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  15. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  16. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  17. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD 50 ) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (pphytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  19. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyegunhi Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  20. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  1. The association between ethnic identity and condom use among young men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Resnicow, Ken; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Reddy, Priscilla

    2014-08-01

    This article reports on the association between ethnic identity and condom use among Black African men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Individual face-to-face structured interviews were conducted by trained community research assistants among 1,656 men who had undergone traditional initiation and male circumcision. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between two components of ethnic identity (cultural affiliation and cultural alienation) and condom use. Overall, 49.2 % of the participants reported using condoms consistently and, of these users, 66.4 % used them correctly. Logistic regression adjusting for age, employment status, education level, and nation of origin showed that participants who expressed high as opposed to low cultural affiliation were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently and correctly when having sex, especially if they reported to have more than one sexual partner. Cultural alienation was negatively related with consistent condom use, whereas its association with correct use was unclear. The findings of this study suggest that positively emphasizing the ethnic identity of African black men may promote condom use.

  2. Sedimentology and economic potential of a storm-derived heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group, Cape Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, D I; Labuschagne, L S

    1982-06-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing, very fine-grained sandstone beds occur in the upper part of the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group, 35 km east-north-east of Willowmore, Cape Province. The beds are located within a 10-m-thick stratigraphic interval approximately 100 m below the base of the Witpoort Formation. The beds are amalgamated and consist of up to 5 units, each representing deposition from a storm-surge ebb current. Nine samples taken from the upper bed and one from the lower were analysed for heavy-mineral content. In order of decreasing abundance the heavy-minerals are rutile, zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, staurolite and sphene. The zircon contains uranium and the monazite is thorium bearing. Simple linear regression analysis of three elements, three oxides, the heavy mineral fraction and the radiometric response indicate that the proportion of heavy minerals does not vary significantly between samples and that the radiometric response of the beds (determined with a portable gamma-ray scintillometer) is directly related to the heavy mineral content. The heavy minerals are concentrated in the upper 20 cm of each bed where deposition from suspension, during the final phase of storm activity, was predominant. Significant concentrations are limited to the upper bed.

  3. Sedimentology and economic potential of a storm-derived heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.

    1982-06-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing, very fine-grained sandstone beds occur in the upper part of the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group, 35 km east-north-east of Willowmore, Cape Province. The beds are located within a 10-m-thick stratigraphic interval approximately 100 m below the base of the Witpoort Formation. The beds are amalgamated and consist of up to 5 units, each representing deposition from a storm-surge ebb current. Nine samples taken from the upper bed and one from the lower were analysed for heavy-mineral content. In order of decreasing abundance the heavy-minerals are rutile, zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, staurolite and sphene. The zircon contains uranium and the monazite is thorium bearing. Simple linear regression analysis of three elements, three oxides, the heavy mineral fraction and the radiometric response indicate that the proportion of heavy minerals does not vary significantly between samples and that the radiometric response of the beds (determined with a portable gamma-ray scintillometer) is directly related to the heavy mineral content. The heavy minerals are concentrated in the upper 20 cm of each bed where deposition from suspension, during the final phase of storm activity, was predominant. Significant concentrations are limited to the upper bed

  4. Characteristics of uranium geological anomaly in Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinwu; Cheng Danping

    2001-01-01

    The geological anomaly characteristics of uranium deposit region in northern Guangdong are discussed on the aspects of uranium source, structure and thermal activity. Uranium deposits usually occur in the uranium-rich background field. Structure activity provides favourable places for the transportation and precipitation of uranium. Uranium deposits are formed in the central and edge of frequent thermal activity. The assembled entropy anomaly field is the synthetical display for above three anomaly. The biggest assembled entropy anomaly is the most favourable space field for forming uranium deposit

  5. Impacts of supplemental irrigation as a climate change adaptation strategy for maize production: a case of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndhleve, S; Nakinand, MDV; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2017-01-01

    Dry spells and climatic hazards are responsible for maize output decline, sometimes to levels below potential yield levels. There is a pressing need to reduce the gap between actual and potential maize yield/ha, especially among farmers in semi-arid regions. This present study examines the potential role of supplemental irrigation and its differential impact on maize yield in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In this study, maize yield data were generated from information recorded ov...

  6. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  7. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Floral diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in hogsback, the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.Y.; Tol, J.J.V.; Maroyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific. (author)

  10. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  11. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  12. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.; Smith, P.E.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large-diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that, with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post-bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75x10 8 m 3 is derived compared with a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (author)

  13. An environmental isotope study of a major dewatering operation at Sishen mine, northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.; Smith, P.E.; Dziembowski, Z.; Oosthuizen, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Geohydrological studies using environmental isotopes of the Sishen iron ore mine were started after major rainfalls in 1973/74 produced flooding of the open cast workings. The mine is underlain by dolomite which has been extensively karstified and geohydrologically compartmentalized by several dykes. Major dewatering takes place in a pit called Hill 2 by pumping an array of large diameter boreholes at a combined rate of 2000 m 3 h -1 . The probable recharge areas (dolomites, superficial Kalahari Beds) were isotopically surveyed to assess their relative importance to the dewatering problem. Several major pumping outlets at the mine were regularly sampled for isotopic and chemical analysis and from the data a preliminary mixing model is proposed. The data also show that with the total pumped volume up to March 1978, no very recent (i.e. post bomb) water has reached the dewatering points. On this basis a minimum storage of 0.75 x 10 8 m 3 is derived compared to a classical calculation of 10 8 m 3 for the compartment. Isotopic composition and response differ for waters on either side of a dyke crossing the mining area, corroborating classical evidence suggesting that the dyke acts as an aquiclude. (orig.) [de

  14. A regional mineralogical study of the manganese-bearing Voelwater subgroup in the northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyenstueber, A.S.E.

    1985-11-01

    The Voelwater Subgroup, of the Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence, in the Hotazel area, is preserved in five structurally controlled basins, on the eastern side of the Dimoten syncline. The Subgroup represents a relatively undisturbed unit of mixed volcanogenic - chemical sedimentary rocks. The Hotazel Formation within the Voelwater Subgroup, consists of a finely banded carbonate - silicate - hematite - manganese lutite sequence of banded iron-formation and must be unique in that it contains the world's largest land-based repository of manganese. Twenty-one drill cores, sampled lithologically at intervals of approximately one metre through the total sedimentary sequence, were studied by microscopic, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe methods. The mineralogy of the Voelwater Subgroup was studied on a regional scale, with the emphasis on the minerals within the manganese beds of the Hotazel Formation. The objective of the study was: a. To study the variation and distrubution of minerals in the various manganese ores on a regional scale. b. To compare the mineralogical differences of the different ores mined, in order to gain a better understanding of their metallurgical behaviour. c. To try to locate high-grade manganese ore target areas for future exploration, with the aid of mineralogical information. d. To try to establish the origin of the manganese in the Voelwater Formation. e. To study the relationship of the manganese units with the adjacent chemical sediments of the Hotazel Formation

  15. A comparison of some methods used to estimate the grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Schmidt

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province was estimated in a number of different ways using rainfall and herbaceous composition and phytomass data. The results indicate that the grazing capacity under the present environmental conditions should be approximately 50 of the recommended agricultural grazer stocking rate. This is in agreement with recent literature, indicating that the methods used should be suitable for determining a first approximation of grazing capacity in the mixed bushveld of Northern Province.

  16. Predicting the risk of arsenic contaminated groundwater in Shanxi Province, Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Johnson, C. Annette; Xue, Hanbin; Shi Jianbo; Zheng Quanmei; Sun Guifan

    2012-01-01

    Shanxi Province is one of the regions in northern China where endemic arsenicosis occurs. In this study, stepwise logistic regression was applied to analyze the statistical relationships of a dataset of arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwaters with some environmental explanatory parameters. Finally, a 2D spatial model showing the potential As-affected areas in this province was created. We identified topography, gravity, hydrologic parameters and remote sensing information as explanatory variables with high potential to predict high As risk areas. The model identifies correctly the already known endemic areas of arsenism. We estimate that the area at risk exceeding 10 μg L −1 As occupies approximately 8100 km 2 in 30 counties in the province. - Highlights: ► We develop a statistical model to predict arsenic affected areas of Shanxi Province. ► Holocene sediments, TWI, Rivdist, Gravity, remote sensing images are key predictors. ► Area of 8112 km 2 and more than 30 counties are estimated at risk of arsenic hazard. ► Logistic regression model could be widely used to predict other emerging regions. - Explanatory variables from topography, hydrology, gravity, and remote sensing information are benefit to model As risk in groundwater of Shanxi Province.

  17. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    The energy demand in building sectors for summer air-conditioning is growing exponentially due to thermal loads, increased living standards and occupant comfort demands throughout the last decades. This increasing consumption of primary energy is contributing significantly to emission of greenhouse gases and therefore to global warming. Moreover, fossil fuels, current main sources of energy used for electricity generation, are being depleted at an alarming rate despite continued warning. In addition, most air-conditioning equipment still utilise CFCs, promoting further destruction of our planet's protective ozone layer. Concerns over these environmental changes, have begun shifting the emphasis from current cooling methods, to 'sustainable strategies' of achieving equally comfortable conditions in building interiors. Study of ancient strategies applied by vernacular architecture shows how the indigenously clean energies to satisfy the cooling need were used. One of the most important influences on vernacular architecture is the macro-climate of the area in which the building is constructed. Mediterranean vernacular architecture, as well as that of much of the Middle East, often includes a courtyard with a fountain or pond; air cooled by water mist and evaporation is drawn through the building by the natural ventilation set up by the building form, and in many cases also includes wind-catchers to draw air through the internal spaces. Similarly, Northern African vernacular designs often have very high thermal mass and small windows to keep the occupants cool. Not only vernacular structure but also the recent development in solar and geothermal cooling technologies could be used to the needs for environmental control. Intelligent coupling of these methods as alternative design strategies could help developing countries such as South Africa toward sustainable development in airconditioning of building. In this paper, the possible strategies for

  18. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  19. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  20. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  1. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  2. The provision of Primary Health Care in two rural districts of the Eastern Cape Province with particular reference to human resources and accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thipanyana

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of Primary Health Care Services (PHC is still a problem in developing countries like South Africa. In other countries, one finds enough human resources whilst in other countries there may be enough material resources. A both qualitative and quantitative research was conducted at Mqanduli and part of the Eastern Elliotdale districts in the Eastern Cape Province with the aim of investigating the provision of Primary health Care Services, reference was made to the availability of human resources and accessibility of PHC services.

  3. Geochronologic evidence of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia encompassing the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppo, Tomás; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Fanning, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    The Los Menucos Complex (northern Patagonia) consists of ∼6 km thick succession of acidic and intermediate volcanic and pyroclastic products, which has been traditionally assigned to the Middle/Late Triassic. New U/Pb (SHRIMP) zircon crystallization ages of 257 ± 2 Ma at the base, 252 ± 2 Ma at an intermediate level and 248 ± 2 Ma near the top of the sequence, indicate that this volcanic event took place in about 10 Ma around the Permian-Triassic boundary. This volcanism can now be considered as the effusive terms of the neighboring and coeval La Esperanza Plutono-Volcanic Complex. This indicates that the climax of activity of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia was coetaneous with the end-Permian mass extinctions. Likely correlation of La Esperanza- Los Menucos magmatic province with similar volcanic and plutonic rocks across other areas of northern Patagonia suggest a much larger extension than previously envisaged for this event. Its age, large volume and explosive nature suggest that the previously ignored potential role that this volcanism might have played in climatic deterioration around the Permian-Triassic boundary should be investigated.

  4. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  5. Research experiment on infiltration and runoff in Jujube land of northern Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide guidance for the efficient use of rainwater in Jujube forests of the northern Shaanxi Province, research on the processes of infiltration and runoff under field simulated rainfall were conducted. The process of infiltration and runoff-yield on sloping land was simulated with Richards equation and the water balance equation under different rainfall intensities and soil water content, in the north of Shaanxi province. It reached results via comparing with observation results: the mean relative error of the period cumulative infiltration was less than 3%, with a root mean squared error (RSME less than 0.3. The mean relative error of the period cumulative runoff was less than 12.5%, RSME < 0.4. The simulation results were reasonable; however, the simulation ponding time generally lagged behind measured ponding time probably because of spatial variation of saturated hydraulic conductivity and uneven rainfall.

  6. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  7. Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-12-01

    The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.

  8. Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand

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    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991, non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

  9. Arthropod-borne viral infections associated with a fever outbreak in the northern province of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; el-Tigani, A; Botros, B A; Salib, A W; Olson, J G; McCarthy, M; Ksiazek, T G

    1994-08-01

    An outbreak of acute febrile illness occurred during August and September 1989 in the Northern Province of Sudan coinciding with a high population density of phlebotomine sandflies. An investigation was conducted to determine whether arboviruses were associated with human illness during this outbreak. Sera were obtained from 185 febrile individuals and tested for IgG and IgM antibody to selected arboviruses by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The prevalence of IgG antibody was 59% for West Nile (WN), 53% for Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFS), 32% for Sandfly Fever Naples (SFN), 39% for Yellow Fever (YF), 24% for dengue-2 (DEN-2), 23% for Rift Valley Fever (RVF), 12% for Chikungunya (CHIK) and 5% for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) viruses. Antibody prevalences tended to increase with age for WN and YF viruses. Antibody rates were about the same for males and females for most of the viruses tested. The prevalence of IgM antibody to SFN was 24% and reciprocal IgM titre exceeded 12,800 for some individuals suggesting that this virus was the cause of recent infection. The prevalence of IgM antibody for the other viruses did not exceed 5%. The study indicated that several arboviruses were endemic and some of them may have caused human disease in the Northern Province of Sudan.

  10. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  11. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  12. XML Geohelminthic: human ascariasis and trichuriasis in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

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    Hajar Ziaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis and trichuriasis are the most common intestinal geohelminthic diseases, and as such they are significant in terms of clinical and public health. This study was done to determine prevalence, status and geographic distribution patterns for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. The study was done in the period 1991-2014 in northern Iran using Aregis 9.2 software. Methods: This was a review study, using description and analysis, of geographical distribution of Ascaris and Trichuris relating to townships in Mazandran province, northern Iran, covering a 23-year period. Data were collected from a review of the relevant literature, summarized and classified using Arc GIS, 9.2 to design maps and tables. Results: Based on results presented in tables and maps, means for prevalence of Ascaris and Trichuris were divided into five groups. The maximum prevalence rate of Ascaris was 16.3% reported in rural areas of Tonkabon in 1981-1982. Prevalence means for Ascaris in the central and western areas of Mazandaran province were 2%-4% and 4%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of Trichuris in the rural area of Tonkabon was 22.5% and the lowest 0.06% was among the cattle breeder’s in rural areas of the province at in 2002-2003. Conclusion: Data presented in this study provides information useful to health care workers researchers and health administrators, especially for physicians, clinicians and for future research. Also, it is necessary to control and prevent geohelminthic parasitic infections, particularly in rural areas by public education for families, health authorities and health care systems.

  13. School District Leadership Styles and School Improvement: Evidence from Selected School Principals in the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorosi, Pontso; Bantwini, Bongani D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how leadership styles in the Eastern Cape school districts support school improvement. Mixed methods research was employed and data was collected through the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with school principals in various districts. The study was guided by the following questions:…

  14. SEAFLOOR SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAVY MINERAL OCCURENCES AT BETUMPAK CAPE AND ADJACENT AREA, BANGKA STRAIT, BANGKA BELITUNG PROVINCE

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    Rohendi Rohendi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seafloor of sediment samples have been taken by using gravity corer and grab sampler at Betumpak Cape, and adjacent area of Bangka Belitung. The result of grain size analyses show that there are four sediment units: gravelly sand, gravelly muddy sand, silt and silty sand. Identification of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image on several samples shows the presence of clay mineral such as smectite, alunite, chlorite etc., may resulted from plagioclase weathering of granite. Based on heavy mineral analyses, its highest content is found at MTK-27 (northwest of Betumpak Cape. High content of apatite (0.94% wt and 1.07% wt is found on coarse sand fractions (115-170 mesh at MTK-29 (northeast Ular Cape and MTK-30 (north of Ular Cape. Generally, the heavy mineral accumulation is occurred on medium sand fraction (60-80 mesh as magnetite (7.86% wt, ilmenite (4.9% wt and zircon (1.32% wt. Based on these data, it shows that heavy mineral is accumulated on medium to coarse sand.

  15. The Influence of School Culture and School Climate on Violence in Schools of the Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kalie; Brynard, Susette; de Wet, Corene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF), which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's…

  16. Epidemiological distribution of rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases in the provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran

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    Behzad Esfandiari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R. norvegicus (67.3%, R. rattus (13.6%, Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%, Arvicola (1%, Mus musculus (0.3%, Nesokia indica (2.5%, Cricetulus migrates (0.7% and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%. The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  18. Ethnoastronomy in the Multicultural Context of the Agricultural Colonies in Northern Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Armando

    In this paper, we present a study about cultural astronomy among European colonists and their Argentinean descendants, in the context of a complex interaction between criollos, aboriginals and European colonists from different origins and religions, who settled in the northern area of the Argentinean province of Santa Fe, which is part of the southern Gran Chaco. These colonists arrived among waves of immigration occurring in Argentina in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Through ethnographic field research among these immigrants and their descendants, we carried out a survey of their astronomical representations and practices, and the connections of these with their social life and farming tasks. Through this we gained an insight as to how the astronomical ideas of immigrants, criollos and aboriginal groups influenced each other, generating a variety of new relations with the celestial realm.

  19. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Mehdi Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw (fresh vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections using standard methods. Results: Out of 104 samples (60.3% were contaminated with parasites. Parsley and radish with prevalence rates of 90% (18/20 and 39.1% (9/23 were the most and least contaminated vegetables. Free living larva and Trichostrongylus were the most and least common parasites in our results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parasitological contamination of raw vegetables may be a health threat to consumers of such products.

  20. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia

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    ZAINAL ABIDIN MUCHLISIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muchlisin ZA, Zulkarnaini B, Purnawan S, Muhadjier A, Fadli N, Cheng SH. 2014. Morphometric variations of three species of harvested cephalopods found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 142-146. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphometrics of three harvested cephalopods, Sepioteuthis lessoniana, Sepia officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. found in northern sea of Aceh Province, Indonesia. Sampling was conducted for six months from July to December 2012 in one week interval. A total of 318 cephalopods; 139 Sepioteuthis lessoniana, 139 Uroteuthis sp. and 40 Sepia officinalis were analyzed for morphometric study and 13 anatomical characters were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm using a digital calipers. Morphometric measurements were significantly different between the different species of cephalopods (ANOVA, p<0.05. S. officinalis differed in six morphological characters (head length, head width, tentacles length, gladius width, rancis width and length from the squid species. Fin width and length were significantly greater in S. lessoniana than in S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. On the other hand, Uroteuthis sp. had significantly greater mantle lengths, standard lengths and gladius lengths than the other two cephalopod species (Duncan Test, p<0.05. However, fin width was similar between S. lessoniana and Uroteuthis sp., while eye diameter was similar between S. officinalis and Uroteuthis sp. A Discriminant Function Analysis scatter plot successfully discriminated the three species indicating significant differences in morphological variation. This analysis also indicates that morphometrically, S. lessoniana and S. officinalis are more similar to each other despite being in different orders.

  1. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  2. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  3. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the northern province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Khoza, L B; Lekhuleni, M E; Madu, S N; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males) and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males). They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers' sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with "diabetes", however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1) diet (especially too much of sugar), (2) heredity, (3) supernatural, and (4) psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92%) and faith healers (90%) indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  4. Fauna, Ecological Characteristics, and Checklist of the Mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali; Hemingway, Janet

    2018-05-04

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of human and animal diseases. This study updates current knowledge on fauna, dominance, and distribution of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran, to inform disease control effort. Larval collections, using standard dippers or droppers, and adult collections, using total catches, shelter pits, CDC light traps, and human landing catches, were performed monthly in 30 villages across 16 counties, from May to December 2014. Ovitraps, baited with hay infusion as oviposition attractants or stimulants for Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, were installed in each village and inspected weekly for eggs. Lactophenol and Berlese media were used for preserving and mounting specimens. Overall, 36,024 mosquito specimens (19,840 larvae and 16,184 adults) belonging to 4 genera and 20 species were morphologically identified. The dominance and distribution indices showed that Culex pipiens s.s. was the eudominant species with a constant distribution of larvae (D = 69.07%, C = 100%) and adults (D = 31.86%, C = 100%), followed by Cx tritaeniorhynchus (D = 38.14%, C = 100%) and Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (D = 11.05%, C = 100%) as adults. Aedes vexans was the dominant (7.85%) species, but it had a sporadic (20%) distribution. Culex torrentium and Culiseta morsitans were added as the new species to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. Due to the potential role, Cx. pipiens s.s. as a vector of various pathogens, further ecological studies are recommended.

