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Sample records for northern blotting

  1. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  2. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  3. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Northern blot analysis to investigate the abundance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    areas known as hyper-variable regions which have a high degree of sequence variation. As a result of this structure, it is possible to design signature oligonucleotide probes varying in length from about 15 to 30 nucleotides that are diagnostic of microorganisms at the kingdom, domain, genus and even species level. These signature sequences can be used in a variety of applications such as PCR analysis, construction of clone libraries or direct probing of bulk rRNA. In this chapter, I provide detailed protocols for the analysis of extracted rRNA and give detailed procedures that must be followed to do northern blot analysis of bulk RNA extracted from the rumen

  5. Optimization of northern analysis by vacuum-blotting, RNA-transfer visualization, and ultraviolet fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroczek, R.A.; Siebert, E.

    1990-01-01

    We have optimized Northern analysis at several steps. Overnight electrophoresis was replaced by short gel runs and overnight capillary transfer by rapid vacuum-blotting adapted to Northern analysis. Short uv irradiation was used as a substitute for the usual RNA fixation by baking. Direct staining of RNA before electrophoresis made it possible to check RNA integrity and to evaluate the quality of the size separation immediately after electrophoresis. In this system, RNA transfer onto the membrane support could also be quickly assessed after the blotting step. The net result of all modifications was a doubling of the autoradiography signal compared with that obtained by modern Northern protocols. At the same time, the duration of the procedure was shortened drastically, allowing an autoradiography signal to be obtained within 24 h

  6. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, G.F.; Falk, B.W.; Qualset, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32 P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F 2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F 2 plants of a similar F 2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  7. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikan Mishima

    Full Text Available The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A, pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  8. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  9. Northern and Southern blot analysis of human RNA and DNA in autopsy material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Rygaard, K; Asnaes, S

    1992-01-01

    was obtained less than two days postmortem. Histological examination showing slight or no autolysis and the presence of ribosomal bands after gel electrophoresis were both indicative parameters of RNA preservation. DNA was appropriate for Southern blotting when the tissue was obtained less than three to five...

  10. The early days of blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The history of the development of DNA blotting is described in this chapter. DNA blotting, involving the transfer of electrophoretically separated DNA fragments to a membrane support through capillary action, is also known as Southern blotting. This procedure enables the detection of a specific DNA sequence by hybridization with probes. The term Southern blotting led to a "geographic" naming tradition, with RNA blotting bearing the name Northern blotting and protein transfer to membranes becoming known as Western blotting.

  11. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  12. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  13. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  14. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  15. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  16. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  18. TLC blot (far-eastern blot) and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao; Gonzalez, Tania Valdes; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids from a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, called TLC blot (far-eastern blot), is presented. Lipids separated on a HPTLC plate are blotted quantitatively. This procedure made it possible to purify individual lipids from a blotted membrane in a short time. Binding study, immunodetection, and mass spectrometric analysis are available for PVDF membrane. Furthermore, the world of molecular species imaging is opened by a scanning analysis with a combination of TLC blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS).

  19. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  20. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of proteins on blot transfer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-11-01

    In the basic and alternate protocols of this unit, proteins are stained after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot transfer membranes. If the samples of interest are electrophoresed in duplicate and transferred to a blot transfer membrane, half of the membrane can be stained to determine the efficiency of transfer to the membrane and the other half can be used for immunoblotting (i.e., western blotting). Detection limits of each staining method are given along with a list of compatible blot transfer membranes and gels. A support protocol describes a method for alkali treatment that enhances subsequent staining of bound proteins.

  2. Western Blotting of the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager-Miller, Jim; Mackie, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Measuring expression levels of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important step for understanding the distribution, function, and regulation of these receptors. A common approach for detecting proteins from complex biological systems is Western blotting. In this chapter, we describe a general approach to Western blotting protein components of the endocannabinoid system using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose membranes, with a focus on detecting type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. When this technique is carefully used, specifically with validation of the primary antibodies, it can provide quantitative information on protein expression levels. Additional information can also be inferred from Western blotting such as potential posttranslational modifications that can be further evaluated by specific analytical techniques.

  3. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-05

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps.

  4. TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot) and Its Application to Functional Lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids-including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids-from a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot), and its biochemical applications are presented. This chapter presents the conventional procedures for separating lipid from tissue samples, cultured cells, and serum and the subsequent development of TLC. Individual lipids separated on an HPTLC plate can be transferred to the PVDF membrane quantitatively and also isolated from the lipid-blotted membrane by a one-step purification procedure. Immunodetection with monoclonal antibodies and treatment with lipid-metabolizing enzymes on the lipid-blotted membrane are possible. The method for identification of individual lipids transferred on the PVDF membrane using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS) is shown as a functional lipidomics application.

  5. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  6. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  7. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  9. Multistrip western blotting to increase quantitative data output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip western blotting increases the data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold, allows concurrent monitoring of up to nine different proteins from the same loading of the sample, and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data, and therefore is beneficial to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  10. Post-staining electroblotting for efficient and reliable peptide blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Post-staining electroblotting has been previously described to transfer Coomassie blue-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gel onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Actually, stained peptides can also be efficiently and reliably transferred. Because of selective staining procedures for peptides and increased retention of stained peptides on the membrane, even peptides with molecular masses less than 2 kDa such as bacitracin and granuliberin R are transferred with satisfactory results. For comparison, post-staining electroblotting is about 16-fold more sensitive than the conventional electroblotting for visualization of insulin on the membrane. Therefore, the peptide blots become practicable and more accessible to further applications, e.g., blot overlay detection or immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the efficiency of peptide transfer is favorable for N-terminal sequence analysis. With this method, peptide blotting can be normalized for further analysis such as blot overlay assay, immunoblotting, and N-terminal sequencing for identification of peptide in crude or partially purified samples.

  11. Multistrip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single mem...

  12. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  13. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  14. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible

  15. A brief review of other notable protein blotting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    A plethora of methods have been used for transferring proteins from the gel to the membrane. These include centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low and high molecular weight proteins, blotting of Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to transparencies, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before MALDI tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  16. Other notable protein blotting methods: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Proteins have been transferred from the gel to the membrane by a variety of methods. These include vacuum blotting, centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  17. In Situ Blotting : A Novel Method for Direct Transfer of Native Proteins from Sectioned Tissue to Blotting Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okabe, Masashi; Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  18. Blotting from PhastGel to Membranes by Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Joseph; Azagury, Aharon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound based approach for enhanced protein blotting is proposed. Three minutes of ultrasound exposure (1 MHz, 2.5 W/cm(2)) was sufficient for a clear transfer of proteins from a polyacrylamide gel (PhastGel) to nitrocellulose or Nylon 66 Biotrans membrane. The proteins evaluated were prestained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide standards (18,500-106,000 Da) and 14C-labeled Rainbow protein molecular weight markers (14,300-200,000 Da).

  19. Multi-strip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B.; Kholodenko, Boris; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurement of protein abundance and protein modification states are essential in understanding their role in diverse cellular processes. Traditional Western blotting technique, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. We propose a modified immunoblotting procedure, which is based on simultaneous transfer of proteins from multiple gel-strips onto the same membrane, and is compatible wi...

  20. Northern blots: capillary transfer of RNA from agarose gels and filter hybridization using standard stringency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C

    2015-03-02

    In this protocol, an RNA sample, fractionated by gel electrophoresis, is transferred from the gel onto a membrane by capillary transfer. Short-wave UV light is used to fix the transferred RNA to the membrane. The membrane is then pretreated to block nonspecific probe-binding sites, and hybridization of the immobilized RNA to a (32)P-labeled DNA or RNA probe specific for the mRNA of interest is performed. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. Because exposure to UV cross-links the RNA to the membrane, the membrane can be stripped and hybridized with other probes. The procedure is suitable for detecting poly(A)(+)-selected mRNA or mRNA in total cellular RNA if the target transcript is relatively abundant. Using DNA or RNA probes labeled to 1 × 10(8)-10 × 10(8) cpm/µg, it should be possible to detect ∼5 pg of a specific RNA. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  2. Acid-Urea Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzalin, Catherine A; Mahadevan, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    Acid-urea gel electrophoresis offers significant advantages over SDS-PAGE for analysis of post-translational protein modifications, being capable of resolving proteins of similar size but varying in charge. Hence, it can be used to separate protein variants with small charge-altering differences in primary sequence, and is particularly useful in the analysis of histones whose charge variation arises from post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation or acetylation. On acid-urea gels, histones that carry multiple modifications, each with a characteristic charge, are resolved into distinct bands, the so-called "histone ladder." Thus, the extent and distribution of different modification states of histones can be visualized. Here, we describe the analysis of histone H3 by acid-urea gel electrophoresis and western blotting.

  3. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Brad L; Carlson, Darby J; Carlson, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs). The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c) comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles) and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions). Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  4. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Fastest Western in Town: A Contemporary Twist on the Classic Western Blot Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jillian M.; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the convent...

  6. Ultrasensitive Detection of Proteins on Western Blots with Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fangmao; Smith, Polina B.; Wu, Changfeng; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrasensitive fluorescence imaging of proteins on Western blots using a bright, compact, and orange-emitting semiconducting polymer dot (CN-PPV). We achieved a detection limit at the single-picogram level in dot blots; with conventional Western blotting, we detected 50 pg of transferrin and trypsin inhibitor after SDS-PAGE and transfer onto a PVDF membrane. Our method does not require any additional equipment or time compared to the conventional procedure with traditional fluo...

  7. A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating the Sensitivity and Specificity of Western Blot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Mei; Lovett, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Western blot analysis, commonly known as "Western blotting," is a standard tool in every laboratory where proteins are analyzed. It involves the separation of polypeptides in polyacrylamide gels followed by the electrophoretic transfer of the separated polypeptides onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. A replica of the…

  8. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  9. INSITU BLOTTING - A NOVEL METHOD FOR DIRECT TRANSFER OF NATIVE PROTEINS FROM SECTIONED TISSUE TO BLOTTING MEMBRANE - PROCEDURE AND SOME APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKABE, M; NYAKAS, C; BUWALDA, B; LUITEN, PGM

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  10. Conditions that allow for effective transfer of membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane in Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Lam, Joseph S

    2007-04-01

    A major hurdle in characterizing bacterial membrane proteins by Western blotting is the ineffectiveness of transferring these proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate -- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel onto nitrocellulose membrane, using standard Western blot buffers and electrophoretic conditions. In this study, we compared a number of modified Western blotting buffers and arrived at a composition designated as the SDS-PAGE-Urea Lysis buffer. The use of this buffer and specific conditions allowed the reproducible transfer of highly hydrophobic bacterial membrane proteins with 2-12 transmembrane-spanning segments as well as soluble proteins onto nitrocellulose membranes. This method should be broadly applicable for immunochemical studies of other membrane proteins.

  11. SDS-Polyacrylamide Electrophoresis and Western Blotting Applied to the Study of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solaesa, Virginia; Abad, Sara Ciria

    2016-01-01

    Western blotting is used to analyze proteins after being separated by electrophoresis and subsequently electro-transferred to a membrane. Once immobilized, a specific protein can be identified through its reaction with a labeled antibody or antigen. It is a methodology commonly used in biomedical research such as asthma studies, to assess the pathways of inflammatory mediators involved in the disease.Here, we describe an example of western blotting to determine the factors involved in asthma. In this chapter, the methodology of western blotting is reviewed, paying attention on potential problems and giving interesting recommendations.

  12. Multistrip Western blotting: a tool for comparative quantitative analysis of multiple proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip Western blotting increases data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold; allows concurrent measurement of up to nine different total and/or posttranslationally modified protein expression obtained from the same loading of the sample; and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data and therefore is advantageous to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  13. Mammalian α-polymerase: cloning of partial complementary DNA and immunobinding of catalytic subunit in crude homogenate protein blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SenGupta, D.N.; Kumar, P.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Coughlin, S.; Vishwanatha, J.K.; Robey, F.A.; Parrott, C.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A new polyclonal antibody against the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide was prepared by using homogeneous HeLa cellα-polymerase. The antibody neutralized α-polymerase activity and was strong and specific for the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide (M/sub r/ 183,000) in Western blot analysis of crude extracts of HeLa cells. The antibody was used to screen a cDNA library of newborn rat brain poly(A+) RNA in λgt11. A positive phage was identified and plaque purified. This phage, designated λpolα1.2, also was found to be positive with an antibody against Drosophila α-polymerase. The insert in λpolα1.2 (1183 base pairs) contained a poly(A) sequence at the 3' terminus and a short in-phase open reading frame at the 5' terminus. A synthetic oligopeptide (eight amino acids) corresponding to the open reading frame was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. Antibody affinity purified from this serum was found to be immunoreactive against purified α-polymerase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was capable of immunoprecipitating α-polymerase. This indicated the λpolα1.2 insert encoded an α-polymerase epitope and suggested that the cDNA corresponded to an α-polymerase mRNA. This was confirmed in hybrid selection experiments using pUC9 containing the cDNA insert and poly(A+) RNA from newborn rat brain; the insert hybridized to mRNA capable of encoding α-polymerase catalytic polypeptides. Northern blot analysis of rat brain poly(A+) RNA revealed that this mRNA is ∼5.4 kilobases

  14. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  15. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  16. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  17. Evaluation of two commercial systems for automated processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme borreliosis Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A; Rollins, L O; Bryant, S C; Beito, E M

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is commonly made by serologic testing with Western blot (WB) analysis serving as an important supplemental assay. Although specific, the interpretation of WBs for diagnosis of LB (i.e., Lyme WBs) is subjective, with considerable variability in results. In addition, the processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme WBs are laborious and time-consuming procedures. With the need for rapid processing and more objective interpretation of Lyme WBs, we evaluated the performances of two automated interpretive systems, TrinBlot/BLOTrix (Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA) and BeeBlot/ViraScan (Viramed Biotech AG, Munich, Germany), using 518 serum specimens submitted to our laboratory for Lyme WB analysis. The results of routine testing with visual interpretation were compared to those obtained by BLOTrix analysis of MarBlot immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and by ViraScan analysis of ViraBlot and ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays. BLOTrix analysis demonstrated an agreement of 84.7% for IgM and 87.3% for IgG compared to visual reading and interpretation. ViraScan analysis of the ViraBlot assays demonstrated agreements of 85.7% for IgM and 94.2% for IgG, while ViraScan analysis of the ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays showed agreements of 87.1 and 93.1%, respectively. Testing by the automated systems yielded an average time savings of 64 min/run compared to processing, reading, and interpretation by our current procedure. Our findings demonstrated that automated processing and interpretive systems yield results comparable to those of visual interpretation, while reducing the subjectivity and time required for Lyme WB analysis.

  18. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Omotola, Oluwabukola B; Heda, Rajiv P; Avery, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin's transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting.

  19. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...

  20. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  1. [Clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive and negatiwe western blot results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Elzbieta; Rozkiewicz, Doroto; Sulik, Artur

    2008-01-01

    In the afforested area of North-Eastern Poland the risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection seems to be higher compared to the other regions. Because of unspecific clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children the positive ELISA IgM results should be confirmed with Western blot IgM tests. Retrospective analysis of clinical signs and symptoms of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive ELISA IgM and positive Western blot IgM results and in children with positive ELISA IgM and negative Western blot IgM results. The study included 20 children reactive with ELISA IgM (Bellco Biomedica, Austria), hospitalized in Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic in 2007 due to probable diagnosis of Lyme disease. All children were tested with B. burgdorferi Western blot IgM and/or IgG assay (DRG, Diagnostics, Germany) as a second-step diagnosis. In 10 (50% females, 50% males) out of 20 children the results were positive (borreliosis) and in other 10 (80% females, 20% males) the results were negative (controls). In both groups of patients the retrospective analysis of signs and symptoms was done. The most often clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children was neuroborreliosis. Children presented Lyme meningitis (30%), facial nerve palsy (10%) and chronic or recurrent headaches (40%), associated with vertigo (20%), weakness (30%), fever (40%), and fatigue syndrome (30%). One patient presented Lyme arthritis. Children of control group presented with unspecific symptoms like isolated headaches (40%), arthralgias (70%), myalgias (10%) and abdomen pain (20%) (1) The most frequent clinical presentation of Lyme borreliosis in analyzed children was neuroborreliosis; (2) Isolated arthralgias in children reactive with B. burgdorferi ELISA IgM need to be confirmed with Western blot assay before implementing the antibiotic therapy.

  2. Solid-phase assay for the phosphorylation of proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtorta, F.; Schiebler, W.; Jahn, R.; Ceccarelli, B.; Greengard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the phosphorylation and assay of phosphoproteins is described. Proteins are solubilized from tissue samples, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane filters, and the blotted polypeptides are phyosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase. The method was developed for the assay of dephosphosynapsin I, but it has also proven suitable for the phosphorylation of other proteins. The patterns of phosphorylation of tissue samples phosphorylated using the new method are similar to those obtained using the conventional test tube assay. Once phosphorylated, the adsorbed proteins can be digested with proteases and subjected to phosphopeptide mapping. The phosphorylated blotted proteins can also be analyzed by overlay techniques for the immunological detection of polypeptides

  3. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  4. Western Blotting Using the Invitrogen NuPage Novex Bis Tris MiniGels

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Aubin; Cahalan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Western Blotting (or immunoblotting) is a standard laboratory procedure allowing investigators to verify the expression of a protein, determine the relative amount of the protein present in different samples, and analyze the results of co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In this method, a target protein is detected with a specific primary antibody in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Protein separation according to molecular weight is achieved using denaturing SDS-PAGE. After tr...

  5. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographi...