  5. Hydatidosis in human and slaughtered herbivores in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

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    Mohammad Taghi Rahimi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the rate of hydatid cyst in hospitalized patients and slaughtered animals in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, files of 34 hospitalized patients who underwent surgery for hydatid cysts during 2003-2008 in Mazandaran province were analyzed. Also, 1 678 343 sheep, 815 635 goats, 451 743 cattle and 1 130 buffaloes were examined carefully for the presence of hydatid cysts in slaughterhouse of Mazandaran province, during 2003-2008. Results: In human, the highest rate of hydatidosis was related to 30-39 age group. Infection rate in females was higher than that in males (61.8% vs 31.2%. Cyst involvement of different organs was as follows: liver 76.5%, lung 13.5%, spleen 5.4%, gall bladder 2.7% and abdomen septum 2.9%. In slaughtered animals, overall, 6.38% had liver cyst and 12.70% had lung cyst. Involvement of liver and lung in sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo were 7.09% and 14.70%; 5.12% and 10.20%; 5.97% and 9.60%; and 14.90% and 13.18%, respectively. In sheep, goat and cattle the most infected organ was lung but in buffalo it was liver. Conclusions: The results show that in human, all age groups and both sexes are exposed to hydatidosis. In livestock it causes economic loss to veterinary industries. Therefore, appropriate control method is needed to prevent this zoonotic disease.

  6. ICT applications as e-health solutions in rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxwana, Nkqubela L; Herselman, Marlien E; Conradie, D Pieter

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions (e.g. e-health, telemedicine, e-education) are often viewed as vehicles to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban healthcare centres and to resolve shortcomings in the rural health sector. This study focused on factors perceived to influence the uptake and use of ICTs as e-health solutions in selected rural Eastern Cape healthcare centres, and on structural variables relating to these facilities and processes. Attention was also given to two psychological variables that may underlie an individual&s acceptance and use of ICTs: usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations are made with regard to how ICTs can be used more effectively to improve health systems at fi ve rural healthcare centres where questionnaire and interview data were collected: St. Lucy&s Hospital, Nessie Knight Hospital, the Tsilitwa Clinic, the Madzikane Ka-Zulu Memorial Hospital and the Nelson Mandela General Hospital.

  7. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

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    Inez S. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions. Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role. Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  8. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The influence of school culture and school climate on violence in schools of the Eastern Cape Province

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    Kalie Barnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey - Short Form (CSCSS-SF, which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, it was found that the better the school culture and school climate are at a school, the lower the levels of school violence. On the other hand, a lack of school safety contributed to learners experiencing higher levels of violence at schools. The results of hierarchy regression analyses indicated that school culture and school climate can be used to explain a significant percentage of variance in school violence. The f² values indicate that, with the exception of two aspects of the variance physical and verbal harassment, the results did not have any practical value. The article concludes with a few suggestions on how the results can be used to address school violence.

  10. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  11. Investigation of remote sensing geology in the northern Anxi area of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wenhan

    1993-07-01

    The study of 1 : 50,000 remote sensing geology survey and prognosis of gold (uranium) mineralization in the area of northern Anxi of Gansu province has been completed. The synthetical remote sensing and multi-source information compounding technologies, such as land-satellites TM and MSS images, airborne color infrared photography and infrared ray scanning digital images, are used in the study. On the basis of information enhancement and extraction of remote-sensing images, using the theory of remote sensing to explore mineral deposits and the field investigations, many achievements have been reached, such as applications of synthetical remote sensing technology, fundamental study of geology, prognosis of gold (uranium) minerals and 1 : 50,000 remote-geologic mapping. 21 mineral resource maps and geologic maps are obtained. Nearly one thousand of altered rock zones are interpreted and found. 71 new gold anomaly hydrothermal alteration zones and 23 gold mineralized places are discovered (maximum Au 71 x 10 -6 ). 17 minerogeneration prospective areas, 67 gold-ore searching targets and favorable areas of uranium mineralization are identified. It gives important materials for searching new mines

  12. Strongyloides Stercoralis: The Most Prevalent Parasitic Cause of Eosinophilia in Gilan Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rahmati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia occurs in a wide variety of situations such as parasitic infections, aller­gic disorders, and malignancies. Most cases of eosinophilia of parasitic origin, especially those with a tissue migration life cycles consists of human infections by helminth parasites. The aim of present study was to determine the parasitic causes of eosinophilia in patients in a major endemic area of human fascioliasis in Gilan Province, northern part of Iran.Methods: One hundred and fifty patients presenting with an elevated eosinophilia attending infec­tious disease clinics with or without clinical symptoms, were examined. After clinical his­tory evaluation and physical examination, coprological examinations were performed using the formalin-ether and the Kato-Katz techniques for detection of Fasciola sp. and intestinal parasites.Results: Forty two percent of patients were infected with S. stercoralis, nine (6% were found to be infected with Fasciola sp. while only a single patient (0.7% were infected by Ttrichostrongy­lus sp.Conclusion: Local clinicians in Gilan may consider eosinophilia as a suggestive indication for diagnosis of human fascioliasis, especially when microscopic stool and/or serological tests are negative. Based on the results, local physicians should consider S. stercoralis as the potential causes of eosinophilia in patients with elevated eosinophilia.

  13. Improvement of environmental health and hygiene practices--case study in the Northern Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathekgana, M A; Chauke, L K; Otieno, F A

    2001-01-01

    The primary purpose of an improved water supply and sanitation is the achievement of acceptable health and hygiene standards as well as the sustainable improvement of the environment. Many governments recognize this and so they budget for large sums of money to improve these services to the communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different gaps in environmental health and hygiene practices with the aim of suggesting a strategy of improving this in the Northern Province of South Africa. To do this, 231 households and 30 schools were surveyed. Workshops and visits to different government departments were also used. This paper reports the results from this study which indicate that the situation in schools was not any better than that in households, with more than 90% of the villages still dependent on the unimproved pit latrines and 56,6% relying on standpipes which were (70% of the time) non-operational. The main problems identified seem to those associated with implementation and maintenance. The study concludes that with proper training of the water committees and their active involvement with the government and NGOs, environmental health and hygiene problems can be minimized or eliminated.

  14. Knowledge and practice of condom use in an urban adult community sample of the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data concerning condom use, especially regarding knowledge about the correct use of condoms in South Africa. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among an urban adult community in the Northern Province. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Graeme; Hoosain, Shuaib; Macharia, Muiruri; Weich, Lize

    2017-05-24

    Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell's Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention) as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7%) than controls (44.1%) completed the treatment (p=0.019). Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001). The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6%) than in the standard care group (61.8%), although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times) more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests) was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8%) than in the standard care group (23.3%). The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  17. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Julie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC. Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  18. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  19. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  1. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  2. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  3. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Michie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68 or, for the OST group (n=67, standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser, a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Methods. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell’s Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Results. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7% than controls (44.1% completed the treatment (p=0.019. Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001. The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6% than in the standard care group (61.8%, although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8% than in the standard care group (23.3%. Conclusions. The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  4. Costs, benefits and management options for an invasive alien tree species: the case of mesquite in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wise, RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available and management options for an invasive alien tree species: The case of mesquite in the Northern Cape, South Africa R.M. Wise1?, B.W. van Wilgen2 and D.C. Le Maitre2 1 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia . 2 Centre for Invasion... determined the net economic impact of mesquite in arid parts of South Africa today and for a range of plausible future scenarios, and identified the pivotal factors driving these outcomes. Our assessment was based on a thorough review of the beneficial...

  5. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  6. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Daniele; Vezzani, Silvia; Granata, Antonio RM; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica; Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso; Setti, Monica; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM 2.5 was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM 10 was

  7. Sperm quality and environment: A retrospective, cohort study in a Northern province of Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Daniele, E-mail: santi.daniele@gmail.com [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Vezzani, Silvia [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Granata, Antonio RM [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Ongaro, Chiara; Donati, Federica [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Baraldi, Enrica; Trenti, Tommaso [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathological Anatomy (Italy); Setti, Monica [Service of Clinical Engineering, Azienda USL of Modena (Italy); Simoni, Manuela [Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Department of Medicine, Endocrinology, Metabolism and Geriatrics (Italy); Center for Genomic Research, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Several studies proposed a relationship between environmental factors and semen quality, as well as the negative effect of air pollution on spermatogenesis and gonadal function. No specific studies evaluated the environmental influence on semen quality in a specific geographical area. Aim: to evaluate the environmental influence on male sperm parameters in a Northern Italian population referred for semen analysis in the National Health System. The objective of the study is the assessment of the relationship of both air pollution and environmental parameters with quality-related sperm variables, during the coldest months of the year when air is usually most polluted, due to low ventilation and poor rainfall. Study design: A retrospective, observational, cohort study was carried out in the province of Modena, located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Methods: Semen analyses (n=406), environmental temperature, air humidity and air particulate matter (PM) measurements from the 1st of November 2014 to the 19th of February 2015 were acquired to the first database. Since spermatogenesis lasts over two months, a second, wider database was arranged, evaluating environmental exposure in the 3 months before semen collection (from August 1st 2014). All data included in the database were registered by geo-coding the residential address of the patients and the site of registration of environmental factors. The geo-codification of parameters was performed using Fusion Tables of Google available at (https://www.google.com/fusiontables/data? dsrcid=implicit), considering the exact time of measurement. Results: Average air temperature was inversely related to sperm concentration and to total sperm number (p<0.001). Semen volume was inversely related only to the minimum (p<0.001) and not to maximum recorded temperature (p=0.110). Air humidity was not related to sperm quantity and quality. PM{sub 2.5} was directly related to total sperm number (p<0.001). PM

  8. Some Plant Parasitic Nematodes of Fruit Trees in Northern Khorasan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Heidarzadeh

    2017-08-01

    investigation was the identification of plant-parasitic nematodes of fruit trees based on morphological and morphometrical characters in Northern Khorasan province. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of fruit cultivation in Northern Khorasan Province, 70 soil samples were collected during 2011-2012. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation technique and transferred to glycerin according to the modified De Grisse method (1969. The permanent slides were prepared from the extracted nematodes. The nematodes were identified by light microscopy, based on morphological and morphometrical characters. Measurements and drawings were performed using a drawing tube attached to an Olympus BH2 light microscope. The ratios and the morphometric symbols used in morphometric tables of each specimen. Nematodes were identified based on morphological and morphometrical characters using identification keys. Results and Discussion: In this study, 17 species from 13 genera belonged to sub order Tylenchina were identified as follows: Aphelenchoides richardsoni, Aphelenchus avenae, Basiria graminophila, Boleodorus thylactus, Ditylenchus filimus, D. medicaginis, Filenchus cylindricaudatus, F. thornei, Geocenamus tenuidens, Helicotylenchus digonicus, H. pseudorobustus, Heterodera schachtii, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, Tylenchorhynchus latus, Zygotylenchus guevarai. Among these species, Pratylenchus neglectus, Merlinius brevidens and Boleodorus thylactus were more frequent, respectively. Ditylenchus filimus is reported for the first time from Iran. D. filimus is characterized by low and striated head, stylet 7-9 µm, median bulb muscular, glandular bulb offset, posterior vulva( V=81-85, PUS=0.5-1.1, tail conical with very sharp and pointed terminus. Conclusion: In this study, 17 species from 13 genera belong to suborder Tylenchina were identified. Among these species, Pratylenchus neglectus, Merlinius brevidens

  9. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Geologic implications of topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic data in the northern Yukon-Koyukuk province and its borderlands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The northern Yukon-Koyukuk province is characterized by low elevation and high Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies in contrast to the adjacent Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. Using newly compiled digital topographic, gravity, and aeromagnetic maps, the province is divided into three geophysical domains. The Koyukuk domain, which is nearly equivalent to the Koyukuk lithotectonic terrane, is a horseshoe-shaped area, open to the south, of low topography, high gravity, and high-amplitude magnetic anomalies caused by an intraoceanic magmatic arc. The Angayucham and Kanuti domains are geophysical subdivisions of the Angayucham lithotectonic terrane that occur along the northern and southeastern margins of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, where oceanic rocks have been thrust over continental rocks of the Brooks Range and Ruby geanticline. The modeling supports, but does not prove, the hypothesis that the crust of the Kobuk-Koyukuk basin is 32-35 km thick, consisting of a tectonically thickened section of Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks and older oceanic crust. -from Author

  11. Genetic assessment of an isolated endemic Samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) population in the Amathole Mountains, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisha, M Thabang; Dalton, Desire L; Jansen, Raymond; Kotze, Antoinette

    2018-03-01

    The endemic Samango monkey subspecies (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) inhabits small discontinuous Afromontane forest patches in the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal midlands and southern Mpumalanga Provinces in South Africa. The subspecies is affected by restricted migration between forest patches which may impact on gene flow resulting in inbreeding and possible localized extinction. Current consensus, based on habitat quality, is that C. a. labiatus can be considered as endangered as the small forest patches they inhabit may not be large enough to sustain them. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular genetic investigation to determine if the observed isolation has affected the genetic variability of the subspecies. A total of 65 Samango monkeys (including juveniles, subadults and adults) were sampled from two localities within the Hogsback area in the Amathole Mountains. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers and by sequencing the hypervariable 1 region (HVR1). Microsatellite data generated was used to determine population structure, genetic diversity and the extent of inbreeding. Sequences of the HVR1 were used to infer individual origins, haplotype sharing and haplotype diversity. No negative genetic factors associated with isolation such as inbreeding were detected in the two groups and gene flow between groups can be regarded as fairly high primarily as a result of male migration. This was in contrast to the low nuclear genetic diversity observed (H o  = 0.45). A further reduction in heterozygosity may lead to inbreeding and reduced offspring fitness. Translocations and establishment of habitat corridors between forest patches are some of the recommendations that have emerged from this study which will increase long-term population viability of the subspecies.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth F. Bath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  14. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  15. Prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from three selected dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Msolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw milk, cattle udder, milking machines and worker’s hand swabs from three selected commercial dairy farms in the Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected from bulk storage tanks and swab samples were collected from milking machines, cattle udders and worker’s hands fortnightly over a sixmonth sampling regime between June and November 2014. A standard culture-based method was used for the enumeration and isolation of E. coli O157:H7, presumptive identification using sorbitol MacConkey agar (supplemented with cefixime (50 µg/L and potassium tellurite (25 mg/L. A serological confirmation of the presumptive E. coli O157:H7 isolates was conducted using the O157 latex agglutination test kit. Results: A total of 252 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were further subjected to PCR amplification of rfbEO157 and flCH7 genes of which 27(11% of the isolates were confirmed positive E. coli O157:H7. The percentage antibiotic resistance of the 27 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the dairy farms revealed penicillin [23 (85%], tetracycline [22 (81%], erythromycin [19 (70%], streptomycin [14 (52%] and chloramphenicol [12 (45%]. The highest resistances were penicillin [23 (85%] and tetracycline [22 (81%]. Conclusions: These findings revealed that the dairy farms are potential reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 serotype, and harbor antibiotic-resistant determinants, a concern to public and environmental health.

  16. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  18. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective

  19. An introductory survey of helminth control practices in South Africa and anthelmintic resistance on Thoroughbred stud farms in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-one per cent of 110 questionnaires, designed for obtaining information on helminth control practices and management on Thoroughbred stud farms in South Africa, were completed by farmers during 2000. The number of horses per farm included in the questionnaire survey ranged from 15 to 410. Foals, yearlings and adult horses were treated with anthelmintics at a mean of 7.3+ / -3.0, 6.6+ / -2.7 and 5.3+ / -2.3 times per year, respectively. An average of 3.4 different drugs were used annually, with ivermectin being used by most farmers during 1997-2000. On 43% of farms the weights of horses were estimated by weigh band and 45% of farmers estimated visually, while both were used on 7% of farms and scales on the remaining 5%. Doses were based on average group weight on 50% of the farms and on individual weights on 46%. Forty-three per cent of farmers performed faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT. Most farmers rotated horses between pastures and treated new horses at introduction. Faecal removal was practiced on 61% of farms and less than 50% of farmers used alternate grazing with ruminants. Faecal egg count reduction tests were done on 283 horses, using oxibendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin on 10, 9 and 5 farms, respectively, in the Western Cape Province during 2001. While the efficacy of oxibendazole was estimated by FECRT to range from 0-88% and moxidectin from 99-100%, ivermectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg counts. Only cyathostome larvae were recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures.

  20. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  1. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Panmongkol, Aumporn; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Meewasana, Jiraporn; Bunkhwamdi, Woraphot; Dangsri, Siriwat

    2014-06-03

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus doisuthep sp. nov. is characterized by a maximal known SVL of 90.5 mm; 19 or 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 or 35 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including six or seven pitted scales on each femur (male and females) separated by a diastema from six pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and six or seven irregular thin beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. 

  2. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.

  3. Detection, Quantification and Monitoring of Prosopis in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive Prosopis species pose a significant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to use Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to: (i) reveal areas susceptible to future invasion, (ii) describe the current ...

  4. Two new species of Romulea (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the west­ ern Karoo, Northern Cape and notes on infrageneric classification and range extensions

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    J. C. Manning

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Romulea are described from Northern Cape, raising the number of species in southern Africa to 76. R. collina J.C.Manning & Goldblatl is endemic to the Hantamsberg near Calvinia. It is distinguished in subgenus Spatalanthus by its clumped habit, yellow flowers with dark markings in the throat, and short papery bracts. A re-examination of rela­tionships within the subgenus suggests that section Cruciatae is not monophyletic and it is accordingly no longer recog­nized as separate from section  Spatalanthus. R. eburnea J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is a distinctive species of subgenus Spatalanthus from the Komsberg near Sutherland. It is distinguished by its golden yellow flowers with the apical third of the tepals coloured pale creamy apricot, bracts with broad, translucent margins and tips, and an unusually long perianth tube, 10-13 mm long.

  5. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-08-22

    The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals regarding nutrition and physical activity at their schools. Educators were introduced to the APP and trained to undertake this at their schools by holding workshops. Four action areas were covered, which included the school nutrition environment; physical activity and sport environment; staff health; and chronic disease and diabetes awareness. Intervention schools also received a toolkit comprising an educator's manual containing planning guides, printed resource materials and a container with physical activity equipment. To facilitate the APP, a champion was identified at each school to drive the APP and liaise with the project team. Over the three-years a record was kept of activities planned and those accomplished. At the end of the intervention, focus group discussions were held with school staff at each school to capture perceptions about the APP and intervention activities. Overall uptake of events offered by the research team was 65.6% in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 62.5% in 2011. Over the three-year intervention, the school food and nutrition environment action area scored the highest, with 55.5% of planned actions being undertaken. In the chronic disease and diabetes awareness area 54.2% actions were completed, while in the school physical activity and sport environment and staff health activity areas 25.9 and 20% were completed respectively. According to educators, the low level of implementation of APP activities was because of a lack of parental involvement, time and available resources

  6. Meta-evaporite in the Carajás mineral province, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Walter; Cabral, Alexandre Raphael

    2018-05-01

    Evidence for connecting evaporite-sourced high-salinity fluids with iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the Carajás mineral province has solely been based on boron-isotope compositions of tourmaline. Presence of meta-evaporitic rocks remains unrecognised. Here, we report laminated albitite, tourmalinite and banded albite-phlogopite rock, intercepted by exploratory drilling in a clastic metasedimentary sequence. These rocks represent evaporite precursors. Their location in the copper-gold prospects Açaí and Angélica, in the westernmost part of the Carajás mineral province, indicates that (i) evaporite-sourced fluids were regional and (ii) evaporite-bearing metasedimentary sequences may have been an important source of high-salinity fluids and/or sulfur for the IOCG deposits of the Carajás mineral province.

  7. Clinical characteristics of the autumn-winter type scrub typhus cases in south of Shandong province, northern China

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    Min Jing-Si

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of scrub typhus was identified in Shandong and northern Jiangsu province of northern China. This newly recognized scrub typhus was subsequently reported in many areas of northern China and was then called "autumn-winter type". However, clinical characteristics of associated cases have not been reported. Methods From 1995 to 2006, all suspected scrub typhus cases in five township hospitals of Feixian county, Shandong province were enrolled. Indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA was used as confirmatory serodiagnosis test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR connected with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses were used for genotyping of O. tsutsugamushi DNAs. Clinical symptoms and demography of confirmed cases were analyzed. Results A total of 480 scrub typhus cases were confirmed. The cases occurred every year exclusively between September and December with a peak occurrence in October. The case numbers were relatively higher in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 than in other years. 57.9% of cases were in the group aged 21–50. More cases occurred in male (56% than in female (44%. The predominant occupational group of the cases was farmers (85.0%. Farm work was reported the primary exposure to infection in 67.7% of cases. Fever, rash, and eschar were observed in 100.0%, 90.4%, and 88.5% of cases, respectively. Eschars formed frequently on or around umbilicus, abdomen areas, and front and back of waist (34.1% in both genders. Normal results were observed in 88.7% (WBC counts, 84.5% (PLT counts, and 89.7% (RBC counts of cases, respectively. Observations from the five hospitals were compared and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The autumn-winter type scrub typhus in northern China occurred

  8. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI; Azade MOHAMMADIAN; Mansoreh KOOHI; Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005) that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI), Decades Index (DI) and Percent of Normal (PNI) calculated and compa...