  6. Characterization of the structure of the erythropoietin receptor by ligand blotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Broudy, V.C.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1991-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells by binding to a specific receptor. We characterized the native Epo receptor on erythroleukemia cell lines by ligand blotting. Solubilized cell membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose, and probed with 125I-Epo. Specificity was demonstrated by inhibition of 125I-Epo binding by unlabeled excess Epo but not other peptide growth factors and by the cellular distribution of the Epo binding protein. A single membrane protein of 61 Kd ± 4 Kd was sufficient to bind 125I Epo in both human (OCIM2, K562) and murine (GM979, Rauscher, DA-1) cell lines. This finding is consistent with the predicted size of the Epo receptor from the murine cDNA clone. However, chemical crosslinking of 125I-Epo to its receptor has identified two Epo binding proteins of 105 Kd and 85 Kd. This difference may occur because the receptor is size fractionated before Epo binding in the ligand blot, but after Epo binding in crosslinking studies. Ligand blotting demonstrates that the native Epo receptor is composed of a single 61-Kd Epo binding protein, and suggests the presence of additional proteins of 20 to 25 Kd that associate with the receptor after Epo binding

  7. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  8. A streamlined Western blot exercise: An efficient and greener approach in the laboratory classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L; Robinson, Rebekah L; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes from staining and destaining, whereas with western blotting it is the times required for antibody incubations and the numerous wash steps. This laboratory exercise incorporates 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) into the SDS-PAGE gel allowing for visualization of migrated proteins in a matter of minutes, saving both the time and chemical waste associated with traditional Coomassie staining. Additionally, TCE staining does not affect protein transfer eliminating the requirement for duplicated gels for total protein and western analyses. Protein transfer can be confirmed immediately without the use of Ponceau S staining. Lastly, this western blot procedure has been further shortened by using an HRP-conjugated primary antibody, which eliminates the secondary antibody incubation and washes, and uses a colorimetric detection to allow for visualization by students without the need for specialized equipment. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  10. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  11. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

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    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  12. Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2002-09-01

    We describe a method for blotting and immobilizing several nonsulfated and sulfated complex polysaccharides on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by a cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Nitrocellulose membranes were derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were capillary-blotted after their separation in agarose gel electrophoresis in barium acetate/1,2-diaminopropane. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides were transferred onto the derivatized membranes after electrophoresis with an efficiency of 100% and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining) permitting about 0.1 nug threshold of detection. Nonsulfated polyanions, hyaluronic acid, a fructose-containing polysaccharide with a chondroitin backbone purified from Escherichia coli U1-41, and its defructosylated product, were also electrophoretically separated and transferred onto membranes. The limit of detection for desulfated GAGs was about 0.1-0.5 nug after irreversible or reversible staining. GAG extracts from bovine, lung and aorta, and human aorta and urine were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted on CPC-treated nitrocellulose membranes. The polysaccharide composition of these extracts was determined. The membrane stained with toluidine blue (reversible staining) was destained and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. Reversible staining was also applied to recover single species of polysaccharides after electrophoretic separation of mixtures of GAGs and their transfer onto membranes. Single bands were released from the membrane with an efficiency of 70-100% for further biochemical characterization.

  13. FANCD2 Western blot as a diagnostic tool for Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Pilonetto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L- was not detected in 77 patients (91.7%. In 2 patients (2.4%, there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- and 5 patients (5.9% had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+. This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94% (79/84 and specificity of 100% (98/98. This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-, to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+ require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.

  14. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  15. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  16. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  17. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility

  18. Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus Infections: Confirmatory Testing and Species Differentiation by a New Commercial Western Blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liance, Martine; Janin, Veronique; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Vuitton, Dominique-Angele; Houin, Rene; Piarroux, Renaud

    2000-01-01

    The Echinococcus Western Blot IgG (LDBIO Diagnostics, Lyon, France), using a whole larval antigen from Echinococcus multilocularis, was evaluated for serodiagnosis and differentiation between two human parasitic infections of worldwide importance: cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, due to E. multilocularis. Fifty and 61 serum samples from patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively, were used for assessing diagnostic sensitivity. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with those of screening tests used for these applications. Sera used for assessing cross-reactivities were from 154 patients with other diseases, either parasitic or not. The assay allowed the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 97% of Echinococcus-infected patients. It had a higher sensitivity than screening assays for the detection for each echinococcosis. The assay allowed us to correctly distinguish between E. granulosus- and E. multilocularis-infected patients in 76% of cases. It did not allow us to distinguish active from inactive forms of both echinococcoses. The occurrence of cross-reactivities with neurocysticercosis indicates the necessity for retesting sera with species-specific antigens, for rare patients with neurologic disorders. This study shows the usefulness of the commercially available Echinococcus Western Blot IgG for the serological confirmation of human echinococcosis. PMID:11015390

  19. Checking transfer efficiency and equal loading via qualitative optical way in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun-Hua; Gong, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Kai-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The ability to determine that successful transfer and equal loading occur prior to using primary antibodies is important. And total protein staining is commonly used to check transfer efficiency and normalization, which play a crucial role in western blotting. Ponceau S and coomassie blue are commonly used, but there are disadvantages reported in recent years. Therefore, we are interested in finding another method, which is cheap, easy and fast. As we know, protein binding region of PVDF membrane is still hydrophilic when carbinol volatilizes, however, the non-protein binding region of PVDF membrane became hydrophobic again. And this different wettability between non-protein binding region and protein binding region of Polyvinylidene difluoride membrane may be used to check transfer efficiency and equal loading in western blotting. Based on the principle above, we describe an optical approach where an experimenter can observe that the proteins have been transferred to the membrane without any staining within minutes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Detection of alien genetic introgressions in bread wheat using dot-blot genomic hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H. chilense genomic DNA as a probe. This dot-blot screening reduced the number of plants necessary to be analysed by molecular markers or in situ hybridisation, saving time and money. The technique was sensitive enough to detect a minimum of 5 ng of total genomic DNA immobilised on the membrane or about 1/420 dilution of H. chilense genomic DNA in the wheat background. The robustness of the technique was verified by in situ hybridisation. In addition, the detection of other wheat relative species such as Hordeum vulgare , Secale cereale and Agropyron cristatum in the wheat background was also reported .

  1. Silver and gold nanoparticle coated membranes applied to protein dot blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, F.; Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K.; Shtoyko, T.; Goldys, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Detection and identification of low abundance biomarker proteins is frequently based on various types of membrane-based devices. Lowering of the protein detection limits is vital in commercial applications such as lateral flow assays and in Western blots widely used in proteomics. These currently suffer from insufficient detection sensitivity and low retention for small 2–5 kDa proteins. In this study, we report the deposition of two types of metal nanoparticles: gold colloids (50–95 nm diameter) and silver fractals onto a range of commonly used types of membranes including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Due to strong affinity of proteins to noble metals, such modified membranes have the potential to effectively capture trace proteins preventing their loss. The membranes modified by metal particles were characterized optically and by SEM. The membrane performance in protein dot blots was evaluated using the protein—fluorophore conjugates Deep Purple-bovine serum albumin and fluorescein—human serum albumin. We found that the metal nanoparticles increase light extinction by metals, which is balanced by increased fluorescence, so that the effective fluorescence signal is unchanged. This feature combined with the capture of proteins by the nanoparticles embedded in the membrane increases the detection limit of membrane assays.

  2. Should we ignore western blots when selecting antibodies for other applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    .In the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) program, we have validated more than 24,000 in-house-generated antibodies directed to 17,000 human target proteins2. Although there is often a correlation between performance in different applications, we have observed many examples of antibodies that show strong support...... applications and that this influences the epitopes exposed on the target protein, which might have profound consequences for the ability of a given antibody to bind specifically to its target. As an example, proteins that are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are normally first cross-linked with formalin.......In conclusion, western blot and protein array analyses can indeed be useful tools when selecting specific antibodies for other applications. The use of these methods is encouraged both for antibody providers and users, and antibodies with signs of cross-reactivity in these applications should be treated...

  3. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  4. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  5. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles and triplex Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Dolstra, Corry H; Jacobs, Jorg; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G

    2015-10-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. We investigated the potential of PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. On the basis of the localization of PrP(Sc) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrP(Sc) staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrP(Sc) allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrP(Sc) profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrP(Sc) profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  6. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  7. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  8. Rosette Assay: Highly Customizable Dot-Blot for SH2 Domain Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khong Y; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of high-throughput studies, structural analyses, and availability of protein-protein interaction databases, it is now possible to apply web-based prediction tools to SH2 domain-interactions. However, in silico prediction is not always reliable and requires experimental validation. Rosette assay is a dot blot-based reverse-phase assay developed for the assessment of binding between SH2 domains and their ligands. It is conveniently customizable, allowing for low- to high-throughput analysis of interactions between various numbers of SH2 domains and their ligands, e.g., short peptides, purified proteins, and cell lysates. The binding assay is performed in a 96-well plate (MBA or MWA apparatus) in which a sample spotted membrane is incubated with up to 96 labeled SH2 domains. Bound domains are detected and quantified using a chemiluminescence or near-infrared fluorescence (IR) imaging system. In this chapter, we describe a practical protocol for rosette assay to assess interactions between synthesized tyrosine phosphorylated peptides and a library of GST-tagged SH2 domains. Since the methodology is not confined to assessment of SH2-pTyr interactions, rosette assay can be broadly utilized for ligand and drug screening using different protein interaction domains or antibodies.

  9. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  10. Performance of PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Yeun; Bang, Hyeeun; Kim, Jong-Pill; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Cho, Sang-Nae; Kim, Tae Ue; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-10-01

    Drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae is a significant problem in countries where leprosy is endemic. A sensitive, specific, and high-throughput reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of genotypic resistance to rifampicin (RIF) was designed and evaluated. It has been shown that resistance to RIF in M. leprae involves mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the -subunit of the RNA polymerase. The PCR-REBA simultaneously detects both 6 wild-type regions and 5 different mutations (507 AGC, 513 GTG, 516 TAT, 531 ATG, and 531 TTC) including the most prevalent mutations at positions 507 and 531. Thirty-one clinical isolates provided by Korea Institute of Hansen-s Disease were analyzed by PCR-REBA with RIF resistance of rpoB gene. As a result, missense mutations at codons 507 AGC and 531 ATG with 2-nucleotide substitutions were found in one sample, and a missense mutation at codon 516 TAT and ΔWT6 (deletion of 530-534) was found in another sample. These cases were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. This rapid, simple, and highly sensitive assay provides a practical alternative to sequencing for genotypic evaluation of RIF resistance in M. leprae.

  11. Direct tissue blot immunoassay for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled DJELOUAH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA technique has been compared with ELISA and PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees from Apulia (southern Italy. Fresh cross-sections of young twigs and leaf petioles were printed onto nitrocellulose membranes and analyzed in the laboratory. Analyses of a first group of 61 samples gave similar efficiency for the three diagnostic techniques for detection the bacterium (24 positive and 36 negative samples, except for a single sample which was positive only with DTBIA and PCR. Similar results were obtained by separately analyzing suckers and twigs collected from different sectors of tree canopies of a second group of 20 olive trees (ten symptomatic and ten symptomless. In this second test the three diagnostic techniques confirmed the irregular distribution of the bacterium in the tree canopies and erratic detectability of the pathogen in the young suckers. It is therefore necessary to analyse composite samples per tree which should be prepared with twigs collected from different sides of the canopy. The efficiency comparable to ELISA and PCR, combined with the advantages of easier handling, speed and cost, make DTBIA a valid alternative to ELISA in large-scale surveys for occurrence of X. fastidiosa. Moreover, the printing of membranes directly in the field prevents infections spreading to Xylella-free areas, through movement of plant material with pathogen vectors for laboratory testing.

  12. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  13. Use of nitrocellulose blotting for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen electrophoresed in agarose gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, J C; Greisiger, L M; Millman, I [Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Fox Chase Cancer Center

    1981-08-28

    Nitrocellulose-protein blotting of serum electrophoresed in agarose gels has been adapted for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). /sup 125/I-labeled anti-HBs was used as the antigen probe, and the electrophoretic migration was monitored by autoradiography. The method required 3 ..mu..l or less of serum and could detect as little as 1 pg of purified HBsAg. Typically, the authors observed two bands of HBsAg; a moving band which migrated about one-third the distance moved by human serum albumin and a non-migratory band which remained at the loading site. Some examples of the use of the method include: (1) empirical methods for correlating HBsAg concentration in serum to film darkness; (2) observations of mobility changes in serial sera from dialysis patients with chronic HBsAg antigenemia; and (3) detection of related antigens such as antigen from the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma tissue culture line and the cross-reacting woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg).

  14. Retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern Italy by reverse line blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Luigi; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Greco, Beatrice; Lacinio, Rosanna; Fornelli, Stefania; Carelli, Grazia

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied.

  15. Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus western blot results in Iranian patients with discordant screening assay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravanshad, M.; Sabahi, F.; Mahboudi, F.; Sabahi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. In this study, we describe the results of indeterminate WB reactivity in Iranian patients with discordant screening assays. The samples were obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran and evaluated in the Biotechnology Process Development Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran between 2003 and 2004. A total of 4707 were tested for the presence of HIV-1 antibodies. Six hundred and four (12.8%) patients tested for HIV were positive for HIV-1 antibody. Nine (1.49%) have discordant results among screening assays and indeterminate WB results as interpreted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Most (66.7%) of these indeterminate WB results were due to p24 reactivity. However, 2(22.2%) display reactivity to both gp41 and gp120 proteins [Positive by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria]. Of 9 WB assays initially indeterminate by the CDC criteria and with follow-up samples 8(88.8%) became negative when retested subsequently while one (11.1%) remained indeterminate for more than a year and were thus considered negative. In addition all the indeterminate samples were negative when assessed by polymerase chain reaction assay. In general, there were was an 88.8% concordance between the CDC and WHO criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria best met the specified objectives for diagnosis in our setting. (author)

  16. Development of a dot blot assay using gene probes for the detection of enteroviruses in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Enteric viruses are viruses which replicate in the intestinal tract of man and animals. One mode of transmission for enteric viruses is the fecal-oral route. Drinking water which has been contaminated with sewage or sewage effluent has been implicated as a means for the spread of enteric viruses. Current methods for the detection of enteric viruses in water requires the use of animal cell culture. This technique has several drawbacks. More rapid techniques, such as fluorescent antibody or radioimmunoassay do not have the needed sensitivity to detect the low levels of virus found in contaminated water. An alternative technique for the detection of viruses in water was sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology now makes it possible to detect viruses without the use of cell culture or antibodies. Gene probes that hybridize to the RNA of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus were tested for their ability to detect different enteric viruses. The probes were labeled with 32 P dCTP and 32 P dATP to a specific activity greater then 1.0 x 10 9 cpm/ug DNA. One infectious unit of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus was detected using labeled cDNA probes. Upon comparison, the dot blot assay was as sensitive as tissue culture for the detection of poliovirus in beef extract, secondary effluent, and tap water. Environmental samples, such as secondary effluent, reclaimed wastewater and unchlorinated drinking water were also assayed for poliovirus and hepatitis A virus with the use of gene probes. The results presented here offer an alternative method for screening water samples for the presence of enteric viruses

  17. Two-Phase Contiguous Supported Lipid Bilayer Model for Membrane Rafts via Polymer Blotting and Stenciling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Daniel, Susan

    2017-02-07

    The supported lipid bilayer has been portrayed as a useful model of the cell membrane compatible with many biophysical tools and techniques that demonstrate its appeal in learning about the basic features of the plasma membrane. However, some of its potential has yet to be realized, particularly in the area of bilayer patterning and phase/composition heterogeneity. In this work, we generate contiguous bilayer patterns as a model system that captures the general features of membrane domains and lipid rafts. Micropatterned polymer templates of two types are investigated for generating patterned bilayer formation: polymer blotting and polymer lift-off stenciling. While these approaches have been used previously to create bilayer arrays by corralling bilayers patches with various types of boundaries impenetrable to bilayer diffusion, unique to the methods presented here, there are no physical barriers to diffusion. In this work, interfaces between contiguous lipid phases define the pattern shapes, with continuity between them allowing transfer of membrane-bound biomolecules between the phases. We examine effectors of membrane domain stability including temperature and cholesterol content to investigate domain dynamics. Contiguous patterning of supported bilayers as a model of lipid rafts expands the application of the SLB to an area with current appeal and brings with it a useful toolset for characterization and analysis. These combined tools should be helpful to researchers investigating lipid raft dynamics and function and biomolecule partitioning studies. Additionally, this patterning technique may be useful for applications such as bioseparations that exploit differences in lipid phase partitioning or creation of membranes that bind species like viruses preferentially at lipid phase boundaries, to name a few.

  18. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  19. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

  1. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletta, Martina Soledad; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Guillemi, Eliana Carolina; Luciani, Carlos; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Mosqueda, Juan; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB. High diversity of parasites, such as Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and three different Trypanosoma species, was found. High rates of coinfections were also detected, and significant differences were observed not only in the prevalence of parasites but also in the level of coinfections between the two analyzed areas. Regarding the Trypanosoma genus, we provide molecular evidence of the presence of T. vivax and T. theileri for the first time in Argentina. Besides, since the RLB is a prospective tool, it allowed the identification of a yet unknown bovine trypanosome which could not be assigned to any of the bovine species known so far. In the present study we provide new insights on the prevalence of several pathogens that directly impact on livestock production in Argentina. The RLB assay developed here allows to identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of all vector-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.A.; Davies, H.M.; McDonald, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  3. Imaging and high-sensitivity quantification of chemiluminescent labeled DNA-blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, G.

    1997-01-01

    The present thesis has for objective the development of both, methods of DNA labeling by chemiluminescence (via the catalytic activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase - AP) and an appropriate imaging system. Offering a competitive alternative to the detection of classical radio-labels in molecular-biological experiments of the blotting type, this technique should permit the realization of quantitative studies of gene expression at ultra-high sensitivity necessary in particular for differential-screening experiments. To reach our aim. we separated the project into three different parts. In a first step an imager based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD coupled to a standard optics (50 mm/fl.2) has been installed and characterized. This system offers a sensitive area of up to 625 cm 2 , a spatial resolution of 0.3-1 mm (depending on the field of view) and a sensitivity sufficient to detect 10 fg/mm 2 labeled DNA. In a second part, the chemiluminescent light-generation process in solution has been investigated to optimize the parameters temperature. pH and concentration of the substrate as well as the enzyme. The substrate offering the highest light yield (CDP-Star in addition with the enhancer EMERALD II) allows quantification of AP down to 10 -15 M within a dynamic range of 10 4 in solution. Finally. preparation, immobilization and detection of AP-labeled DNA probes (via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin-AP bridge) on nylon membranes has been optimized. A linear relation between the light intensities and the amount of DNA was observed in a range of 10 fg/mm 2 - 100 pg/mm 2 . Hybridization of the probes to bacterial cloned target-DNA has been addressed after examination of the best hybridization conditions. Our protocol includes the treatment of a proteinase, which resulted in a significantly lower background on the filter. The results of our investigations suggest that the main conditions for a reliable differential-screening experiment are fulfilled when using

  4. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  5. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  6. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  7. A single-step simultaneous protein staining procedure for polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta K; Berwal, Sunil K; Soni, Rupali N

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for staining of proteins simultaneously on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis is described. A 5% solution of Alta, a commercially available cosmetic preparation, is added in the upper tank buffer during electrophoresis. On completion of electrophoresis, the gel is washed in distilled water and viewed on a white light plate and a transilluminator to photograph the protein profiles. The gel is processed for western blot transfer of proteins onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and upon completion, the protein profiles on the membrane are viewed and photographed as stated above. The membrane can then be processed for immunostaining as per the standard procedure. Thus, the staining procedure using Alta is simple, rapid (without any need of destaining), and cost-effective.

  8. Detection of mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis by dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping using specific radiolabelled probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, T.K.; Abdelazeim, O.

    2002-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to determine the mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in 63 Egyptian isolates using dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping. The PCR was done for amplification rpoB and katG genes in isolates. Dot blot hybridization were done to PCR products by using specific radiolabelled probes. Moreover, spoligotyping was done to know about the different strains found in Egypt. The results revealed that 58% from isolates had drug resistance to one or more of antituberculosis drugs. The results of spoligotyping have revealed that some Egyptian isolates are identical with the international code while the rest has not been identified yet. DNA sequencing was done to identify the mutation that not clear in dot blot hybridization. Early diagnosis of geno typing resistance to antituberculosis drugs is important as well as allow appropriate early patients management with few days of TB diagnosis. Using such strategy for early diagnosis of TB drug resistance allow and fast and potent patient's management

  9. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  10. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  11. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  12. La técnica de Western Blot como criterio de identidad para la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B Western Blot technique as an identity criterion for Men B antimeningococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosario Diéguez Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó la técnica de Western Blot aplicada a la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B producida en el Instituto Finlay con el objetivo de demostrar un criterio de identidad. En el estudio de las proteínas antigénicas de la vacuna, P1.15 y P1.4 en vesícula de membrana externa,monograneles y producto final se emplearon en la identificación anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para estas proteínas. Los parámetros desarrollados en la validación de la técnica fueron: especificidad, límite de detección, repetibilidad, precisión intermedia, reproducibilidad y robustez. El método cumplió con los parámetros señalados, por lo que se consideró validado.Western Blot technique was developed and validated, applied to Men B meningococcal vaccine produced in "Carlos J, Finlay" Institute to demonstrate an identity criterion. In study of antigenic proteins of the vaccine, we used P1.15 y P1.4 in vesicle of external membrane, monogranels, and end product to identify the monoclonal antibodies specific of these proteins. Parameters developed in technique validation included: specificity, detection limit, repetition, average accuracy, reproduction, and strength. Method fulfilled with specified parameters, thus considering its validation.

  13. Mere end blot en bid af hverdagen- Måltidet i et leve- og bomiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    . Datamaterialet bygger på deltagerobservationer og interviews. Undersøgelsen viste, at den måde måltiderne var organiseret på gav tid og rum til en hjemlig atmosfære, til et levende fællesskab, til det at være noget og at være sig selv og til at have værdifulde gøremål. Måltiderne var ikke blot en bid – men en...

  14. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  15. Prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions of dot-blot-SNP analysis using estimated melting temperature of oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokai, Sachiko; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    Although the dot-blot-SNP technique is a simple cost-saving technique suitable for genotyping of many plant individuals, optimization of hybridization and washing conditions for each SNP marker requires much time and labor. For prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions for each probe, we compared T (m) values estimated from nucleotide sequences using the DINAMelt web server, measured T (m) values, and hybridization conditions yielding allele-specific signals. The estimated T (m) values were comparable to the measured T (m) values with small differences of less than 3 degrees C for most of the probes. There were differences of approximately 14 degrees C between the specific signal detection conditions and estimated T (m) values. Change of one level of SSC concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0x SSC corresponded to a difference of approximately 5 degrees C in optimum signal detection temperature. Increasing the sensitivity of signal detection by shortening the exposure time to X-ray film changed the optimum hybridization condition for specific signal detection. Addition of competitive oligonucleotides to the hybridization mixture increased the suitable hybridization conditions by 1.8. Based on these results, optimum hybridization conditions for newly produced dot-blot-SNP markers will become predictable.

  16. Label-free DNA quantification via a 'pipette, aggregate and blot' (PAB) approach with magnetic silica particles on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Alsamarri, Hussein; Lounsbury, Jenny A; Haversitick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2013-03-07

    Reliable measurement of DNA concentration is essential for a broad range of applications in biology and molecular biology, and for many of these, quantifying the nucleic acid content is inextricably linked to obtaining optimal results. In its most simplistic form, quantitative analysis of nucleic acids can be accomplished by UV-Vis absorbance and, in more sophisticated format, by fluorimetry. A recently reported new concept, the 'pinwheel assay', involves a label-free approach for quantifying DNA through aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field. Here, we describe a simplified version of that assay adapted for execution using only a pipet and filter paper. The 'pipette, aggregate, and blot' (PAB) approach allows DNA to induce bead aggregation in a pipette tip through exposure to a magnetic field, followed by dispensing (blotting) onto filter paper. The filter paper immortalises the extent of aggregation, and digital images of the immortalized bead conformation, acquired with either a document scanner or a cell phone camera, allows for DNA quantification using a noncomplex algorithm. Human genomic DNA samples extracted from blood are quantified with the PAB approach and the results utilized to define the volume of sample used in a PCR reaction that is sensitive to input mass of template DNA. Integrating the PAB assay with paper-based DNA extraction and detection modalities has the potential to yield 'DNA quant-on-paper' devices that may be useful for point-of-care testing.

  17. Profiling EGFR activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by using a novel layered membrane Western blot technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vyomesh; Ramesh, Arun; Traicoff, June L; Baibakov, Galina; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Gutkind, J Silvio; Knezevic, Vladimir

    2005-05-01

    Given the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), several rational approaches have now been utilized to abrogate tyrosine kinase activity and its disengagement from downstream signal transducers. Monitoring the activity of these molecules could potentially be useful to determine not only drug efficacy but also to identify HNSCC patients most likely to benefit from this type of therapy. In this study we have used a novel high throughput multi-layered Western blotting (MLWestern) method that allows the detection of multiple proteins from a single experiment in order to characterize key components in the EGFR signaling pathway in HNSCC cells. Total and activated forms of EGFR and the downstream effectors, Erk and Akt were readily detected in HNSCC cells, where in the control cells (HaCaT) these proteins could only be detected in EGF stimulated cells. Results from conventional Western blot and MLWestern were comparable. Clustering analysis of protein expression revealed similarities in cellular response between some of the cell lines indicative of similarities in their biological response. The data indicate that MLWestern can be potentially applied to identify molecular targets that could be used for rational therapeutic intervention strategies.

  18. Quantum dot bio-conjugate: as a western blot probe for highly sensitive detection of cellular proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Sonia [Agharkar Research Institute (India); Kale, Anup [University of Alabama, Center for Materials for Information Technology (United States); Gholap, Haribhau; Rana, Abhimanyu [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Desai, Rama [National Centre for Cell Science (India); Banpurkar, Arun [University of Pune, Department of Physics (India); Ogale, Satishchandra, E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science (India)

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we report a quantum dot (QD)-tailored western blot analysis for a sensitive, rapid and flexible detection of the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Highly luminescent CdTe and (CdTe)ZnS QDs are synthesized by aqueous method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the properties of the quantum dots. The QDs are functionalized with antibodies of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and {beta} actin to specifically bind with the proteins localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells, respectively. The QD-conjugated antibodies are used to overcome the limitations of conventional western blot technique. The sensitivity and rapidity of protein detection in QD-based approach is very high, with detection limits up to 10 pg of protein. In addition, these labels provide the capability of enhanced identification and localization of marker proteins in intact cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  19. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  20. Ej blot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reassert the crucial importance of access to data in lexicographic information tools and, expanding on this, to establish the existence of two distinct lexicographic access modes - consultation and navigation. It is explained how the tools can be decalibrated whe...... balance between user, access, and data is disturbed, and how access to data then is jeopardized. Taking online wine guides as a case in point, it is shown how such multifunctional information tools do benefit from a lexicographic design featuring both access modes....

  1. Blot hybridization analysis of TCR genes of T cells for five people exposed in a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Liu Benti; Cheng Tianmin; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Xiao Jinsong

    1996-01-01

    Human lymphocyte total DNA was prepared in agarose plug by mixing cells with low melting agarose, and two restriction endonucleases were used for digestion of the total DNA with human α and β TCR cDNA probes. The total digested DNA from five people who were whole body exposed to 2.0-2.5 Gy ionizing radiation in an accident 4.5 years ago was hybridized by Southern blot method. The results showed that no obvious difference in hybridization bands was found between controls and the five victims when hybridizations were fulfilled in the total DNA which was digested by Hind III restriction endonuclease with both α and β probes. However, when the total DNA was digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and was hybridized with TCR α probe, four of the five exposed people showed a different hybridizing band pattern compared with the controls. The results are also discussed

  2. Detection of anti-HIV-1 IgG antibodies in whole saliva by GACELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, M I; Lyamuya, E F; Simon, E; Mbena, E C; Kagoma, C; Samaranayake, L P; Scheutz, F

    1996-05-01

    The present study, based on 158 HIV seropositives and 167 HIV seronegatives, demonstrates that saliva collected with the Omni-SAL device and tested with GACELISA (an IgG antibody capture ELISA) is an effective non-invasive alternative to serum for anti-HIV IgG antibody screening. The study also shows that a conventional serum Western blot kit can be used, with slight modifications, for confirmatory testing of saliva specimens. Collecting saliva with the Omni-SAL device had a very good acceptance rate among Tanzanian subjects, and although this diagnostic method is not yet known by the general public, 65% of the study participants preferred to give saliva instead of blood for HIV testing.

  3. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  5. Reverse line blot probe design and polymerase chain reaction optimization for bloodmeal analysis of ticks from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M C; Harmon, J R; Tsao, J I; Jones, C J; Hickling, G J

    2012-05-01

    Determining the host preference of vector ticks is vital to elucidating the eco-epidemiology of the diseases they spread. Detachment of ticks from captured hosts can provide evidence of feeding on those host species, but only for those species that are feasible to capture. Recently developed, highly sensitive molecular assays show great promise in allowing host selection to be determined from minute traces of host DNA that persist in recently molted ticks. Using methods developed in Europe as a starting-point, we designed 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene probes suitable for use in a reverse line blot (RLB) assay of ticks feeding on common host species in the eastern United States. This is the first study to use the 12S mitochondrial gene in a RLB bloodmeal assay in North America. The assay combines conventional PCR with a biotin-labeled primer and reverse line blots that can be stripped and rehybridized up to 20 times, making the method less expensive and more straightforward to interpret than previous methods of tick bloodmeal identification. Probes were designed that target the species, genus, genus group, family, order, or class of eight reptile, 13 birds, and 32 mammal hosts. After optimization, the RLB assay correctly identified the current hostspecies for 99% of ticks [Amblyomma americanum (L.) and eight other ixodid tick species] collected directly from known hosts. The method identified previous-host DNA for approximately half of all questing ticks assayed. Multiple bloodmeal determinations were obtained in some instances from feeding and questing ticks; this pattern is consistent with previous RLB studies but requires further investigation. Development of this probe library, suitable for eastern U.S. ecosystems, opens new avenues for eco-epidemiological investigations of this region's tick-host systems.

  6. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  7. [Western Blot diagnostic yield for simultaneous antibody-detection in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davelois, Kelly; Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César

    2016-01-01

    . To determine the diagnostic yield using western blotting to simultaneously detect antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis. Materials and methods . Cross-sectional study of diagnostic yield assessment. Excretory/secretory antigens were obtained from Taenia solium larvae, Echinococcus granulosus cysts, and the adult flukes of Fasciola hepática, which were then separated using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, transferred, and attached to a nitrocellulose membrane to be probed with sera from the patient infected with the three parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using 300 individual serum samples, 60 pools of two parasites, and 20 pools of three parasites with 75 sera from patients with other parasites, 10 from patients with other diseases, and 15 from patients without parasites. Results . The technique revealed 13 glycoproteins (GP): GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14, and 13 kDa for cysticercosis; GP 8, 16, and 21 kDa for hydatidosis; and GP 17 and 23 kDa for fascioliasis. The test detected the presence of antibodies with a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94.62-98.54%) in the detection of one or the thirteen bands, a specificity of 100% (95% CI = 99.50-100.00%); individually, there was a sensitivity for cysticercosis of 97% (95% CI = 93.16-100.00%), for hydatidosis of 94% (95% CI = 88.85-99.15%) and for fascioliasis of 96% (95% CI = 91.66-100.00%). Conclusions . Western blotting is effective in the simultaneous detection of antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and fascioliasis, and it can be used as a diagnostic test to either rule out or confirm the presence of antibodies in endemic areas.

  8. Diagnostic potential of Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with leishmaniasis in endemic areas and significance of the pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, M J; Castillejo, S; Gallego, M; Fisa, R; Riera, M C; de Colmenares, M; Torras, S; Roura, X; Sentis, J; Portus, M

    1998-02-01

    Serum samples collected from 237 dogs in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were screened by Western blot analysis to detect the presence of antibodies specific to different Leishmania infantum polypeptide fractions. Leishmaniasis was confirmed in 72 of these dogs by direct examination and/or culture. Another 165 animals from the Priorat region were studied periodically for 2-8 years between 1987 and 1995, giving a total of 565 determinations. A control group of 93 dogs from nonendemic areas was also studied. Sera from dogs with leishmaniasis recognized antigens with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 85 kD. The most sensitive antigens were those of 70, 65, 46, 30, 28, 14, and 12 kD, which were recognized by 75%, 75%, 78%, 75%, 81%, 79%, and 75%, respectively, of the sera from dogs with positive parasitologic examination results. Antigens of 70 and 65 kD were also recognized by two dogs from nonendemic areas. Antigens of 14 and 12 kD were the first to be recognized by sera of asymptomatic dogs with titers less than the cut-off value of the dot-ELISA that increased during the longitudinal study, and the presence of antibodies specific for these fractions was observed for up to six years before seroconversion observed by dot-ELISA. These antibodies were also the first to disappear in dogs in which the disease was self-limited. The study corroborates the high sensitivity and specificity of Western blots in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis when the bands of low molecular weight (less than 46 kD) are considered, and indicates that fractions of 14 and 12 kD are useful in detecting early forms of the disease.

  9. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, T.A.; Gearing, A.J.; Saklatvala, J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125 I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  10. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  11. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  12. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  13. Dot Blot para determinar la identidad antigénica en vacunas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmir Cabrera-Blanco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las autoridades regulatorias recomiendan el uso de técnicas de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear o técnicas serológicas para la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos presentes en las vacunas conjugadas. Con la aparición de las vacunas conjugadas multivalentes, se ha hecho necesario recurrir a técnicas inmunoquímicas con la utilización de anticuerpos monoclonales para aumentar la sensibilidad en la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos en dichas vacunas conjugadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las condiciones óptimas de trabajo que permitieran utilizar la técnica del Dot Blot para determinar la identidad de los antígenos en vacunas conjugadas de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F. Para ello se estudiaron los tiempos de incubación, la influencia del reactivo en la solución de bloqueo; también las concentraciones óptimas del anticuerpo monoclonal y de los ingredientes farmacéuticos activos, así como los volúmenes de aplicación óptimos para estos y vacunas. Se utilizó un anticuerpo monoclonal contra el polisacárido capsular del serotipo 19F de neumococo. Las muestras empleadas en este trabajo fueron lotes de ingredientes farmacéuticos activos de conjugados de polisacárido capsular 19F y lotes de un candidato vacunal cubano conjugado heptavalente contra neumococos. Los resultados mostraron que para la determinación de la identidad antigénica fueron suficientes 10 µL de muestras de los principios activos a una concentración de 125 µg/mL e igual volumen para las vacunas heptavalentes. Quedó demostrado que una concentración de 1 µg/mL para el anticuerpo monoclonal y tiempos de incubación de 30 min a 37 °C fueron suficientes para la determinación. Estos resultados permiten concluir que quedaron establecidas las condiciones óptimas de trabajo para determinar la identidad antigénica por Dot Blot del polisacárido capsular de S. pneumoniae serotipo 19F presente en las vacunas

  14. Detection of Zika virus using reverse-transcription LAMP coupled with reverse dot blot analysis in saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sabalza

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of infectious disease outbreaks that spread rapidly to population centers resulting from global travel, population vulnerabilities, environmental factors, and ecological disasters such as floods and earthquakes. Some examples of the recent outbreaks are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Co in the Middle East, and the Zika outbreak through the Americas. We have created a generic protocol for detection of pathogen RNA and/or DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and reverse dot-blot for detection (RDB and processed automatically in a microfluidic device. In particular, we describe how a microfluidic assay to detect HIV viral RNA was converted to detect Zika virus (ZIKV RNA. We first optimized the RT-LAMP assay to detect ZIKV RNA using a benchtop isothermal amplification device. Then we implemented the assay in a microfluidic device that will allow analyzing 24 samples simultaneously and automatically from sample introduction to detection by RDB technique. Preliminary data using saliva samples spiked with ZIKV showed that our diagnostic system detects ZIKV RNA in saliva. These results will be validated in further experiments with well-characterized ZIKV human specimens of saliva. The described strategy and methodology to convert the HIV diagnostic assay and platform to a ZIKV RNA detection assay provides a model that can be readily utilized for detection of the next emerging or re-emerging infectious disease.