  9. Malnutrition and Associated Factors Influencing Nutrition of Children in Post War Resettlement Areas in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Angela; Senarath, Upul; Mbuya, Nkosinathi; Navaratne, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over 250000 persons were displaced within the Northern Province, Sri Lanka at the end of the war (2009/10). With the ensuing resettlement process, the Japan Social Development Fund emergency project (JSDF) on Local Nutrition interventions for the Northern Province was implemented to combat undernutrition in children. A baseline survey was undertaken to describe prevalence of acute malnutrition among children < 5 years in the Northern Province and associated factors that would inform project activities of supplementary feeding, community mobilization and behavior change communication. Methodology: A cross sectional survey using a multistage cluster sampling design evaluated nutrition status in a representative sample of 2600 children aged 0-5 years from the Northern Province. Height and weight were measured using standard survey equipment, and anthropometric indices (height-for-age Z, weight-for-age Z, weight-for-height) were calculated using WHO growth standards and Anthro software. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited data on breastfeeding, complementary feeding and nutrition knowledge and practices of caregivers. Significant factors associated with nutrition indicators were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis [presented as Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)]. Results: Prevalence of Global Acute Malnutrition (WHZ<-2) among children aged 0-5 years was 20.1%; Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM; WHZ<-2 and ≥-3) was 15.7% and 5.6 % had Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM; WHZ<-3). Multivariate analysis of younger children (0-23 months) showed that SAM and MAM were associated with increasing age [12-17 month olds were more likely to be wasted compared to younger children (AOR 1.7)]. Other associated factors were low birth weight (AOR 1.54) and lack of toilets (AOR 2.02), a proxy indicator of poor socioeconomic status. Risk of wasting was greater with recent episodes of acute respiratory infection (AOR 1.51). Assessment of

  10. A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunya, Kirati; Sumontha, Montri; Panitvong, Nonn; Dongkumfu, Wuttipong; Sirisamphan, Thana; Pauwels, Olivier S G

    2015-01-14

    We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation.

  11. Urinary tract infection among intellectual disability individuals "etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns" in rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrolahei, M; Poorhagibagher, M; Vahedi, M; Maleki, I

    2013-09-01

    OBJECTIVE. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections and account for large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the rate and the etiologic agents of UTIs in inhabitants of rehabilitation centers of Mazandaran province in northern Iran and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the uropathogens isolated. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each of 314 participants (163 males, 151 females) residing in 12 rehabilitation centers of Ramsar, Nowshahr, Chalous, Amol, Sari and Behshahr. Urine specimens were cultured and bacterial isolates were identified by conventional methods. All urines fulfilling the criteria for the presence of significant bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/ml urine) were defined as positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The rate of urinary tract infection was 30.9% with the highest rate in pediatrics (p 50 years). Bacteria most frequently isolated from urine specimens was Escherichia coli (39.2%) with the highest rate of infection in females age group antibiotics tested against the isolated organisms for susceptibility test, ceftriaxone and gentamicin maintain good activity against the majority of gram negative bacteria that cause UTIs recovered from individuals with intellectual disability. Vancomycin was effective against Staphylococcus aureus. This survey shows that the prevalence of UTIs among inhabitants of institutions for mentally retarded persons in Mazandaran province of Iran is much higher than normal population.

  12. Sedimentological aspects of four Lower-Paleozoic formations in the northern part of the province of León (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1964-01-01

    This paper deals with the sedimentary structures and sedimentary petrography of the four lowermost formations of the Paleozoic as developed in the Northern part of the Province of León (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). Three of the four formations have a detrital character, and one consists of

  13. Geological-geochemical characterization of the Semilus and upper Frasnian deposits of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, L.Z.; Peneva, A.Z.; Udot, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A geochemical characterization of the semilux-upper-Frasnian sections of various Paleotectonic elements of the northern part of the Timano-Pechorsk province is presented. The distribution of oil and gas source rock is established and an assessment of the regions is given.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005 that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI, Decades Index (DI and Percent of Normal (PNI calculated and compared to determine drought severity, duration and drought occurrence for all stations. In addition, drought maps were prepared by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW method, for each study zone. Based on these indices, the most extensive drought occurred in 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 2000, and 2001 years. The longest duration of drought based on SPI happened in 1994 and 1997 years. Furthermore, the extreme drought occurred in 1990 and 2001 in all stations. In conclusion, Central part of this province was more exposed to extreme drought during study period than other parts of this region.

  15. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  16. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Uranium mineralization in the Rum Jungle-Alligator Rivers Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.G.; Needham, R.S.; Wilkes, P.G.; Page, R.W.; Smart, P.G.; Watchman, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Renewed interest in uranium exploration in northern Australia in the late 1960s led to the discovery of one of the most important uranium fields in the world. To obtain an understanding of the geological setting of the uranium deposits, and to provide guidelines for future exploration, the Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) undertook an investigation which included semi-detailed mapping, aided by geophysical surveys, isotopic dating, and stratigraphic drilling. From the results so far obtained and from the important data made available by mining companies engaged in exploration in the region, a pattern of uranium mineralization can be recognized, particularly in relation to the Lower Proterozoic sedimentation of the region. (author)

  18. Fetal alcohol syndrome among grade-one children in the Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Design. A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: ...

  19. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure among elderly in rural Uttaradit Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Onwilasini; Yamarat, Khemika; Neeser, Karl J; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure. A cross-sectional survey of Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure was conducted with 160 Buddhist elderly in rural Uttaradit, northern Thailand. After controlling for the variables of gender, status, education, salary, underlying hypertension, exercise, salt intake, and taking antihypertensive medications, it was found that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure is associated with the Buddhist religious practice of temple attendance. The Buddhist older people who regularly attended a temple every Buddhist Holy day (which occurs once a week) were found to have systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings lower than people who did not attend as regularly. It is recommended that nurses advocate for temple attendance in the care protocols for older Buddhist hypertensive patients both in Thailand and internationally. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers provinceNorthern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  2. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  3. Healthy dietary practices among rural and semi-urban Blacks in the Northern Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.

  4. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  5. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  6. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  7. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis aid in decisions to lease federally owned coal and to prepare necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of Public Law 95-87, the "Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977." This act requires an appropriate regulatory agency to issue permits, based on the review of permit-application data to assess hydrologic impacts. This report, which partially fulfills this requirement, is one in a series of nationwide coal province reports that present information thematically, through the use of a brief text and accompanying maps, graphs, charts, or other illustrations for single hydrologic topics. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 59 in north-central Colorado and southeastern Wyoming.The report area, located within the South Platte River basin, covers a 16,000-square-mile area of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics.The South Platte River, the major stream in the area, and most of its tributaries originate in granitic mountains and flow into and through the sedimentary rocks of the Great Plains. Altitudes range from less than 5,000 feet to more than 14,000 feet above sea level. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, and produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt during the spring and summer produces most streamflow. Transmountain diversion of water from the streams on the western slope of the mountains also adds to the streamflow. Precipitation in the plains is as little as 10 inches annually. Streams that originate in the plains are ephemeral.Streamflow quality is best in the mountains, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally small. Concentrations increase in the plains as streams flow through sedimentary basins, and as urbanization and irrigation increase. The quality of some mountain streams is affected by

  8. Fluid evolution and ore genesis of the Dalingshang deposit, Dahutang W-Cu ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiong, Suo-Fei; Pi, Dao-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit is located in the North section of the Dahutang ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China. Vein- and breccia-style tungsten-copper mineralization is genetically associated with Mesozoic S-type granitic rocks. Infrared and conventional microthermometric studies of both gangue and ore minerals show that the homogenization temperatures for primary fluid inclusions in wolframite ( 340 °C) are similar to those in scheelite ( 330 °C), but about 40 °C higher than those of apatite ( 300 °C) and generally 70 °C higher than those in coexisting quartz ( 270 °C). Laser Raman analysis identifies CH4 and N2 without CO2 in fluid inclusions in scheelite and coexisting quartz, while fluid inclusions in quartz of the sulfide stage have variable CO2 content. The ore-forming fluids overall are characterized by high- to medium-temperature, low-salinity, CH4, N2, and/or CO2-bearing aqueous fluids. Chalcopyrite, muscovite, and sphalerite are the most abundant solids recognized in fluid inclusions from different ores. The H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions favor a dominantly magmatic origin for ores and fluids, while some depleted δ34S values (- 14.4 to - 0.9‰) of sulfides from the sulfide stage are most likely produced by an increase of oxygen fugacity, possibly caused by inflow of oxidized meteoric waters. The microthermometric data also indicate that a simple cooling process formed early scheelite and wolframite. However, increasing involvement of meteoric waters and fluid mixing may trigger a successive deposition of base metal sulfides. Fluid-rock interaction was critical for scheelite mineralization as indicated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in scheelite.

  9. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  10. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  11. Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  12. The evolutionary characteristics and study of uranium mineralization conditions of early precambrian basement and old granitoids in Northern Hebei province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Rong Jiashu; Lin Jinrong; Zheng Maogong; Wen Xiyuan

    1993-05-01

    Based on the systematic studies of petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the Early Precambrian metamorphic complex in Northern Hebei province of China can be divided into three different series, i.e. granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series. The so called 'magmatic granitoids' in that area are actually some magmagranites with different ages and different geneses, and they are not formed by migmatization. Up to now, the discovered Huaian complex which was formed in 3.5 Ga ago is the oldest nuclear area in the northern margin of North-China Platform. The granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series belong to Early Archaean (>3.0 +- 0.1 Ga), Middle Archaean (>2.7 +- 0.1 Ga) and Later Archaean (>2.4 +- 0.1 Ga) respectively. The geological time scale of the Early Precambrian for Northern Hebei Province has been built. According to the synthetic analyses of various factors there is no prospect of uranium mineralization in the ancient terrain. However, the Mesozoic volcanic basins covering over the Hercynian Period granites would be main goal for looking for large uranium deposits in north part in that area

  13. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  14. Hyperglycaemic crisis in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: high mortality and association of hyperosmolar ketoacidosis with a new diagnosis of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpebegh, C O; Longo-Mbenza, B; Akinrinmade, A; Blanco-Blanco, E; Badri, M; Levitt, N S

    2010-12-01

    To describe the frequencies, presenting characteristics (demographic, clinical and biochemical) and outcomes (duration of admission and mortality rates) for various types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with hyperglycaemic crisis admitted to Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, E Cape, from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009. Outcome measures were duration of admission and mortality. Data were available for 269 admissions (response rate 81.0%), 169 females and 100 males. Admissions for hyperglycaemia (HG, N=119), and non-hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (NHDKA, N=97) were more frequent than those for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS, N=29) and hyperosmolar diabetic ketoacidosis (HDKA, N=24). Duration of admission was similar in all groups. Mortality was high in all groups, but was higher in patients with HDKA (37.5%, risk ratio (RR) 3.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41 - 10.67, p=0.009), HHS (31.0%, RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09 - 7.75, p=0.033) and HG (19.5%, RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.75 - 3.21, p=0.236) than in those with NHDKA (13.4%). HDKA (62.5%) was associated with new-onset diabetes more often than NHDKA (27.8%), HHS (44.8%) or HG (17.6%) (p<0.0001). An altered level of consciousness was more frequent in HDKA than NHDKA admissions (RR 5.71, 95% CI 1.90 - 17.17, p=0.002). Duration of hospital stay was similar across groups. Mortality rates were high in all groups. New-onset diabetes, altered level of consciousness and mortality were more characteristically associated with HDKA than any of the other types of hyperglycaemic crisis. Optimal glycaemic control in known diabetic patients will reduce rates of hyperglycaemic crisis admissions.

  15. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  16. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  17. "HealthKick": formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V

    2012-09-17

    This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently, these show that school environments

  18. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  19. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  20. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  1. Late Palaeozoic magmatism in the northern New England Orogen - evidence from U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Yarrol and Connors provinces, central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withnall, I.W.; Hutton, L.J.; Hayward, M.A.; Blake, P.; Fanning, C.M.; Burch, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The northern part of the New England Orogen in central Queensland has been divided into three provinces, which are from east to west, the Wandilla, Yarrol and Connors Provinces. Previous workers suggested that the provinces are elements in an Early Carboniferous west-dipping subduction system with the Wandilla Province representing the accretionary wedge, the Yarrol Province a forearc basin and the Connors Province the volcanic arc. Farther west, a fourth province, the Drummond Basin, is interpreted as a back-arc basin. The Connors Province crops out in two areas, the Auburn Arch in the south and Connors Arch in the north. Prior to the present study, some workers recognised two superimposed volcanic arcs, one in the Late Devonian and a second in the Early Permian. Other workers have challenged this model suggesting that the rocks in the Connors Province were mainly Late Carboniferous to Early Permian and that they recorded a period of continental extension. U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Connors Province has confirmed the existence of at least episodic Early Carboniferous magmatism from the Tournaisian to Namurian in both the Auburn and Connors Arches. We suggest that the Tournaisian rocks are vestiges of the Early Carboniferous volcanic arc suggested by earlier workers. Ages of ∼350Ma and ∼349Ma in the Connors Province are similar to ages for volcanics in Cycle 1 in the Drummond Basin and to volcanics in the lower part of the Rockhampton Group in the Yarrol Province. Magmatism in the Drummond Basin and Yarrol Province continued into the Visean although no early Visean rocks have yet been recognised in the Connors Province. The mid-Carboniferous (late Visean) may represent an important change in the evolution of the region. East of the Auburn Arch, in the Yarrol Province, this time corresponds to the boundary between the Rockhampton Group and Lorray Formation, and is marked by a sudden increase in regional radiometric response. It represents the start of

  2. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection of dairy cows in three northern provinces of Thailand determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant antigen CpP23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, T; Jittapalapong, S; Phasuk, J; Pinyopanuwut, N; Chimnoi, W; Kengradomkit, C; Sunanta, C; Zhang, G; Aboge, G O; Nishikawa, Y; Igarashi, I; Xuan, X

    2009-06-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is the most frequent parasitic agent that causes diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Thailand. Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in humans may be attributed to contamination of their drinking water from infected dairy pastures. A 23-kDa glycoprotein of C. parvum (CpP23) is a sporozoite surface protein that is geographically conserved among C. parvum isolates. This glycoprotein is a potentially useful candidate antigen for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence of C. parvum infection in dairy cows in northern Thailand using an ELISA based on recombinant CpP23 antigen. Sera were randomly collected from 642 dairy cows of 42 small-holder farmers, which had the top three highest number of the dairy cows' population in Northern Thailand, that included Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Lumpang provinces. The overall seroprevalence of the infection was 4.4%, and the seropositive rates for the three provinces were 3.3% in Chiang Mai, 5.1% in Chiang Rai and 3% in Lumpang. These results suggest that cattle could play a role in zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in Thailand.

  3. Use of Landsat series data to analyse the spatial and temporal variations of land degradation in a dispersive soil environment: A case of King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Seutloali, Khoboso; Shoko, Cletah

    2017-08-01

    Land degradation as a result of inappropriate land use practices, such as overgrazing and cultivation on steep slopes, etc. is one of the major global environmental challenges. Specifically, land degradation threatens the productivity and sustainability of the natural environment, agriculture, and most importantly rural economies in most developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan region. The main aim of this study was therefore, to assess the potential and strength of using the free or readily available Landsat series data in mapping degraded land areas at the King Sabata Dalindyebo local municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa (1984-2010). Data analysis was done using a robust non-parametric classification ensemble; Discriminant Analysis (DA). The results show that degraded areas vary over the years. For example, the results show that the year 1994 and 2004 incurred high degradation levels, when compared to the year 1984 and 2010. Moreover, the observed degradation significantly (α = 0.05) varies with soil type. The chromic acrisols have the highest levels of erosion (approx. 80% in 1984), when compared to humic-umbric acrisols (less than 10% for the entire period under study). It can also be observed that considerable part of degradation occurred in the northern part of the municipal district. Overall, the findings of this research underlines the importance and efficacy of multispectral Landsat series data-set in mapping and monitoring levels of land degradation in data-scarce catchments.

  4. Analysis of Swine Movements in a Province in Northern Vietnam and Application in the Design of Surveillance Strategies for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, E; Fournié, G; Hiep, D T; Pham, T T H; Duboz, R; Gély, M; Peiris, M; Cowling, B J; Ton, V D; Peyre, M

    2017-04-01

    While swine production is rapidly growing in South-East Asia, the structure of the swine industry and the dynamic of pig movements have not been well-studied. However, this knowledge is a prerequisite for understanding the dynamic of disease transmission in swine populations and designing cost-effective surveillance strategies for infectious diseases. In this study, we assessed the farming and trading practices in the Vietnamese swine familial farming sector, which accounts for most pigs in Vietnam, and for which disease surveillance is a major challenge. Farmers from two communes of a Red River Delta Province (northern Vietnam) were interviewed, along with traders involved in pig transactions. Major differences in the trade structure were observed between the two communes. One commune had mainly transversal trades, that is between farms of equivalent sizes, whereas the other had pyramidal trades, that is from larger to smaller farms. Companies and large familial farrow-to-finish farms were likely to act as major sources of disease spread through pig sales, demonstrating their importance for disease control. Familial fattening farms with high pig purchases were at greater risk of disease introduction and should be targeted for disease detection as part of a risk-based surveillance. In contrast, many other familial farms were isolated or weakly connected to the swine trade network limiting their relevance for surveillance activities. However, some of these farms used boar hiring for breeding, increasing the risk of disease spread. Most familial farms were slaughtering pigs at the farm or in small local slaughterhouses, making the surveillance at the slaughterhouse inefficient. In terms of spatial distribution of the trades, the results suggested that northern provinces were highly connected and showed some connection with central and southern provinces. These results are useful to develop risk-based surveillance protocols for disease detection in the swine familial

  5. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  6. Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System—Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 21 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford Scheirer, Allegra; Magoon, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    The Northern Nonassociated Gas Assessment Unit (AU) of the Winters-Domengine Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province consists of all nonassociated gas accumulations in Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene sandstones located north of township 15 South in the San Joaquin Valley. The northern San Joaquin Valley forms a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough. It is filled with an alternating sequence of Cretaceous-aged sands and shales deposited on Franciscan Complex, ophiolitic, and Sierran basement. Eocene-aged strata unconformably overlie the thick Cretaceous section, and in turn are overlain unconformably by nonmarine Pliocene-Miocene sediments. Nonassociated gas accumulations have been discovered in the sands of the Panoche, Moreno, Kreyenhagen, andDomengine Formations and in the nonmarine Zilch formation of Loken (1959) (hereafter referred to as Zilch formation). Most hydrocarbon accumulations occur in low-relief, northwest-southeast trending anticlines formed chiefly by differential compaction of sediment and by northeast southwest directed compression during the Paleogene (Bartow, 1991) and in stratigraphic traps formed by pinch out of submarine fan sands against slope shales. To date, 176 billion cubic feet (BCF) of nonassociated recoverable gas has been found in fields within the assessment unit (table 21.1). A small amount of biogenic gas forms near the surface of the AU. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 21.1 and 21.2; in plan view, this assessment unit is identical to the Northern Area Nonassociated Gas play 1007 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). The AU is bounded on the east by the mapped limits of Cretaceous sandstone reservoir rocks and on the west by the east flank of the Diablo Range. The southern limit of the AU is the southernmost occurrence of nonassociated thermogenic-gas accumulations. The northern limit of the AU corresponds to the

  7. Analysis of geological condition of uranium mineralization in the Xiangshan northern uranium orefield in central region of Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulong; Liu Yunlang; Gao Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic conditions of 'source, guide, transportation, storage' for uranium mineralization in strata and different types of geological structure, departure from the condition, the coupling effect of stratigraphy, lithology and structure are studied in the process of uranium mineralization in northern Xiangshan volcanic basin. Studies show that the northern ore field are of good metallogenic geological conditions and the uranium rich ancient land mass and uranium rich magma generated by the melting of deep metamorphic rocks. The main geologic events are volcanic eruptions, accompanied by repeated subvolcanic magma intrusion and strong faults and nappe tectonics which result in volcanic collapse and volcanic ring structures. These ore-forming geological condition control the structural frame for the formation of main uranium deposit type-subvolcanic rocks in northern Xiangshan ore field. (authors)

  8. Hydrogeologic characterization of basalts: The northern rim of the Columbia Plateau Physiographic Province and of the Creston Study Area, eastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.D.; Paschis, J.A.; Koenig, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a general but comprehensive characterization of hydrogeologic and hydrogeochemical baseline conditions for the Creston area located along the northern rim of the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. Historical as well as recent data and other available information from previous studies and alternative sources have been considered in this baseline hydrological characterization. These include data and information on water levels, aquifer characteristics, and water quality for shallow basalt units comprising the Wanapum Formation and the Grande Ronde Formation in the Creston study area and for the general region surrounding this study area. The overall goal of this hydrologic characterization was to provide useful information leading to the selection of the Roza Member of the Wanapum Formation as the study's basalt horizon and for other related, subsequent study components of In-Situ's research project. 110 refs., 52 figs., 25 tabs

  9. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  10. Cape fearless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  11. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  12. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fine-scale effects of environmental variables associated with habitat distribution for 4 size groups of Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, using generalized additive models (GAMs) with a negative binominal error distribution. This study took place during the Namibian...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...

  13. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  14. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  15. Detection, referral and control of diabetes and hypertension in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa by community health outreach workers in the rural primary healthcare project: Health in Every Hut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A. Morris-Paxton

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the follow-up of patients with hypertension or diabetes as well as those individuals at-risk adds value to hypertension and glucose control.