  15. New Method for Simultaneous Species-Specific Identification of Equine Strongyles (Nematoda, Strongylida) by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; Klei, Thomas R.; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A.; Gawor, Jakub; Otranto, Domenico; Sparagano, Olivier A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a reverse line blot (RLB) assay to identify 13 common species of equine small strongyles (cyathostomins) and to discriminate them from three Strongylus spp. (large strongyles) was demonstrated. The assay relied on the specific hybridization of PCR-amplified intergenic spacer DNA fragments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA to membrane-bound species-specific probes. All cyathostomins examined were unequivocally identified and simultaneously discriminated from each other and from three large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus vulgaris). This assay will enable the accurate and rapid identification of equine cyathostomins irrespective of their life cycle stage, opening important avenues for a better understanding of their biology and epidemiology and of the pathogenesis of cyathostomin-associated disease. In particular, this RLB method promises to be a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the roles of individual species in the pathogenesis of mixed infections and to elucidate some aspects of cyathostominosis. Also, it could represent a basic step toward the development of a rapid and simple molecular test for the early detection of drug-resistant genotypes of horse strongyle species. PMID:17626168

  16. Demonstration of monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody internalization by electron microscopy, western blotting and radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H; Gallant, M

    1992-01-01

    One of the important factors affecting the action of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or immunoconjugates on tumour sites depends on whether the Mab is internalized by the cancer cells in question. The underexplored subject of internalization is discussed in this paper, and a number of in vitro techniques for investigating internalization are evaluated, using a model which consists of a well characterized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) Mab and a number of CEA expressing human cancer cell lines. Employing two alternative radiolabeling assays, evidence for internalization of the anti-CEA Mab by a CEA-positive colorectal cancer cell line (LS174T) was obtained throughout the time intervals examined (5 min to 150 min). Electronmicroscopy employing horseradish-peroxidase labeled anti-CEA Mab and control antibody permitted direct visualization of anti-CEA Mab-related staining in intracellular compartments of a high CEA-expressor human colorectal cell line (SKCO1). Finally Western blots of samples derived from cytosolic and membrane components of solubilized cells from lung and colonic cancer cell lines provided evidence for internalized anti-CEA Mab throughout seven half hour intervals, starting at 5 minutes. Internalized anti-CEA was detected in all CEA expressing cell lines (LS174T, SKCO1, BENN) but not in the case of a very low CEA expressor line (COLO 320).

  17. Exposure to Sarcocystis spp. in horses from Spain determined by Western blot analysis using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Yeargan, M; Francisco, I; Dangoudoubiyam, S; Becerra, P; Francisco, R; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A; Howe, D K

    2012-04-30

    Horses serve as an intermediate host for several species of Sarcocystis, all of which utilize canids as the definitive host. Sarcocystis spp. infection and formation of latent sarcocysts in horses often appears to be subclinical, but morbidity can occur, especially when the parasite burden is large. A serological survey was conducted to determine the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. in seemingly healthy horses from the Galicia region of Spain. Western blot analyses using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen suggested greater than 80% seroprevalance of Sarcocystis spp. in a sample set of 138 horses. The serum samples were further tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant S. neurona-specific surface antigens (rSnSAGs). As expected for horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, less than 4% of the serum samples were positive when analyzed with either the rSnSAG2 or the rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. An additional 246 horses were tested using the rSnSAG2 ELISA, which revealed that less than 3% of the 384 samples were seropositive. Collectively, the results of this serologic study suggested that a large proportion of horses from this region of Spain are exposed to Sarcocystis spp. Furthermore, the anti-Sarcocystis seroreactivity in these European horses could be clearly distinguished from anti-S. neurona antibodies using the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  19. Antibody Banding Patterns of the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot and Brain Imaging Findings in Patients With Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gianfranco; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lescano, Andres G; Alroy, Karen A; Bustos, Javier A; Santivañez, Saul; Gonzales, Isidro; Saavedra, Herbert; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2018-01-06

    The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of 3 protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage, and burden of viable cysts). We evaluated EITB antibody banding patterns and brain imaging findings of 548 NCC cases. Similar banding patterns were grouped into homogeneous classes using latent class analysis. The association between classes and brain imaging findings was assessed. Four classes were identified. Class 1 (patients negative or only positive to the GP50 band, related to the protein family of the same name) was associated with nonviable or single viable parenchymal cysticerci; class 2 (patients positive to bands GP42-39 and GP24, related to the T24-42 protein family, with or without anti-GP50 antibodies) was associated with intraparenchymal viable and nonviable infections; classes 3 and 4 (positive to GP50, GP42-39, and GP24 but also responding to low molecular weight bands GP21, GP18, GP14, and GP13, related to the 8 kDa protein family) were associated with extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal multiple viable cysticerci. EITB antibody banding patterns correlate with brain imaging findings and complement imaging information for the diagnosis of NCC and for staging NCC patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Detection of Potentially Diagnostic Leishmania Antigens with Western Blot Analysis of Sera from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad SEYYEDTABAEI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis.Methods: This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals. Results: WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups.Conclusion: WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.

  1. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  3. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  4. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  5. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  6. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  7. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  8. Dot-blot immunoassay of Fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kDa and adult worm regurge antigens in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Sarhan, Rania M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-Kilodalton (KDa) antigen versus Fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a DOT-Blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in Egyptian patients. Fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(KDa) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution SDS-PAGE. A Dot-Blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with F. gigantica in Egypt. Control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers to assess the test and compare between the antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Dot-Blot using the adult worm regurge were 80%, 90%, 94.1%, and 69.2% respectively, while those using 27-KDa were 100% which confirms the diagnostic potential of this antigen. All patients infected with Fasciola were positive, with cross reactivity reported with Schistosoma mansoni serum samples. This 27-KDa Dot-Blot assay showed to be a promising test which can be used for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in Egyptian patients especially, those presenting with hepatic disease. It is specific, sensitive and easy to perform method for the rapid diagnosis particularly when more complex laboratory tests are unavailable.

  9. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  11. Detection of human papilloma virus 16 and 18 DNA sequences by southern blot hybridization in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Rao, G R K; Tiwary, S K; Rai, Ashish; Khanna, Seema; Khanna, A K

    2009-04-01

    The etiopathological role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the causation of oral cancer is till a subject of speculation. We used the technique of Southern blot hybridization to detect the presence of HPV types 16 & 18 in biopsy specimens from oral cancer and leukoplakia patients as well as normal oral mucosal biopsies. The prevalence of either HPV type 16 or 18 was found in 64.5% (29/45) of oral cancer, 40%(12/30) of leukoplakia and 20%(9/45) of normal oral mucosal biopsies. No association could be demonstrated between tobacco usage habits or a history of genital warts with HPV prevalence. A significant finding was that none of the oral cancer patients were negative for both: a history of tobacco usage as well as presence of HPV infection, on Southern blot hybridization.

  12. Establishment and application of a modified membrane-blot assay for Rhizomucor miehei lipases aimed at improving their methanol tolerance and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Luo, Wen; Wang, Zhiyuan; Lv, Pengmei; Yuan, Zhenhong; Huang, Shaowei; Xv, Jingliang

    2017-07-01

    Directed evolution has been proved an effective way to improve the stability of proteins, but high throughput screening assays for directed evolution with simultaneous improvement of two or more properties are still rare. In this study, we aimed to establish a membrane-blot assay for use in the high-throughput screening of Rhizomucor miehei lipases (RMLs). With the assistance of the membrane-blot screening assay, a mutant E47K named G10 that showed improved thermal stability was detected in the first round of error-prone PCR. Using G10 as the parent, two variants G10-11 and G10-20 that showed improved thermal stability and methanol tolerance without loss of activity compared to the wild type RML were obtained. The T 50 60 -value of G10-11 and G10-20 increased by 12°C and 6.5°C, respectively. After incubation for 1h, the remaining residual activity of G10-11 and G10-20 was 63.45% and 74.33%, respectively, in 50% methanol, and 15.98% and 30.22%, respectively, in 80% methanol. Thus, we successfully developed a membrane-blot assay that could be used for the high-throughput screening of RMLs with improved thermostability and methanol tolerance. Based on our findings, we believe that our newly developed membrane-blot assay will have potential applications in directed evolution in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  14. Development of EMab-51, a Sensitive and Specific Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibody in Flow Cytometry, Western Blot, and Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Handa, Saori; Chang, Yao-Wen; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is involved in cell growth and differentiation. EGFR homodimers or heterodimers with other HER members, such as HER2 and HER3, activate downstream signaling cascades in many cancers. In this study, we developed novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and characterized their efficacy in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. First, we expressed the full-length or ectodomain of EGFR in LN229 glioblastoma cells and then immunized mice with LN229/EGFR or ectodomain of EGFR, and performed the first screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Subsequently, we selected mAbs according to their efficacy in flow cytometry (second screening), Western blot (third screening), and immunohistochemical (fourth screening) analyses. Among 100 mAbs, only one clone EMab-51 (IgG 1 , kappa) reacted with EGFR in Western blot analysis. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses with EMab-51 showed sensitive and specific reactions against oral cancer cells, warranting the use of EMab-51 to detect EGFR in pathological analyses of EGFR-expressing cancers.

  15. The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Honghong; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Guanghong; Huang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels. The combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing a combination of both meat and plant protein concentrates. This study indicated that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods

  16. Detection of KatG Gen Mutation on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Means of PCR-Dot Blot Hybridization with 32P Labeled Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Budiman Bela; Andi Yasmon

    2009-01-01

    Handling and controlling of tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is now complicated since there are many MTBs that are resistant against anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid. The drug resistance could occurred due to the inadequate and un-regular drug utilization that cause gene mutation of the drug target such as katG gene for isoniazid. The molecular biology techniques such as the PCR- dot blot hybridization with radioisotope ( 32 P) labeled oligonucleotide probe, has been reported as a technique that is more sensitive and rapid for detection of gene mutations related with drug resistances. Hence, the aim of this study was to apply the PCR- dot blot hybridization technique using 32 P labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of single mutation at codon 315 of katG gene of MTBs that rise the isoniazid resistance. In this study, we used 89 sputum specimens and a standard MTB (MTB H 37 RV) as a control. DNA extractions were performed by the BOOM method and the phenol chloroform for sputum samples and standard MTB, respectively. Primers used for PCR technique were Pt8 and Pt9 and RTB59 and RTB36 for detecting tuberculosis causing Mycobacterium and the existence of katG gene, respectively. Both of the primers are specific for IS6110 region and katG gene, respectively. PCR products were detected by an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu was performed to detect mutation at codon 315 of tested samples. Results of the PCR using primer Pt8 and Pt9 showed that all sputum specimens had positive results. Mutation detection by PCR- dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu, revealed that 11 of 89 tested samples had a mutation at their codon 315 of katG gene. Based upon these results, it is concluded that PCR-dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe is a technique that is rapid and highly specific and sensitive for detection of mutation at codon

  17. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    . The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  18. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  19. Contribution of dot-blot assay to the diagnosis and management of myositis: a three-year practice at a university hospital centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Clothilde; Vignaud, Guillaume; Liozon, Eric; Magy, Laurent; Gallouedec, Gael; Ly, Kim; Bezanahary, Holly; Cypierre, Anne; Lapébie, François-Xavier; Palat, Sylvain; Gondran, Guillaume; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Fauchais, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are heterogeneous autoimmune diseases with wide clinical spectrum that may lead to delayed diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of IIM-specific dot-blot assay on diagnostic process of patients presenting with muscular or systemic symptoms evocating of IIM. We collected all the prescriptions of an IIM specific dot-blot assay (8 autoantigens including Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, SRP, Mi-2, Ku, PM/Scl and Scl-70) over a 38-month period. 316 myositis dot-blot assays (MSD) were performed in 274 patients (156 women, mean age 53±10.6 years) referring for muscular and/or systemic symptoms suggesting IIM. The timing of dot prescription through the diagnostic process was highly variable: without (35%), concomitantly (16%) or after electromyographic studies (35%). Fifty-nine patients (22%) had IIM according to Bohan and Peter's criteria. Among them, 29 (49%) had positive dot (8 Jo-1, 6 PM-Scl, 5 PL-12, 5 SRP, 2 Mi-2, 2 PL-7 and 1 Ku). Various other diagnoses were performed including 35 autoimmune disease or granulomatosis (12%), 19 inflammatory rheumatic disease (7%), 16 non inflammatory muscular disorders (6%), 10 drug-induced myalgia (4%), 11 infectious myositis (4%). Except 11 borderline SRP results and one transient PM-Scl, MSD was positive only in one case of IIM. Dot allowed clinicians to correct diagnosis in 4 cases and improved the diagnosis of IIM subtypes in 4 cases. This study reflects the interest of myositis dot in the rapid diagnosis process of patients with non-specific muscular symptoms leading to various diagnoses including IIM.

  20. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  1. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Standardization of micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using extracts from Mexican strains as antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Monteón, V; Reyes, P A; Espinoza, B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes two assays for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using Mexican strains of the parasite and the concordance with two assays previously evaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez in Mexico City. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used for the detection of T. cruzi antibodies with a total extract of epimastigote from Ninoa and Queretaro, which are Mexican strains of T. cruzi. To standardize these methods, a total of 246 serum samples was used. In addition, sera from six confirmed Mexican chronic individuals in the asymptomatic phase were also used for comparison with the Argentinean antigen. ELISA was 100% specific in that no false positive results were found with sera of both healthy individuals and non-Chagasic cardiopaths. Sera from individuals infected with Leishmania sp. showed approximately 16% of cross-reaction with ELISA. The test showed a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Western blot was also a highly sensitive test for detecting chronic Chagasic symptomatic patients from Mexico because no false negative results were obtained. Furthermore, it was possible to use Western blot to detect seven immunodominant antigens of approximately 30, 32, 40, 42, 65, 70, and 83 kDa. Concordance with two previous standardized tests at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología showed a Kappa index of 0.96, indicating high concordance between the results obtained at these two laboratories. Finally, ELISA using Ninoa antigen extract was more sensitive than ELISA with an Argentinean extract, which failed to detect individuals in the chronic asymptomatic phase (undetermined phase) of infection. This study indicates that ELISA and Western blot using Ninoa and/or Queretaro extracts of T. cruzi as antigens are useful tools in the detection of individuals who have been exposed to T. cruzi both in the undetermined/asymptomatic and symptomatic phases

  3. Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucher, L.A.; Lego, T.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of 3 H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of 35 S-labeled material is enhanced only about 2-fold. We demonstrate the utility of sodium salicylate fluorography in detecting 3H-labeled palmitic acid following thin-layer chromatography and 3 H-labeled proteins following blotting to nitrocellulose

  4. Comparison of RT-PCR-Dot blot hybridization based on radioisotope 32P with conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Assays for blood screening of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Andi Yasmon

    2011-01-01

    There are many commercial ELISA and rapid test kits that have been used for blood screening; however, the kits can give false positive and negative results. Therefore, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) - Dot Blot Hybridization based on radioisotope 32 P (RDBR) method was developed in this research, to compare the method with the conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Enzyme-Linked lmmunosorbent Assay) kit. This method is efficient for screening of large blood specimens and surveillance study. Eighty seven samples were used and serum of the samples were tested by ELISA to detect HIV-1. The HIV-l RNA genome was extracted from plasma samples and tested using the RT-PCR and RDBR methods. Of 87 samples that were tested, the rates of positive testing of the RT-PCR, the RDBR, and the ELISA were 71.26%, 74.71%, and 80.46%, respectively. The RDBR (a combination of RTPCR and dot blot hybridization) was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR by showing 3.45% in increase number of positive specimens. The results showed that of 9 samples (10.34%) were negative RDBR and positive ELISA, while 4 samples (4.60%) were negative ELISA and positive RDBR. The two methods showed slightly difference in the results but further validation is still needed. However, RDBR has high potential as an alternative method for screening of blood in large quantities when compared to method of conventional RT-PCR and ELISA. (author)

  5. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  6. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Demonstration of functional low-density lipoprotein receptors by protein blotting in fibroblasts from a subject with homozygous receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenkovich, C.F.; Ostlund, R.E. Jr.; Yang, J.; Reaban, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    We report the detection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors by the technique of receptor blotting in fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC) previously classified as ''receptor negative.'' Solubilized receptors were electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose paper, treated with LDL followed by radiolabeled antibody to LDL, and visualized by autoradiography. GM 2000 FHC fibroblasts revealed LDL receptors with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 140,000, the same as in normal cells. LDL receptor activity by blotting in GM 2000 cells was greatly diminished in comparison with normal cells, but was calcium dependent. Receptor activity was also detectable by conventional monolayer binding and degradation assays. Thus, GM 2000 cells have profoundly diminished LDL receptor activity, but retain the genetic capacity to make LDL receptor material of normal molecular weight that is capable of binding LDL. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in fibroblasts from some receptor-negative FHC homozygotes. These studies are extended by demonstrating the ability of this material to bind LDL

  8. Application of FTA sample collection and DNA purification system on the determination of CTG trinucleotide repeat size by PCR-based Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, K M; Lin, H M; Pan, H; Li, T C; Chen, S S; Jou, S B; Chiu, Y L; Wu, M F; Lin, C C; Li, S Y

    1999-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by a CTG trinucleotide expansion mutation at exon 15 of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. The clinical severity of this disease correlates with the length of the CTG trinucleotide repeats. Determination of the CTG repeat length has been primarily relied on by Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA. The development of PCR-based Southern blotting methodology provides a much more sensitive and simpler protocol for DM diagnosis. However, the quality of the template and the high (G+C) ratio of the amplified region hamper the use of PCR on the diagnosis of DM. A modified PCR protocol to amplify different lengths of CTG repeat region using various concentrations of 7deaza-dGTP has been reported (1). Here we describe a procedure including sample collection, DNA purification, and PCR analysis of CTG repeat length without using 7-deaza-dGTP. This protocol is very sensitive and convenient because only a small number of nucleate cells are needed for detection of CTG expansion. Therefore, it could be very useful in clinical and prenatal diagnosis as well as in prevalence study of DM.

  9. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  11. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  12. Kan du blot blive buddreng..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    ADHD? Adfærdsvanskelig? Diagnoserne står i kø, når vi i dag skal forklare, hvorfor Emil ikke kan følge med i skolen. Men startskuddet til den videnskabelige opdeling af de børn, der ikke følger flertallets læringskurve, lød allerede for 100 år siden.......ADHD? Adfærdsvanskelig? Diagnoserne står i kø, når vi i dag skal forklare, hvorfor Emil ikke kan følge med i skolen. Men startskuddet til den videnskabelige opdeling af de børn, der ikke følger flertallets læringskurve, lød allerede for 100 år siden....