  16. Subducted slab-plume interaction traced by magnesium isotopes in the northern margin of the Tarim Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xie, Qiuhong; Hou, Tong; Ke, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Incorporation of subducted slabs may account for the geochemical and isotopic variations of large igneous provinces (LIPs). However, the mechanism and process by which subducted slabs are involved into magmas is still highly debated. Here, we report a set of high resolution Mg isotopes for a suite of alkaline and Fe-rich rocks (including basalts, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, diabase dykes and mantle xenoliths in the kimberlitic rocks) from Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP). We observed that δ26 Mg values of basalts range from -0.29 to - 0.45 ‰, -0.31 to - 0.42 ‰ for mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, -0.28 to - 0.31 ‰ for diabase dykes and -0.29 to - 0.44 ‰ for pyroxenite xenoliths from the kimberlitic rocks, typically lighter than the normal mantle source (- 0.25 ‰ ± 0.04, 2 SD). After carefully precluding other possibilities, we propose that the light Mg isotopic compositions and high FeO contents should be ascribed to the involvement of recycled sedimentary carbonate rocks and pyroxenite/eclogite. Moreover, from basalts, through layered intrusions to diabase dykes, (87Sr/86Sr)i values and δ18OV-SMOW declined, whereas ε (Nd) t and δ26 Mg values increased with progressive partial melting of mantle, indicating that components of carbonate rock and pyroxenite/eclogite in the mantle sources were waning over time. In combination with the previous reported Mg isotopes for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks in TLIP, two distinct mantle domains are recognized for this province: 1) a lithospheric mantle source for basalts and mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions which were modified by calcite/dolomite and eclogite-derived high-Si melts, as evidenced by enriched Sr-Nd-O and light Mg isotopic compositions; 2) a plume source for carbonatite, nephelinite and kimberlitic rocks which were related to magnesite or periclase/perovskite involvement as reflected by depleted Sr-Nd-O and extremely light Mg isotopes. Ultimately, our study suggests

  17. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengqi; Wu Lieqin; Zhang Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO 2 , F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  18. Research on metallogenic conditions of intersection-type uranium ore-deposits in Zhongdong area, Northern Guangdong province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqi, Wang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China); [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China); Lieqin, Wu [Institute No.290, CNNC, Shaoguan (China); Guoyu, Zhang [East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou (China)

    2007-12-15

    The methods following as field geological investigation, trace element geo- chemistry and isotope geochemistry were used in this project. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics of Xiaoshui uranium ore deposits in Zhongdong area, Xiazhuang ore-field, Guangdong province, it could be concluded that: (1) The Provenance of Cretaceous mantle is a enriched mantle; (2) Silicified zone-type and intersection-type uranium ore are distinctness in the metallogenic period and mineralization process, and main metallogenic period of Xiaoshui uranium ore-deposit is 73.5 Ma; (3) The sources of uranium mineralization substance derived from enriched mantle; and (4)The intersection-type high grade uranium deposits were controlled by substances derived from mantle (contain with U, CO{sub 2}, F, et al), tracks of intersection of NWW-across with NNE-trending faults and lithology of diabase. (authors)

  19. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Eduardo de Mesquita; Sardinha, Alex Souza; Barbosa, Jaime dos Passos de Oliveira; Krimski, Robert; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ ∼ . The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  20. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. ER Hay1, K .... The current water balance (see Fig. 1) and the .... in selected towns in the Eastern and Western Cape. Town .... work in order to reduce the risk of failure in the water supply to the town. .... Asset management, to prolong the life of the infrastructure.

  1. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the ...

  2. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer of the Wugou coal mine, northern Anhui Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Gui, Herong

    2017-07-01

    Major ions, trace elements, and isotope concentrations were measured in 11 representative groundwater samples that were collected from a series of aquifers in the Wugou coal mine, Anhui Province. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwater samples were examined using conventional graphical and multivariate statistical approaches, and the results showed that almost all of the groundwater samples collected from the coal-bearing aquifer were the Na-SO4 type, whereas the samples from the Quaternary and the limestone aquifer were the Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl types, respectively. The groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking without treatment because of the higher values of total dissolved solids and other parameters, whereas the lower value of the sodium adsorption ratio indicates that it can be used for irrigation. The total rare earth element concentrations ranged from 0.0398 to 0.1874 mg/L, and had an average of 0.075 mg/L. There were negative cerium and positive europium anomalies in the groundwater. The δD and δ 18O values in groundwater ranged from -9.01 to -8.81 ‰, and from -74.7 to -71.4 ‰, respectively. Meteoric water with variable degrees of evaporation is the main source of the groundwater in the coal-bearing aquifer.

  3. Small is beautiful: diversity of freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda in marginal habitats of the province of Parma (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano TAVERNELLI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the distribution of ostracods in small freshwater habitats of the province of Parma was conducted from May 2004 to December 2005. Vernal pools, ponds, shallow lakes, fountains, springs, ditches, canals, and streams were among the most common types of aquatic systems included in this survey. Altogether, 90 sites located between 24 and 1557 m a.s.l. were visited, and 125 samples were collected. 41 samples did not contain ostracods, and 7 samples were not considered because only immature specimens or empty valves were found. Consequently, 77 samples from 58 sites were analysed. Whenever possible, ostracod identification was done at the species level based on the morphology of both valves and limbs. Thirty-eight taxa from 20 genera belonging to the families Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, and Notodromadidae were recorded. This roughly accounts for one-third of the estimated number of non-marine ostracod species in Italy. Scanning electron microscopy images of valves are provided. The maximum number of species per site was six. The most frequent species were Heterocypris incongruens, Eucypris virens, Pseudocandona pratensis, Cypria ophthalmica, and Tonnacypris lutaria. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of species with a limited known distribution in Italy, viz. Ilyocypris monstrifica, Potamocypris villosa, Candona cf. lindneri, Fabaeformiscandona breuili and Physocypria kraepelini. A putative new species of the genus Candona, here left in open nomenclature, is also reported. Our results highlight the importance of so-called "marginal" aquatic habitats as potential biodiversity hotspots, in spite of the general lack of interest shown by freshwater ecologists and taxonomists in undertaking scientific investigations in these environments.

  4. Evaluation of Cold Tolerant High Yielding Oil Palm Germplasm in Guangdong Province of South China, a Northern Tropical Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianhai, Z.; Denglang, P.; Zhao, L.; Junming, C.; Weifu, L.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the vegetative growth, yield components and cold resistance traits from 38 pre-selected individual oil palm plants grown in six regions (populations) at the latitude (LAT) range between 20 degree N and 23 degree N in Guangdong Province, China was carried out during the period from April 2010 to April 2015. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in traits between the individual palms or the populations [except sex-ratio of female inflorescence and fruit bunch to female inflorescence, male inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (SR)]. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that bunch number (NB) was positively correlated with fresh fruit bunch (FFB), but not significantly with average bunch weight (ABW). For the individual palms, it was found that the higher the LAT the lower the frond production (FP) and LT 50 and the higher fruit compaction rate (FCR), and the higher the LT 50 the lower the ABW. For the populations, the higher the LAT the higher the ABW and the lower the abortion ratio of female inflorescence to female inflorescence and fruit bunch (%) (RAFM). Path coefficient analysis further revealed that for the individual palms ABW was the major determinant in both FFB and NB, and mainly determined by normal fruit higher per bunch (kg) (ANFW) and percent of ANFW to ABW (%) (F/B). For the populations, the major determining factors were ratio of aborted fruit bunch to fruit bunch (%) (ABR) for FFB and NB, and inflorescence (male, female, bisexual and non-anthesis) and fruit bunch numbers per year (No.) NIB and LT 50 for ABW. MM5 palm and Huazhou population were selected based on the major determining factors as high-yielding cold tolerant palm and population, respectively, which was consistent with the results of analysis of variance. (author)

  5. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  7. Assessing the effect of desertification controlling projects and policies in northern Shaanxi Province, China by integrating remote sensing and farmer investigation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duanyang; Song, Alin; Song, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    To combat desertification, the Chinese government has launched a series of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies over the past several decades. However, the effect of these projects and policies remains controversial due to a lack of suitable methods and data to assess them. In this paper, the authors selected the farming-pastoral region of the northern Shaanxi Province in China as a sample region and attempted to assess the effect of Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies launched after 2000 by combining remote sensing and farmer investigation data. The results showed that the combination of these two complementary assessments can provide comprehensive information to support decision-making. According to the remote sensing and Net Primary Production data, the research region experienced an obvious desertification reversion between 2000 and 2010, and approximately 70% of this reversion can be explained by Desertification Controlling Projects and Policies. Farmer investigation data also indicated that these projects and policies were the dominating factor contributing to desertification reversion, and approximately 70% of investigated farmers agreed with this conclusion. However, low supervision and subsidy levels were issues that limited the policy effect. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to enhance supervision, raise subsidy levels, and develop environmental protection regulations to encourage more farmers to participate in desertification control.

  8. Factors Associated with the Failure to Seek HIV Care and Treatment Among HIV-Positive Women in a Northern Province of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen T., Nam; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Mogensen, Hanne Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    -positive women living a Haiphong, a northern province of Vietnam. The women were recruited through a network of people living with HIV/AIDS (HPN+) by means of snowball sampling and through the local, governmental HIV registration system (Provincial AIDS Centre [PAC]). Approximately 26.3% of the study......This cross-sectional survey examines the utilization of HIV care and treatment services after HIV diagnosis among women in Vietnam and describes factors that may be associated with failure in seeking services. From May 2007 to November 2007, we conducted structured interviews with 353 HIV...... status (OR: 4.0; 95% CI: 2.0–8.1), and factors associated with the testing situation, whereby women who were tested by chance had a 4.0 times increased OR (95% CI: 1.4–11.7) and women who were tested in relation to antenatal care or delivery had 3.0 times increased OR (95% CI: 1.1–8.5) for failure...

  9. Outlook of searching for oil and gas formations in the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian oil and gas complex in northern regions of the Timano-Pechora Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksin, G.A.; Rapoport, B.I.; Rassomakhin, V.Y.; Rossikhin, Y.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the northern part of the Timano-Pechora Province, highly promising middle Devonian and lower Frasnian terrigenous deposits are broadly developed. Seismic exploration has established a reduction in thicknesses of the subdomanic deposits in the near-anticline zones of structures of the ancient formation which are associated with zones of oil and gas accumulation are confined to traps of nonanticlinal and mixed types. In order to realize the program for studying terrigenous deposits of the Devonian it is necessary to accelerate drilling of search and parametric wells 8 of Kumzha, 1 of Vydshor, and 1 of Nosovaya. It is necessary to begin drilling well 5 at the Laydozhskiy field in the anticline of the new elevation revealed from results of detailed seismic work. It is necessary to drill wells on the lower Paleozoic deposits at the Diyatynskiy, Myadloveyyakhskiy, Nyamyurkhitskiy, Sadayeginskiy, East Khoreyverskiy elevations of the North Khoreyverskiy Basin, on structures of the Sorokin swell, on the Malozemel'sko-Kolguyevskiy monocline. It is necessary to accelerate searches at the khyl'chuyuskiy, Yareyyuskiy, North Khar'yaginskiy, Inzyreyskiy and other areas of the Kolvinskiy megaswell. The most important primary task of investigating the lower Frasnian-middle Devonian complex is to trace the zones of development of terrigenous deposits of the middle Devonian and zones of their thinning, as well as to prepare all structures in these deposits for seismic exploration by MOGT.

  10. Climatic impact on isovolumetric weathering of a coarse-grained schist in the northern Piedmont Province of the central Atlantic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possible impact of periglacial climates on the rate of chemical weathering of a coarse-grained plagioclase-muscovite-quartz schist has been determined for a small watershed near Baltimore, Maryland. The isovolumetric chemical weathering model formulated from the geochemical mass balance study of the watershed shows that the weathering front advances at a velocity of 9.1 m/m.y., if the modern environmental parameters remain the same back through time. However, recent surficial geological mapping demonstrates that periglacial climates have impacted the area. Such an impact significantly affects two key chemical weathering parameters, the concentration of CO2 in the soil and groundwater moving past the weathering front. Depending upon the assumptions used in the model, the rate of saprolitization varies from 2.2 to 5.3 m/m.y. The possible impact of periglacial processes suggested by the chemical weathering rates indicates a need to reconsider theories of landscape evolution as they apply to the northern Piedmont Province of the mid-Atlantic states. I suggest that from the Late Miocene to the present that the major rivers have become incised in their present locations; this incision has enhanced groundwater circulation and chemical weathering such that crystalline rocks beneath interfluvial areas remain mantled by saprolite; and the saprolite mantle has been partially stripped as periglacial conditions alternate with humid-temperate conditions. ?? 1993.

  11. The peculiar case of Marosticano xenoliths: a cratonic mantle fragment affected by carbonatite metasomatism in the Veneto Volcanic Province (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Florencia Fahnestock, M.; Bryce, Julia G.; Marzoli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the Northern Italy, represents one of the most important volcanic provinces of the Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic districts: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas, from nephelinites to tholeiites in composition. Commonly VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths. This study presents a petrological characterization of the new xenolith occurrence of Marosticano and comparison with previously studied VVP xenolith populations (i.e. from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas), which represent off-craton lithospheric mantle fragment affected by Na-alkaline silicate metasomatism (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001; Gasperini et al., 2006). Marosticano (MA) peridotites are anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites, which are geochemically well distinguishible from the other VVP mantle xenoliths. Primary minerals record the "most restitic" composition of the VVP sampled mantle, even calling the geochemical features of a sub-cratonic mantle. Olivines in both lherzolites and harzburgites show high Ni contents compared with the Fo values (Ni→ lherzolite: 2600-3620 ppm; harzburgite: 2600-3540 ppm; Fo → lh: 91-92; hz: 90-93) that follow the trend of olivine from a cratonic area (Kelemen, 1998). Orthopyroxenes have mg# values with 1:1 ratio with coexisting olivines and Al2O3 contents always 0.5 wt%) contents are also the chemical characteristics of the clinopyroxenes. On the whole both MA pyroxenes show major element contents that recall the characteristics of those from cratonic (sp-bearing) peridotites (e.g. from Greenland, South Africa and Tanzania; Downes et al., 2004). In addition, the relationship between the high Fo content of olivine and the high chromium contents (cr#=(Cr/(Cr+Al)X100); lh: 30-53; hz: 38-67) in coexisting spinel, out of

  12. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cornwell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05. Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05, but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05. Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p<0.0001. Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This

  13. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  14. Rock- and Paleomagnetic Properties and Modeling of a Deep Crustal Volcanic System, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maat, G. W.; Pastore, Z.; Michels, A.; Church, N. S.; McEnroe, S. A.; Larsen, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex is part of the 5000 km2 Seiland Igneous Province (SIP) in Northern Norway. The SIP is argued to be the deep-seated conduit system of a Large Igneous Province and was emplaced at 25-35 km depth in less than 10 Ma (570-560 Ma). The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex was emplaced during three major successive events at 22-28km depth at pressures of 6-8kb, with associated temperatures 1450-1500°C (Roberts, 2006). The rocks are divided into three formations: the central series (CS) consisting of mainly dunites, upper layered series (ULS) consisting of dunites and wehrlites, a lower layered series (LLS) containing most pyroxene-rich rocks and a marginal zone (MZ) which formed where the ultramafic melts intruded the gabbro-norite and metasedimentary gneisses. Deep exposures such as the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex are rare, therefore this study gives a unique insight in the rock magnetic properties of a deep ultramafic system. Localised serpentinised zones provide an opportunity to observe the effect of this alteration process on the magnetic properties of deep-seated rocks. Here, we present the results from the rock magnetic properties, a paleomagnetic study and combined potential-fields modeling. The study of the rock magnetic properties provides insight in primary processes associated with the intrusion, and later serpentinization. The paleomagnetic data yields two distinct directions. One direction corresponds to a Laurentia pole at ≈ 532 Ma while the other, though younger, is not yet fully understood. Rock magnetic properties were measured on > 700 specimens and used to constrain the modelling of gravity, high-resolution helicopter, and ground magnetic data. The intrusion is modelled as a cylindrically shaped complex with a dunite core surrounded by wehrlite and gabbro. The ultramafic part of the complex dips to the NE and its maximum vertical extent is modelled to 1400m. Furthermore, modelling allows estimation of relative volumes of

  15. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  16. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  17. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  19. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  20. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin, Chao; Luo, Yang; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, Larry R.; Munn, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5–10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  1. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  2. Field and geochemical constraints on the relationship between the Apoteri basalts (northern Brazil, southwestern Guyana) and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Viter M.; Santos, João Orestes S.; Ronchi, Luiz H.; Hartmann, Léo A.; Bicudo, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    In northern Brazil, Roraima state and southwestern Guyana, basalt flows characterized by inflated pahoehoe structure occur along the margins of the Tacutu Rift Valley, dykes intrude the Paleoproterozoic basement close to the boundary of the rift system with concordant, NE-trend. The dykes and flows belong to Apoteri magmatism. New field, geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) and chemical stratigraphy of the Apoteri magmatism indicate petrographic and chemical homogeneity characteristic of continental tholeiitic basalts. The basalt flows of Morro Redondo and Nova Olinda sites show two distinct chemical groups: a) the lower flows with intermediate TiO2 content (ITi group) ranging from 1.09 to 1.41 wt%, MgO (5.64-6.46 wt%) and Ni (43-53 ppm) contents; and b) the upper flows with lower TiO2 content (LTi group) = 0.75 to 0.78 wt%, higher MgO = 7.95-8.85 wt% and Ni = 105-115 ppm. The two magma types share many characteristics in high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), but in detail significant differences exist in REE ratios, e.g. (La/Yb)N of ∼4.0 for ITi and 3.2 for LTi and this may be explained by fractional crystallization. The chemical compositions of the Apoteri dykes are similar the ITi group analyses, suggesting that they have the same origin. The La/Ba versus La/Nb diagram is indicative of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and LILE/HFSE fractionation in the mantle source, and the data favor a dominant subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) component in the origin of the Apoteri flows and dykes. These data show consistent similar chemical characteristics and correspond to other tholeiitic flows from the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), especially eastern USA.

  3. [Phosphorus characteristics and the impact to water quality across interface of overlying water and sediment of Xiazhuhu wetland in Northern Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Guo; Zhu, Huang-Chao; Wang, Zhao-De; Lin, Yuan; Li, Shuai; Xie, Guan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Healthy wetland system is regarded as an effective way for biological remediation of non-point source pollutants. A case field investigation on phosphorus (P) status of overlying water and sediment was carried out for Xiazhuhu wetland located in Northern Zhejiang Province, China. A static wetland microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the characteristics and mechanisms related to P exchanging, P forms changing, and water quality impact across the interface of water and sediment. Field investigation showed that total P (TP) concentrations of sediments were found from 0.187 mg x g(-1) to 0.591 mg x g(-1), and TP in overlying water reached from 0.022 mg x L(-1) to 0.718 mg x L(-1) where the seasonal concentration variations of TP, dissolved P (DP), and particulate P (PP) were commonly found in order as winter > summer > spring > fall. Fed by synthetic solution containing P levels of 0.0 - 10.5 mg x L(-1), a 35-day-lasting microcosm study showed that P retention by sediments could be divided into three basic phases in order, i.e., buffer reaction, rapid adsorption, and slow adsorption. Under a typical stress concentration of 1.0 mg x L(-1) in overlying water, the increment of P tanks in different forms was found as NH4 Cl-P (0.0%), Fe-P/Mn-P (around 20%), NaOH-TP (around 66%, mainly as the form of Al-P), Ca-P (1.9%), and Res-P (11.3%), on the condition of Xiazhuhu wetland under low water season. Application of Al to wetland would increase the capacity of sediment P retention in Xiazhuhu wetland.

  4. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  5. Measures to Facilitate Necessity Entrepreneurship : Western Cape South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Macura, Alexander; Sjölund, John

    2005-01-01

    Problem- In the townships and rural areas of the Western Cape province of South Africa unemployment can be as high as 60%. For many, starting a business is the only viable option to survive. There are many organizations seeking to help entrepreneurs to successfully start and manage a business, but services are significantly lacking. We therefore wish to determine what business service providers in the Western Cape are doing today to help necessity entrepreneurs succeed, and what can be done b...

  6. No molecular epidemiological evidence supporting household transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from pet dogs and cats in the province of Álava, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis

  7. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  8. 76 FR 27970 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  9. northern Sandveld, Western Cape, South Afric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    out in the area assessing hydrological, ecological and botanical components. The area is ... Introduction. In order to optimally manage a groundwater resource that is being ..... groundwater recharge, such as direct measurement, Darcian ap-.

  10. An environmental, economical and socio-political analysis of a variety of urban air-pollution reduction policies for primary PM10 and NOx: The case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, M.; Perrone, M.G.; Cusumano, N.; Ferrero, L.; Sangiorgi, G.; Bolzacchini, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PM10 and NO x emission reduction by different policies have been estimated. • Various actions have been considered, in the transport and residential sectors. • Environmental, economic and socio-political data were jointly evaluated. • Results are reported for the case study of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy). • Bike use fostering best matches cost–benefit results and socio-political acceptance. - Abstract: In the frame of urban air-pollution reduction policies, economic costs and environmental benefits of a variety of actions have been quantitatively assessed for the Province of Milan (Northern Italy), focusing on PM10 and NO x emission sources. Short-to-mid-term interventions that have been taken into consideration include reduction of inner temperature in residential buildings, banning of residential biomass heating systems, banning of diesel fuelled domestic boilers, night-time streets washing, speed limit reduction on highways, circulation restrictions of oldest EURO vehicles, conversion of diesel buses to natural gas, car sharing/biking promotion, DPF adoption in diesel vehicles, extension of road lanes for urban buses, energy efficiency refurbishment in residential buildings. Re*sults emerged from the cost–benefit analysis integrated with socio-political indicators obtained through direct surveys, will contribute, with an holistic and multidisciplinary approach, to drive the local administrators to implement the most suitable actions in one of the most polluted areas in west-Europe

  11. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  12. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  13. Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990, measles vaccine coverage in the Cape Province remains low,' and is ... ing 3 of the 6 facilities considered in this study, do nor pro- vide immunisation. Therefore ... the 2 studies were at 'high risk' in view of the risk of con- tracting measles ...

  14. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  16. Quality assurance in the foundation phase in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main focus of this study was whether and how provision is made to enhance the quality of education in the Foundation Phase. After a case study investigation into a primary school and its view on quality assurance and interviews with the Department of Education: Eastern Cape province it became apparent that more ...

  17. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K.; Wysoczanski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D 1 -D 4 ) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S 2 on the rims of D 4 porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D 4 emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D 2 -D 4 ) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 ± 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D 2 for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Accoto; Pierluigi Bullo; Ruben Faccio; Leonardo Mason; Andrea Sottani

    2017-01-01

    The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014), the fluctuation of ...

  19. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  20. Possible impacts of sea-level rise on the Diep river/Rietvlei system, Cape-Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hughes, P

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Cape Province's estuaries and tidal inlets have sandy connections to the sea and are often intensively developed for industrial or residential purposes. The possible impacts of sea-level rise are of considerable interest...

  1. Dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Cape fur seals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of the blubber of five dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus and five Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from the northern Benguela ecosystem (South-East Atlantic) and their main prey was determined. Differences in fatty acid composition of the inner and outer blubber layer of the ...

  2. Heritage and the Development of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Todeschini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of Stellenbosch, located adjacent to, but outside of, the Cape Town metropolitan area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, comprises over one thousand square kilometers of landscapes spanning: spectacular mountain wilderness areas; many productive rural valleys that are an integral part of the celebrated Cape Winelands; and a number of historic, characterful urban centres founded during the 17th century. Overall, this blend of domains attracts increasing numbers of tourists, while the places are also home to a growing population. The pressures for change and growth are significant: so is the need for appropriate policies and plans in the longer-term public interest. The authors report on a three-year project they are conducting for the local authority that focuses on the definition of the natural and cultural heritage and, in principle, on how development should be channelled.

  3. Perceptions of patient safety culture among healthcare employees in tertiary hospitals of Heilongjiang province in northern China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Yanming; Hao, Yanhua; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Teng, Baijun; Yang, Kai; Sun, Tongbo; Wu, Qunhong; Qiao, Hong

    2018-04-19

    Assessing the patient safety culture is necessary for improving patient safety. Research on patient safety culture has attracted considerable attention. Currently, there is little research on patient safety culture in China generally, and in Heilongjiang in northern China specifically. The aim of the study is to explore the perception of healthcare employees about patient safety culture and to determine whether perception differs per sex, age, profession, years of experience, education level and marital status. Cross-sectional study. Thirteen tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang, northern China. About 1024 healthcare employees. The perception of healthcare employees was measured using the safety attitude questionnaire, which include six dimensions. Higher scores represented more positive attitudes. An analysis of variance was used to compare socio-demographic differences per position, marital status and education; t-tests were used for sex, age and experience. A total of 1024 (85.33%) valid questionnaires were returned. The mean score of the six dimensions was 73.74/100; work conditions (80.19) had the highest score of all the dimensions, and safety climate (70.48) had the lowest. Across distinct dimensions, there were significant differences in perceptions of patient safety culture per sex, age, years of experience, position, marital status and education level (P culture among healthcare employees and identifying dimensions that require improvement. Interventions aimed at specific socio-demographic groups are necessary to improve patient safety culture.

  4. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  5. Obesity nutritional aspects and life style from a survey on a sample of primary school pupils in the Pavia province (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Arpesella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The increased risk of chronic diseases requires effective strategies to promote health, facilitating the adoption of proper life styles from childhood. In order to do that, the local health authority in Pavia has undertaken a pilot study with the aim of estimating the level of overweight and obese children in primary schools and of identifying the life styles that entail health risks.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a sample of 460 children in their last year of primary school in the Province of Pavia was performed. Pupils were classified by Body Mass Index, and a face-to-face questionnaire about children’s use of time was administered. A multiple logistic regression analysis has been applied in order to identify risks or preventive health factors linked to physical activity and eating habits.

    Results: 12.6% of the children were obese and 26.3% overweight, with the percentage of obesity nearly double in those who do not practice organized sports activities at least once a week, in those who don’t have breakfast in the morning and in those who don’t spend their free time in movement games. From a multiple logistic regression it results that the risk of being obese is twice and three times higher for the children living respectively in medium and small towns than for the ones living in large towns.

    Conclusions: In the Province of Pavia the prevalence of overweight and obese 10-year-old children exceed the data reported in recent studies all over Italy. The life styles that entail obesity risks are significantly linked both to eating habits and to physical activity: living in middle- and small sized towns and not having breakfast before going to school emerge as risk factors, while practicing movement games in the free time after school appears to be a protecting factor.

  6. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Multivariate matrix model for source identification of inrush water: A case study from Renlou and Tongting coal mine in northern Anhui province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Duoxi; Su, Yue

    2018-02-01

    Under the current situation of energy demand, coal is still one of the major energy sources in China for a certain period of time, so the task of coal mine safety production remains arduous. In order to identify the water source of the mine accurately, this article takes the example from Renlou and Tongting coal mines in the northern Anhui mining area. A total of 7 conventional water chemical indexes were selected, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Na++K+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 - and TDS, to establish a multivariate matrix model for the source identifying inrush water. The results show that the model is simple and is rarely limited by the quantity of water samples, and the recognition effect is ideal, which can be applied to the control and treatment for water inrush.

  8. The literacy of Geography teachers in the Western Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    professional development programmes and support interventions in teacher ... multiple ecological and social issues linked to them, none of which can be ... adaptation (adjustment in natural or human systems in response to real or potential climatic stimuli and their ... American and Asian countries, is highly vulnerable.

  9. A case study in the Western Cape Province, So

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition research should not lose touch with reality and ought to be ... School and supermarket environments, as well as the food industry, can play a pivotal role in ..... explained that time constraints, mostly as a result of them working, resulted ...

  10. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  11. (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-25

    Feb 25, 1997 ... Dwarf adders of the genus Bitis are popular in the interna- tional pet trade in reptiles, and although ... dwarf adder, B. schneideri) are already threatened, in pan, by illegal collecting for this trade (Branch .... between the eyes at the anterior edge of the orbit; I I right, 12 left circumorbitals; two scale rows ...

  12. Mammals of the Kammanassie Mountains, southern Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Min roof- diere kom voor. Maaginhoude van versamelde eksemplare het gegewens opgelewer oor voedingsgewoontes: die spesles het aanslenllk verskil van mekaar in dieet. Vier en twintig spesies van klein en groot .... green plant material (leaves) and insects, using a stereo- scopic microscope with graticule eyepiece.

  13. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-05

    Mar 5, 1990 ... small, aligned in regular rows, indistinct on nape and embedded between pectoral fins and antero-ventral region. .... major row teeth of Barbus omfltolicus sp.nov. B - Posterior view of the right pharyngeal bone and teeth of B. onwtoiicus sp.nov. Scale bar is 1 mm. 191. Figure 4 The nuptial tubercles on the ...

  14. Hexavalent Chromium: Analysis of the Mechanism of Groundwater Contamination in a Former Industrial Site in the Province of Vicenza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Accoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted in the analysis of the mobilization mechanisms of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI into groundwater from a decommissioned contaminated factory. The site is located in the Province of Vicenza and formerly was a chrome-plating plant. The subsoil consists predominantly of gravelly deposits with a thickness of at least one hundred meters. An unconfined aquifer is present with water table at about 23 m depth bgl. During the seven years of monitoring (2008-2014, the fluctuation of groundwater level was more than 6 m; hydraulic conductivity is about 1.0E-03 m/s and groundwater seepage velocity about 12 m/day. At the area of the source of contamination, the unsaturated soil is contaminated by hexavalent chromium throughout the thickness: concentrations range from 200 to 500 mg/kg. At the bottom of zone of groundwater level fluctuation, the hexavalent chromium concentration decreases to below the detection limit. The available data (e.g. hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater, groundwater level, local rainfall give the opportunity to assess the effects, on the magnitude of groundwater contamination, of the effective infiltration versus the fluctuation of groundwater level. The main analysis was performed on a statistical basis, in order to find out which of the two factors was most likely related to the periodic peaks of hexavalent chromium concentration in groundwater. Statistical analysis results were verified by a mass balance. Data show that at the site both the effective infiltration through the unsaturated zone and the leaching of soil contaminated by groundwater, when it exceeds a certain piezometric level, lead to peak concentrations of hexavalent chromium, even if with characteristics and effects different.

  15. Identification of Zn-Bearing Micas and Clays from the Cristal and Mina Grande Zinc Deposits (Bongará Province, Amazonas Region, Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Arfè

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zn-bearing phyllosilicates are common minerals in nonsulfide Zn deposits, but they seldom represent the prevailing economic species. However, even though the presence of Zn-bearing clays is considered as a disadvantage in mineral processing, their characteristics can give crucial information on the genesis of the oxidized mineralization. This research has been carried out on the Mina Grande and Cristal Zn-sulfide/nonsulfide deposits, which occur in the Bongará district (Northern Peru. In both of the deposits, Zn-bearing micas and clays occur as an accessory to the ore minerals. The XRD analyses and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS investigations revealed that the Zn-bearing micas that are occurring in both deposits mostly consist of I/S mixed layers of detrital origin, which have been partly altered or overprinted by sauconite during the supergene alteration of sulfides. Sporadic hendricksite was also identified in the Cristal nonsulfide mineral assemblage, whereas at Mina Grande, the fraipontite-zaccagnaite (3R-polytype association was detected. The identified zaccagnaite polytype suggests that both fraipontite and zaccagnaite are genetically related to weathering processes. The hendricksite detected at Cristal is a product of hydrothermal alteration, which is formed during the emplacement of sulfides. The complex nature of the identified phyllosilicates may be considered as evidence of the multiple processes (hydrothermal and supergene that occurred in the Bongará district.

  16. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  17. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  18. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    1999-03-01

    Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.

  19. Impact of socioeconomic status and district of residence on cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis: a survival study on incident cases between 1991 and 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa; Lambertini, Anna G; Caranci, Nicola; Pacelli, Barbara; Carcoforo, Paolo; Ferretti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on the prognosis of patients with invasive malignant melanoma (MM) incident from 1991 to 2011 in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. A total of 750 patients provided by the Area Vasta Emilia Centrale Cancer Registry were included in this retrospective cohort study. Prognosis was analysed in terms of overall survival and specific survival. The study determinants were the patients' SES and district of residence. The confounding effect of sex, age, period and TNM stage at diagnosis was evaluated. In the study population, neither overall survival nor specific survival showed significant differences among different layers of SES and districts of residence. The risk for death from MM was lower for the female sex [hazard risk (HR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.94] and for diagnoses made in the most recent period (2005-2011: HR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.36-0.89 with respect to 1991-1997). A worse prognosis was observed in patients older than 70 years at the time of diagnosis (HR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.39-3.91 with respect to the Ferrara. Homogeneity in MM staging, treatment and follow-up strategies due to the relatively small extent of the study area and the presence of a single university hospital of reference, as well as less marked social and economic differences among the study patients in comparison with other previously analysed populations, may account for this finding.

  20. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  1. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . This research attempts to address this research gap by focusing on the spatio-temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province. It was found that most non-metropolitan gated residential security estates were...

  2. Urban Ecology in Cape Town: South African Comparisons and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel S. Cilliers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.

  3. Integrating laser-range finding, electronic compass measurements and GPS to rapidly map vertical changes in volcanic stratigraphy and constrain unit thicknesses and volumes: two examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, M.; Edwards, B. R.; Wetherell, K.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of laser-range finding-GPS surveys from two separate locations in northern British Columbia, in the south-central northern Cordilleran volcanic province: Hoodoo Mountain volcano and Craven Lake cone. This technique, described in detail below, is appropriate for rapidly measuring changes in vertical thicknesses of units that either would be difficult or impossible to measure by most other techniques. The ability to accurately measure thicknesses of geologic units in otherwise difficult-to-access locations will aide in generating better quantitative estimates of deposit geometries and eruption volumes. Such data is particularly important for constraining quantitative models of magma production and eruption dynamics. The deposits of interest in this study comprised at least partly inaccessible, largely pyroclastic units, although the technique could be used to map any vertical surfaces. The first field location was the northern side of Hoodoo Mountain volcano (56deg47'23.72'N/131deg17'36.97'W/1208m-asl), where a sequence of welded to unwelded, trachytic-phonolitic tephra was deposited in a paleovalley. This deposit is informally referred to as the Pointer Ridge deposit, and it comprises at least 7 distinct subunits. The horizontal limit of the exposures is approximately 1.5km, and the vertical limit is approximately 250m. Three different GPS base stations were used to map the lateral and vertical variations in the deposit. The second field location is north of Craven Lake (56deg54'44.55'N/129deg21'42.17'W/1453m-asl), along Craven Creek, where a sequence of basaltic tephra is overlain by pillow lava and glacial diamicton. This exposure is 200m long and approximately 30m high, much smaller than the area mapped at Hoodoo Mountain. The basaltic tephra appears to comprise 4 distinct sequences (measured thicknesses vary from 3-4m) not including the overlying pillow lava (measured thickness varies from 2 to 10m), and measurements of the

  4. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  5. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...

  6. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Verde hotspot, like many other Ocean Island Basalt provinces, demonstrates isotopic heterogeneity on a 100–200 km scale. The heterogeneity is represented by the appearance of an EM1-like component at several of the southern islands and with a HIMU-like component present throughout...... have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  7. Characterization of the genome of a novel ilarvirus naturally infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-García, Yuliana M; Jaramillo-Mesa, Helena; Toro-Fernández, Luisa F; Marín-Montoya, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Pablo A

    2018-06-01

    As part of an initiative to characterize viruses infecting Cape gooseberry in the province of Antioquia (Colombia), we report the genome sequence of a new member of the genus Ilarvirus (family Bromoviridae). This virus was identified in a Cape gooseberry plot in the municipality of Marinilla in a mixed infection with potato virus Y (PVY) as part of high-throughput sequencing initiative. Results were confirmed by nested RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Cape gooseberry ilarvirus is a new member of subgroup 1 and it is most closely related to ageratum latent virus (AgLV). The name "Cape gooseberry ilarvirus 1" (CGIV-1) is proposed for this new ilarvirus.

  8. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  9. Basin-scale hydrogeological, geophysical, geochemical and isotopic characterization: an essential tool for building a Decision Support System for the sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems within the provinces of Milan and Monza-Brianza (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gorla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CAP Group is a public company, supplying the municipalities within the provinces of Milan and Monza/Brianza (Northern Italy with the integrated water service: 197 municipalities and more than 2 million users served, 887 wells, 154 wall-mounted tanks and hubs, a water supply network of over 7500 km, from which approximately 250 million cubic metres of water per year are withdrawn. The drinking water supply comes exclusively from groundwater resources, circulating in several overlapping aquifer systems. Basin-scale water resource management, as required by the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, is an extremely complex task. In view of this backdrop, CAP is currently developing a project called Infrastructural Aqueduct Plan that relies on a Decision Support System approach. The paper describes the preliminary steps concerning the design of a prototype Decision Support System aiming at the management of groundwater resources on a basin scale (Ticino and Adda rivers area. CAP Group Decision Support System is intended to be a package allowing for water resource assessment, identification of boundary conditions, climatic driving forces and demographic pressures, simulation and investigation of future forecasts and comparison of alternative policy measures. The project has been designed in steps including Geodatabase building, geographic information system (GIS analysis (including multilayer analysis and numerical modelling. The data collected in the geodatabase were analyzed to design GIS quantitative and qualitative thematic maps in order to perform the multilayer analysis of current and future state and impacts, for providing the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the water system. The multilayer analysis relies on specific indicators based on some quantitative and qualitative data: hydrogeological, chemical, isotopic, soil use and hazards, climatic and demographic. Each parameter belonging to these macro areas were

  10. Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawn mainly east of Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is ... Based on the total area of 16–19°C water on the western Agulhas. Bank, Richardson et al. .... in the zone, φ the new value, and β is a relaxation pa-.

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of the Eastern Cape School Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ncanywa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the trends of education indicators that affect efficiency at schools in the Eastern Cape in the period 2009 to 2013. The focus is on the state of public ordinary schools which include primary and secondary schools from grade one to grade twelve. The province is regarded as a poor province as it constituted 95% of quintile one to three schools which are declared as ‘no fee schools’. There had been decline in learner performance as learners’ progress to higher grades and a drastic decline in important subjects such as Mathematics.  province had a significant number of educators with 16 years’ experience and an average of 45% under-qualified educators in 2013. There were variations in educator learner ratios per district with larger ratios found in the former Transkei. The province progressed well in learner transport, learner teacher support material and school nutrition programmes. There was no virtual change in infrastructural developments. Education in schools should be provided in a manner that ensures learners can realise their potential and aspirations, in schools that facilitate learning and reduce societal disparities.

  12. Morphological characteristics of Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) are the largest nectarivores in the Western Cape and feed almost exclusively on protea nectar and associated arthropods. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa, has a large diversity of Protea and supports breeding sugarbirds. As part of a larger study, we captured ...

  13. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  14. Do inter-colony differences in Cape fur seal foraging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated how such environmental variability may impact foraging behaviour of the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, using satellite telemetry on animals in northern, central and southern Namibia. We expected that seal foraging behaviour would reflect a gradient of deteriorating feeding conditions from ...

  15. Age of origin of the polymetamorphosed Copperton Formation, Namaqua-Natal Province, determined by single grain zircon Pb-Pb dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Griffin, G.; Kroener, A.; Humphreys, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Copperton Formation of the Areachap Group in the Northern Cape Province is a strongly metamorphosed, predominantly metavolcanic unit which contains several massive sulphide deposits. Previous work on this unit has established a complex metamorphic history, the four main phases of which are fairly well dated by a combination of methods; however, the age of origin is still poorly constrained. Zircons extracted from the Smouspan Gneiss Member of the Copperton formation are euhedral and show a crystal habit which indicates an igneous and probably volcanic origin, with no discernable metamorphic component. Whole-grain thermal evaporation on four such zircon grains yielded a precise set of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb data which establishes a 1 285 ± 14 Ma age for the origin of the Smouspan Gneiss and Copperton Formation. Indications of a ∼1 600 Ma age from other parts of the Areachap Group should be treated with caution until more reliable data are obtained. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  16. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  17. Involuntary admission of psychiatric patients in the Northern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients' final diagnoses were extracted from the discharge summary and were based on the text revision of the fourth edition of DSM (DSM-IV-TR). Only diagnoses on axis I (clinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus 1 clinical attention), axis II (personality disorders and mental retardation) and axis III ...

  18. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They repeatedly have to travel hundreds of kilometres, at ... To limit travel, we often monitor patients between their clinic visits with the help of their general practitioners. However, this is not optimal for all conditions and we were looking for alternatives. At the .... Approximately 10% of the patients had medical insurance.

  19. Role of small-scale sawmilling in household and community livelihoods – Case studies in the Eastern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horn, J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available on the role of SSM in household and community livelihoods in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It has therefore not been possible to evaluate whether SSM is a suitable entry point for support to livelihood enhancement and / or pro-poor enterprise...

  20. No visible means of subsistence : rural livelihoods, gender and social change in Mooiplaas, Eastern Cape 1950-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Leslie; Qambata, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Based on fieldwork in Ngxingxolo in 1997-1998, this study highlights some of the key changes that have taken place in the way rural livelihoods have been made in Mooiplaas location, situated 45 km outside the city of East London in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa). In line with developments

  1. 区域生态安全动态变化及空间差异定量分析:以陕北黄土高原为例%Quantitative analysis of the dynamic change and spatial differences of the ecological security:a case study of Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 任志远; 周自翔

    2006-01-01

    Using the theory and method of the ecological footprint, and combining the changes of regional land use, resource environment, population, society and economy, this paper calculated the ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and ecological surplus/loss in 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi Province. What is more, this paper has put forward the concept of ecological pressure index, set up ecological pressure index models, and ecological security grading systems, and the prediction models of different ecological footprints, ecological carrying capacity, ecological surplus and ecological safety change, and also has assessed the ecological footprint demands of 10,000 yuan GDP.The results of this study are as follows: (1) the ecological carrying capacity in northern Shaanxi shows a decreasing trend, the difference of reducing range is the fastest; (2) the ecological footprint appears an increasing trend; (3) ecological pressure index rose to 0.91 from 0.44 during 1986-2002 on the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi with an increase of 47%; and (4) the ecological security in the study area is in a critical state, and the ecological pressure index has been increasing rapidly.