  13. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  14. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of a Reverse Line Blot hybridisation assay for the species-specific identification of cyathostomins (Nematoda, Strongylida) from benzimidazole-treated horses in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, Dana; Paoletti, Barbara; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Iorio, Raffaella; Cudeková, Patrícia; Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato

    2009-03-09

    Five horse farms located in eastern Slovakia were investigated for the presence of benzimidazole-resistant strongyles by faecal egg count reduction test and egg hatch assay. Coprocultures were prepared for each farm from faecal samples taken pre- and post-treatment and harvested larvae were molecularly examined with a Reverse Line Blot assay. Faecal egg count reduction values ranged from 0 to 52.5% and all farms were positive for benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomins. Seven benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomin species were molecularly identified on farms before and also after treatment. These data demonstrate that resistance to benzimidazoles is well established in cyathostomin populations from horse farms in the Slovak Republic and that the molecular assay was able to determine the species-specific distribution of resistant cyathostomins under field conditions.

  16. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  17. Study on sensitivity of southern blotting hybridization using a 32P-labeled probe of PCR products in detecting human cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Hengfu; Chen Juan; Shen Rongsen; Ma Liren; Xu Yongqiang

    1996-01-01

    Southern blotting hybridization (SBH) using a 32 P-labeled probe is one of the most practical methods for genetic diagnosis of pathogen. On the basis of establishing PCR and nested PCR for detecting human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a 32 P-labeled probe was prepared with the amplified products of 613 bp PCR outer primers and hybridized with 300 bp inner primer amplified product, resulting in increase in detecting sensitivity from 17 ng (in 1.2% agarose electrophoresis) before SBH to 500 pg (autoradiographed), in other words, increasing the sensitivity of detecting HCMV by 10 2 dilutions after using SBH. The method of PCR and SBH using a 32 P-labeled probe could detect less than 1 gene copy of HCMV, therefore, it is a rapid and reliable diagnosis method for detecting HCMV latent infection

  18. A Secondary Antibody-Detecting Molecular Weight Marker with Mouse and Rabbit IgG Fc Linear Epitopes for Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, I-Ju; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chu, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kao, Chien-Han; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular weight markers that can tolerate denaturing conditions and be auto-detected by secondary antibodies offer great efficacy and convenience for Western Blotting. Here, we describe M&R LE protein markers which contain linear epitopes derived from the heavy chain constant regions of mouse and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG Fc LE). These markers can be directly recognized and stained by a wide range of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. We selected three mouse (M1, M2 and M3) linear IgG1 and three rabbit (R1, R2 and R3) linear IgG heavy chain epitope candidates based on their respective crystal structures. Western blot analysis indicated that M2 and R2 linear epitopes are effectively recognized by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies, respectively. We fused the M2 and R2 epitopes (M&R LE) and incorporated the polypeptide in a range of 15-120 kDa auto-detecting markers (M&R LE protein marker). The M&R LE protein marker can be auto-detected by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies in standard immunoblots. Linear regression analysis of the M&R LE protein marker plotted as gel mobility versus the log of the marker molecular weights revealed good linearity with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9965, indicating that the M&R LE protein marker displays high accuracy for determining protein molecular weights. This accurate, regular and auto-detected M&R LE protein marker may provide a simple, efficient and economical tool for protein analysis.

  19. Note sur la présence de lames aménagées par technique de Kostienki dans les couches gravettiennes du Blot (Cerzat,Haute-Loire).

    OpenAIRE

    Klaric , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The unprecedented presence of Kostienki-technique prepared blades (also called Kostienki knives) in the Gravettian layers at Le Blot leads to a new analysis of these artefacts. Thorough technological study has pointed to the possible role of these items as cores, in association with or complementary to burin-forms, in particular context of backed-bladelet production. Le Blot is the second French site yielding such artefacts, the other being Corbiac (Dordogne). The aim ...

  20. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  1. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  2. Rendimiento diagnóstico del Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Davelois

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la técnica de Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. Se obtuvieron los antígenos de excreción-secreción de las larvas de Taenia solium, quistes de Echinococcus granulosus; y la forma adulta de Fasciola hepática; que luego fueron separados electroforéticamente en geles de poliacrilamida individuales, transferidos y fijados a una membrana de nitrocelulosa para ser enfrentados con sueros de pacientes con las tres parasitosis. La sensibilidad de la técnica se evaluó empleando 300 sueros individuales, 60 pools de dos parasitosis y 20 pools de tres parasitosis y la especificidad con 75 sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, 10 de pacientes con otras enfermedades y 15 sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. La técnica reconoció trece glicoproteínas (GP: GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14 y 13 kDa para cisticercosis, GP 8,16 y 21 kDa para hidatidosis y GP: 17 y 23 kDa para fascioliasis. La prueba detectó la presencia de anticuerpos alcanzando una sensibilidad de 96% (IC95%: 94,62-98,54% en la detección de una o las trece bandas, una especificidad de 100% (IC95%: 99,50 - 100,00%; individualmente, se tuvo una sensibilidad para cisticercosis de 97% (IC95%: 93,16-100%, para hidatidosis de 94% (IC95%: 88,85-99,15% y para fascioliasis de 96% (IC95%: 91,66-100%. Conclusiones. La prueba de Western blot es eficaz en la detección, simultanea de anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana, y puede ser utilizada como prueba de descarte o confirmatoria en zonas endémicas.

  3. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  4. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  5. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira Santos

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  6. Direct visualization of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in A431 and placental cell membrane by western blot with 125I-EGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.H.; Selinfreund, R.; Wharton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Using the western blot technique, they have devised a new procedure that allowed the direct visualization of both the 150KD and the 170KD forms of EGFR by its natural ligand, 125 I-EGF. A431, and placental plasmalemma were purified and solubilized in either SDS-PAGE buffer (without DTT, EDTA) or Triton X-100 (0.5%), resolved on PAGE and electrophoretically transferred onto nitrocellulose (NC) paper. In the absence of boiling, SDS did not denature the EGFR. Although EGER band can be detected after hybridization with 125 I-EGF, the receptor signal was considerably improved with the addition of 0.1% Tween-20. The binding of 125 I-EGF to the both the 150KD and the 170KD bands of the EGFR was specific, reversible and increased with the amount of membrane protein present. The direct visualization of the EGFR using its natural ligand eliminated the necessity for the time consuming antibody preparation. Presently, they are using this technique to identify specific receptors for other ligands

  7. Identification of liver protein targets modified by tienilic acid metabolites using a two-dimensional Western blot-mass spectrometry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methogo, Ruth Menque; Dansette, Patrick M.; Klarskov, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    A combined approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis-immuno-blotting and nanoliquid chromatography coupled on-line with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was used to identify proteins modified by a reactive intermediate of tienilic acid (TA). Liver homogenates from rats exposed to TA were fractionated using ultra centrifugation; four fractions were obtained and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Following transfer to PVDF membranes, modified proteins were visualized after India ink staining, using an anti-serum raised against TA and ECL detection. Immuno-reactive spots were localized on the PVDF membrane by superposition of the ECL image, protein spots of interest were excised, digested on the membrane with trypsin followed by nLC-MS/MS analysis and protein identification. A total of 15 proteins were identified as likely targets modified by a TA reactive metabolite. These include selenium binding protein 2, senescence marker protein SMP-30, adenosine kinase, Acy1 protein, adenosylhomocysteinase, capping protein (actin filament), protein disulfide isomerase, fumarylacetoacetase, arginase chain A, ketohexokinase, proteasome endopeptidase complex, triosephosphate isomerase, superoxide dismutase, dna-type molecular chaperone hsc73 and malate dehydrogenase.

  8. A Western blot-based investigation of the yeast secretory pathway designed for an intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Degrenier, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in two distinct steps of protein secretion were differentiated using a genetic reporter designed specifically to identify defects in the first step of the pathway, the insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (Vallen, 2002). We have developed two versions of a Western blotting assay that serves as a second way of distinguishing the two secretory mutants, which we pair with the genetic assay in a 3-wk laboratory module. A quiz administered before and after students participated in the lab activities revealed significant postlab gains in their understanding of the secretory pathway and experimental techniques used to study it. A second survey administered at the end of the lab module assessed student perceptions of the efficacy of the lab activities; the results of this survey indicated that the experiments were successful in meeting a set of educational goals defined by the instructor.

  9. Porcine Cysticercosis: Possible Cross-Reactivity of Taenia hydatigena to GP50 Antigen in the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Claudio; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Flecker, Robert H; Gamboa, Ricardo; Barreto, Percy Vilchez; Dorny, Pierre; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E; For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru

    2017-12-01

    The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to Taenia solium in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including Taenia hydatigena, which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012. In this corral, 14/19 (73.7%) 6-8-week-old piglets were reactive to GP50 on LLGP EITB, and all had circulating Taenia sp. antigens. From eight necropsied piglets; four were infected with T. hydatigena metacestodes whereas none had evidence of T. solium infection. Two resident dogs were subsequently confirmed to have T. hydatigena taeniasis. These results suggest GP50 cross-reactivity in T. hydatigena- infected pigs, although controlled experimental infection is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  11. Myostatin inhibitors in sports drug testing: Detection of myostatin-neutralizing antibodies in plasma/serum by affinity purification and Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Myostatin is a key regulator of skeletal muscle growth and inhibition of its signaling pathway results in an increased muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to develop a qualitative detection assay for myostatin-neutralizing antibodies for doping control purposes by using immunological approaches. To detect different types of myostatin-neutralizing antibodies irrespective of their amino acid sequence, an immunological assay specific for antibodies directed against myostatin and having a human Fc domain was established. Affinity purification and Western blotting strategies were combined to allow extracting and identifying relevant analytes from 200 μL of plasma/serum in a non-targeted approach. The assay was characterized regarding specificity, linearity, precision, robustness, and recovery. The assay was found to be highly specific, robust, and linear from 0.1 to 1 μg/mL. The precision was successfully specified at three different concentrations and the recovery of the affinity purification was 58%. Within this study, an immunological detection assay for myostatin-neutralizing antibodies present in plasma/serum specimens was developed and successfully characterized. The presented approach can easily be modified to include other therapeutic antibodies and serves as proof-of-concept for the detection of antibody-based myostatin inhibitors in doping control samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic ® cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex ® resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. IgG western blot for confirmatory diagnosis of equivocal cases of toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and fluorescent antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2013-08-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique.

  14. Simultaneous and independent detection of C9ORF72 alleles with low and high number of GGGGCC repeats using an optimised protocol of Southern blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Vladimir L; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Higginbottom, Adrian; Kirby, Janine; Razinskaya, Olga D; Ninkina, Natalia; Shaw, Pamela J

    2013-04-08

    Sizing of GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansions within the C9ORF72 locus, which account for approximately 10% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases, is urgently required to answer fundamental questions about mechanisms of pathogenesis in this important genetic variant. Currently employed PCR protocols are limited to discrimination between the presence and absence of a modified allele with more than 30 copies of the repeat, while Southern hybridisation-based methods are confounded by the somatic heterogeneity commonly present in blood samples, which might cause false-negative or ambiguous results. We describe an optimised Southern hybridisation-based protocol that allows confident detection of the presence of a C9ORF72 repeat expansion alongside independent assessment of its heterogeneity and the number of repeat units. The protocol can be used with either a radiolabeled or non-radiolabeled probe. Using this method we have successfully sized the C9ORF72 repeat expansion in lymphoblastoid cells, peripheral blood, and post-mortem central nervous system (CNS) tissue from ALS patients. It was also possible to confidently demonstrate the presence of repeat expansion, although of different magnitude, in both C9ORF72 alleles of the genome of one patient. The suggested protocol has sufficient advantages to warrant adoption as a standard for Southern blot hybridisation analysis of GGGGCC repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 locus.

  15. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  16. A 15-year-long Southern blotting analysis of FMR1 to detect female carriers and for prenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, C-C; Tsai, L-P; Chang, Y-K; Hung, Y-J; Chang, Y-Y; Su, Y-P; Jiang, J-J; Liang, H-M

    2017-08-01

    Here, we review the results of Southern blotting analyses of the FMR1 gene performed in our reference laboratory in Taiwan over a 15-year period. In total, 725 high-risk women with a family history of fragile X syndrome (FXS) or idiopathic intellectual disability, 3911 low-risk pregnant women without such family history, and prenatal diagnosis data for 32 foetuses from 24 carrier mothers were included. Only 2 carriers were in the low-risk group, which indicated a prevalence of 1 of 1955 women (95% confidence interval: 1/7156-1/539). A total of 100 carriers were found to be in the high-risk group, thus revealing a significantly higher frequency than the low-risk group (100/725 vs 2/3911, P<0.0001). Eight of the 14 foetuses that inherited the maternal mutant allele were verified to have a full mutation, with the smallest maternal pre-mutation allele carrying 56 CGG repeats. The overall findings confirmed that the carrier prevalence among low-risk women in Taiwan is significantly lower than that reported in western countries. Therefore, the most important step for preventing FXS in Taiwan would be to focus on high-risk women by promoting general awareness of this disease and spreading knowledge regarding the benefits of carrier screening and prenatal testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Estandarización de la técnica de Western blot para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de Fasciola hepática Western blot technique standardization of the diagnosis of human fasciolosis using Fasciola hepatica excreted-secreted antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la técnica de electroinmunotransferencia (EITB o Western blot utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de las formas adultas de Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana. Materiales y métodos. Los antígenos fueron obtenidos a las 18 horas de incubación en medio Minimum Essential Eagle y preparados a la concentración proteica de 0,15 ug/uL; los cuales, al ser enfrentados con un pool de sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por el hallazgo de huevos del parásito en las heces, se detectaron los antígenos de 10, 12, 17, 23, 27, 30, 36, 43, 66 y 136 KDa, con los cuales se desarrolló la técnica de Western blot. La sensibilidad se evaluó empleando sueros de 67 pacientes con fasciolosis, y la especificidad con sueros de 57 pacientes con otras parasitosis y diez sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. De los 67 sueros, 64 reaccionaron con la banda de 23 KDa y 61 con la banda de 17KDa. Estas dos bandas no fueron detectadas por ninguno de los sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, ni de personas no parasitadas, siendo por ello consideradas como específicas y diagnósticas. Conclusiones. La sensibilidad de la prueba, utilizando las bandas de 17 y 23 KDa, fue de 95,5 % cuando se presenta reacción positiva en una o en las dos bandas, siendo la especificidad para estos dos antígenos de 100 % con un valor predictivo positivo de 100 % y un valor predictivo negativo de 95,71 %.Objectives. To evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, Western blot using excretory/secretory antigens from adult forms of Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Materials and methods. Antigens were obtained after 18 hours of incubation in culture medium Minimum Essential Eagle, prepared at a protein concentration of 0.15 ug/uL and run against a pool of sera of patients with proven fasciolosis (confirmed by the

  18. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Western blot data using two distinct anti-O-GlcNAc monoclonal antibodies showing unique glycosylation status on cellular proteins under 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled “A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis” (Okuda et al., 2009 [1]. The main article described a suppressive effect of 2DG on an Sp1 target gene in NCCIT cells and discussed the relationship between the effect of 2DG and O-GlcNAcylation status of Sp1. The data in this paper complements this relationship by Western blotting and clearly showed that the 2DG treatment increased O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins in NCCIT cells, whereas the RL2 and CTD110.6 epitopes were detected in a different manner. The RL2 epitope was detected on Sp1 during 2DG treatment, and the level was transiently increased at 24 h. In contrast, the CTD110.6 epitope became detectable on Sp1 over 72 h after 2DG treatment, and then the other proteins containing CTD110.6 epitopes also appeared in the cell lysates and the anti-Sp1 antibody precipitates.

  20. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V max ) and the michaelis constant (k m ) of PARG reaction were 4.46 μM and 128.33 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 μM. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  1. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  2. Accurate and Practical Identification of 20 Fusarium Species by Seven-Locus Sequence Analysis and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization, and an In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Study▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon; Dou, Hong-Tao; Sorrell, Tania; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Eleven reference and 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium were subject to multilocus DNA sequence analysis to determine the species and haplotypes of the fusarial isolates from Beijing and Shandong, China. Seven loci were analyzed: the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α); the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (LSU), and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2); the calmodulin gene (CAM); and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA gene. We also evaluated an IGS-targeted PCR/reverse line blot (RLB) assay for species/haplotype identification of Fusarium. Twenty Fusarium species and seven species complexes were identified. Of 25 clinical isolates (10 species), the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex was the commonest (40%) and was followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (36%) and the F. incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (12%). Six FSSC isolates were identified to the species level as FSSC-3+4, and three as FSSC-5. Twenty-nine IGS, 27 EF-1α, 26 RPB2, 24 CAM, 18 ITS, 19 LSU, and 18 mtSSU haplotypes were identified; 29 were unique, and haplotypes for 24 clinical strains were novel. By parsimony informative character analysis, the IGS locus was the most phylogenetically informative, and the rRNA gene regions were the least. Results by RLB were concordant with multilocus sequence analysis for all isolates. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against all species. Voriconazole MICs were high (>8 μg/ml) for 15 (42%) isolates, including FSSC. Analysis of larger numbers of isolates is required to determine the clinical utility of the seven-locus sequence analysis and RLB assay in species classification of fusaria. PMID:21389150

  3. Discordant human T-lymphotropic virus screening with Western blot confirmation: evaluation of the dual-test algorithm for US blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Foster, Gregory A; Johnson, Ramona; Weixlmann, Barbara; Dodd, Roger Y

    2018-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) blood donation screening has used a dual-testing algorithm beginning with either a chemiluminescent immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay (ELISA). Before the availability of a licensed HTLV supplemental assay, repeat-reactive (RR) samples on a first assay (Assay 1) were retested with a second screening assay (Assay 2). Donors with RR results by Assay 2 were deferred from blood donation and further tested using an unlicensed supplemental test to confirm reactivity while nonreactive (NR) donors remained eligible for donation until RR on a subsequent donation. This "dual-test" algorithm was replaced in May 2016 with the requirement that all RRs by Assay 1 be further tested by a licensed HTLV supplemental test (Western blot [WB]). In this study, we have requalified the dual-test algorithm using the available licensed HTLV WB. We tested 100 randomly selected HTLV RRs on screening Assay 1 (Abbott PRISM chemiluminescent immunoassay) but NR on screening Assay 2 (Avioq ELISA) by a Food and Drug Administration-licensed WB (MP Biomedicals) to ensure that no confirmed positives were among those that were RR by Assay 1 but NR by Assay 2. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 79 of 100 were WB seronegative, 21 of 100 indeterminate, and 0 of 100 seropositive. Of the 79 of 100 seronegative specimens, 73 of 79 did not express any bands on WB. We demonstrated that none of the 100 samples RR on Assay 1 but NR on Assay 2 were confirmed positive. This algorithm prevents such donors from requiring further testing and from being deferred. © 2018 AABB.

  4. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cánepa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Results: Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3% were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3% were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1: 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2: 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC; and Group 3 (G3: 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003 was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03. Conclusions: indeterminateWBresults confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined.

  5. [Analytic study of dot blotting for the detection of anti-Jo-1, anti-M2, anti-ribosomes and anti-LKM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, S; Sghiri, R; Ballot, E; Johanet, C

    2004-01-01

    The Cyto-Dot 4 HM043 kit commercialised by BMD, has replaced the Cyto-Dot HM010 kit that allowed three auto-antibodies detection (anti-Jo-1, anti-M2 and anti-ribosomal protein). Detection of anti-LKM1 auto-antibody was added. These four auto-antibodies have in common only the intracytoplasmic localisation of their respective antigen. The aim of our study was to evaluate this new kit using 104 sera and to compare our results with reference techniques (indirect immunofluorescence IF for anti-M2, anti-ribosomal protein and anti-LKM1, double immunodiffusion ID for anti-Jo-1 and anti-LKM1, western blotting WB for anti-M2) and with Cyto-Dot HM010. The one hundred and four sera were divided into five groups: Group I (n = 12) with anti-Jo-1 detected by ID; Group II (n = 28) with 26 anti-M2 positive by IF and WB, 2 anti-M2 positive only by WB; Group III (n = 10) with anti-ribosomal protein detected by IF 5 of which precipitated by ID; Group IV (n = 32) with anti-LKM1 by IF and ID divided into 18 AIH2 and 14 HCV; Group V (n = 22) consisting of 14 healthy individuals and 8 patients with hypergammaglobulinemia. Results of this study are similar to those of Cyto-Dot HM010 for the three auto-antibodies already in use. Cyto-Dot 4 is a very good anti-LKM1 confirmation method as it is ID. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  6. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  7. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  8. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  9. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques Comparação dos parâmetros imunológicos de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral usando as técnicas de Western blot e neutralização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda L. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi.Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips.A técnica de Western blot foi utilizada para demonstrar a presença de anticorpos do soro de cães, que apresentavam leishmaniose visceral canina, contra algumas moléculas específicas no lisado da forma promastigota de Leshmania chagasi.Através da associa

  10. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  12. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  13. Approaches for Reverse Line Blot-Based Detection of Microbial Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Collected in Austria and Impact of the Chosen Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Wijnveld, Michiel; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2017-07-01

    Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens capable of causing human disease. In this study, the PCR-reverse line blot (RLB) method was used to screen for pathogens in a total of 554 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from all provinces of Austria. These pathogens belong to the genera Borrelia , Rickettsiae , Anaplasma / Ehrlichia (including " Candidatus Neoehrlichia"), Babesia , and Coxiella The pathogens with the highest detected prevalence were spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, in 142 ticks (25.6%). Borrelia afzelii (80/142) was the most frequently detected species, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (38/142) and Borrelia valaisiana (36/142). Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis , Borrelia lusitaniae , and Borrelia spielmanii were found in 28 ticks, 5 ticks, and 1 tick, respectively. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 93 ticks (16.8%): R. helvetica (39/93), R. raoultii (38/93), R. monacensis (2/93), and R. slovaca (1/93). Thirteen Rickettsia samples remain uncharacterized. " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Babesia spp. ( B. venatorum , B. divergens , B. microti ), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were found in 4.5%, 2.7%, and 0.7%, respectively. Coxiella burnetii was not detected. Multiple microorganisms were detected in 40 ticks (7.2%), and the cooccurrence of Babesia spp. and " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" showed a significant positive correlation. We also compared different PCR-RLBs for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. and showed that different detection approaches provide highly diverse results, indicating that analysis of environmental samples remains challenging. IMPORTANCE This study determined the wide spectrum of tick-borne bacterial and protozoal pathogens that can be encountered in Austria. Surveillance of (putative) pathogenic microorganisms occurring in the environment is of medical importance, especially when those agents can be transmitted by ticks and cause disease. The

  14. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  15. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, miningacademy.ca) is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  16. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  17. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  18. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  19. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  20. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  1. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  2. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  3. Cult sites in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brink

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The pagan cult in northern Sweden, i.e, Norrland, has for some decades been a neglected chapter in our history, a situation which unfortunately applies to Sweden as a whole, at least where onomastics are concerned. The aim is thus to deliver an overview of the evidence that we have of pre-Christian religious activities in these northern parts — in this aspect, onomastic material is nearly almost all we have got — and some general remarks about the conversion to the new Christian religion. The area of investigation is what in the (Swedish medieval period was known as Norrland. In other words, the part of Sweden considered here is modern Central Norrland. With our state of knowledge of today it is not so easy to pick out the place-names that have denoted some kind of pagan cult activity. The place-name material can be divided into: 1. Theoforic place-names 2. place-names denoting the site of a pagan cult, which do not however contain theoforic elements 3. place-names with a possible pagan cultic element.

  4. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Delineation of pulmonary airway fluid protein fractions with HRPO binding-avidity by far-Western ligand blot and mass spectrometry analyses: a model methodology for detecting mannose-binding protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Jones, Toni; Mochal, Cathleen; Linford, Robert L; Brashier, Michael; Eddy, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Limited research to date has characterized the potential for HRPO to function as a primary molecular probe. Pulmonary airway fluid was developed by non-reducing far-Western (ligand) blot analyses utilizing conjugated HRPO-strepavidin or non-conjugated HRPO without the presence of primary immunoglobulin. Endogenous esterase-like biochemical activity of fractions within pulmonary airway fluid was inactivated to determine if they were capable of biochemically converting HRPO chemiluminescent substrate. Complementary analyses modified pulmonary fluid and HRPO with beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase respectively, in addition to determining the influence of mannose and maltose competitive binding on HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analyses. Identification of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analyses was determined by mass spectrometry. Modification of pulmonary fluid with beta-galactosidase, and HRPO with alpha-mannosidase in concert with maltose and mannose competitive binding analyses altered the intensity and spectrum of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analysis. Identity of pulmonary airway fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analysis were transferrin, dynein, albumin precursor, and two 156 kDa equine peptide fragments. HRPO can function as a partially-selective primary molecular probe when applied in either a conjugated or non-conjugated form. Some protein fractions can form complexes with HRPO through molecular mechanisms that involve physical interactions at the terminal alpha-mannose-rich regions of HRPO glycan side-chains. Based on its known molecular composition and structure, HRPO provides an opportunity for the development of diagnostics methodologies relevant to disease biomarkers that possess mannose-binding avidity.

  6. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE Análise de antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum no diagnóstico da sífilis utilizando a técnica de Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Satomi SATO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rTp17 antigen. Some samples were non-reactive or showed a weak reaction with GST-rTp47 and/or GST-rTp15, and apparently there was no correlation with the stage of disease. There was no seropositivity among blood donors. No sample reacted with purified GST. We concluded that due to their specificity these recombinant antigens can be used as GST fusion protein for development of syphilis diagnostic assays.Os antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 e GST-rTp15, produzidos em fusão com glutationa S-transferase (GST em E. coli, foram analisados quanto ao potencial diagnóstico da sífilis pela técnica de Western blotting. Foram testadas 53 amostras, sendo 25 de pacientes em diferentes estágios clínicos da sífilis, com resultados positivos no teste treponêmico clássico; 25 amostras procedentes de doadores de banco de sangue, com sorologia negativa e 3 de pacientes com doença sexualmente transmissível não relacionado à sífilis. Todas as amostras de pacientes com sífilis apresentaram alta reatividade com o antígeno GST-rTp17. Quanto aos antígenos GST-rTp47 e GST-Tp15 verificou-se uma variação na presença ou na intensidade da reação em diferentes amostras de pacientes com sífilis, sem mostrar correlação com o estágio da doença. Nenhuma reatividade contra quaisquer desses antígenos foi observada com as amostras do grupo controle. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentaram reatividade com a GST purificada. A

  7. Differential proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Chung, Janete; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Demachki, Samia; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Chammas, Roger; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The identification of new cancer biomarkers is necessary to reduce the mortality rates through the development of new screening assays and early diagnosis, as well as new target therapies. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric neoplasias of individuals from Northern Brazil. The proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. For the identification of differentially expressed proteins, we used statistical tests with bootstrapping resampling to control the type I error in the multiple comparison analyses. We identified 111 proteins involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The computational analysis revealed several proteins involved in the energy production processes and reinforced the Warburg effect in gastric cancer. ENO1 and HSPB1 expression were further evaluated. ENO1 was selected due to its role in aerobic glycolysis that may contribute to the Warburg effect. Although we observed two up-regulated spots of ENO1 in the proteomic analysis, the mean expression of ENO1 was reduced in gastric tumors by western blot. However, mean ENO1 expression seems to increase in more invasive tumors. This lack of correlation between proteomic and western blot analyses may be due to the presence of other ENO1 spots that present a slightly reduced expression, but with a high impact in the mean protein expression. In neoplasias, HSPB1 is induced by cellular stress to protect cells against apoptosis. In the present study, HSPB1 presented an elevated protein and mRNA expression in a subset of gastric cancer samples. However, no association was observed between HSPB1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Here, we identified several possible biomarkers of gastric cancer in individuals from Northern Brazil. These biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of prognosis and stratification for therapy if validated in larger clinical study

  8. Differential proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Leal

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The identification of new cancer biomarkers is necessary to reduce the mortality rates through the development of new screening assays and early diagnosis, as well as new target therapies. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric neoplasias of individuals from Northern Brazil. The proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. For the identification of differentially expressed proteins, we used statistical tests with bootstrapping resampling to control the type I error in the multiple comparison analyses. We identified 111 proteins involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The computational analysis revealed several proteins involved in the energy production processes and reinforced the Warburg effect in gastric cancer. ENO1 and HSPB1 expression were further evaluated. ENO1 was selected due to its role in aerobic glycolysis that may contribute to the Warburg effect. Although we observed two up-regulated spots of ENO1 in the proteomic analysis, the mean expression of ENO1 was reduced in gastric tumors by western blot. However, mean ENO1 expression seems to increase in more invasive tumors. This lack of correlation between proteomic and western blot analyses may be due to the presence of other ENO1 spots that present a slightly reduced expression, but with a high impact in the mean protein expression. In neoplasias, HSPB1 is induced by cellular stress to protect cells against apoptosis. In the present study, HSPB1 presented an elevated protein and mRNA expression in a subset of gastric cancer samples. However, no association was observed between HSPB1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Here, we identified several possible biomarkers of gastric cancer in individuals from Northern Brazil. These biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of prognosis and stratification for therapy if validated in

  9. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  10. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  11. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  12. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  13. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  14. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  15. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  16. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  17. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of a sensitive EnVision +-based detection system for Western blotting: avoidance of streptavidin binding to endogenous biotin and biotin-containing proteins in kidney and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Rosamonde E; Craven, Rachel A; Harnden, Patricia A; Selby, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    Western blotting remains a central technique in confirming identities of proteins, their quantitation and analysis of various isoforms. The biotin-avidin/streptavidin system is often used as an amplification step to increase sensitivity but in some tissues such as kidney, "nonspecific" interactions may be a problem due to high levels of endogenous biotin-containing proteins. The EnVision system, developed for immunohistochemical applications, relies on binding of a polymeric conjugate consisting of up to 100 peroxidase molecules and 20 secondary antibody molecules linked directly to an activated dextran backbone, to the primary antibody. This study demonstrates that it is also a viable and sensitive alternative detection system in Western blotting applications.

  19. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...... the relative level of rRNA per cell, and slot blotting to rRNA probes, which estimates the level of rRNA per extracted total RNA, the amount of RNA per cell was calculated in a series of heat shock experiments with the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It was found that the level of rRNA per cell...... decreased to 30% in the course of the heat shock. This lowered ribosome level led to a decrease in the total RNA content, resulting in a gradually increasing overestimation of the mRNA levels throughout the experiment. Using renormalized cellular mRNA levels, the HrcA-mediated regulation of the genes...

  20. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km 2 . In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into

  1. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  2. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  3. Northern star J.S. Plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter

    2018-01-01

    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  4. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  5. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  7. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  8. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  9. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767

  11. Development of a dot blot assay with antibodies to recombinant “core” 14-3-3 protein: Evaluation of its usefulness in diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD requires demonstration of infective prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry or immunoblot, making antemortem diagnosis of CJD difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of dementia, with clinical correlation, as a useful diagnostic marker for CJD, obviating the need for brain biopsy.This facility is currently available in only a few specialized centers in the West and no commercial kit is available for clinical diagnostic use in India. Hence the objective of this study was to develop an in-house sensitive assay for quantitation of 14-3-3 protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential to detect 14-3-3 proteins in CSF as a biomarker in suspected cases of CJD. Materials and Methods: A minigene expressing the “core” 14-3-3 protein was synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recombinant protein was produced by employing a bacterial expression system. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit against the purified recombinant protein were used for developing a dot blot assay with avidin-biotin technology for signal amplification and quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. Results: The results in the present study suggest the diagnostic potential of the dot blot method with about 10-fold difference (P< 0.001 in the CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein between the CJD cases (N= 50 and disease controls (N= 70. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis of the results suggested an optimal cutoff value of 2 ng/mL. Conclusions: We have developed an indigenous, economical, and sensitive dot blot method for the quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF.

  12. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  13. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  14. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  16. The Maritime Cultural Landscape of Northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Nicolás

    2017-12-01

    This article is a contribution to the study of the indigenous navigation and its boats in the region of northern Patagonia. This article also aims to contribute to the understanding of indigenous navigation practices and technologies and their origins from prehistoric times to the mid-twentieth century. It presents and discusses the concept of Westerdahl's Maritime Cultural Landscape in relation to other landscape concepts. This model is applied to northern Patagonia in order to discuss if it is possible to speak of a true maritime culture in the region. For this purpose, archaeological, historical and ethnographic data are presented in an integrative and innovative methodology for the discipline. Finally, the Maritime Cultural Landscape model will allow the integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes as routes traveled by native inhabitants of northern Patagonia and southern Chile, and propose an important and diversified maritime, river and lake tradition.

  17. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  18. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  19. Building Healthy Northern Communities Through Strengthening Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Schmidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and evaluates the effects of one-time funding on capacity building of health and social welfare organizations in a remote and northern section of British Columbia Canada. The Province of British Columbia awarded a two million dollar grant (Canadian to the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC. Organizations applied for funds through a competitive process that was managed by the School of Social Work at UNBC. Twenty-five different community organizations and agencies received funding for a period of eighteen months. The organizations and agencies delivered a range of services and activities located in remote First Nations communities as well as the natural resource-based single industry towns of northern BC.

  20. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  1. Northern Land Council v. the Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Ranger Project Area in the Northern Territory contains deposits of uranium. By section 5 of the Atomic Energy Amendment Act (No. 2) 1980 the assignment of an agreement between the Commonwealth and joint venturers for the conduct of uranium mining was authorised. The Northern Land Council, representing Aboriginal interests, challenged the validity of the section. It was held that the section was valid. The Council also submitted that, although it had entered into an agreement with the Commonwealth in 1978, the agreement was void or voidable

  2. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  3. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  4. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  5. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  6. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  7. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  8. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  9. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  10. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  11. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  12. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  13. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  14. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  15. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  16. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  17. Otological emergencies among the northern Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. These are all preventable emergencies through community health education, training of community health worker to recognize the symptom and signs ...

  18. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese

    1997-01-01

    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  19. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  20. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  1. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  2. The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    A dictionary should not primarily reflect the attitude of the lexicographer; it should ... ditional focus on the word as representative of the lexicon should be shifted to .... 25. Thirdly, a single glance at the treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dic-.

  3. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  4. Historic Hydroclimatic Variability in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Villanueva-Diaz; J. Cerano-Paredes; D.W. Stahle; B. H. Luckman; M.D. Therrell; M.K. Cleaveland; G. Gutierrez-Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic to plan for a proper management of limited water resources in northern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of circulatory patterns, such as ENSO. Climatic sensitive treering chronologies were...

  5. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  6. Demographic change in the northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  7. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The indicative series The present tense Principal Identifying pos. lst and 2nd .... na 'man' and morutiši 'teacher' or bohlale 'wisdom' or mpša 'dog' in Table 1, A–C ... (and the compiler of a basic Northern Sotho grammar) to use the user's pre-.

  8. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  9. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  10. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  11. Discussion on several geological problems and uranium metallogeny on northern border of northern China block (platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong.

    1987-01-01

    According to the informations from the satellite image and the field investigation the following geological events on the northern border of the Northern China Block are recognized and confirmed, duch as suture zones between blocks, folding-reversed fault zones, back-arc collision zones (faulted zones), transitional zone between platform and geosyncline, magmatic are and the double sturcture composed of NNE trend magmatic active belt and fault-depression belts (basins) of Yenshan-Ximalaya age. On thsee bases the following problems, such as the unique structural environment of uranium mineralization related to abyssal magmatic rocks and Yenshan magmatic active zone (including volcanic belt) on the northern border of the Northern China Block, the metallogenetic modes for urnaium deposits of 'magmatic type' and 'neutralized surface type' in fault-depression zone and the classification of uranium metallogenetic belts and the criteria for such classification are studied and discussed. Several uranium deposits are given for illustrations

  12. 2-tiered antibody testing for early and late Lyme disease using only an immunoglobulin G blot with the addition of a VlsE band as the second-tier test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, John A; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Johnson, Barbara J B; Wormser, Gary P; Steere, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Standard 2-tiered immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing has performed well in late Lyme disease (LD), but IgM testing early in the illness has been problematic. IgG VlsE antibody testing, by itself, improves early sensitivity, but may lower specificity. We studied whether elements of the 2 approaches could be combined to produce a second-tier IgG blot that performs well throughout the infection. Separate serum sets from LD patients and control subjects were tested independently at 2 medical centers using whole-cell enzyme immunoassays and IgM and IgG immunoblots, with recombinant VlsE added to the IgG blots. The results from both centers were combined, and a new second-tier IgG algorithm was developed. With standard 2-tiered IgM and IgG testing, 31% of patients with active erythema migrans (stage 1), 63% of those with acute neuroborreliosis or carditis (stage 2), and 100% of those with arthritis or late neurologic involvement (stage 3) had positive results. Using new IgG criteria, in which only the VlsE band was scored as a second-tier test among patients with early LD (stage 1 or 2) and 5 of 11 IgG bands were required in those with stage 3 LD, 34% of patients with stage 1, 96% of those with stage 2, and 100% of those with stage 3 infection had positive responses. Both new and standard testing achieved 100% specificity. Compared with standard IgM and IgG testing, the new IgG algorithm (with VlsE band) eliminates the need for IgM testing; it provides comparable or better sensitivity, and it maintains high specificity.