  2. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  3. AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE CAPE EXPERIMENT V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data...

  4. Miospores from the Frasnian-Famennian Boundary deposits in Eastern Europe (the Pripyat Depression, Belarus and the Timan-Pechora Province, Russia) and comparison with Western Europe (Northern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhovskaya; Avkhimovitch; Streel; Loboziak

    2000-11-01

    A zonal subdivision of the Frasnian-Famennian transitional deposits in the Pripyat Depression and Timan-Pechora Province, based on a detailed palynological study, has been completed. The data obtained on miospores and conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Province enable a correlation to be made with the Standard Conodont Zonation. The lateral extent of the palynozones in Eastern Europe and the correlation with Western Europe are discussed. The following previously published new combinations are validated: Auroraspora speciosa (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Corbulispora viminea (Nekriata) Obukhovskaya and Nekriata, comb. nov., Cristatisporites imperpetuus (Sennova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Cymbosporites acanthaceus (Kedo) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., Grandispora subsuta (Nazarenko) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov., and Verrucosisporites evlanensis (Naumova) Obukhovskaya, comb. nov.

  5. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  6. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. 7.45 Section 7.45... Atlantic Coast § 7.45 Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River...

  7. 33 CFR 80.505 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light 6, 225° true across... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles...

  8. Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srisonchai, Ruttapon; Enghoff, Henrik; Likhitrakarn, Natdanai

    2016-01-01

    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new species...

  9. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  10. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  11. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  12. The Cape doctor 1807-1910: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This chapter contrasts the Cape doctor in 1807 and in 1910, and finds that, in a whole variety of ways, the differences between the two were not of degree but of kind. Underlying this sea-change was the germ revolution of the late Victorian era, which transformed the Cape doctor out of all recognition, thereby laying important foundations for the development of the twentieth-century South African doctor.

  13. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  14. Service transformation plans in the Eastern Cape informed by a needs-based gap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research paper presented a needs and gap analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It identified deficits and inequitable distribution of human resources and beds in the province. In this article, Part II, the authors propose a plan for public sector mental health services to address the human resource needs in the poorer eastern regions of the province. The plan focuses on human resource training and development.  Methods. Evidence-based data on staff development in mental health from low-middle income countries were utilised to develop strategies to increase staff capacity to address unmet need. A financing model with a poverty index was developed to sustain a needs-based plan. Databases searched included Pubmed, Medline, Google and Google Scholar. The key words used included: mental health, mental health training, mental health resources, mental health in low-middle-income countries, mental health policy and plans, mental health needs- based planning, primary healthcare, primary mental healthcare, mental health financing. In addition the websites of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatric Association were searched for similar resources. Conclusions. It is feasible, with careful attention to planning and implementation of evidence-based tools, to improve public mental health service delivery in this province. Sustained political will and professional commitment will ensure successful delivery of mental health services in a resource-limited province.

  15. The continental slope current system between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Peña-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We use hydrographic, velocity and drifter data from a cruise carried out in November 2008 to describe the continental slope current system in the upper thermocline (down to 600 m between Cape Verde and the Canary Islands. The major feature in the region is the Cape Verde Frontal Zone (CVFZ, separating waters from tropical (southern and subtropical (northern origin. The CVFZ is found to intersect the slope north of Cape Blanc, between 22°N and 23°N, but we find that southern waters are predominant over the slope as far north as 24°N. South of Cape Blanc (21.25°N the Poleward Undercurrent (PUC is a prominent northward jet (50 km wide, reaching down to 300 m and indistinguishable from the surface Mauritanian Current. North of Cape Blanc the upwelling front is found far offshore, opening a near-slope northward path to the PUC. Nevertheless, the northward PUC transport decreases from 2.8 Sv at 18°N to 1.7 Sv at 24°N, with about 1 Sv recirculating ofshore just south of Cape Blanc, in agreement with the trajectory of subsurface drifters. South of the CVFZ there is an abrupt thermohaline transition at σϴ=26.85 kg m–3, which indicates the lower limit of the relatively pure (low salt and high oxygen content South Atlantic Central Water (SACW variety that coexists with the dominant locally-diluted (salinity increases through mixing with North Atlantic Central Water but oxygen diminishes because of enhanced remineralization Cape Verde (SACWcv variety. At 16°N about 70% of the PUC transport corresponds to the SACW variety but but this is transformed into 40% SACWcv at 24°N. However, between Cape Verde and Cape Blanc and in the 26.85 < σϴ < 27.1 layer, we measure up to 0.8 Sv of SACWcv being transported south. The results strongly endorse the idea that the slope current system plays a major role in tropical-subtropical water-mass exchange.

  16. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  17. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  18. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  19. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  20. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  1. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  2. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  3. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior..., or disapprove a Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on..., easements, or rights-of-way for renewable energy projects on the OCS. The Secretary delegated that authority...

  4. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...

  5. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  6. April 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  7. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Data on the thermal structure, copepod biomass and production, and total number of eggs of the Cape anchovy ... To identify factors controlling the area of this water mass, a cluster ...... thesis, University of Cape Town: [vii] + 278 pp. SHANNON ...

  9. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  10. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  11. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  12. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  13. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  14. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  15. A geological investigation of the Proterozoic T'Oubep Suite, northwestern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agenbacht, A.L.D.; Schoch, A.E.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The T'Oubep Suite occurs in the central part of the Namaqua mobile belt approximately 80km southwest of Kakamas. The Suite comprises seven different rock types with compositions ranging from betabasite through granodiorite and tonalite to granite. The igneous rocks were extensively metamorphosed during the Namaqua tectogenesis. The comagmatic origin for the granitic rocks suggested by the field relations is corroborated by whole rock, trace element and REE chemistry. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasaikar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaKPC, and blaNDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7% species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%, while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9% each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%. ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by blaSHV 121 (77.1% followed by blaTEM 105 (66.9% and blaCTX-M at 89 (56.7%. The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was blaTEM+blaSHV + blaCTX-M at 79 (50.3%. There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  17. Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasaikar, Sandeep; Obi, Larry; Morobe, Isaac; Bisi-Johnson, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β -lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla KPC , and bla NDM genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7%) species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%), while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9%) each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%). ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by bla SHV 121 (77.1%) followed by bla TEM 105 (66.9%) and bla CTX-M at 89 (56.7%). The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was bla TEM + bla SHV + bla CTX-M at 79 (50.3%). There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.

  18. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  19. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters reviewed were age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of ... upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. ..... significant differences when analysing by ..... (sports, gardening, tight shoes), emotional.

  20. Late quaternary paleotemperatures derived from a speleothem from Cango caves, Cape Province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Talma, AS

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available , with generally lower temperatures (1–2°C) around 4500 and 3000 yr B.P. The carbon isotopic composition of the stalagmite indicates significant vegetation changes between the late Pleistocene and today, and also during the second half of the Holocene....

  1. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N

    2012-08-01

    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  2. Further account of the marine littoral diatoms of the Saldanha Bay Lagoon, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available of the raphe, asymmetric. Surface of the valve on both sides costate, costae 6 in 10 pm, bet~veen the costae double rows of obscure alternating puncta. Type slide 636 in the Giffen Collection. lconotype figures No.10?13. Frustu lae in visu connectivale... utrinque raphe costatis validis 6 in 10 pm cx punctis obscuris in seribus duobus et in quincuncem ordinatis compositae. Habitat: in aquis marinis OceaniA tlantici in lacunae Saldanha bet Oesterwal dicti Pro rincia Capensis. Typus: praeparatum No. 636...

  3. Smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 157 smallholder farmers from the OR Tambo and Chris Hani district municipality in South Africa were purposively sampled to participate in a survey. The objective was to identify the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops. Using a binary logistic model it was found that the variables; gender, household income, membership in association; land utilisation and qualification were statistically significant in influencing farmers’ awareness of biofuel c...

  4. Climate Change Science: The Literacy of Geography Teachers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Raymond; Le Grange, Lesley; Beets, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the universal responses to tackling global climate change is teaching climate change concepts at all levels of formal education. This response requires, among other things, teachers who are fully literate about climate change science, so that they can explain the concepts underlying the causes, impacts and solutions of climate change as…

  5. Antibiotic Producing Potentials of Three Freshwater Actinomycetes Isolated from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of three actinomycetes species belonging to Saccharopolyspora (TR 046 and TR 039 and Actinosynnema (TR 024 genera were screened for antibacterial activities against a panel of several bacterial strains. The extracts showed antibacterial activities against both gram-negative and gram-positive test bacteria with inhibition zones ranging from 8 to 28 mm (TR 046; 8 to15 mm (TR 039; and 10 to 13 mm (TR 024. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.078 to 10 mg/mL (TR 046; 5 to >10 mg/mL (TR 039; and 1.25 to 5 mg/mL (TR 024. Time-kill studies revealed that crude extract of TR 046 showed strong bactericidal activity against Bacillus pumilus (ATCC14884, reducing the bacterial load by 104 cfu/mL and 102 cfu/mL at 4× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively, after 6 h of exposure. Similarly, against Proteus vulgaris (CSIR 0030, crude extract of TR 046 achieved a 0.9log10 and 0.13log10 cfu/mL reduction at 5 mg/mL (4× MIC and 1.25 mg/mL (2× MIC after 12 h of exposure. The extract was however weakly bactericidal against two environmental bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 19582: the extract showed bacteriostatic activities at all concentrations tested. These freshwater actinomycetes appear to have immense potential as a source of new antibacterial compound(s.

  6. Diatoms of the marine littoral of Steenberg's cove in St. Helena Bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malcolm, HG

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available transapical striae in 10 ~m. It is easily overlooked and though recorded in the samples as infrequent may be more abundant. Dimensions of the Steenberg?s Cove material were 8?10 1zm long, 3 jzm broad, striae 27 in 10 1cm. ? 619, 620. A. proteus GREGORY... (cf. CLEVE 1895: 103; GIFFEN 1970a, 267, Fig. 19). Always rare in the material. ? 619, 620. A. proteus var. coutigna CLEVE (cf. GIFFEN 1971 a, 3). As stated in a previous paper the author doubts whether these varieties viz. var. conti,gua CLEVE...

  7. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  8. Franchising O&M water services infrastructure in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available South African research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers...

  9. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  10. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  11. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  12. Loaches and the environment in two provinces in Northern Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Chaloupková, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), 368-374 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/Mze/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biodiversity * conservation * Teleostei Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  13. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    their families, and the relationship between the two. ... and also reduce the work of school teachers involved with health and social education. ... sionary woman who has unknowingly been offered human meat from ... adverse effects ..... Where children do not trust their parents or ... Drug user networks, coping strategies,.

  14. Health complaints of high school students in the Northern Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest reported taboo theme was homosexuality, followed by tattooing or piercing, and abortion. There is a significant positive correlation between health complaints of the students and taboo themes in their families. The findings call for intensified efforts on enlightenment (life skills) programmes designed to ...

  15. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not only have residential areas become largely mixed but also schools. This is, of course, a result of the abolishing of apartheid-era policies and legislation that enforced racial segregation. However, the phenomenon sketched above was accompanied by parents moving children from public schools to independent schools ...

  16. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    School education is not to be offered for the school's sake but for the child, family, the ... The following questions were to be answered through a scientific investigation: .... pertaining to employment, they cause a middle ranking of the dimension. ... On the other hand Christians were found to be expecting less school ...

  17. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  18. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  19. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  20. Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: No research data exists on forensic psychiatric service provision in the Eastern Cape, Republic of South Africa. The objective of this research was to assess current forensic psychiatric service provision and utilisation rates at Fort England Hospital. This is important in improving and strengthening the service. A related objective was to develop a model for a provincial prison mental health service. Methodology: This study is a situational analysis of an existing forensic psychiatric service in the Eastern Cape. The design of the study was cross sectional. An audit questionnaire was utilised to collate quantitative data, which was submitted to Fort England Hospital, Grahamstown. A proposed prison mental health service was developed utilising prevalence rates of mental illness among prisoners to calculate bed and staff requirements for an ambulatory and in-patient service. Results: During the study period a total of 403 remand detainees were admitted to the forensic psychiatry division of Fort England Hospital. The average length of stay was 494 days and the bed utilisation rate was determined at 203.54%. We estimate that to provide a provincial prison mental health service to treat psychotic illnesses and major depression the province requires a 52 bedded facility and a total staff complement of approximately 31. Conclusions: Forensic psychiatric services include the assessment, management and treatment of mentally disordered persons in conflict with the law and prisoners requiring psychiatric assessments. The Eastern Cape Province does not have plans or policies to assess and manage mentally ill offenders, resulting in an increased load on available services. We recommend that an inter-departmental task team, which includes Health, Justice and Constitutional Development and Correctional Services, should be established in the province, to develop a strategy to assist in the development of an effective and efficient forensic

  1. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    for future studies. Relative malleability of province boundaries in the continental interior highlights this region as biogeographically diverse and dynamic. Interior-core provinces of this region (Central Gulf Coastal Plains, Northern Interior) have not been recognized previously and warrant further study. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  3. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  4. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  5. Knowledge and attitudes in the rural Western Cape towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that farm residents in the Western Cape are potentially exposed to pesticides through various environmental routes including water. This emphasises the need to monitor water for pesticides in the Western Cape, but in order to do this, human and laboratory resources and capacities to conduct routine ...

  6. cutaneous manifestatio s of tuberculosis i the wester cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lEA WALKER, M.B., CH.B. (CAPE TOWN). Department of Dermatology, University of Cape Town and Croote Schuur Ho pital. Skin tuberculosis has been chosen as the subject of ... are fairly representative of the total number of skin cases seeking advice. .... results of vitamin D2 in the treatment of lupus."5-7. At -about the ...

  7. Comparison of age determination techniques for known-age Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Known-age teeth were used to validate age determination techniques for the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus ... The reliability with which age can be estimated for the Cape fur seal has also been improved. ... The acid solution, with a volume at least 10 times that of ... old female [0 show (he absence of GLGs in the cemenlUnl.

  8. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  9. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  10. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  11. Aspects of the digestion in the Cape porcupine | van Jaarsveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive capabilities of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were studied using captive and field animals. The stomach contents comprised 6,47% of the body mass and had a low pH (2,0).The Cape porcupine also has a long small intestine (670 em). The large stomach and small intestine form a very efficient ...

  12. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  13. The "Cape Times"'s Portrayal of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…

  14. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  15. Needs-based gap analysis for service transformation in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Part I of this research article presents a needs-based analysis for the management of schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder and major depression for the Eastern Cape (EC Province, South Africa. This part of the research paper focuses on quantifying human resources and bed needs for these three severe mental illnesses. Human resource expenditure is calculated for nursing staff at acute, ambulatory and medium-to-long-stay services. A further objective was to conduct a gap analysis for human resources and beds for the EC in order to assist mental health planners in the commissioning of services.  Methods. Data from previous research conducted in the province, and international and national epidemiological studies were utilised to quantify the requirements for human resources (psychiatrists, medical officers/registrars, psychologists, nurses, occupational therapists and social workers and beds for acute, medium-to-long-stay and ambulatory services at provincial and regional levels, to provide mental healthcare. The authors focused on three of the eight priority conditions set by the World Health Organization. A target coverage rate of 80% was used in all calculations. A gap analysis was conducted to demonstrate deficits and excesses, utilising available data on human resources and beds available in the province. Results. The results showed that the districts of Alfred Nzo and Ukhahlamba have no human resources or beds for the provision of mental health services. The province has a deficit of 23 psychiatrists and 243 nurses trained in psychiatry, and an oversupply of 486 other nurses. The results also clearly demonstrated an inequitable distribution of resources in the province.  Conclusions. This is the first study that has provided detailed estimates of human resource and bed deficits in the EC. The study demonstrates that the areas of greatest need in terms of bed and human resource requirements are in the eastern regions of the

  16. Building Healthy Northern Communities Through Strengthening Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Schmidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and evaluates the effects of one-time funding on capacity building of health and social welfare organizations in a remote and northern section of British Columbia Canada. The Province of British Columbia awarded a two million dollar grant (Canadian to the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC. Organizations applied for funds through a competitive process that was managed by the School of Social Work at UNBC. Twenty-five different community organizations and agencies received funding for a period of eighteen months. The organizations and agencies delivered a range of services and activities located in remote First Nations communities as well as the natural resource-based single industry towns of northern BC.

  17. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  18. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  19. A situation analysis of the competitive schools based cricket coaching programmes at u/19 level in the Gauteng province

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) The purpose of this study was to investigate the management of cricket coaching programmes at u/19 level in the Gauteng Province. Specifically, this study attempted to determine the current situation regarding management of coaching programmes and the delivery of in-school driven programmes in the province. Data was collected from schools offering cricket as a sport from both the Gauteng Lions and Northerns Cricket Union franchises. There were 10 schools in the N...

  20. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  1. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.

  2. GRIP BARBADOS/CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...

  3. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during ... security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as ...... latter refused to sign the treasury documents.

  4. Two hake species, deep-water Cape hake Merluccius paradoxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    paradoxus and shallow-water Cape hake M. capensis, are found along the ... For both species, average length increased with depth. M. paradoxus expanded its ..... Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Oceano-.

  5. Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape | London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape. ... a lesser extent the presence of empty containers, are identified as important problems. ... particularly in the light of statutory requirements for occupational safety and health under ...

  6. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  7. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) mediated decrease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a phytochemically active component obtained from honeybee hive propolis. ... We hypothesize the effect of CAPE on the metastasis of colon cancer cells in ... evaluated also expression of protein and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) ...

  8. Feeding ecology of major carnivorous fish from four eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-03-29

    Mar 29, 1984 ... Whitfield & Blaber (1978) investigated the feeding ecology of piscivorous ...... Figure 3 Trophic relationships of carnivores (square blocks) in eastern Cape estuaries. ... Key species in the food chain of group A samples (Figures.

  9. Integrated water resource planning in the city of Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    supply (at a 98% level of assurance) in 1999. Should ... WDM policy. The WDM Policy is based on three broad principles namely that ... and Cape Town Water Services. ... audit of all schools, which includes implementing some immediate.

  10. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: ... Keywords: Methamphetamine; Sexual behaviour; HIV; South Africa ... to high school students who had used drugs other than MA in their.

  11. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... process for supplementary on-site water sources that was introduced by the City of Cape ... research objectives and would include relatively deep garden .... relatively shallow water table provide ideal conditions for small-.

  12. Temperature breaks within fruit reefer containers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Key words: fruit exports; reefer containers; cold chain; Cape Town Container ... challenges required for maintaining high product quality when exporting large ... perishable products due to the availability of a range of temperature settings.

  13. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katevg

    shift in two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities; in particular, ... as the workplace and in the church), with Afrikaans being used almost ... language use, on the one hand, and ongoing psychological, social or cultural processes, ...

  14. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  15. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3926, č. 4 (2015), s. 561-575 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cape Verde * Macaronesia * West Africa Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.994, year: 2015

  16. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  17. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  18. A Cretaceous origin for fire adaptations in the Cape flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B; Manning, John

    2016-10-05

    Fire has had a profound effect on the evolution of worldwide biotas. The Cape Floristic Region is one of the world's most species-rich regions, yet it is highly prone to recurrent fires and fire-adapted species contribute strongly to the overall flora. It is hypothesized that the current fire regimes in the Cape could be as old as 6-8 million years (My), while indirect evidence indicates that the onset of fire could have reached 18 million years ago (Ma). Here, we trace the origin of fire-dependent traits in two monocot families that are significant elements in the fire-prone Cape flora. Our analysis shows that fire-stimulated flowering originated in the Cape Haemodoraceae 81 Ma, while fire-stimulated germination arose in the African Restionaceae at least 70 Ma, implying that wildfires have been a significant force in the evolution of the Cape flora at least 60 My earlier than previous estimates. Our results provide strong evidence for the presence of fire adaptations in the Cape from the Cretaceous, leading to the extraordinary persistence of a fire-adapted flora in this biodiversity hotspot, and giving support to the hypothesis that Cretaceous fire was a global phenomenon that shaped the evolution of terrestrial floras.

  19. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  20. 75 FR 81637 - Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Commercial Lease for the Cape Wind Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and... Renewable Energy Development on the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') for the Cape Wind Energy Project... requirements of 30 CFR 285.231. The Lease is for the Cape Wind Energy Project (``Project'') which grants Cape...