  13. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  14. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  15. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  16. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  17. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategies......, which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle......-truss houses. Another aim is to suggest strategies for modern sustainable building on the basis of the identified principles in aisle-truss houses....

  18. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  19. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  20. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  1. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  2. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  3. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  4. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  5. Wildfires in northern Siberian larch dominated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Dvinskaya, Maria L; Im, Sergey T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (∼66°N, 100°E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activity in this area, fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated on the basis of burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 to 350 yr with a 200 ± 50 yr mean. For southerly larch dominated communities, FRI was found to be shorter (77 ± 20 yr at ∼ 61°N, and 82 ± 7 at 64°N), and it was longer at the northern boundary (∼71°) of larch stands (320 ± 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th–18th centuries, FRI was approximately twice as long those as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth, and a radial growth increase to about twice the background value (with more than six times observed in extreme cases). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  6. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  7. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  8. Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Soutyrine, Andrei; Rendulich, Jasmine; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

    2011-01-01

    Tissues unsuitable for standard immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and for scrapie in sheep are frequently submitted for testing. This study investigated the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep. The PrPsc was detected using a Western blotting (WB) test following PrPsc enrichment using sodium phosphotungstic acid (PTA) precipitation (PTA-WB). A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a reference test for quantitative measurement. This study showed that the amount of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tssues from elk and sheep decreased gradually as a result of autolysis, but PrPsc was still detectable after 5 and 15 d incubation at 37°C by PTA-WB for all lymphoid and CNS samples. The results of the ELISA supported those of PTA-WB, particularly for CNS tissues. In conclusion, autolysis at 37°C for 15 d would not significantly affect the detection of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tissues by WB and ELISA and, particularly, PTA-WB is a valuable and alternative confirmatory test to detect PrPsc in autolyzed lymphoid and CNS samples.

  9. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, M; García-Anchuelo, R; Arenas, M I; Cervera, M; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-01

    The presence and distribution pattern of paramyosin have been examined in different invertebrate muscle cell types by means of Western blot analysis and electron microscopy immunogold labelling. The muscles studied were: transversely striated muscle with continuous Z lines (flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster), transversely striated muscle with discontinuous Z lines (heart muscle from the snail Helix aspersa), obliquely striated body wall muscle from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and smooth muscles (retractor muscle from the snail and pseudoheart outer muscular layer from the earthworm). Paramyosin-like immunoreactivity was localized in thick filaments of all muscles studied. Immunogold particle density was similar along the whole thick filament length in insect flight muscle but it predominated in filament tips of fusiform thick filaments in both snail heart and earthworm body wall musculature when these filaments were observed in longitudinal sections. In obliquely sectioned thick filaments, immunolabelling was more abundant at the sites where filaments disappeared from the section. These results agree with the notion that paramyosin extended along the whole filament length, but that it can only be immunolabelled when it is not covered by myosin. In all muscles examined, immunolabelling density was lower in cross-sectioned myofilaments than in longitudinally sectioned myofilaments. This suggests that paramyosin does not form a continuous filament. The results of a semiquantitative analysis of paramyosin-like immunoreactivity indicated that it was more abundant in striated than in smooth muscles, and that, within striated muscles, transversely striated muscles contain more paramyosin than obliquely striated muscles.

  10. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative to the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Groisman, P. Y.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With 40 books and more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications to its credit, NEESPI's output can now be used to directly support decision-making for societal needs. Specifically, it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?" To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and developed a new Science Plan released in June 2016. The Plan underwent a 6-month-long public review and was finalized at the end of 2016. Its description was thereafter split between two review papers: Groisman et al. (2017) and Monier et al. (2017). The first paper describes the Plan rationale and a new set of topical questions. The second paper describes a major modeling approach that will be employed in addressing the "what to do" questions of the NEFI Research (cf., presentation by Monier et al. at this Session). In the current presentation, we outline the new NEFI research foci and present latest NEFI findings including international projects in the Eurasian Arctic, boreal zone, and the Dry Land Belt of Northern Eurasia (cf., also presentations at sister

  11. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  12. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  13. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  14. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  15. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.

    2013-01-01

    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...... were examined for phylogenetic structure. There was no evidence of differentiation, suggesting that these Dreyfusia species have recently diverged or require taxonomic revision. All existing published and unpublished reports on natural enemies of D. nordmannianae in its place of origin were reviewed...

  16. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  17. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  18. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  19. Biogeochemical processes in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaye-Haake, B.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ittekkot, V.

    in the northern Indian Ocean’’, and from national research programs of India and Germany con- ducted as a contribution to the international JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea. Addi- tional contributions cover research carried out within India’s Polymetallic... of coccolithophorids in addition to organic carbon and carbonate con- centrations and accumulation rates for a 200ka record Prabhu and Shankar show that glacial stages 2,4 and 6 have had higher productivities in the eastern Arabian Sea at about 151N. They, moreover...

  20. The Evolution of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2001-05-01

    For much of the last 50 million years, high-latitude regions remained too warm to allow snow to accumulate and form ice sheets. Shackleton et al. (1984) published a landmark paper correlating the first occurrence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) observed at Rockall Plateau with a prominent increase in benthic foraminiferal d18O values during the late Pliocene. These late Pliocene to Pleistocene ice sheets were modulated on an orbital frequency and have characterized the global climate over the past 2.6 myr (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Shackleton et al., 1984; Ruddiman, et al., 1986). During the early Pliocene, northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) variations were less significant (Jansen et al., 1993). Our understanding of the Plio-Pleistocene ice sheet cycles can be viewed from two different perspectives. When viewed from the late Pleistocene, the fundamental question is what changed near the early/late Pliocene boundary to produce the large-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2.6 Ma. In contrast, the view from the middle to late Miocene is quite different. Since the pioneering work of Shackleton et al. (1984), the record of NHG has been extended further back in time with drilling in the Norwegian Sea (ODP Leg 104). At Sites 642 and 644, IRD was found throughout the late Miocene and back to ~12 Ma. More recent drilling in the high northern latitudes occurred on ODP Leg 151. Site 909 recovered a middle Miocene section from the Fram Straits with rounded quartz grains that were interpreted as IRD (Wolf-Welling et al., 1996). Age estimates for those sediments place the first northern hemisphere ice sheets at least as old as 14 Ma. The occurrence of sand-sized particles (>1000 μm) and coal below this level indicates the possibility of glacial activity in the Northern Hemisphere as early as 16 Ma. Thus, the late Pliocene to Pleistocene cycles appear to be the resumption of the glacial-interglacial pattern that began during the Miocene. While the Miocene ice

  1. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  2. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  3. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  4. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  5. The Use of Biotin to Demonstrate Immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting, and Dot Blots in University Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas James; Knighton, Ronald; Chuck, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Immunological detection of proteins is an essential method to demonstrate to undergraduate biology students, however, is often difficult in resource and time poor student laboratory sessions. This method describes a failsafe method to rapidly and economically demonstrate this technique using biotinylated proteins or biotin itself as targets for…

  6. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Althaf I.; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Bhullar, Vinod B.; Beer, Brigitte E.; Vallet, Dominique; Gautier-Hion, Annie; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Karesh, William B.; Kilbourn, Annelisa M.; Tooze, Zeena; Heneine, Walid; Switzer, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to NHPs. Current serologic detection of SFV infection requires separate Western blot (WB) testing by using two different SFV antigens [SFV AGM (African green monkey) and SFV CPZ (chimpanzee)]. However, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small numbers of NHPs. To facilitate serologic SFV testing, we developed a WB assay that combines antigens from both SFV AGM and SFV CPZ . The combined-antigen WB (CA-WB) assay was validated with 145 serum samples from 129 NHPs (32 African and Asian species) and 16 humans, all with known SFV infection status determined by PCR. Concordant CA-WB results were obtained for all 145 PCR-positive or -negative primate and human specimens, giving the assay a 100% sensitivity and specificity. In addition, no reactivity was observed in sera from persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus or human T cell lymphotropic virus (HIV/HTLV) (n = 25) or HIV/HTLV-negative U.S. blood donors (n = 100). Using the CA-WB assay, we screened 360 sera from 43 Old World primate species and found an SFV prevalence of about 68% in both African and Asian primates. We also isolated SFV from the blood of four seropositive primates (Allenopithecus nigroviridis, Trachypithecus francoisi, Hylobates pileatus, and H. leucogenys) not previously known to be infected with SFV. Phylogenetic analysis of integrase sequences from these isolates confirmed that all four SFVs represent new, distinct, and highly divergent lineages. These results demonstrate the ability of the CA-WB assay to detect infection in a large number of NHP species, including previously uncharacterized infections with divergent SFVs

  7. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  9. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  10. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  11. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.U.Z.; Malik, I.A.; Hassan, Z.U.; Hannan, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1993-01-01

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  13. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  14. Uranium Stakeholder Engagement in Northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggitt, P., E-mail: p.waggitt@iaea.org [Darwin, NT (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia’s Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust, an association of traditional owners, was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth’s Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other

  15. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATIZATION, COPULATIVES, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFERENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES

    Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho. Vir aanleerders van Noord-Sotho as tweede of vreemde taal is die kopulatief waarskynlik die mees komplekse grammatiese sisteem om te bemeester. Die enkoderende behoeftes van sulke aanleerders, dit is om genoegsame inligting in woordeboeke te verkry ten einde kopulatiewe in spraak en skrif aktief te kan gebruik, word nie bevredig in beskikbare woordeboeke nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho en om gidsinskrywings voor te hou wat as modelle kan dien vir

  16. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admis-sions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Objective: This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern ...

  17. Conflicts in Northern Ghana: Search for Solutions, Stakeholders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Northern Ghana that have drawn national attention, most of which were/are violent. It ... analysis of four case studies on the northern Ghana conflicts. ...... It will also be necessary to consider sponsorship of research and studies in ... more important to keep communications flows and avoid the creation of suspicion and.

  18. ACHP | Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Publications arrow Intro: Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico Perspectives Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern information Heritage tourism offers a triple benefit to communities—it promotes the preservation of their

  19. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  20. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  1. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  2. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  3. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "extra" as the learner's active vocabulary is reinforced during look-up activities. As pointed out by Potgieter (2012: ... become part and parcel of the Northern Sotho vocabulary. Through this the dictionary is ..... ising the acquisition and fostering of a deeper knowledge of Northern Sotho in the future. In the words of Landau ...

  4. Northern Sotho grammatical descriptions: the design of a tokeniser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Northern Sotho uses the disjunctive method of writing, it creates difficulties for the morphological analyser to correctly analyse Northern Sotho verbs. In order to overcome this obstacle a tokeniser, which could isolate verbs from raw texts, needs to be created. The verbal element a ka be a se a re šadišetša 'he had not ...

  5. Adverbial descriptions in Northern Sotho | Pretorius | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important language strategies, such as the use of auxiliary word groups and ideophones in expressing adverbial meanings are, to a great extent, neglected in most popular Northern Sotho grammars. Owing to the fact that in most cases, no one-to-one lexical equivalence exists between Northern Sotho and for instance ...

  6. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  7. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  8. The Lemmatisation of adverbs in northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, ...

  9. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  10. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  11. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  12. APPLE MANGO VALUE CHAIN IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern ... development agencies, donors and NGOs are ... Apple Mango Value Chain in Northern Ethiopia: Case Study of Mereb-Leke District. 17 ... of the districts in the Tigray Regional State of ... city, Axum and Rama town, respectively and 5 and.

  13. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, January 26, 2012 from 11... Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving...

  14. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Male Infertility in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the perceptions of male infertility in northern Botswana and their implications for efficacious family planning and AIDS prevention programmes in the country. HIV rates are rapidly increasing in northern Botswana and it is estimated that nearly 30% of the population are infected. A significant factor in ...

  15. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-06-01

    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  17. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  18. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  19. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  20. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  1. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  2. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  3. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  4. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D.G. [Yellowknife, North West Territories (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  6. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  7. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and northern plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, A; Punkkinen, R

    1981-01-01

    Convincing quantitative data have recently been published about the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by certain plants. Several qualitative pieces of evidence were found suggesting similar ability in northern plants. The volume fraction of NO/sub 2/ in the air, Phi, was measured at Kevo (70/sup 0/N, 27/sup 0/E). The Saltzman method was used, with a continuously recording detector, especially developed for measurements below the usual analytical limit of this method (0.005 ppm). The systematic error of Phi was estimated to be less than 50%. In general, Phi did not vary much with time. However, when the recorder of the atmospheric electric field at the adjacent Meteorological Station of Kevo once rose up to 4 times the normal value, the Phi-curve simultaneously rose momentarily. By using the measured value of anti-Phi, the annual uptake of NO/sub 2/-nitrogen by plants in the region of Kevo was estimated to be about 0.1 g(N)m/sup -2/ for a canopy of pines and lichens, and about 0.001 g(N)m/sup -2/ for plants at the tops of low mountains. In terms of dry weight of lichens, the uptake rate would be of the order of 0.1 ..mu..g(N)h/sup -1/ (g dry weight)/sup -1/, based on independent measurements. These amount are of the same order of magnitude as the yields of biological nitrogen fixation by lichens in corresponding conditions. A direct experimental study of the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by northern plants seems very desirable and readily feasible.

  8. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  9. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  10. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  11. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  12. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  13. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  14. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  15. WIND SPEED Monitoring in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The wind regime of Russia varies a great deal due to the large size of the country's territory and variety of climate and terrain conditions. Changes in the regime of surface wind are of great practical importance. They can affect heat and water balance. Strong wind is one of the most hazardous meteorological event for various sectors of economy and for infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to monitoring wind speed change in Northern Eurasia At meteorological stations wind speed and wind direction are measured at the height of 10-12 meters over the land surface with the help of wind meters or wind wanes. Calculations were made on the basis of data for the period of 1980-2015. It allowed the massive scale disruption of homogeneity to be eliminated and sufficient period needed to obtain sustainable statistic characteristics to be retained. Data on average and maximum wind speed measured at 1457 stations of Russia were used. The analysis of changes in wind characteristics was made on the basis of point data and series of average characteristics obtained for 18 quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Statistical characteristics (average and maximum values of wind speed, prevailing wind direction, values of the boundary of the 90%, 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed) were obtained for all seasons and for the year as a whole. Values of boundaries of the 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed were considered as indicators of extremeness of the wind regime. The trend of changes in average and maximum wind speed was assessed with a linear trend coefficient. A special attention was paid to wind changes in the Arctic where dramatic changes in surface air temperature and sea ice extent and density have been observed during the past decade. The analysis of the results allowed seasonal and regional features of changes in the wind regime on the territory of the northern part of Eurasia to be

  16. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  17. Cryptostroma corticale in the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria OLIVEIRA LONGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostroma corticale was observed on declining trees of Acer pseudoplatanus L. at Montovolo, a mountain site located in the northern Apennines, Italy. Morphological and biomolecular analyses confirmed the presence of the fungus in affected trees, which has not yet been officially described as occurring in Italy. No damage by the pathogen was observed on other species of Acer in the affected area, while drought–related decline symptoms were present on Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia near the affected site, confirming the possible role of climate and especially repeated drought periods in the appearance of the problem. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  18. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  19. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  20. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  1. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Hurowitz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  2. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Evan H; Drori, Iddo; Stodden, Victoria C; Donoho, David L; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-05-23

    We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale. We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs) tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast. Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  3. Atmospheric mercury in Sweden, Northern Finland and Northern Europe. Results from national monitoring and European research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waengberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury concentrations and mercury fluxes measured during the period 1995 to 1999 at the AMAP master station of Pallas, a remote station in Northern Finland, and at Roervik an EMEP station located on the west coast of Sweden are reported. The results are discussed and compared with atmospheric mercury data generated within the EU-project, Mercury over Europe (MOE). Total particulate mercury exhibit a strong south to north gradient with the highest concentrations in the south, near source areas in Central Europe. Mercury in precipitation also exhibits a south to north gradient.

  4. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  5. Northern Edge Navajo Casino, Fruitland, NM: NN0030343

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030343) to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Northern Edge Navajo Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility, 2752 Indian Service Road 36, Fruitland, NM.

  6. Can IVF save the northern white rhino from extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    As the last male northern white rhino is euthanased, leaving just two females - his daughter and granddaughter - what is the future for this subspecies? Sophie Ingledew explains. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock during the decade ... with comments on the relative importance of fishing and the environment. ... Survey-based recruitment indices suggest that the changes in the 1990s were ...

  8. BOKO HARAM IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A MAUDUDIAN LEGACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    The title is Religious Fundamentalism in Northern. Nigeria: An ... intellectual awareness characterized by preaching, teaching, and writing of .... theory of modern jahiliyya. When he ..... thesis on mainstream Muslim opinion” (1991, 3). The Boko ...

  9. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  10. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  11. Climate of the northern Indian Ocean and associated productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Gopinathan, C.K.

    The climatic factors likely to influence the phytoplankton production in the northern Indian Ocean are examined. The major cause for the high productivity of the Arabian Sea is the nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone by upwelling especially off...

  12. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  13. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  14. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  15. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  16. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... as an important source of employment and food security for rural residents. ... Researchers will explore past impacts and future risks of floods and droughts on farms ... Survey of climate-related risks to tilapia pond farms in Northern Thailand.

  17. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  18. Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sin 08003, Barcelona Spain. Received 22 August 1988; ... The presence of Lesueurigobius sanzoi (de Buen, 1918) on the continental shelf off northern ..... Perfiles de temperatura del Sudoeste de.