  1. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. An aquatic ecoregion-based assessment for water ecological security at typical watersheds in the northern areas of Liaoning province%辽宁北部典型流域水生态功能区水生态安全评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏冉; 李法云; 谯兴国; 王金龙; 吕纯剑

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic ecoregion-based assessment for water ecological security can offer a premise for the integrat-ed management guidance of watershed ecological security with the rule of“by type,by region”.Based on the natu-ral features and social attributes of the spatial differentiation of ecological security pattern in basins on small and medium scales,the typical two tributaries in the northern Liaoning province were selected as the study areas,i.e. the Qinghe river and the Fanhe river.On the basis of the third grade aquatic ecoregion,6 elements including socio-economic pressure,environmental pressure,urban development indicators,development of resources and environ-ment indicators,investment indicators,governance indicators were anlayzed and 1 3 indexes were selected according to the pressure-state-response model(PSR).The ecological security is divided into five grades according to ecolog-ical security index by using a comprehensive ecological security index method,and they were specially insecurity, insecurity,basically security,security,special security.At the Qinghe river basin,ecoregion with codes ofⅣ-5-9 ,Ⅳ-5-10,Ⅳ-5-1 1 ,Ⅳ-5-12,Ⅳ-5-14 are basically security grade and those with codes ofⅣ-5-8 andⅣ-5-13 belong to insecurity grade.The ecoregions with codes ofⅣ-5-1 ,Ⅳ-5-2,Ⅳ-5-3 of Fanhe river basin belong to basically security grade,and that with code ofⅣ-5-4 is security grade.The results of aquatic ecoregion-based ecological se-curity and grade division offer scientific references for water ecological protection and overall ecological manage-ment in Liaohe river basin.%基于流域水生态功能区的水生态安全评价是指导流域水生态“分类、分区”综合管理的前提。本文在流域中小尺度上依据水生态空间格局分异的自然特征和社会属性,以辽河流域的清河和凡河支流为对象,在流域水生态功能三级分区的基础上,运用“压力-状态-响应模型”(PSR),通过

  4. Evaluation of a Cape Town Safety Intervention as a Model for Good Practice: A Partnership between Researchers, Community and Implementing Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Cassidy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available VPUU has a wealth of experience to share and is engaged with broader national and international policymakers and implementing agencies. Researchers are grappling with the difficulty of providing a rigorous project evaluation for these collaborations which could identify project elements that work with a view to their replication. This paper traces the evolution of an evidence-based approach to violence prevention in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU project in Cape Town uses such an approach, and relies on a ‘whole-of-society’ methodology as well. The project and the difficulty of its evaluation are discussed. A partnership between VPUU, researchers, the community and local government has revealed both opportunities and obstacles, which are the subjects of a case study described here.

  5. Seismicity and neotectonic uplift in the Augrabies Falls National Park, Namaqualand, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kakaba

    2016-10-01

    Gneissic rocks in the Augrabies Falls National Park are part of the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. Finding neotectonic evidence in old terranes is always not an easy task. In South Africa, the mid-Miocene is believed to be the beginning of neotectonics. This study investigated the occurrence and recurrence of earthquake activity, occurrence of faulting, jointing, uplift, and potholes in the gneisses cropping out around the Augrabies Falls area that may account for neotectonics. A historic seismic event obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and seismic epicenters downloaded in October 2015 from IRIS earthquake browser and overlaid on a satellite image with digitised faults and lineaments, indicates that the area is seismically active and is a zone of seismic risk. Potholes occurring today on a dry surface at approximately 613 m above sea level are a direct consequence of the Griqualand-Transvaal neotectonic uplift, which generated a major fault along which water flows continuously. It is concluded that the Augrabies Falls National Park area is a zone of neotectonics. This zone should not be considered for the storage of nuclear wastes.

  6. Two new species of Nemesia (Scrophulariaceae from arid areas of the Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new annual species of Nemesia Vent, are described from southern Africa. Nemesia suaveolens is characterized by magenta and yellow flowers. It differs from the closely related N. euryceras by having a lower lip that is yellow rather than white with pale violet margins, an upper lip with a conspicuous yellow rectangular patch just above the corolla opening, a spur that is ± equal to the length of the lower lip, not half the length, and a hypochile that is yellow rather than dark violet.This new species is known only from the arid Tanqua Karoo east of the Cedarberg Mountains. N. aurantia is characterized by orange saccate flowers with a brown and orange bearded palate. It is closest to N. versicolor, but differs from that species by its orange corolla, the absence of a spur, and its bearded palate with brown and orange trichomes. It is known from a single locality adjacent to the Swart Doting River in Namaqualand between Nuwerus and Garies.

  7. In need of deliberative inter-school relations in the Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    deliberative schooling — more specifically inter-school relations — has to unfold. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), education faces challenges on the basis of relevance, quality and internationalisation/globalisation. First, relevance involves questions as to how ...

  8. Análisis del entorno sinóptico asociado con eventos de Bow-Echo en la Provincia de Buenos Aires Synoptic Environment Analysis Associated With Bow - Echo Events In The Province Of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Torres Brizuela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la madrugada del día 21 de Octubre de 2008 se desarrollaron tres líneas convectivas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, captadas por los radares meteorológicos de las localidades de Ezeiza y Pergamino. La estructura espacial y evolución temporal del campo de reflectividad de estos sistemas, configuración de línea en arco, responde al modo convectivo conocido con el nombre de “bow-echo”. La imagen doppler del radar de Ezeiza registró un fenómeno típico en la parte posterior de estas líneas en arco: los vientos intensos mayores a 20 m.s-1. El objetivo principal de este estudio es comprender las condiciones sinópticas que acompañaron la ocurrencia de estos sistemas para poder contribuir al pronóstico de su ocurrencia. En este evento las condiciones de humedad especifica en la zona del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires (q≥ 12-14 g.kg-1, así como la de cortante vertical del viento por debajo del nivel de 700 hPa (Us>15 m.s-1 coinciden en indicar al entorno como favorable al desarrollo del mismo, aunque no así los valores disponibles de CAPE evaluados para parcelas que se elevan desde superficie.During the morning hours on October 21 2008, three convective lines developed over the Buenos Aires province, and were captured by the meteorological radars located at Ezeiza and Pergamino. The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the reflectivity field of these convective systems present the attributes of the particular convective system referred to as a “bow-echo”. Ezeiza doppler radar images, captured winds stronger than 20 m.s-1 behind these arc lines, a phenomenon that frequently characterizes the presence of a bow-echo. The main objective of this study is to understand the synoptic weather conditions accompanying the occurrence of these bow echo events to enhance the weather forecasting of these systems. On this particular case the specific humidity field over the northern part of the Buenos Aires province (q

  9. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  10. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  11. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  12. Location selection of agricultural-residuals particleboard industry through group decision: The case study of northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for locating agricultural-residuals particleboard industry in the northern provinces of Iran. Particleboard industry is the only Iranian wood and paper industry with an export potential and the use of agricultural residuals as the raw material can help with increasing the production in this industry, while reducing the damage to forest resources. The northern provinces of Iran are agricultural centers with ample amounts of agricultural residues. These provinces are, therefore, preferable to other provinces as the construction sites of particleboard plants. In the location selection model presented in this paper, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method is used and the results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ have the highest priorities, and that Golestan province is the best alternative.

  13. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  14. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  15. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  16. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Narrating Muslim women’s identities in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the complexity of Muslim women’s identities in the city of Cape Town in 2010. It is argued that emerging super-diversity in the form of African immigration, the commercialisation of Islam and increasing freedoms for women in South Africa impact on women’s engagement with religion and diversifies their identity. The paper also offers glimpses into the diversity of Islam in Cape Town, suggesting that this religion is not monolithic in the city and that it is continuously di...

  18. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  19. The Security and Development Nexus in Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the security and development nexus takes on specific forms depending on the context, and that in Cape Town’s coloured townships it is embodied in policies and practices around what has come to be known as the ‘war on gangs’. Furthermore, the war on gangs in Cape Town...... bears resemblances to counterinsurgency strategies — not least in the sense that both are responses to a similar problem of governance. This comparison allows us explore how citizenship is being reconfigured for residents of the townships in ways that resemble what James Holston (2007) calls...

  20. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  1. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  2. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  3. Correlates of risky sexual behaviors in recently traditionally circumcised men from initiation lodges in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Ruiter, Robert A C; Van Den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S

    This exploratory quantitative study examines past risky sexual behaviors among young men who were circumcised as part of a rite of passage to adulthood embedded within a cultural and traditional belief system in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Following permission from the Eastern Cape House of Traditional Leaders (ECHOTL), individual face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted among 114 initiates. The mean age of the participants was 18.9 years, ranging from 15 to 32 years old. About 79.8% reported already having had sex with a woman prior to initiation. Of those, 89% reported that they ever used condoms when having sex, and 61% reported consistent use. Logistic regression analysis showed that consistent condom use increased with higher educational levels. Those involved in other risky health behaviors (specifically, smoking) were also more likely to report inconsistent condom use. Most participants had positive beliefs about male circumcision and STI/HIV transmission. This study provides a first look at the sexual behaviors of young men at the time of their initiation in adulthood, a process that is intended to make it socially acceptable to initiate sexual relations and highlights a major public health challenge in integrating the protective health benefits of circumcision with indigenous cultural practices.

  4. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam; Majid Habibi-Nokhandam; Màrius V. Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp.) peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is like...

  5. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  6. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S; Brink, Mark; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (L den ) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average L den was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R 2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  7. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S.; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00–6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3–55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1–66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings. PMID:29053590

  8. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  9. Braided fluvial sedimentation in the lower paleozoic cape basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Richard G.; Tankard, Anthony J.

    1981-07-01

    Lower Paleozoic braided stream deposits from the Piekenier Formation in the Cape Province, South Africa, provide information on lateral and vertical facies variability in an alluvial plain complex influenced by a moderate to high runoff. Four braided stream facies are recognized on the basis of distinct lithologies and assemblages of sedimentary structures. A lower facies, dominated by upward-fining conglomerate to sandstone and mudstone channel fill sequences, is interpreted as a middle to lower alluvial plain deposit with significant suspended load sedimentation in areas of moderate to low gradients. These deposits are succeeded by longitudinal conglomerate bars which are attributed to middle to upper alluvial plain sedimentation with steeper gradients. This facies is in turn overlain by braid bar complexes of large-scale transverse to linguoid dunes consisting of coarse-grained pebbly sandstones with conglomerate lenses. These bar complexes are compared with environments of the Recent Platte River. They represent a middle to lower alluvial plain facies with moderate gradients and no significant suspended load sedimentation or vegetation to stabilize channels. These bar complexes interfinger basinward with plane bedded medium to coarse-grained sandstones interpreted as sheet flood deposits over the distal portions of an alluvial plain with low gradients and lacking fine-grained detritus or vegetation.

  10. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  11. Environmental factors influencing participation of stroke survivors in a Western Cape setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cawood

    2015-10-01

    Objectives: To determine environmental barriers and facilitators to participation experienced by a group of stroke survivors in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Methods: A descriptive, mixed methods study was conducted in 2011. Quantitative data was collected with the International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health core set for stroke (environmental factors, from 53 stroke survivors, sampled through proportional, stratified, random sampling. Data is presented through graphs and tables. Qualitative data was collected from five purposively sampled participants and thematically analysed. Results: Under products and technology, participants regarded assets, food, products and technology for daily living, transportation, mobility and communication, and access to buildings as barriers. The physical geography and attitudes of friends and society created further barriers. With regard to services, systems and policies - housing, communication, transport and social services created barriers. Health services, as well as support from health care service providers and family were considered facilitators. Conclusion: A lack of assets compounded barriers with regard to food, products for daily use, communication and transport. Barriers to participation were exacerbated by a lack of services, systems and implementation of policies focused on the inclusion of people with disabilities, as well as minimal access to assistive devices. Recommendations include provision of assistive devices, structural changes to houses, yards, roads and buildings, lobbying for accessible, affordable public transport, access audits of public buildings, and inclusion of non-governmental organisations and home-based care services in a seamless network of care.

  12. Black economic empowerment in the Eastern Cape automotive industry: Challenges and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in South Africa are under pressure to meet the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policies and charters of the South African government by giving BEE suppliers additional opportunities to tender. However, many BEE suppliers, due to being historically disadvantaged, experience various problems which make it difficult for them to win tenders, including lack of finances, opportunities to tender and management and business skills, and problems with quality and capacity. This paper outlines these practical problems experienced by BEE suppliers, the effects of these problems on risk and complexity in the South African automotive industry and policies that address these problems and assist BEE suppliers to become A-rated suppliers. Data for the paper was obtained from interviews with: senior employees of the AIDC involved with supplier development training; middle managers of supplier quality and development departments at the three OEMs in the Eastern Cape Province; and BEE and small suppliers identified to undergo AIDC training. The findings of the study are that unless sufficient training is given to BEE and potential BEE suppliers, supply to OEMs will remain in the hands of existing established suppliers and very little transformation will occur within the automobile industry in South Africa.

  13. A Posteriori Integration of University CAPE Software Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra; Wozny, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    This contribution deals with the mutual integration of existing CAPE software products developed at different universities in Germany, Denmark, and Italy. After the motivation MOSAIC is presented as the bridge building the connection between the modelling tool ICAS-MoT and the numerical processin...

  14. Trends in photochemical smog in the Cape Peninsula and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been growing public concern over reports of increasing air pollution in the Cape Peninsula. Attention has been focused on the 'brown haze' and on photochemical smog. Because of deficiencies in the monitoring equipment, information on trends in photochemical smog levels over the past decade is limited.

  15. Reproductive biology of the cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis, was investigated histologically. The study was based on 67 specimens collected over a six-year period. This species is seasonally monoestrous, normally giving birth to twins during November. Spermatogenesis peaks during autumn (March-May) when ...

  16. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence | de Wet | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape ...

  17. Mongrel: Essays. William Dicey. Cape Town: Umuzi, 2016. 220 pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ey has become the literary executor of the work of a sort of doppelgänger: Michael. D'Arcy has unaccountably disappeared. Dicey's discussion of D'Arcy's works, including a voluminous exploration of. Cape Town's central thoroughfare, en- titled Main Road, sounds fascinating. One is sent scampering to Kalahari or Loot for.

  18. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  19. comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparison of Cape Town and Durban business perceptions of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... In hosting future events, it is recommended that relevant government departments and stakeholders such as event managers involve and consult local businesses through ...

  20. Some lexical aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans | Davids | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-Afrikaans and the Islamic religious education system at the Cape in this regard. Of particular interest are the changes which occur in the orthoepic nature and syntactical function of inherited and borrowed lexical units, by the affixing of lexical or grammatical morphemes, ...

  1. Underrecognition and undertreatment of asthma in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate managementof childhood asthma was studied in a large suburban area of Cape Town. Design. Cross-sectional study based on random community sample of schools. Method. 1955 parents of sub B pupils from 16 schools ...

  2. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Short communication. Evaluation of the Cape Town Protocol for the isolation of. Campylobacter spp. from environmental waters. SM Diergaardt, SN Venter*, M Chalmers, J Theron and VS Brözel. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, ...

  3. Diet of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet composition of Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus was investigated from three breeding colonies in Namibia between January 1994 and April 2002 using scat analysis. Otolith numbers were corrected for those lost during digestion before determining the percentage numerical abundance of prey in each ...

  4. Contributions to the biology of the Cape gurnard, Trigla capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of otoliths of the Cape gurnard,Trigla capensis, has established that the rings are annular. An opaque zone is formed from February to Jury and a hyaline zone during the spawning season from August to March. Females grow faster than males. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation of the females was found to be.

  5. Archive of bathymetry data collected at Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.

    2015-10-07

    Remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of the sea floor, acquired by boat- and aircraft-based survey systems, were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, for the area at Cape Canaveral.

  6. Injured pedestrians in Cape Town - the role of alcohol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pedestrians and attempt to define the role which alcohol plays in this ... Forensic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of National Health, Cape. Town. J. Monis .... Short term « 8 wks). 80. 40.8. 47. 39.2. 33. 43.4. Long tenn (;;. 8 wks). 54 27.6.

  7. Methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Community studies and studies of admissions to drug treatment centers indicate a dramatic increase in the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Cape Town since 2003. There has also been a substantial increase over this time period in the prevalence of HIV infection among women attending public antenatal ...

  8. Bilingualism and language shift in Western Cape communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers a number of pertinent sociolinguistic aspects of a distinct process of language shift recently noted in some historically Afrikaans first language (L1) communities established in the Cape Metropolitan area. Particularly, it considers qualitatively how a number of families made deliberate choices to change ...

  9. An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All hospitals in the Western Cape providing endoscopy were evaluated by means of a hands-on audit, to identify available organisational infrastructure. Data including staffing, details and utilisation of existing equipment, maintenance and disinfection techniques and delays in service provision were collected. Results.

  10. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types of HPV found in normal cervical tissue from Cape Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. In the age group 20 - 39 years, 15 of 92 (16%) were ...

  11. Human papillomavirus in normal cervical smears from Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to be 13% (25/192) using Southern blot hybridisation. The types of HPV found in normaJ cervical tissue from Cape. Town did not differ significantly from those found elsewhere in the world. Nine per cent (17/192) were positive for 'high-risk' HPV types which are associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions.

  12. Strategic Military Colonisation: The Cape Eastern Frontier 1806–1872

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many ...

  13. Moche CAPE Formula: Cost Analysis of Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Joanne Spiers

    The Moche Cost Analysis of Public Education (CAPE) formula was developed to identify total and per pupil costs of regular elementary education, regular secondary education, elementary special education, and secondary special education. Costs are analyzed across five components: (1) comprehensive costs (including transportation and supplemental…

  14. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882 | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at ... The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not ...

  15. Prefabricated solution to modular construction in Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nuno; Amado, Miguel; Pinho, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the lack of adequate housing in Cape Verde is a growing problem. The migration of the population living in the countryside to the major cities generates an increase of the diameter of the cities. With the lack of economic power, the migrating families tend to occupy the land with houses which don't present proper conditions to living. Praia is the capital of Cape Verde and so on the biggest city of the country. This fact leads Praia to being the city with major economic power and job offer in all country. Consequently, Praia has developed the biggest slum of the Cape Verde and it is urgent to approach this problem in order to create solutions that reveal capacity to start solving it. Cape Verde's unique dry subtropical climate turns indispensable a careful resolution of the housing, in order to ensure the comfort of the occupants. The modular construction is a solution with potential to approach this problem with a fast and economic response. In order to answer the situation, this article introduces a modular solution in order to reach the needing of thermal comfort to the specific case of Praia.

  16. Patterns and drivers of marine bioinvasions in eight Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, fouling is the dominant vector of marine invasions, being responsible for 48% of the 86 alien introductions that are known. This study aimed to document alien species in fouling assemblages in eight Western Cape harbours and to assess patterns and potential drivers of these invasions. In each harbour, 10 ...

  17. Hypertension care at a Cape Town community health centre | Lunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the demographic profile of hypertensive patients and the quality of care for hypertension at a Cape Town community health centre (CHC). Design. Prospective, descriptive study. Setting and subjects. Medium-sized CHC, attended by 1098 hypertensive patients during a 1-year period from 1 January ...

  18. Role of Stakeholders at Cape Coast PPAG Youth Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated whether the activities or the roles performed by the various stakeholders at the Cape Coast Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) youth centre impacted positively on the youth behaviour and performance at the centre. The sample comprised 22 teachers, 50 parents and 3 social welfare ...

  19. Aggressive behaviour of an adult male Cape fur seal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a marine predator (the white shark) being threatened by a member of the species on which it preys (a male Cape fur seal). Although these events may be rarely observed or occur infrequently, they may have important implications for the predator and its prey.We suggest that shark mobbing by adult male ...

  20. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability ...

  1. Increase in hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether hospital admissions for acute childhood asthma were rising in Cape Town in line with the experience of other countries, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital's records for the period 1978 - 1990 were analysed. These were compared with total admissions for non-surgical causes and lower ...

  2. Factors influencing the breeding success of Cape Gannets Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 2002/2003 breeding season at Malgas Island, South Africa, 125 nests of Cape Gannets Morus capensis, of which at least one partner was of known age, were monitored. The age of birds at these nests ranged from five to 22 years. At five nests, the ages of both partners were known; ages were similar for birds ...

  3. Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest | Crowson | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Vulture usurps Bearded Vulture nest. John Crowson, Sonja Krüger. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  4. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of. SA registrars (SARs). Methods.

  5. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knowledge of the behaviour of Cape hake in general. ... Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, National Marine Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia. E-mail: ... (BEI) post-processing system, which allows for better ..... deep water, where hake density is generally low and.

  6. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town's Central City (see Figures. 1 and 2), located between the city's harbour and the iconic slopes of Table. Mountain, has a vital role to play in transforming the wider metropolitan region into a more inclusive and opportunistic urban area. Stretching from Woodstock and Salt. River into the CBD and out into Green.

  7. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  8. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape | Weyer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...

  9. Energetic Requirements for Growth and Maintenance of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance of the Cape gannet (Sula capensis) were studied by hand-rearing captive chicks and keeping juveniles in captivity at constant mass. Daily gain in mass was linear until 60 days of age; after 82 days the chicks lost mass prior to attaining fledging age (97 days).

  10. Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres caught in gin trap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    its right foot fly into its nest situated on a cliff face and containing a large chick. The chain used to tether the trap to the ground could be clearly seen dangling below the flying bird. We have no way of knowing whether the deployment of this trap was accidental or intentional relative to its having caught a Cape Vulture.

  11. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  12. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. Objective. To evaluate screening ...

  13. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4500 m3 of water per day, was constructed at the Cape Flats sewage works and studied over a period of ... In brief, gels were fIxed with methanol 50%, acetic acid 10% for 1 hour, followed by ethanol 10%, acetic acid 0,5% for 1 hour and then ...

  14. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  15. The Tijaniyya Tariqa in Cape Town | Lliteras | Journal for Islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study finds that the spiritual praxis of the Tijaniyya profoundly influences the social behaviour of its followers, as is exemplified by its impact on issues of race relations and identity in South Africa. The findings suggest that the Tijaniyya tariqa in Cape Town offers the unique opportunity to challenge racism and prejudice, ...

  16. Continuous Flow of Upper Labrador Sea Water around Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Magdalena; Muglia, Mike; Bahr, Frank; Bane, John

    2018-03-14

    Six velocity sections straddling Cape Hatteras show a deep counterflow rounding the Cape wedged beneath the poleward flowing Gulf Stream and the continental slope. This counterflow is likely the upper part of the equatorward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Hydrographic data suggest that the equatorward flow sampled by the shipboard 38 kHz ADCP comprises the Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) layer and top of the Classical Labrador Sea Water (CLSW) layer. Continuous DWBC flow around the Cape implied by the closely-spaced velocity sections here is also corroborated by the trajectory of an Argo float. These findings contrast with previous studies based on floats and tracers in which the lightest DWBC constituents did not follow the boundary to cross under the Gulf Stream at Cape Hatteras but were diverted into the interior as the DWBC encountered the Gulf Stream in the crossover region. Additionally, our six quasi-synoptic velocity sections confirm that the Gulf Stream intensified markedly at that time as it approached the separation point and flowed into deeper waters. Downstream increases were observed not only in the poleward transport across the sections but also in the current's maximum speed.

  17. Distribution of blood lead levels in schoolchildren in selected cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. Design. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Setting. Selected inner city, suburban, ...

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area ...

  19. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the intimate domains. It appears that Afrikaans remains a strong marker of identity in the two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities, despite English largely being regarded as the language of upward socioeconomic mobility. Keywords: language shift, language maintenance, language attitudes, bilingualism ...

  20. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Background The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest. Scope and approach This review paper evaluates changes of such health-promoting

  1. Chemistry of volcanic soils used for agriculture in Brava Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Marques, Rosa; Waerenborgh, João Carlos; José Vieira, Bruno; Dias, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Brava is a small volcanic island located on the south-western part of the Cape Verde archipelago. It is characterized by an irregular plateau between 300 and 976 m above sea level, which is bounded by steep coastal cliffs and cut by fluvial incision in a generally radial drainage pattern. The major volcano-stratigraphic units of the island are: Lower Unit, Middle Unit, Upper Unit, and Sediments. Although Brava is one of the islands with more frequent rainy periods in Cape Verde, the climate is essentially semi-arid, which associated with the rough topography leads to incipient soils. Detailed Fe speciation and chemical composition studies of Cape Verde soils have shown that oxidation is a major weathering mechanism, and high contents of trace elements may occur originated from imbalance of elements in the volcanic parent materials, which can be a threat to the environmental health. The soils mostly used for agriculture in Brava Island are those developed on phonolitic pyroclasts on the plateau and also on sediments. In this work the whole sample (< 2 mm) and the clay-sized fraction (< 2 µm) of these soils were analysed by Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis, aiming to characterize the iron speciation and to determine the concentration and distribution of 30 chemical elements in Brava soils. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that Fe is more oxidyzed in topsoils developed on sediments (84-87%) than in soils developed on pyroclasts (71-79%). In the clay sized-fraction of all the studied soils only Fe(III) was detected. Iron oxides clearly distinguish the soils derived from the two types of parent materials, hematite being the only Fe oxide present in soils developed on sediments, while maghemite is more abundant in soils developed on pyroclasts. Iron and chromium are depleted in this fine fraction suggesting their occurrence as iron oxides and ferromagnesian minerals present in coarser particles. Among the chemical elements studied, antimony was found

  2. Spatial Pattern Determination of Biodiversity Threats at Landscape Level (Case Study: Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirzaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping spatial patterns of potential biodiversity threats is one of the important steps for effective conservation planning and activities. To determine the spatial patterns of threats in Golestan province, 12 criteria in four main groups including structural (fractal coefficient of perimeter, circularity ratio of area, average slope, compositional aspects of biodiversity (presence of species at risk, non-biological threats (distance to city, distance to village, distance to road, distance to infrastructure, distance to agricultural land, soil pollution, risk of fire and isolation (Nearest Neighbor Index were used. These data layers were digitized in GIS environment and were weighted through Analytical Hierarchy Process. A weighted linear combination was then used to map the spatial pattern of biodiversity threats in the province. Compositional aspect (0.59, non-biological threats (0.23, isolation (0.11, and structural aspect (0.07 were relatively weighted in the order of importance. Central parts of the province and patches in the northern and southern parts were recognized to be more exposed to biodiversity threats. The central parts of the province were mostly threatened by urban, industrial, road and agricultural development, whereas the northern and southern parts were recognized as areas of conservation importance having a variety of threatened birds.

  3. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Eyles, David K.

    2000-01-01

    western side, and by an extensive arid and semi-desert region on much of the northern side. The Western Cape as a whole, and a number of its individual fruit production valleys, are considered to be good candidates for the use of SIT to eradicate fruit flies (J. Hendrichs, G. Tween, J. Mumford, personal communication). As part of the feasibility study, a pilot SIT project has been initiated in the Hex River Valley (HRV), South Africa's principal table grape production area. The Hex River valley comprises about 4,000 ha farmed by about 140 growers, with an average farm size of 18 ha. Most of the area is under table grapes, with a very small but increasing area under soft citrus. It is one of the more isolated of the production areas, has only one through road, and one small village. A cost-benefit study has shown it to be economically the most favourable of all areas in the Western Cape for an SIT programme, based on a comparison of current control costs versus estimated SIT costs. This article describes progress with the pilot project to date, and factors likely to influence the success of SIT in this and other areas. Main areas of activity in the HRV have included the establishment of an extensive monitoring system, the implementation of a coordinated fruit fly baiting programme, and trial shipments of sterile C. capitata pupae

  4. April 1977 The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape gurnard is a commercially exploited species of which the annual landings between ... fishing operations took place along the eastern Cape coast of South Africa ..... Handbook of computation for biological statistics offish populations.

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will examine the intervention in Khayelitsha in order to assess whether physical interventions (such as the relocation of outlets), ... The research findings may motivate other South African provinces to invest in similar strategies.

  6. Cape Verde and Its People: A Short History, Part I [And] Folk Tales of the Cape Verdean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raymond A.; Nyhan, Patricia

    Two booklets provide an overview of the history and folklore of Cape Verde, a group of islands lying 370 miles off the west coast of Africa. One booklet describes the history of the islands which were probably settled initially by Africans from the west coast of Africa. By the 15th century the islands were colonized by Portuguese and other…

  7. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  8. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  9. Aspects of the sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones in the Beaufort West area, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    The sedimentology of some uranium-bearing sandstones from the Beaufort Group in the Beaufort West area was studied by use of some 116 vertical profiles measured across and adjacent to 14 mineralized deposits. The vertical profiles consist of 91 field sections and 25 borehole logs. The sandstones are usually multistorey and alternate with a mudstone and/or siltstone succession. The vertical profiles basically consist of a succession of facies. Some 19 facies were recognised within the sandstones on the basis of texture and sedimentary structure. The facies transitions within the sandstone sequence were subjected to a one-step Markov chain analysis. The cumulative thickness of uranium mineralization for each sedimentary facies within the sandstone sequence was measured. Some 99 per cent of the total cumulative thickness occurs within the coarser-grained facies (grain sizes in excess of very fine), which suggests that permeability was an important control on the mineralization. The coarser-grained facies, which mostly represent lower point bar or channel bar deposits near the base of each storey, probably acted as suitable aquifers for the transport of uraniferous solutions. Irregularities in the base of each storey may have interrupted the flow of these solutions and allowed sufficient time for precipitation of the uranium. Carbonaceous debris is frequently associated with the mineralized deposits and most likely acted as an indirect reductant for this precipitation. Mineralization decreases upwards in the sandstone sequence and some 40 per cent of the total cumulative thickness is restricted to the initial storey. The horizontally bedded facies contain a high proportion of the total cumulative thickness of mineralization (45 per cent) and this again may be related to a more abundant content of carbonaceous debris

  10. Performance of four European hemp cultivars cultivated under different agronomic experimental conditions in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, LS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available of Fibre Hemp, Publication Agricultural Engineering, 31, University of Helsinki, 2001. 8. H.S. Sankari, Comparison of Bast Fibre Yield and Mechanical Fibre Properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L) cultivars, Industrial Crops and Products, 11, 73-84, 2000...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among young women and men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; Jama Shai, Nwabisa P; Colman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    There is little research on prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper explores factors associated with depressive symptomatology in South Africa. A cross-sectional analysis of interviews with 1 415 women and 1 368 men aged 15-26 was undertaken. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies on Depression Scale (CESD Scale) was used to establish depressive symptomatology. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.5% in women and 13.5% in men. For women, depressive symptoms were associated with increased childhood adversity (aOR 1.34 95% CI 1.116, 1.55); drug use (aOR 1.98 CI 1.17, 3.35); experience of intimate partner violence (aOR 2.21 CI 1.16, 3.00); sexual violence before the age of 18 years (aOR 1.45 CI 1.02, 2.02) and lower perceptions of community cohesion (aOR 1.23 CI 1.07, 1.40). For men, depressive symptoms were associated with a mother's death (aOR 2.24 CI 1.25, 4.00); childhood adversity (aOR 1.61 CI 1.38, 1.88); alcohol abuse (aOR 1.63 CI 1.13, 2.35), sexual coercion by a woman (aOR 2.36 CI 1.47, 3.80) and relationship conflict (aOR 1.07 CI 1.01, 1.12). Depressive symptoms were more highly prevalent in women than in men. Depressed mood was associated with childhood adversity, sexual violence and substance misuse in both women and men. This study further suggests gender differences in that for women, depressive symptoms were associated with intimate partner violence and lower perceptions of community cohesion, while for men the associations were with a mother's death and relationship conflict.

  12. New and Interesting Cyanophytes from the Kowie river system in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) II.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, CGM

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaptychia. 1962. XV, 112 pages. KW 110 ? below the bridge 9 plates. DM 40.? (5 10.?) of the Kowie Ri 10 km. south ofHeft 7: J. W. THOMSON, The Lichen Genus Physcia in North America. 1963. ?JIll, 212 pages, 1 figure, 25 plates, 36 maps. DM 60.? ($15.?) KW... for Water fessor B. S. TWYMAN of Rhod~ Heft 12: C. W. DODGE, Some Lichens of Tropical Africa IV: Dermatocarpacene to dation in his department. Pertusariaceac. 1964. IV, 282 pages. DM 80.? (320.?) 1) Council for Scientific anc Water Research, Pretoria...

  13. Land use and land cover change in the Western Cape Province: quantification of changes & understanding of driving factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tizora, P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available changes in land use and land cover (LULC) and incited issues such as urban sprawl, marginalization of the poor, limited public access to resources, land degradation and climate change. This paper seeks to understand the most significant drivers of LULC...

  14. Measuring and modelling the water use of fruit tree orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing competition among the various sectors of the South African economy for limited water resources, and irrigated agriculture is estimated to use approximately 60% of available surface water (NWRS2, 2012). With a 90% dependence on irrigation... ?Cripps Pink? (?Pink Lady?) apple (Malus domestica) orchard in the Koue Bokkeveld region near Ceres (S33? 12? 03.57?; E19? 20? 15.06?), and an eight- year old ?Alpine? nectarine (Prunus persica) orchard near Wolseley (S33? 25? 0.59? and E19? 14? 44...

  15. A shallow marine storm-induced heavy-mineral deposit in the Witteberg group near Willomore, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.I.; Labuschagne, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two heavy-mineral-bearing sandstone beds were discovered within the Weltevrede Formation of the Witteberg Group during a routine investigation of an aerial radiometric survey. Maximum concentrations of 142 ppm U and 434 ppm Th were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis. The sandstone beds that were investigated closely resemble amalgamated storm deposits, each unit representing the product of an individual storm. A radiometric survey indicated that the highest concentration of heavy-minerals are limited to the upper 20 cm of the main bed and the indicated resources are as follows: rutile - 2700 tons, zircon - 850 tons, ilmenite - 650 tons, magnetite - 550 tons, monozite - 200 tons, and uranium - 5 tons

  16. Survival of eight woody sprouting species following an autumn fire in Swartboskloof, Cape Province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available by the fire were important predictors of whether plants survived the fire and the subsequent summer. Mortality due to the fire and during the following summer was highest for E. coccinea, P. mucronata, N. paleacea and B. nodiflora. Seedling recruitment varied...

  17. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  18. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available to spend on other activities (Healy & Short, 1978:185; Parris, 2004:197; Maybery et al., 2005:59; Holmes, 2006:142-144). Increased incomes around the world have led to a change in tastes and societal values, where people have become more environmentally... al., 2003:22). Rural areas with open space, close to natural amenities with aesthetic or recreational appeal has become an attractive alternative for people who want to escape from overpopulated cities with congested traffic, or as a place to cash...

  19. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The presentation starts with a look at the variety of uses of agricultural lands and the transition towards a multifunctional rural environment. A study to determine the extent of alternative land use transactions in WC, and to collect info...

  20. Routine data for disease surveillance in the undeveloped region of the OR Tambo district of the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuya, Chrispin; Wright, Graham; Odama, Anthony; O'Mahoney, Don

    2014-01-01

    The research team needed to upsize the solution previously tested so that it could expand the routine data collected via tablet computers. The research team identified the general flow of data within clinics. Data was mainly collected from registers, which were later converted to electronic form and checked for duplication. A database was designed for the collection of demographic data (Patient Master Index), which was aimed at eliminating duplication of patients' data in several registers. Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect was setup on Android tablets for collecting disease related routine data, while ODK Aggregate as the storage and aggregates of data captured by ODK Collect and the Patient Master Index for demographic data, were setup on an Apple Mini Mac server. Data collection is in progress. The expected results include improved data quality, reliability and quick access to summary data. Secondly, instant retrieval of patient demographic details and clinic numbers are included. Thirdly, ability to form standard reporting from the SQL database and lastly exporting data into the TIER.net and DHIS systems via CVS files thus eliminating the need for data capturers are shown.

  1. Paradiplomacy : a comparative analysis of the international relations of South Africa’s Gauteng, North West and Western Cape provinces

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. (Politics) South Africa’s 1996 Constitution makes provision for relatively autonomous provincial administrations, which share responsibility with the national government for important functional areas while also exercising exclusive authority over others. Although the Constitution is not explicit on the distribution of foreign policy competence, the dominant interpretation among South African policy-makers is that this functional area is the exclusive domain of the nationa...

  2. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  3. 77 FR 9974 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Republic of Cape Verde AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance..., and the Republic of Cape Verde. Representatives of the United States Government and the Republic of Cape Verde executed the Compact documents on February 10, 2012. Dated: February 14, 2012. Melvin F...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area 2,000 feet wide extending from a point on Cape Prince of Wales marked by a triangular cable marker located...

  5. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  6. Mise en évidence de Provinces géochimiques dans les schistes bitumeux du Toarcien de l'est du bassin de Paris Geocheminical Provinces Revealed in Toarcien Oil Shales in the Eastern Paris Basin. Analysis of the Soluble Organic Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huc A. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude de la matière organique soluble dans le chloroforme des schistes du Toarcien de la partie orientale du bassin de Paris met en évidence l'existence d'une province géochimique nord et d'une province géochimique sud dont la frontière commune se trouve dans la région de Fécocourt. La province septentrionale se caractérise par une influence du domaine continental (massif des Ardennes au niveau de l'apport organique. Alors que la province méridionale se révèle exempt d'apport terrestre. Ces résultats sont en accord avec les indications sédimentologiques fournies par la littérature et apportent une dimension géochimique à la paléogéographie de ce bassin. An anaalysis of soluble organic motter in the chloroform from Toarcian shales from the eastern part of the Paris Basin reveals the existence of a northern geochemical province and a southern geochemical province whose commun boundary lies in the Fecocourt region. The northern province is characterized by the influence of the continental domain (Ardennes range with regard to organic influx, whereas no terrestrial influx is found in the southern province. These findings agree with the sedimentological indications supplied by the literature and add a geochemical dimension to the paleogeography of this basin.

  7. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  8. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    , water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  9. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.

  10. The ;Sardinian cold-water coral province; in the context of the Mediterranean coral ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Canese, S.; Cannas, R.; Cardone, F.; Cau, A.; Cau, A. B.; Follesa, M. C.; Marchese, F.; Montagna, P.; Tessarolo, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new cold-water coral (CWC) province has been identified in the Mediterranean Sea in the Capo Spartivento canyon system offshore the southern coast of Sardinia. The 'Sardinia cold-water coral province' is characterized in the Nora canyon by a spectacular coral growth dominated by the branching scleractinian Madrepora oculata at a depth of 380-460 m. The general biohermal frame is strengthened by the common occurrence of the solitary scleractinian Desmophyllum dianthus and the occasional presence of Lophelia pertusa. As documented by Remotely Operated Vehicle survey, this area is a hotspot of megafaunal diversity hosting among other also live specimens of the deep oyster Neopycnodonte zibrowii. The new coral province is located between the central Mediterranean CWC provinces (Bari Canyon, Santa Maria di Leuca, South Malta) and the western and northern ones (Melilla, Catalan-Provençal-Ligurian canyons). As for all the best developed CWC situations in the present Mediterranean Sea, the new Sardinian province is clearly influenced by Levantine Intermediate Water which appears to be a main driver for CWC distribution and viability in this basin.

  11. Distribución temporal y espacial de poblaciones larvarias de Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae en diferentes hospederos en provincias del norte de la Argentina Spatial and temporal distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae larval populations on different host plants in northern Argentina provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Murúa

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la distribución temporal y espacial de larvas del "cogollero del maíz" Spodoptera frugiperda en diferentes plantas hospederas, se realizaron muestreos sistemáticos desde el año 2004 al 2007 en diferentes asociaciones de cultivos en las provincias de Tucumán, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Se consideró "asociación de cultivos" a una zona donde coexistían simultáneamente (en tiempo y espacio más de dos cultivos colindantes. Los cultivos monitoreados fueron maíz, sorgo granífero, alfalfa, caña de azúcar, soja, trigo, cártamo, garbanzo y malezas. En cada uno se muestrearon cinco puntos al azar de 1 m² y se revisaron las plantas, recolectándose las posturas y/o larvas presentes. Se encontraron 3620 larvas. La mayor cantidad se recolectó durante los meses del verano en las tres campañas monitoreadas en todas las provincias. Su presencia estuvo relacionada con la aparición de los cultivos estivales como el maíz y el sorgo granífero, en todas las provincias. La mayor cantidad de larvas se obtuvieron en maíz (2894, independientemente de los otros cultivos que formaban parte de la asociación. Siguiendo en orden de importancia, los otros hospederos con larvas fueron: sorgo granífero (272, alfalfa (125 y malezas (282. En base al número de larvas encontradas, la soja, trigo y caña de azúcar, cultivos que estuvieron presentes en casi todas las asociaciones, no son hospederos preferenciales de esta especie.In order to study the spatial and temporal distribution of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larval populations on different host plants, systematic samplings were made from 2004 to 2007 in different crop associations in the provinces of Tucumán, Salta and Santiago del Estero. A zone where more than two adjacent crops coexisted simultaneously (in time and space was considered a crop association. Sampled crops were corn, sorghum, alfalfa, sugarcane, soybean, wheat, safflower, chickpea and weeds. Five one

  12. Attitude toward Christianity among Secondary School Pupils in Northern Ireland: Shifts in Denominational Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Barnes, L. Philip; Sion, Tania ap

    2007-01-01

    Background: Northern Ireland is a province that remains deeply divided between Protestants and Catholics and maintains a segregated system of schools. Purpose: The research builds on a series of studies conducted in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s to monitor the attitude toward Christianity of males and females educated in Protestant and Catholic…

  13. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  14. Yellowcake and crocodiles: town planning, government and society in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, J.P.; Zehner, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This is the first detailed study of the controversial modern settlement of mining families in Australia's Northern Territory Uranium Province. The new uranium town of Jabiru, set in the world famous Kakadu National Park, is the focus of the book which provides an analysis of the important contradictions inherent in resources development today - mining, environmental conservation and Aboriginal rights

  15. The need for nuclear power at the Cape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myburgh, R.P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an indication of the growth of electrical power usage in the Western Cape. In planning to increase the supply of electricity to the Western Cape several factors had to be taken into account. It appeared that the cost to construct a nuclear power plant and the generation of nuclear power compares well with other methods of power generation. Before the construction of Koeberg was started, extensive investigations were undertaken to find a suitable site. Factors taken into account in the investigation included population density, geology and transport facilities. The safety of nuclear power plants are discussed. Mention is made of safeguards inherent in the design of a nuclear power plant. It appears that the possibility of radioactive effluent reaching the atmosphere as result of an accident or malfunctioning of a nuclear plant is very small as there are various safety systems designed to prevent it. Radioactive waste disposal is also discussed

  16. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rensburg Dingie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up.

  17. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  18. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  19. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  20. Community-based tourism in Cape Verde - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Lopez-Guzman; Osvaldo Borges; Ana Maria Castillo-Canalejo

    2011-01-01

    Community-based tourism is taking its place in the world as an alternative to traditional tourist destinations, especially in developing countries. This form of tourism allows for greater contact with the local community and for the tourist to experience new sensations while enabling the economic and social development of the geographic area. In this paper, the results of fieldwork carried out in the island of Fogo (Cape Verde) are presented, assessing the opinion and perception tourists visi...