  19. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  20. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  1. Colonic microbiota signatures across five northern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay, C.; Rigottier-Gois, L.; Holmstrom, K.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Collins, M.D.; Thiel, R.; Namsolleck, P.; Blaut, M.; Dore, J.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the colonic microbiota of 91 northern Europeans was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 18 phylogenetic probes. On average 75% of the bacteria were identified, and large interindividual variations were observed. Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum

  2. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  3. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  5. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  7. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  8. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of young girls at a severe ... to boost female enrolment in junior secondary schools, create girl-friendly school ..... Mortality, Fertility and Gender Bias in India: A District.

  9. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  10. Key Lake human resources and northern business initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, R.; McIntyre, J.; McInnes, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Key Lake Operation is committed to a policy of maximizing Saskatchewan, and particularly northern Saskatchewan, employment and business opportunities. The participation rate of northern people in the Key Lake operation's workforce has risen from 23.8% in 1983, to 42% today. Cameco's objective is to achieve 50% representation of residents of Saskatchewan's north in the Key Lake workforce by 1995. The company also extends this strategic objective to contractors. All contractors are required to maximize employment opportunities for residents of Saskatchewan's north, and report employment levels to the company as a condition of the contract. Today, contractors at the Key Lake site have achieved a northern participation rate of 47%. This paper highlights strategies for increasing northern/aboriginal participation and provides several examples of successes from these initiatives. (author)

  11. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby eMoore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris (NES are known to be deep, long-duration divers and to sustain long-repeated patterns of breath-hold, or apnea. Some phocid dives remain within the bounds of aerobic metabolism, accompanied by physiological responses inducing lung compression, bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction. Current data suggest an absence of type IIb fibers in pinniped locomotory musculature. To date, no fiber type data exist for NES, a consummate deep diver. In this study, NES were biopsied in the wild. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle were revealed through succinate dehydrogenase (SDH based fiber typing. Results indicated a predominance of uniformly shaped, large type I fibers and elevated myoglobin (Mb concentrations in the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of adults. No type II muscle fibers were detected in any adult sampled. This was in contrast to the juvenile animals that demonstrated type II myosin in Western Blot analysis, indicative of an ontogenetic change in skeletal muscle with maturation. These data support previous hypotheses that the absence of type II fibers indicates reliance on aerobic metabolism during dives, as well as a depressed metabolic rate and low energy locomotion. We also suggest that the lack of type IIb fibers (adults may provide a protection against ischemia reperfusion (IR injury in vasoconstricted peripheral skeletal muscle.

  12. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  13. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  14. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  15. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  16. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  17. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Amalie V.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Herzke, Dorte; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope tha...

  18. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  19. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  20. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marnie; MacDougall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and Metis learners. Results demonstrate that

  1. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  2. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...

  3. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage...

  4. Climate change impacts in Northern Canada: Assessing our current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.J.; Eamer, J. [Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Munier, A.; Ogden, A. [Yukon College, Northern Climate ExChange, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Duerden, F. [Ryerson University, School of Applied Geography, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hik, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fox, S.; Riedlinger, D.; Thorpe, N. [GeoNorth Limited, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Johnson, I.; Jensen, M. [Legend Seekers Anthropological Research, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A research project by the Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, undertaken to bring together into one document all relevant information that will help facilitate the identification of priorities for climate change research, monitoring, technological development and policy development in Canada's North, is described. In addition to the report, project deliverables also include a database of climate change information sources and a database of northern climate change contacts. The review includes scientific, local and Traditional Knowledge sources relating to climate change about each of seventeen natural and human systems (e.g. boreal forests, community health, mining, etc.), synthesized into a table for each system, with projected environmental changes crossed in matrix format with system components. Each cross-relationship was given a ranking; supporting information was included, based on the current state of knowledge of that relationship. In general, current information concerning northern systems, predicted climate changes and the impacts of those changes on northern systems is poor. However, much information does exist and the gap analysis revealed a number of general patterns relating to this information. Clearly, more research is required throughout northern Canada, but in particular, in the eastern Arctic, to provide a greater understanding of the implications of climate changes across the North, and to aid in the development of finer-scale, regional circulation models resulting in better predictive capacity of climate change and its impacts on northern areas.

  5. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  6. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  7. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  8. Uranium deposits: northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reade, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Fox Hills Sandstone and the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous) are the host rocks for uranium deposits in Weld County, northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado. The uranium deposits discovered in the Grover and Sand Creek areas occur in well-defined north--south trending channel sandstones of the Laramie Formation whereas the sandstone channel in the upper part of the Fox Hills Sandstone trends east--west. Mineralization was localized where the lithology was favorable for uranium accumulation. Exploration was guided by log interpretation methods similar to those proposed by Bruce Rubin for the Powder River basin, Wyoming, because alteration could not be readily identified in drilling samples. The uranium host rocks consist of medium- to fine-grained carbonaceous, feldspathic fluvial channel sandstones. The uranium deposits consist of simple to stacked roll fronts. Reserve estimates for the deposits are: (1) Grover 1,007,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.14 percent eU 3 O 8 ,2) Sand Creek 154,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.08 percent eU 3 O 8 , and 3) The Pawnee deposit 1,060,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.07 percent eU 3 O 8 . The configuration of the geochemical cells in the Grover and Sand Creek sandstones indicate that uraniferous fluids moved northward whereas in the Pawnee sandstone of the Fox Hills uraniferous fluids moved southward. Precipitation of uranium in the frontal zone probably was caused by downdip migration of oxygcnated groundwater high in uranium content moving through a favorable highly carbonaceous and pyritic host sandstone

  9. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  10. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  11. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  12. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  13. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  14. Child malnutrition in Tigray, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, A; Hagos, F; Kruseman, G; Linderhof, V; Stoecker, B; Abraha, Z; Yohannes, M; Samuel, G G

    2010-06-01

    Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey. Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected households were included. Among the children surveyed, 46.9%, 33.0% and 11.6% were stunted,underweight and wasted, respectively. Older children were more likely to be undernourished. Stunting increases from 16% in the second half of the first year to 53% in children 24 months and older. Similarly, underweight increases from 10% in the first six months to 36.5% in children aged 24 months and older. A very high proportion of the mothers (80%) initiated feeding of newborns with pre-lacteal feeds primarily butter or water. Family foods and cereal-based porridge were the main complementary foods after six months. Child age, maternal anthropometric characteristics, inadequate complementary foods, the use of prelacteal feeds and area of residence were the main contributing factors to child undernutrition. Undernutrition gets worse as the children grow older. The energy and nutrient density of the complementary foods are low as the foods were prepared from a limited number of local staple cereals without the addition of sugar, fat/oil or animal products. More importantly, these foods are diluted with water to reduce their viscosity. This makes the quality and quantity of the foods insufficient to prevent stunting and underweight. Promotion of traditional household technologies such as germination and fermentation may be affordable measures to improve the quality of the complementary foods. Thus, sustained nutrition education programmes focusing on appropriate complementary feeding practices are recommended.

  15. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  16. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  17. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  18. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  19. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  20. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  1. Women and development in Northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C T

    1985-07-01

    Northern Belize, composed of Orange Walk and Corozal districts, is the sugar-producing region of Belize, a newly independent country on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and because of the extensive involvement in the modern sugar industry, existing status differentials in Orange Walk have increased. Town farmers have increased their sugarcane license sizes more than villagers and also are much more likely to meet or exceed their delivery quotas than villagers. There has been the differentiation of a new middle socioeconomic stratum in Orange Walk, with a much higher proportion of villagers remaining in the lower stratum than townspeople. With greater involvement in the market economy, there has been a decline in the social integration of groups in the district as well as less symbiosis between husband and wife and among related male age mates. Some people now consistently work for others; there was an egalitarian labor exchange before. With the decline in subsistence production, the extensive reciprocity in food among related women diminishes. Women have participated in the overall changes in Orange Walk, yet their position vis-a-vis men has become weaker. Women are most likely to hold licenses in the communities that participated earliest in the sugar industry and that are the most traditional. With greater market involvement, women become less likely to hold licenses. Women's licenses have not increased to the same degree as those of men. And, with the income from sugar and wage labor, the family income is more and more viewed as belonging to men, rather than being the result of a joint family enterprise. Women become dependent on what men give them, with less control and security. With declining subsistence production, women have a reduced basis of involvement in traditional reciprocal food exchanges with other households. They lose some independent sources of money income with the result of increasing undernutrition for young children. The economic

  2. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  3. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka

    2008-01-01

    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  4. Geomorphology and landscape organization of a northern peatland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The geomorphic evolution of northern peatlands is governed by complex ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and associated hydro-climatic drivers. For example, prevailing models of bog development (i.e. Ingram's groundwater mounding hypothesis and variants) attempt to explicitly link bog dome characteristics to the regional climate based on analytical and numerical models of lateral groundwater flow and the first-order control of water table position on rates of peat accumulation. In this talk I will present new results from quantitative geomorphic analyses of a northern peatland complex at the De Beers Victor diamond mine site in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of northern Ontario. This work capitalizes on spatially-extensive, high-resolution topographic (LiDAR) data to rigorously test analytical and numerical models of bog dome development in this landscape. The analysis and discussion are then expanded beyond individual bog formations to more broadly consider ecohydrological drivers of landscape organization, with implications for understanding and modeling catchment-scale runoff response. Results show that in this landscape, drainage patterns exhibit relatively well-organized characteristics consistent with observed runoff responses in six gauged research catchments. Interpreted together, the results of these geomorphic and hydrologic analyses help refine our understanding of water balance partitioning among different landcover types within northern peatland complexes. These findings can be used to help guide the development of appropriate numerical model structures for hydrologic prediction in ungauged peatland basins of northern Canada.

  5. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  6. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  7. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care.

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  9. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  10. Study of the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerefos, C.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, D.; Ganev, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at a detailed study and explanation of the pollution transport in the air basin over South-Western Bulgaria and Northern Greece and assessment of the air pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Greece. Some well known specific climatic air pollution effects were studied and explained. Calculations were made of the S0 2 pollution of the Balkan peninsula from both Greek and Bulgarian sources for 1995 and the country to country pollution budget diagrams were build. Days with extreme mean concentration for Bulgaria and Northern Greece were picked out and some further specification of the contribution of the different sources in both the countries to these cases of extreme pollution was made. Some preliminary studies of possible mesoscale effects on the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and northern Greece were carried out. A three-layer pollution transport model with more complex chemistry block was introduced and some preliminary simulations of Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds transport were performed. (author)

  11. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  12. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  14. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  15. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  16. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K.; Huttunen, S.; Kauppi, M.; Ohtonen, R.; Laehdesmaeki, P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  17. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K; Huttunen, S; Kauppi, M; Ohtonen, R; Laehdesmaeki, P [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  18. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  19. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  20. Late quaternary faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Fennoscandia, with particular reference to the Lansjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many fault scarps, interpreted as post- or late-glacial in age, occur in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Finland and Norway. In the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden attempts have been made to date fault displacement relative to the glacial and postglacial stratigraphy by trenching across some of these fault scarps. It is shown that the faulting occurred soon after the local deglaciation some 9000 years ago. There are no signs of movements since that time. The faulting was obviously associated with violent earthquakes because seismically induced phenomena, dating from the same period as the faulting, are frequently found in the vicinity. Numerous landslides, developed in glacial till, occur in the same region as the faults and different types of seismites (seismically-induced sediment deformation) were found when actively sought for. It is concluded that several earthquakes of high magnitudes occurred in northern Fennoscandia during the vanishing of the inland ice sheet. (author)

  1. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  2. A comparison of various "housekeeping" probes for northern analysis of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J R; Huang, D; Adams, M E

    1999-01-01

    Several approaches are commonly used to normalize variations in RNA loading on Northern blots, including: ethidium bromide (EthBr) fluorescence of 18S or 28S rRNA or autoradiograms of radioactive probes hybridized with constitutively expressed RNAs such as elongation factor-1alpha (ELF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), actin, 18S or 28S rRNA, or others. However, in osteoarthritis (OA) the amount of total RNA changes significantly and none of these RNAs has been clearly demonstrated to be expressed at a constant level, so it is unclear if any of these approaches can be used reliably for normalizing RNA extracted from osteoarthritic cartilage. Total RNA was extracted from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage and assessed by EthBr fluorescence. RNA was then transferred to a nylon membrane hybridized with radioactive probes for ELF, G3PDH, Max, actin, and an oligo-dT probe. The autoradiographic signal across the six lanes of a gel was quantified by scanning densitometry. When compared on the basis of total RNA, the coefficient of variation was lowest for 28S ethidium bromide fluorescence and oligo-dT (approximately 7%), followed by 18S ethidium bromide fluorescence and G3PDH (approximately 13%). When these values were normalized to DNA concentration, the coefficient of variation exceeded 50% for all signals. Total RNA and the signals for 18S, 28S rRNA, and oligo-dT all correlated highly. These data indicate that osteoarthritic chondrocytes express similar ratios of mRNA to rRNA and mRNA to total RNA as do normal chondrocytes. Of all the "housekeeping" probes, G3PDH correlated best with the measurements of RNA. All of these "housekeeping" probes are expressed at greater levels by osteoarthritic chondrocytes when compared with normal chondrocytes. Thus, while G3PDH is satisfactory for evaluating the amount of RNA loaded, its level of expression is not the same in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

  3. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  4. Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern Nigeria. ... Results: Although there were marked individual variations with 16.7% of individuals demonstrating fasting ... Key Words: Plasma Insulin, northern Nigeria Annals of ...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  7. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  8. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  9. Impact of maize storage on rural household food security in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    security in Northern Kwazulu-Natal1 ... incidence of hunger is high among rural South African .... FARMERS IN THREE STUDY DISTRICTS OF NORTHERN KWAZULU-NATAL, 1999 (N = 134) ... Three goats equaled one head of cattle. Calves ...

  10. Compression and Processing of Space Image Sequences of Northern Lights and Sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Martins, Bo; Jensen, Ole Riis

    1999-01-01

    Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated.......Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated....

  11. Landslide inventory and susceptibility modelling using geospatial tools, in Hunza-Nagar valley, northern Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacha, Alam Sher; Shafique, Muhammad; van der Werff, H.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory and susceptibility maps are prerequisite for developing and implementing landslide mitigation strategies. Landslide susceptibility maps for the landslides prone regions in northern Pakistan are rarely available. The Hunza-Nagar valley in northern Pakistan is known

  12. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  13. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of northern part of Algeria based on the theory of ... north to south: 1) coastal Tel – fertile, high cultivated and sown zone; 2) territory of Atlas. Mountains ... In the first case the empiric dependence between maximum intensity of precipitation for some calculation ...

  14. The Current State of Reproductive Health in Rural Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...

  15. Field Simulation of Global Change: Transplanting Northern Bog Mesocosms Southward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of northern peatlands consists of Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs. In these bogs, peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants occur in an apparent stable equilibrium, thereby sustaining the carbon sink function of the bog ecosystem. How global warming and increased nitrogen

  16. Islamic criminal law in northern Nigeria: politics, religion, judicial practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimann, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001, twelve northern states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria introduced Islamic criminal law as one of a number of measures aiming at "reintroducing the shari'a." Immediately after its adoption, defendants were sentenced to death by stoning or to amputation of the hand. Apart from a

  17. SITUATION OF THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO HAVE CONSTITUTED ONE OF THE UNRECOGNIZED DISADVANTAGED GROUPS. PER CAPITA INCOME IS LOW AND THE RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE ARE HIGH. THE CAUSES OF THE PRESENT SITUATION ARE--(1) LOSS OF LAND, (2) CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES, (3) NON-PROVISION OF ADEQUATE PROGRAMS TO…

  18. Language of power: Pidgin in the colonial governance of Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notably, British colonial authorities adopted pidgin as a language of government in Northern Nigeria, as they lacked a wider medium for inter-ethnic communication. African political agents were employed as intermediaries, based on their knowledge of pidgin and other local languages, enabling them bridge communication ...

  19. Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...

  20. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  1. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  2. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  3. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  4. Hunting and fishing settlements in Upernavik district of Northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Inuit in the Upernavik district of Northern Greenland has in generations used the winter sea ice as the basis for the essential hunting of seals, white- and narwhales. Since the late 1980’ies hunting has been combined with increasing fishery of Greenland halibut during summer from dinghies and in...

  5. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  6. Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Uganda. Insecticide application practices among cotton growers in northern Uganda were examined to determine the pests targeted and the compliance of control measures with the standards recommended by the Uganda's Cotton Development Organization ...

  7. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  8. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  9. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  10. The use of the Arabic script in northern Mozambique | Bonate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Mozambican Muslim population has been using the Arabic script for writing in KiSwahili and local African languages for centuries. Even today, many people continue using this script in private correspondence. Despite the abundance of the documents in this script that are housed at the Mozambique Historical ...

  11. Genetic diversity in Cucurbita pepo landraces from northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram mainly grouped the populations according to their mature fruit colour, and then according to their geographical origin. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in C. pepo landraces of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Key words: Cucurbita pepo landraces, genetic ...

  12. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  13. It's Not an Exact Science: Teaching Entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the approach to embedding entrepreneurship within third level education in Northern Ireland by assessing the perceptions of lecturers and learners and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching methods. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys and focus groups were conducted with lecturers and learners…

  14. NEW RECORD OF DOLICHOPODA FROM NORTHERN IRAN (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The record of a new sample of Dolichopoda from Northern Iran is reported. The morphological study of this material allowed the authors to attribute the studied specimens to D. Hyrcana Bey-Bienko, 1969, whose geographic distribution now extends eastwards to the Alborz Mountains in North Iran.

  15. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  16. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  17. Heating and dehumidification in production greenhouses at northern latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.; Zwart, De H.F.; Munoz, P.; Montero, J.I.; Baptista, F.J.; Giuffrida, F.; Gilli, Celine; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Stanghellini, C.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of greenhouses in northern latitudes are heated, in the winter mainly for temperature control and year round to control humidity. Heating is accepted by most organic regulations in different countries; if heating efficiently and the energy source is predominantly renewable energy,

  18. Chlorine activation and ozone destruction in the northern lowermost stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Bregman, A; Scheeren, HA; Strom, J; Carslaw, KS; Fischer, H; Siegmund, PC; Arnold, F

    1999-01-01

    We report aircraft measurements from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) II campaign, performed during February 1995 from Kiruna, northern Sweden, near 67 degrees N latitude. We have measured trace species, e.g., O-3, nitrogen compounds, HCl, hydrocarbons, CO,

  19. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  20. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape