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Sample records for northern alberta canada

  1. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  2. The stable isotopes of site wide waters at an oil sands mine in northern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Thomas; Barbour, S. Lee; Gibson, John J.

    2016-10-01

    Oil sands mines have large disturbance footprints and contain a range of new landforms constructed from mine waste such as shale overburden and the byproducts of bitumen extraction such as sand and fluid fine tailings. Each of these landforms are a potential source of water and chemical release to adjacent surface and groundwater, and consequently, the development of methods to track water migration through these landforms is of importance. The stable isotopes of water (i.e. 2H and 18O) have been widely used in hydrology and hydrogeology to characterize surface water/groundwater interactions but have not been extensively applied in mining applications, or specifically to oil sands mining in northern Alberta. A prerequisite for applying these techniques is the establishment of a Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) to characterize precipitation at the mine sites as well as the development of a 'catalogue' of the stable water isotope signatures of various mine site waters. This study was undertaken at the Mildred Lake Mine Site, owned and operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. The LMWL developed from 2 years (2009/2012) of sample collection is shown to be consistent with other LMWLs in western Canada. The results of the study highlight the unique stable water isotope signatures associated with hydraulically placed tailings (sand or fluid fine tailings) and overburden shale dumps relative to natural surface water and groundwater. The signature associated with the snow melt water on reclaimed landscapes was found to be similar to ground water recharge in the region. The isotopic composition of the shale overburden deposits are also distinct and consistent with observations made by other researchers in western Canada on undisturbed shales. The process water associated with the fine and coarse tailings streams has highly enriched 2H and 18O signatures. These signatures are developed through the non-equilibrium fractionation of imported fresh river water during evaporation from

  3. Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Appleby, Peter G.; Bicalho, Beatriz; Davies, Lauren; Froese, Duane; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Krachler, Michael; Magnan, Gabriel; Mullan-Boudreau, Gillian; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Shannon, Bob; Bellen, Simon; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Peat cores were collected from six bogs in northern Alberta to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric deposition of Pb, a valuable tracer of human activities. In each profile, the maximum Pb enrichment is found well below the surface. Radiometric age dating using three independent approaches (14C measurements of plant macrofossils combined with the atmospheric bomb pulse curve, plus 210Pb confirmed using the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am) showed that Pb contamination has been in decline for decades. Today, the surface layers of these bogs are comparable in composition to the "cleanest" peat samples ever found in the Northern Hemisphere, from a Swiss bog ~ 6000 to 9000 years old. The lack of contemporary Pb contamination in the Alberta bogs is testimony to successful international efforts of the past decades to reduce anthropogenic emissions of this potentially toxic metal to the atmosphere.

  4. Generation of Hot Water from Hot-Dry for Heavy-Oil Recovery in Northern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of prior applications of hot-dry-rock (HDR) technology was mostly aimed at generating electricity. In northern Alberta, the thermal gradient is low and, therefore, this technology is not suitable for electricity generation. On the other hand, the cost of steam and hot water, and environmental impacts, are becoming critical issues in heavy-oil and bitumen recovery in Alberta. Surface generation of steam or hot-water accounts for six percent of Canada's natural gas consumption and about 50 million tons of CO2 emission. Lowered cost and environmental impacts are critical in the widespread use of steam (for in-situ recovery) and hot-water (for surface extraction of bitumen) in this region. This paper provides an extensive analysis of hot-water generation to be used in heavy-oil/bitumen recovery. We tested different modeling approaches used to determine the amount of energy produced during HDR by history matching to example field data. The most suitable numerical and analytical models were used to apply the data obtained from different regions containing heavy-oil/bitumen deposits in northern Alberta. The heat generation capacity of different regions was determined and the use of this energy (in the form of hot-water) for surface extraction processes was evaluated. Original temperature gradients were applied as well as realistic basement formation characteristics through an extensive hydro thermal analysis in the region including an experimental well drilled to the depth of 2,500m. Existing natural fractures and possible hydraulic fracturing scenarios were evaluated from the heat generation capacity and the economics points of view. The main problem was modeling difficulties, especially determination and representation of fracture network characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the selected high temperature gradient regions in Alberta. In this practice, the characteristics of hydraulic fractures, injection rate, depth, the distance between

  5. Environmental Control of Net Ecosystem Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Contrasting Peatlands in northern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, K. H.; Carlson, P. J.; Glenn, A. J.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2004-12-01

    Peatlands cover about 21 per cent of the landscape and contain about 80 per cent of the soil carbon stock in western Canada. However, the current rates of carbon accumulation and the environmental controls on ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration in peatland ecosystems is poorly understood. As part of Fluxnet-Canada, we continuously measured net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) using the eddy covariance technique in a treed fen (main site) dominated by stunted black spruce and larch trees during August 2003 through July 2004. Additional NEE measurements were made at two auxiliary sites during intervals in the active growing season (May through September 2004). One auxiliary site was dominated by Sphagnum moss, while the dominant species at other site were Carex and brown mosses. The NEE measurements were used to develop statistical models to assess temporal variation in physiological parameters for ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration. Large seasonal changes occurred in maximum photosynthetic capacity and standardized ecosystem respiration rate at 10 degrees C (R10). The mid-day NEE uptake rate during July averaged 10 μ mol m-2 s-1 at the main site, while lower values of approximately 6 μ mol m-2 s-1 were observed at the two auxiliary sites. No photosynthetic activity was observed during mid-November through mid-March. On an annual basis R10 varied from less than 0.5 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the winter to approximately 3 μ mol m-2 s-1 during August at the main site. During much of the growing season, a distinct hysteresis was observed in the light (photon flux density, PFD) response curves for NEE between morning and afternoon periods. This was caused by large diurnal changes in temperature, which at times resulted in the light compensation point for NEE shifting from a PFD of 100 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the morning to 350 μ mol m-2 s-1 in the afternoon. The main site recorded a net annual gain of 160 g C m-2 yr-1, the result of a difference between gross

  6. The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Hemoglobinopathy Patients in Northern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau-Bourque, Catherine; Bruce, Aisha A K

    2015-11-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate epidemiologic data reflecting the number of hemoglobinopathy patients are lacking in Canada. Immigration patterns are shifting such that regions where these diseases were rare are seeing a rapid population expansion, revealing a gap in the health care system and the need for a public health response. To understand the epidemiology of pediatric hemoglobinopathy patients given the provincial population growth and immigration patterns, a retrospective chart review was conducted at the Stollery Children's Hospital from January 2004 to July 2014. A total of 88% of patients had sickle cell disease; 55% of patients were Canadian born and 63% of families originated from Africa. There was a 3.5-fold increase in patient numbers with acceleration in patient accrual over the study period and a delay in diagnosis in 70% of patients. There was a significant increase in the number of hospitalizations over the study period. Thirteen percent required at least 1 exchange transfusion, 16% received chronic transfusions, and 30% of patients developed at least 1 severe complication related to their diagnosis. It is imperative to demonstrate the growing hemoglobinopathy population and changing health care requirements to advocate for appropriate resources, educate health care providers, and increase awareness.

  7. Spatial Enhancement of MODIS-based Images of Leaf Area Index: Application to the Boreal Forest Region of Northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P.-A. Bourque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the most commonly used ecological variables in describing forests. Since 2000, 1-km resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-based 8-day composites of LAI have been operationally available from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, USA, at no cost to the user. In this paper, we present a simple protocol to enhance the spatial resolution of NASA-produced LAI composites to 250-m resolution. This is done by fusing MODIS-based estimates of enhanced vegetation index (EVI, consisting of 16-day 250-m resolution composites (also from NASA, with estimates of LAI. We apply the protocol to derive 250-m resolution maps of LAI for the boreal forest region of northern Alberta, Canada. Data fusion was possible in this study because of the inherent linear correlation that exists between EVI and LAI for the April to October growing period of 2005–2008, producing r2-values of 0.85–0.95 and p-values < 0.0001. Comparison of MODIS-based LAI with field-based measurements using the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC sensor and LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer showed reasonable agreement across values; statistical comparison of LAI data points produced an r2-value of 0.71 and a p-value < 0.0001. Seventy one percent of MODIS-based LAI were within ±20% of field estimates.

  8. Contrasting responses of growing season ecosystem CO2 exchange to variation in temperature and water table depth in two peatlands in northern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Angela C.; Syed, Kamran H.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    2011-03-01

    The large belowground carbon stocks in northern peatland ecosystems are potentially susceptible to release because of the expected differential responses of photosynthesis and respiration to climate change. This study compared net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measured using the eddy covariance technique at two peatland sites in northern Alberta, Canada, over three growing seasons (May-October). We observed distinct differences between the poor fen (Sphagnum moss dominated) and extreme-rich fen (Carex sedge dominated) sites for their responses of NEE to interannual variation in temperature and water table depth. The rates of growing season cumulative NEE at the poor fen were very similar among the three study years with an average (± standard deviation) of -110.1 ± 0.5 g C m-2 period-1. By contrast, the growing season cumulative NEE at the extreme-rich fen varied substantially among years (-34.5, -153.5, and -41.8 g C m-2 period-1 in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively), and net uptake of CO2 was lower (on average) than at the poor fen. Consistent with the eddy covariance measurements, analysis of 210Pb-dated peat cores also showed higher recent net rates of carbon accumulation in the poor fen than in the rich fen. Warm spring temperatures and sufficient water availability during the growing season resulted in the highest-magnitude ecosystem photosynthesis and NEE at the extreme-rich fen in 2005. Cool spring temperatures limited photosynthesis at the extreme-rich fen in 2004, while reduced water availability (lower water table) in 2006 constrained photosynthetic capacity relative to 2005, despite the warmer spring and summer temperatures in 2006. The combination of contrasting plant functional types and different peat water table features at our two study sites meant that the poor fen showed a reduced response of ecosystem CO2 exchange to environmental variation compared to the extreme-rich fen.

  9. Case study : evaluation of oilfield and water well disposal well designs for oil sands facility in northern Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champollion, Y.; Gleixner, M.R.; Wozniewicz, J. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacFarlane, W.D.; Skulski, L. [Nexen Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater disposal capacity will be required for the production of bitumen at the Long Lake Project, located in northeastern Alberta. An unconsolidated sand aquifer is the target formation for disposal. An evaluation of two disposal well designs, perforated casing (standard oil and gas approach), and wire-wound telescopic screen (standard water well approach) was performed. Skin, transmissivity and storability were the hydraulic parameters quantified. Full superposition type curves were used to conduct the transient analysis, along with the use of pressure derivative data. The results from the injection tests revealed that the sand aquifer at the Long Lake Project had suitable aquifer disposal capacity. The test results also revealed that clogging takes place in the vicinity of the wellbore, probably because of suspended solids in the injection water and the degassing effects. The water well design, as opposed to the standard oilfields well, makes provision for less costly re-development during operations, something that might be required if clogging problems occur. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Echinococcal disease in Alberta, Canada: more than a calcified opacity

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    Bhargava Ravi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of echinococcal disease (ED acquired in Canada are thought to be due to the sylvatic form of Echinococcus granulosus, which may be more benign than ED due to either Echinococcus multilocularis or the pastoral form of E. granulosus. There are limited descriptions of the clinical course and outcome of Canadian patients with ED in the modern era. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed of patients hospitalized with echinococcal disease (ED from 1991 to 2001 in Edmonton, Alberta. Results Forty-two cases of ED were identified of which 19 were definite, 3 probable, and 20 possible. Further analysis was limited to the 22 definite and probable cases, of which 77% were female and 41% aboriginal, with an age range of 5 to 87 years. Nine patients (40% had pulmonary involvement and 11 (50% hepatic involvement. One patient had an intracardiac mass presenting as a cerebrovascular event and one had a splenic cyst. Seven of the 22 patients had combined surgical resection and medical treatment, six had surgical resection of the cyst alone, four had cyst aspiration, one had medical treatment alone and four had no specific treatment. There was no mortality attributable to ED but three patients died of unrelated illnesses. Conclusion Echinococcal disease in northern Alberta has a marked diversity of clinical presentations, and generally has a good prognosis despite a wide variety of therapeutic interventions.

  11. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  12. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  13. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

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    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  14. Ants and Subterranean Sternorrhyncha in a Native Grassland in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.S. Newton; J. Glasier; H.E.L. Maw; H.C. Proctor; R.G. Foottit

    2011-01-01

    .... Knowledge of host plants for these sternorrhynchans is equally rare. We carried out a plant-based survey of ants and belowground aphids and mealybugs in a native fescue grassland in east-central Alberta, Canada...

  15. Habitat associations with counts of declining Western Grebes in Alberta, Canada

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    Mara E. Erickson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past several decades, numbers of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis have declined throughout their breeding and wintering ranges in North America. We estimated Western Grebe abundance and documented habitat factors between 2007 and 2009 from 43 lakes in Alberta, Canada where Western Grebes historically have occurred, to (1 compare Western Grebe abundance with the relative probability of persistence, and (2 identify habitat correlates of grebe abundance. The relative probability of Western Grebe persistence was correlated with abundance in the study area, although only 19% of the variation in persistence probability was explained by abundance. Western Grebe abundance was positively correlated with the shoreline extent of emergent bulrush (Scirpus lacustris, which is consistent with past studies and underlies the importance of protecting emergent vegetation in efforts to conserve Western Grebes. Grebe abundance also was positively correlated with a longer shoreline perimeter, but was inversely correlated with the amount of forested backshore, which occurred on lakes primarily at the northern margins of Western Grebe range. The amount of backshore development was positively associated with Western Grebe abundance, which might reflect a preference for similar lake characteristics by humans and grebes. These relationships are important to consider in the context of implementing and managing recovery of the Western Grebe in Alberta.

  16. Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government

  17. Alberta, Western Canada and the FTA/NAFTA: 1988-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, S.S.; Chambers, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The sharp improvement in the export performance of Western Canada in recent years was discussed. In 1995, British Columbia ranked first among western provinces in the value of exports, and Alberta ranked second. Shipments from Alberta increased 15.4 per cent in value over 1994. The two provinces account for approximately 80 per cent of Western Canada`s total. A summary was provided of the increased value of exports for certain categories (meat, vegetables, energy, plastics, wood, electrical machinery, furniture, precision instruments); all of these meet the criteria defined for `sustained growth` and `export foothold`. Western Canada`s trade with Mexico was also discussed. All exports from Western Canada were itemized,along with export and U.S. market shares data from 1988 to 1995. 11 tabs.

  18. Prevalence and Incidence of Diagnosed Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Alberta, Canada.

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    Xu, Yuan; Quan, Hude; Faris, Peter; Garies, Stephanie; Liu, Mingfu; Bird, Ceris; Kukec, Edward; Dean, Stafford; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-11-01

    Reported prevalence rates of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) range from 1% to 12% worldwide. To facilitate appropriate health service delivery and resource allocation, it is important to improve the estimated burden of CRS to the health care system. To assess the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed CRS in Alberta, Canada, from the perspective of the health care system and to evaluate the 10-year temporal trend and geographic variation of diagnosed CRS. From provincial-wide physicians' claim data, a CRS cohort was identified using a validated case definition. The population at the midpoint (2008-2009) of the study period (2 925 930) was used as the reference. The crude as well as age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates were calculated. The age-specific incidence and prevalence by sex were also assessed in each study year. Small-area variation analysis was conducted using extremal quotient, weighted coefficient of variation, χ2 statistic, systematic component of variation, and empirical Bayes variance estimate. Of the 2 925 930 individuals in the study at midpoint (2008-2009), 1 451 261 (49.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 45 (17) years. From fiscal year 2004-2005 to fiscal year 2013-2014, the mean age- and sex-standardized incidence of diagnosed CRS was 2.5 (range, 2.3-2.7) per 1000 population. The estimated prevalence based on age-specific incidence varied between 18.8 (95% CI, 18.7-18.9) and 23.3 (95% CI, 23.1-23.5) per 1000 population during 2004-2005 to 2013-2014, and no obvious growing trend was found. There was high geographic variation in the diagnosed incidence and prevalence of CRS (mean systematic component of variation, 19.4 and 12.3, respectively). Although the incidence and prevalence rates of diagnosed CRS were lower compared with earlier published estimates obtained from population-based survey analysis, outcomes from this study may more accurately reflect the disease burden of CRS to the health care system. Given

  19. Noble gases in CH 4-rich gas fields, Alberta, Canada

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    Hiyagon, H.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1992-04-01

    The elemental and isotopic compositions of helium, neon, argon, and xenon in twenty-one CH 4-rich natural gas samples from Cretaceous and Devonian reservoirs in the Alberta, Canada, sedimentary basin were measured. In all but a few cases, radiogenic ( 4He, 40Ar, and 131-136Xe) and nucleogenic ( 21,22Ne) isotopes dominated. Based solely on the noble gas composition, two types of natural gas reservoirs are identified. One (Group B) is highly enriched in radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases and varies little in composition: 3He /4He = 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar = 5000-6500 , 40∗Ar /4He = 0.10 , 136∗Xe /4He ~ 0.7 × 10 -9, and 21∗Ne /22∗Ne = 0.452 ± 0.041 (∗ denotes radiogenic or nucleogenic origin; all 4He is radiogenic). High nitrogen content with 4He /N 2 ~ 0.06 is also characteristic of Group B samples. The remaining samples (Group A) contain a radiogenic-nucleogenic component with a different composition and, relative to Group B samples, the extent of enrichment in this component is less and more variable: 3He /4He = 10-70 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar Precambrian basement, consistent with a present-day mass flux into the overlying sedimentary basin. Inferred 40∗Ar /136∗Xe 4He ratios imply a basement source enriched in thorium relative to uranium and potassium (Th/U > 20). Combined, the overall lower total radiogenic-nucleogenic content of Group A reservoirs, the greater variability in composition, and the appearance of Group A noble gases in reservoirs higher in the sedimentary sequence relative to the underlying basement implies that the Group A radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases are indigenous to the sediments. The most interesting aspect of the Group A noble gases are the very high 3He /4He ratios; ~ 10-70 times greater than expected if derived from average crust. The mantle, surface cosmogenic 3He production, cosmic dust, or production in a lithium-enriched environment as potential sources for the 3He excesses are evaluated. The present data set

  20. Review and analysis of existing Alberta data on drinking water quality and treatment facilities for the Northern River basins study. Northern River Basins Study project report No. 55

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    Prince, D.S.; Smith, D.W.; Stanley, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of a project conducted to gather existing information about drinking water quality, drinking water facilities, and water treatment effectiveness in the area covered by the Northern River Basins Study (Peace, Slave, and Athabasca River basins in northern Alberta). The report includes a comparison of water treatment performance to the Canada Drinking Water Quality Guidelines. The appendices contain summaries of parameters in the treated water survey, of the comparisons between raw and treated water, and of samples not meeting the Guidelines, as well as an inventory of treatment facilities giving facility name and location, water source, community population, treatment method used, raw storage capacity, and treated volumes.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the effects of climate and land-cover changes on hydrologic responses of the Muskeg River, Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Il Eum; Yonas Dibike; Terry Prowse

    2016-01-01

    Study region: The Muskeg River Basin located in the Oil-Sands region of northern Alberta, Canada. Study focus: An integrated modelling framework, which combines a process-based distributed hydrologic model with a dynamic land-cover simulation model is used to evaluate the effects of climate and land-cover changes on the hydrological regime in the basin. Land-cover types corresponding to three hypothetical levels of future industrial expansion are synthesized based on the current lease hold...

  2. An inventory and risk-based prioritization of Steep Creek Fans in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Kris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2013, heavy rainfall caused flooding on most rivers in the province of Alberta, Canada, producing one of Canada’s most expensive natural disasters with about $6 billion (CDN in damage. Flooding inundated several municipalities including downtown Calgary, the fourth-largest city in Canada. Debris flows and debris floods caused extensive highway closures and damages to development on alluvial fans. Following these events, the Government of Alberta requested an inventory of all fans intersecting municipal development, major roads and highways in Alberta. Such fans may be subject to debris flow, debris flood (mud flows, and/or flood hazards. The study area spans the entirety of the Alberta Rocky Mountains, approximately 51,000 km2 (7% of Alberta. We characterize 710 fans in terms of hazard level and presence and types of elements at risk. We statistically analyse watershed attributes to predict the dominant fan hydrogeomorphic process types. All fans under provincial jurisdiction are assigned priority ratings based on hazard levels and the presence and value of elements at risk. The prioritization is risk-based as it considers both hazards and potential consequences. Of the fans prioritized, 13% intersected parcels containing land and residential developments with an assessed value of $2.4 billion (CDN, and the remainder were crossed by roads, pipelines or transmission lines. We present the study results on an interactive, searchable web application that can support ongoing hazard and risk assessments and risk reduction planning.

  3. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  4. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  5. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  6. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  7. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  8. Blood Parasite Infection Data from Blue-winged Teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the...

  9. A review of repeat general anesthesia for pediatric dental surgery in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Smith, W F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review data from the province of Alberta, Canada for First Nations children who required more than 1 general anesthesia (GA) procedure for dental surgery from 1996 to 2005. This study was limited to First Nations and Inuit children younger than 18 years old in Alberta who received 2 or more GA procedures to facilitate dental treatment Data spanning 1996 to 2005 were provided from the Alberta Regional Office of First Nations & Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada. The entire database contained claims for 339 children who received repeat GA procedures for rehabilitative dental core. Seventy-six percent received 2 procedures, while the remainder underwent 3 or more surgeries. Twenty-four percent of First Nations children in this cohort were subjected to >2 GA procedures. Retreatment of previously restored teeth was a common observation. The majority of children were treated by general practitioners instead of pediatric dentists. Seventy-four percent who had 2 or more surgeries were treated by general dentists at the time of the first GA procedure. The mean age of children at the time of the first GA procedure was not associated with whether children received 2 or more GA procedures for dental care (P=.07). These data suggest that there may be on over-reliance on GA to treat dental caries for First Notions children in Alberta.

  10. Isotopic signatures of anthropogenic CH4 sources in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M.; Sherwood, O. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Kessler, R.; Giroux, L.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2017-09-01

    A mobile system was used for continuous ambient measurements of stable CH4 isotopes (12CH4 and 13CH4) and ethane (C2H6). This system was used during a winter mobile campaign to investigate the CH4 isotopic signatures and the C2H6/CH4 ratios of the main anthropogenic sources of CH4 in the Canadian province of Alberta. Individual signatures were derived from δ13CH4 and C2H6 measurements in plumes arriving from identifiable single sources. Methane emissions from beef cattle feedlots (n = 2) and landfill (n = 1) had δ13CH4 signatures of -66.7 ± 2.4‰ and -55.3 ± 0.2‰, respectively. The CH4 emissions associated with the oil or gas industry had distinct δ13CH4 signatures, depending on the formation process. Emissions from oil storage tanks (n = 5) had δ13CH4 signatures ranging from -54.9 ± 2.9‰ to -60.6 ± 0.6‰ and non-detectable C2H6, characteristic of secondary microbial methanogenesis in oil-bearing reservoirs. In contrast, CH4 emissions associated with natural gas facilities (n = 8) had δ13CH4 signatures ranging from -41.7 ± 0.7‰ to -49.7 ± 0.7‰ and C2H6/CH4 molar ratios of 0.10 for raw natural gas to 0.04 for processed/refined natural gas, consistent with thermogenic origins. These isotopic signatures and C2H6/CH4 ratios have been used for source discrimination in the weekly atmospheric measurements of stable CH4 isotopes over a two-month winter period at the Lac La Biche (LLB) measurement station, located in Alberta, approximately 200 km northeast of Edmonton. The average signature of -59.5 ± 1.4‰ observed at LLB is likely associated with transport of air after passing over oil industry sources located south of the station.

  11. Solar thermal water heating : an application for Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, T. [Simple Solar Heating Ltd., Okotoks, AB (Canada); Lonseth, R.; Lonseth, A.; Jagoda, K. [Mount Royal College, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of renewable energy resources is an essential feature in curtailing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed solar thermal water heating applications for Alberta. In particular, it presented a case study of the successful commercial application of solar thermal water heating systems in households in the city of Calgary. The system used solar-thermal collectors with heat pipes mounted inside vacuum sealed glass cylinders. The devices collected heat and transferred it to a copper manifold even in extreme winter temperatures. The system included a solar storage tank integrated into a domestic hot water system. The solar fluid circulated through the solar tank. Fresh cold water entered the solar tank when hot water was used in the house in order to be preheated before entering the original water heating tank. A 25 watt pump was mounted in the closed solar loop to circulate the solar heat transfer fluid. An economic analysis demonstrated that a 2-panel system saved the equivalent of 2.4 acres of carbon-absorbing forest and had the same benefit as purchasing a hybrid car. The payback period for the system was 4 years. It was concluded that solar thermal systems are the best renewable energy method for domestic water heating in Calgary. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. Value Added by the Prevnar 13 Childhood Immunization Program in Alberta, Canada (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Arianna; Chuck, Anderson W

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen causing acute respiratory infections, as well as meningitis and bacteremia. The province of Alberta, Canada, began vaccinating infants against seven S. pneumoniae serotypes in 2002 using Prevnar 7 (PCV7). However, a 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in 2010 to address changes in the distribution of serotypes causing disease. PCV13 targets 13 serotypes including six additional serotypes to the previously adopted PCV7. In this study, we estimate the impact of the new PCV13 immunization program on the burden of disease and related healthcare costs in Alberta. Serotype-specific passive surveillance invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) data were drawn from the Alberta Public Health Laboratory. These data were used to estimate average annual IPD incidence of the six additional serotypes included in PCV13 during the PCV7 era (2000-2009), and after the introduction of PCV13 (2011-2015). The difference in estimated cases pre-/post-PCV13 was used to estimate associated changes in direct health service costs. Following the replacement of PCV7 with PCV13 in 2010, the number of cases of IPD caused by the additional serotypes contained in PCV13 has declined significantly across all ages. The expected number of IPD cases prevented annually is an estimated 1.6 per 100,000. Direct health service costs are expected to be averted as a result of the implementation of PCV13 universal vaccination in Alberta. Indirect benefits are experienced by ages >20 years as IPD incidence significantly declines following the PCV13 infant immunization in Alberta. The impact on direct healthcare costs of replacing PCV7 with PCV13 in Alberta's public immunization program are estimated to be CAN$3.5 million as of 2015.

  13. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  14. Structural architecture and glacitectonic evolution of the Mud Buttes cupola hill complex, southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Evans, David J. A.; Atkinson, Nigel; Kendall, Allison

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed multidisciplinary study of the deformed bedrock and overlying Quaternary sediments exposed at the Mud Buttes in southern Alberta, Canada. This large, arcuate cupola hill is composed of intensely folded and thrust sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous Belly River Group. Glacitectonism responsible for the development of this internally complex landform occurred at the margin of the newly defined Prospect Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Analysis of the deformation structures reveals that construction of this landform occurred in response to at least two phases of south-directed ice sheet advance separated by a period of retreat. The first phase led to the formation of a forward propagating imbricate thrust stack leading to polyphase deformation of the Belly River Group. D1 thrusting led to the detachment of thrust-bound slices of bedrock which were accreted to the base of the developing imbricate stack. This process resulted in the structurally higher and older thrust-slices being progressively ;back-rotated; (tilted), accompanied by D2 thrusting and folding. Further thrusting during D3 was restricted to the core of the Mud Buttes as the deforming sequence accommodated further compression imposed by the advancing ice. Minor oscillations of the ice margin led to localised brittle-ductile shearing (D4) of the bedrock immediately adjacent to the ice contact part of the thrust stack. The second phase of ice advance led to the accretion of a relatively simple thrust and folded sequence seen the northern side of Mud Buttes. The resulting composite thrust moraine was subsequently overridden by ice advancing from the NNW to form a dome-like cupola-hill. This readvance of the Prospect Valley lobe led to the formation of a thin carapace of Quaternary sediments mantling the Mud Buttes which include glacitectonite, till and an organic-rich clay-silt (?palaeosol).

  15. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I; Kolber, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Retrospective chart review. Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori-related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  16. Epidemiology and genotype analysis of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada: 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoli L; Lee, Bonita E; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Preiksaitis, Jutta K

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the epidemiology and circulating strains of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada, from 2004 to 2007. Sapovirus was an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, accounting for 43 (17.6%) of 244 outbreaks in which all samples tested were negative for norovirus. All 4 human sapovirus genotypes, GI, GII, GIV, and GV, were found in samples during these outbreaks. The greatest amount of sapovirus-associated outbreak activity occurred in 2007, after the emergence of genotype GIV in December 2006. The majority of sapovirus-associated outbreaks in Alberta during this period (27 [62.8%] of 43) occurred in hospitals, community long-term care facilities, and senior lodges. Adults>65 years of age were the age group most commonly affected.

  17. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Monika; Whiteway, James; Seabrook, Jeffrey; Gray, Lawrence; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL), while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb) downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  18. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL, while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  19. Comparison of Current and Historical Rates of Ecosystem Carbon Accumulation in a Northern Alberta Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, K. H.; Flanagan, L. B.; Carlson, P. J.; Glenn, A. J.; Ponton, S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of Fluxnet-Canada, we have been investigating the environmental controls on net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange using the eddy covariance technique in a moderately rich (treed) fen in northern Alberta, Canada. In addition, integrated CO2 fluxes were compared to carbon stock measurements and rates of peat accumulation. The total ecosystem carbon stock was 52,669 g C m-2 with the vast majority (52,129) accumulated in peat over a 2 meter depth. The basal age for the peat was 2210 ± 50 years before present. The above-ground carbon stock in the two tree species was 226 g C m-2. The oldest Picea mariana trees were aged at 135 years, and they showed a rapid increase in basal area increment starting about 65 years ago that peaked at rates of 2 cm2 yr-1 about 40 years ago. The Larix laricina trees became established approximately 45 years ago and currently have a basal area increment of 3 to 4 cm2 yr-1, much higher than the current rates (0.5 cm2 yr-1) observed for Picea mariana. The rates of peat accumulation were determined on 210Pb-dated cores. Over the last 70 years the peat gained an average of 113 ± 12 g C m-2 yr-1. This was similar to net ecosystem production measured by eddy covariance (95 and 210 g C m-2 yr-1) over the last two years. Variation in annual net ecosystem production was associated with shifts in weather and growing season length. Current and recent historical rates of carbon accumulation were quite consistent despite significant variation in tree species growth and successional changes in this peatland over the last 70 years.

  20. Disability payments for persons with severe mental illness in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Raymond; Slomp, Mel; Patten, Scott; Jacobs, Philip; Ohinmaa, Arto E; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2009-05-01

    The authors measured the total expenditures for two key sources of social support in Alberta in 2005 for persons with severe and persistent mental illness and compared these expenditures with the total mental health expenditures. Social services and assistance benefit data were from the federal government's Canada Pension Plan-Disability Benefits and from Alberta Services' Assured Income for the Severely Handicapped for beneficiaries with psychiatric diagnoses. These benefits were compared with the total public mental health expenditures in Alberta for budget year 2005-2006. A total of 7,456 adults with certified mental illness conditions received federal disability benefits, and 17,138 received provincial disability and medical benefits. The total for social support (income) benefits was $207 million Canadian compared with $405 million Canadian spent by the provincial government for mental health services for adults under age 65. Social assistance forms a substantial portion of Canadian federal and provincial government support for persons with mental illness. Whenever a government-payer perspective is taken, these costs should be factored into the analysis.

  1. Push, pull, and plant: the personal side of physician immigration to alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Douglas; Hofmeister, Marianna; Lockyear, Jocelyn; Crutcher, Rodney; Fidler, Herta

    2009-03-01

    The global migration of physicians has led many international physicians to enter practice in Alberta, Canada. The study was designed to explore the personal side of migration and transition experiences of these international medical graduates (IMGs). A qualitative study using telephone interviews and a semi-structured interview guide was used to interview 19 IMGs who are currently practicing and have held Part V, restricted or temporary practice licenses for less than 7 years. Three major themes were identified. The first was the "push" from their own country of origin and their perception that moving to Alberta would be better for them. Professional opportunities in their home country had been affected by changing policies, lack of infrastructure, and personal/family safety issues culminating in highly stressful work environments. The second was "pull." An improvement in the quality of personal life was associated with geographical, educational, recreational, and spiritual aspects of daily living for participants and their families in their new environment. The third theme was "plant"ie, factors that encouraged them to stay in Alberta. This study demonstrates the continued relevance of push and pull theory in understanding IMG physician migration. Our findings in this study indicate that remaining in place, or "being planted" is conditional on political, social, and economic aspects.

  2. Utilization of a molecular serotyping method for Salmonella enterica in a routine laboratory in Alberta Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrato, Christina; Chui, Linda; King, Robin; Louie, Marie

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most common enteric pathogens related to foodborne illness. Alberta's Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) provides Outbreak and Surveillance support by performing serotyping. The Check&Trace Salmonella™ (CTS) assay (Check-Points, Netherlands), a commercial DNA microarray system, can determine the serotype designation of a Salmonella isolate with automated interpretation. Here we evaluate 1028 Salmonella isolates of human clinical or environmental sources in Alberta, Canada with the CTS assay. CTS was able to assign a serovar to 98.7% of the most frequently occurring human clinical strains in Alberta (82.5% overall), and 71.7% of isolates which were inconclusive by conventional methods. There was 99.7% concordance in environmental isolates. The CTS database has potential to expand to identify rare serovars. With the anticipated shift to molecular methods for identification, CTS provides an easy transition and demonstrates ease-of-use and reduces the turn-around-time of a reported result significantly compared to classical serotyping.

  3. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  4. Botfly (Diptera:Oestridae) parasitism of Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, D L; Forbes, M R; Bender, D J; Barclay, R M

    1997-08-01

    During field study of Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) at Suffield National Wildlife Area, Alberta, Canada, a high prevalence of parasitism by botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae was observed. Botflies have not previously been documented as parasites of kangaroo rats. Botfly parasitism could have a significant impact on the growth, survival, and reproduction of Ord's kangaroo rat, which is considered a vulnerable species in Canada. Therefore, it is important to investigate how botfly parasitism varies with season and with gender or age of host. In 1995, 525 individual kangaroo rats were caught by nightlighting and live trapping for a total of 952 capture records. Upon capture, each kangaroo rat was ear-tagged and thoroughly examined for parasites and wounds. Third-instar botfly (Cuterebra polita) larvae were observed in kangaroo rats between 16 June and 23 August. Prevalence was 34% based on 454 kangaroo rats sampled during that time, whereas the mean intensity was 2.3 larvae per infested host (n = 156, range = 1-11). In contrast to some other studies of botfly parasitism of rodents, there were no gender or age biases in either prevalence or intensity of infestation. The index of dispersion was 2.8, indicating that the parasites were aggregated in hosts. Botfly parasitism could be an important factor affecting northern populations of kangaroo rats; future investigations into the potential effects of botfly larvae on host fitness are warranted.

  5. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  6. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  7. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  8. Nasal bots and lice from white-tailed deer in southern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Gray, Dawn; Morton, Kim; Pybus, Margo

    2008-07-01

    Heads of 64 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns, harvested in the vicinity of Magrath, Alberta, Canada, (49 degrees 24'782''N, 112 degrees 52'113''W) were examined for the presence of nasal bots and lice. The deer were collected between 8-30 January 2004 as part of a government-approved herd reduction protocol. The entire surface of each head was scanned visually for the presence of lice. Each head was split longitudinally, and the nasal passages, sinuses, and ethmoid region were washed for recovery of nasal bots. First instar Cephenemyia spp. were recovered from 17 heads (27%). Intensity of infestation ranged from 1-18 larvae (mean intensity 4.8). Among fawns, there were no significant differences in prevalence or mean intensity between the sexes. Two species of nasal bots were identified. Smaller larvae, tentatively identified as C. jellisoni, were present in 16 of 17 infested deer while larger specimens, tentatively identified as C. phobifera, were found in four deer; and in three of the four it co-occurred with C. jellisoni. The presence of C. phobifera in Alberta would represent a range extension for this species, which has not been known to occur west of North Dakota. Thirty-one fawns (48%) were infested with the sucking louse Solenopotes ferrisi. One infested fawn also had one specimen of the chewing louse, Tricholiopeurus lipeuroides.

  9. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  10. Fifteen-year trends in criteria air pollutants in oil sands communities of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of ambient air quality was undertaken at three communities within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta, Canada (Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, and Fort Chipewyan). Daily and seasonal patterns and 15-year trends were investigated for several criteria air pollutants over the period of 1998 to 2012. A parametric trend detection method using percentiles from frequency distributions of 1h concentrations for a pollutant during each year was used. Variables representing 50th, 65th, 80th, 90th, 95th and 98th percentile concentrations each year were identified from frequency distributions and used for trend analysis. Small increasing concentration trends were observed for nitrogen dioxide (Air quality in Fort Chipewyan was much better and quite separate in terms of absence of factors influencing criteria air pollutant concentrations at the other community stations.

  11. Énergie et environnement: l’exploitation des sables bitumineux en Alberta (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Héritier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Découverts dans les années 1930, les secteurs de sables bitumineux (ou pétrolifères de l’Ouest canadien sont caractérisés par une intense exploitation, accélérée et stimulée depuis la décennie 1990, liée à l’explosion de la demande mondiale et aux prix élevés du baril de pétrole. Grâce à cette activité, l’Alberta est devenue l’une des provinces les plus dynamiques du Canada. L’exploitation, concédée à des entreprises pétrolières nationales et internationales, contribue à stimuler à la fois l’économie et la démographie de la province, où les revenus et les conditions économiques générales sont devenus particulièrement attractifs. Dans le même temps l’Alberta et le Canada se trouvent en situation délicate par rapport aux engagements internationaux, l’exploitation et la production du pétrole ayant des effets environnementaux importants tels que l’augmentation de la production de gaz à effets de serre, alors que les économies locales et régionales fondent leurs projets de croissance sur les revenus dégagés par cette exploitation.

  12. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  13. Alberta: evaluating a decade's experience with the Canada - U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, E.J.; Mirus, R.; Scholnick, B. [Western Centre for Economic Research, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    With a decade of experience available, there is a period of sufficient duration to allow a broad assessment of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement's (FTA) impact on the Alberta economy. The disposition of three classes of exports - energy, agricultural and non-energy/non-agricultural to individual US states is examined. Besides creating a new range of market opportunities for Alberta companies, the FTA helped diversification within the energy industry by guaranteeing US market access for natural gas producers. The major sections of the report deal with: the FTA experience from 1988 to 1998, exports, overview of the Alberta export sector, employment variability in Alberta, inward foreign direct investment since the FTA: data and implications and an assessment of the impact of tariff reductions under the FTA. Alberta's international export sector increased over this period in size and in relative importance. Goods exported to foreign countries as a share of the provincial Gross Domestic Product rose from a 1/4 in 1988 to 1/3 in 1998. This absolute and relative growth in the export sector coincided with the rise in the importance of shipments to the U.S. market.

  14. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values gas concentrations and a wide range of δ13CCH4 values in baseline groundwater samples, no conclusive evidence was found for deep thermogenic gas that had migrated in significant amounts into shallow aquifers either naturally or via anthropogenically induced pathways. This study shows that the

  15. Methanotrophic bacteria in oilsands tailings ponds of northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi-Mehrabad, Alireza; He, Zhiguo; Tamas, Ivica; Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Rochman, Fauziah F; Bodrossy, Levente; Abell, Guy CJ; Penner, Tara; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Dunfield, Peter F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated methanotrophic bacteria in slightly alkaline surface water (pH 7.4–8.7) of oilsands tailings ponds in Fort McMurray, Canada. These large lakes (up to 10 km2) contain water, silt, clay and residual hydrocarbons that are not recovered in oilsands mining. They are primarily anoxic and produce methane but have an aerobic surface layer. Aerobic methane oxidation was measured in the surface water at rates up to 152 nmol CH4 ml−1 water d−1. Microbial diversity was investigated via pyrotag sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes, as well as by analysis of methanotroph-specific pmoA genes using both pyrosequencing and microarray analysis. The predominantly detected methanotroph in surface waters at all sampling times was an uncultured species related to the gammaproteobacterial genus Methylocaldum, although a few other methanotrophs were also detected, including Methylomonas spp. Active species were identified via 13CH4 stable isotope probing (SIP) of DNA, combined with pyrotag sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing of heavy 13C-DNA. The SIP-PCR results demonstrated that the Methylocaldum and Methylomonas spp. actively consumed methane in fresh tailings pond water. Metagenomic analysis of DNA from the heavy SIP fraction verified the PCR-based results and identified additional pmoA genes not detected via PCR. The metagenome indicated that the overall methylotrophic community possessed known pathways for formaldehyde oxidation, carbon fixation and detoxification of nitrogenous compounds but appeared to possess only particulate methane monooxygenase not soluble methane monooxygenase. PMID:23254511

  16. Foliage Chemistry of Pinus baksiana in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. Proemse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial emissions in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Alberta, Canada, have caused concerns about the effect of oil sands operations on the surrounding terrestrial environments, including jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. stands. We collected jack pine needles from 19 sites in the AOSR (13–128 km from main operations for foliar chemical analyses to investigate the environmental impact on jack pine. Pine needles from three age classes, the current annual growth (CAG, 2011, one year and two year old pine needles, were collected. Samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC, nitrogen (TN, and sulfur (TS, inorganic S (SO4-S, base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and other elements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Zn; CAG needles were also analyzed for their nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions. Only TN, TS, Ca, B, Zn, and Fe contents showed weak but significant increases with proximity to the major oil sands operations. C and N isotopic compositions showed no trend with distance or TC and TN contents. Total S contents in CAG of pine foliage increased significantly with proximity to the main industrial operation while foliar inorganic S to organic S ratios (SO4-S/Sorg ranged consistently between 0.13 and 0.32, indicating low to moderately high S loading. Hence, this study suggests some evidence of uptake of S emissions in close proximity to anthropogenic sources, although the reported values have not reached a level of environmental concern.

  17. Spectral decomposition aids AVO analysis in reservoir characterization: A case study of Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Yoon, Wang; Farfour, Mohammed

    2012-09-01

    Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada, has produced oil and gas from a Glauconitic compound incised valley-system. In this area channels can be filled with sands and/or shales. Differentiation of prospective channel sands and non-productive shales was always problematic due to the similarity in P-wave impedance of these two lithotypes. We study the spectral decomposition response to the hydrocarbons presence in the Glauconitic channel of Early Cretaceous age. From previous AVO analysis and modeling, a strong Class III AVO anomaly has been observed at the top of the porous sandstone in the upper valley, whereas shale had a very different AVO response. Furthermore, AVO inversion revealed additional information about lithology and fluid content in the channel. Our workflow starts from selecting a continuous horizon that was close and conforms to the channel interval; we then run spectral analyses for the channel area. Short Window Fourier Transform workflow could successfully image the channel's stratigraphic features and confirm results obtained from AVO analysis and inversion run on the data before being stacked. Additionally, the producing oil wells in the sand-fill channel were found to be correlating with high spectrum amplitude; while the dry wells in the shale-plugged channel fell in low amplitude anomaly.

  18. Soil ingestion rate determination in a rural population of Alberta, Canada practicing a wilderness lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, G; Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2014-02-01

    The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be a major pathway for chemical exposure to humans. Few studies to date have quantified soil ingestion rates to develop exposure estimates for human health risk assessments (HHRA), and almost all of those were for children in suburban/urban environments. Here we employed a quantitative mass balance tracer approach on a rural population practicing outdoor activities to estimate inadvertent soil ingestion. This study followed 9 subjects over a 13 day period in Cold Lake, Alberta, near the largest in situ thermal heavy oil (bitumen) extraction operation in the world. The mean soil ingestion rate in this study using Al Ce, La, and Si tracers was 32 mg d(-1), with a 90th percentile of 152 mg d(-1) and median soil ingestion rate of 18 mg d(-1). These soil ingestion values are greater than the standard recommended soil ingestion rates for HHRA from Health Canada, and are similar to soil ingestion estimates found in the only other study on a rural population. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Current and future water issues in the Oldman River Basin of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J; Kienzle, S; Johnson, D; Duke, G; Gannon, V; Selinger, B; Thomas, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term trends in alpine and prairie snow pack accumulation and melt are affecting streamflow within the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta, Canada. Unchecked rural and urban development also has contributed to changes in water quality, including enhanced microbial populations and increased waterborne pathogen occurrence. In this study we look at changing environment within the Oldman River Basin and its impact on water quality and quantity. The cumulative effects include a decline in net water supplies, and declining quality resulting in increased risk of disease. Our data indicates that decreases in the rate of flow of water can result in sedimentation of bacterial contaminants within the water column. Water for ecosystems, urban consumption, recreation and distribution through irrigation is often drawn from waterholding facilities such as dams and weirs, and concern must be expressed over the potential for contaminate build-up and disproportionate potential of these structures to pose a risk to human and animal health. With disruption of natural flow rates for water resulting from environmental change such as global warming and/or human intervention, increased attention needs to be paid to use of best management practices to protect source water supplies.

  20. Petroleum industry development in Alberta, Canada: The relationship between governments and the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. (Alberta Dept. of Energy, AB (Canada))

    Canada is a federation of ten provinces and two territories. The provinces own and manage their petroleum resources. The location of these resources differs considerably from the markets in which they are consumed. Sustaining the petroleum industry in Alberta necessitates a close working relationship between the federal and provincial levels of government, both of which have taxation-related powers, and a large, complex private sector comprising integrated and non-integrated explorers, producers, marketers and contractors. This relationship recognizes the competitive nature of the petroleum industry and the priorities of the varous governments within which the industry must operate. Fluctuations in international petroleum price, supply and demand cause priorities between governments, between industry and government, and within industry itself, to shift dramatically. Key policy areas for any jurisdiction wishing to sustain a petroleum industry include over-all political and business stability, taxation, repartriation of capital, local participation, exploration access acquisition, retention and return of petroleum rights, worksite safety, environmental protection, information disclosure, resource revenue and conservation, upgrading, transporting, domestic and export marketing and end-product pricing. Frequent consultation with industry associations is critical to maintaining an effective policy balance. 16 figs.

  1. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  2. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C R Braid

    Full Text Available As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply and top-down (mortality risk from roads factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration have the highest potential utility.

  3. Anomalous surface heave induced by enhanced oil recovery in northern Alberta: InSAR observations and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Jill; Singhroy, Vern; Samsonov, Sergey; Li, Junhua

    2014-08-01

    Recent interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations over northern Alberta, Canada, show persistent surface heave occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/yr, localized at sites where the steam-assisted gravity drainage technique is currently used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion. We also observe an unexpected localized uplift, of magnitude equal to or greater than the heave above the sites of steaming but located at clusters of wellheads which are outside the region of influence of the steam chambers. We show that this "wellhead" deformation can be explained by thermal expansion of rock near the injector wells.

  4. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nigel M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses geographic information systems (GIS as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Methods Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. Results By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Conclusion Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting

  5. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Ghali, William A

    2007-10-16

    This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada) to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA) centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting patients to a catheterization facility within the 90 minute time

  6. Identifying sources and processes controlling the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Michael; Mayer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Sources and processes affecting the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed in Alberta (Canada) were investigated. The catchment is important for water supply and recreational activities and is also a source of oil and natural gas. Water was collected from 10 locations along an 8 km stretch of Canyon Creek including three so-called sulphur pools, followed by the chemical and isotopic analyses on water and its major dissolved species. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the water plotted near the regional meteoric water line, indicating a meteoric origin of the water and no contribution from deeper formation waters. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate were the dominant ions in the upstream portion of the watershed, whereas sulphate was the dominant anion in the water from the three sulphur pools. The isotopic composition of sulphate (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) revealed three major sulphate sources with distinct isotopic compositions throughout the catchment: (1) a combination of sulphate from soils and sulphide oxidation in the bedrock in the upper reaches of Canyon Creek; (2) sulphide oxidation in pyrite-rich shales in the lower reaches of Canyon Creek and (3) dissolution of Devonian anhydrite constituting the major sulphate source for the three sulphur pools in the central portion of the watershed. The presence of H(2)S in the sulphur pools with δ(34)S values ∼30 ‰ lower than those of sulphate further indicated the occurrence of bacterial (dissimilatory) sulphate reduction. This case study reveals that δ(34)S values of surface water systems can vary by more than 20 ‰ over short geographic distances and that isotope analyses are an effective tool to identify sources and processes that govern the sulphur cycle in watersheds.

  7. The use of composite fingerprints to quantify sediment sources in a wildfire impacted landscape, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M; Collins, A L; Silins, U; Emelko, M B; Zhang, Y S

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing global concern regarding the impacts of large scale land disturbance by wildfire on a wide range of water and related ecological services. This study explores the impact of the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in the Crowsnest River basin, Alberta, Canada on regional scale sediment sources using a tracing approach. A composite geochemical fingerprinting procedure was used to apportion the sediment efflux among three key spatial sediment sources: 1) unburned (reference) 2) burned and 3) burned sub-basins that were subsequently salvage logged. Spatial sediment sources were characterized by collecting time-integrated suspended sediment samples using passive devices during the entire ice free periods in 2009 and 2010. The tracing procedure combines the Kruskal-Wallis H-test, principal component analysis and genetic-algorithm driven discriminant function analysis for source discrimination. Source apportionment was based on a numerical mass balance model deployed within a Monte Carlo framework incorporating both local optimization and global (genetic algorithm) optimization. The mean relative frequency-weighted average median inputs from the three spatial source units were estimated to be 17% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 0-32%) from the reference areas, 45% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 25-65%) from the burned areas and 38% (inter-quartile uncertainty range 14-59%) from the burned-salvage logged areas. High sediment inputs from burned and the burned-salvage logged areas, representing spatial source units 2 and 3, reflect the lasting effects of forest canopy and forest floor organic matter disturbance during the 2003 wildfire including increased runoff and sediment availability related to high terrestrial erosion, streamside mass wasting and river bank collapse. The results demonstrate the impact of wildfire and incremental pressures associated with salvage logging on catchment spatial sediment sources in higher elevation Montane regions where forest

  8. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in carbon exchange at a restored peatland in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Scott; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Boreal peatlands store a substantial portion of Earth's soil carbon, but the commercial peat extraction process upsets this carbon-sink dynamic. A best-practices restoration process has been developed that aims to return the vegetation and ecosystem functions of post-extraction peatlands. This includes the blocking and infilling of ditches, leveling of the peatland surface and re-introduction of vegetation through the moss layer transfer technique. The dynamics of carbon gas exchange in these restored peatlands are still poorly understood. We investigated ecosystem-scale and microscale carbon flux in a recently restored, post-extraction peatland near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. Two eddy covariance (EC) towers continuously measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in hydrologically distinct parts of the peatland site. Here, we report on growing season measurements made during the fourth year following extraction. Regular static chamber measurements during June-August 2016 were also taken to study gas fluxes across an infilled drainage ditch on the site. Results suggest that if the peatland restoration process successfully returns high water table position, strong carbon uptake may be attained within several years of restoration. However, differences in peatland topography resulted spatial heterogeneity in carbon dynamics at this restored site. A gradient of revegetation success and attendant carbon-flux dynamics were observed, with much stronger net uptake of CO2 and substantial CH4 efflux measured at the tower with higher vegetation cover. Revegetation elsewhere was much sparser, and thus low CO2 uptake rates persisted at much of the peatland, though these conditions conversely inhibited substantial CH4 efflux. More broadly, the contrast in flux data between our two EC towers at the site suggests that attention be made to the selection of representative carbon flux values in similar restored peatlands.

  9. A Multi-Faceted Debris-Flood Hazard Assessment for Cougar Creek, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M of damage and closed both the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway line for a period of several days. The debris flood triggered a comprehensive hazard assessment which is the focus of this paper. Debris-flood frequencies and magnitudes are determined by combining several quantitative methods including photogrammetry, dendrochronology, radiometric dating, test pit logging, empirical relationships between rainfall volumes and sediment volumes, and landslide dam outburst flood modeling. The data analysis suggests that three distinct process types act in the watershed. The most frequent process is normal or “clearwater” floods. Less frequent but more damaging are debris floods during which excessive amounts of bedload are transported on the fan, typically associated with rapid and extensive bank erosion and channel infilling and widening. The third and most destructive process is interpreted to be landslide dam outbreak floods. This event type is estimated to occur at return periods exceeding 300 years. Using a cumulative magnitude frequency technique, the data for conventional debris floods were plotted up to the 100–300s year return period. A peak-over-threshold approach was used for landslide dam outbreak floods occurring at return periods exceeding 300 years, as not all such events were identified during test trenching. Hydrographs for 6 return period classes were approximated by using the estimated peak discharges and fitting the hydrograph shape to integrate to the debris flood volumes as determined from the frequency-magnitude relationship. The fan volume was calculated and compared with the integrated frequency-magnitude curve to check of the validity of

  10. Push, pull, and plant: the personal side of physician immigration to alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Douglas; Hofmeister, Marianna; Lockyear, Jocelyn; Crutcher, Rodney; Fidler, Herta

    2009-01-01

    ... licenses for less than 7 years. Three major themes were identified. The first was the "push" from their own country of origin and their perception that moving to Alberta would be better for them...

  11. An economic evaluation of the parent-child assistance program for preventing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Xuan; Jonsson, Egon; Moffatt, Jessica; Dennett, Liz; Chuck, Anderson W; Birchard, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP) is a 3-year home visitation/harm reduction intervention to prevent alcohol exposed births, thereby births with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, among high-risk women. This article used a decision analytic modeling technique to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and the net monetary benefit of the P-CAP within the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Service Networks in Canada. The results indicate that the P-CAP is cost-effective and support placing a high priority not only on reducing alcohol use during pregnancy, but also on providing effective contraceptive measures when a program is launched.

  12. The adsorption and release of sulfur in mineral and organic soils of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C J; Adkinson, A; Eimers, M C; Watmough, S A

    2010-01-01

    Mineral soil and fibric peat from acid-sensitive western boreal catchments in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada were evaluated for their ability to adsorb and release SO(4)(2-). Laboratory batch studies indicated that SO(4)(2-) adsorption in mineral soil from both the A and B horizons exhibits a limited response to elevated SO(4)(2-) concentrations, with the slope of initial mass isotherms mineral soils and the potential drought-induced S release from peatlands in this region where increased S deposition is expected, further investigation of acidification impacts is warranted.

  13. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  14. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park, and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  15. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  17. Low Fertility in Canada: The Nordic Model in Quebec and the U.S. Model in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors that are responsible for low fertility, the risks experienced by young people are particularly relevant. In that context, it is noteworthy that fertility is rising most in Alberta and Quebec, that is in provinces where young families have had the security of either good job opportunities or supportive social policy. The fertility trend in Canada has seen a low point of 1.51 in 2002, rising to a total fertility rate of 1.66 in 2007. The trends and differences are placed in the context of family and work questions, including the division of paid and unpaid work by gender. By marital status, family structure and work orientation, fertility is highest for women and men who are married, with no step children and intermediate work orientation. We summarize the changing policy context, proposing that social policy has become more supportive of families with young children, especially in Quebec but also in the rest of Canada.

  18. Network analysis of inter-organizational relationships and policy use among active living organizations in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Stearns, Jodie A; Fraser, Shawn N; Storey, Kate; Spence, John C

    2017-08-09

    Coordinated partnerships and collaborations can optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of service and program delivery in organizational networks. However, the extent to which organizations are working together to promote physical activity, and use physical activity policies in Canada, is unknown. This project sought to provide a snapshot of the funding, coordination and partnership relationships among provincial active living organizations (ALOs) in Alberta, Canada. Additionally, the awareness, and use of the provincial policy and national strategy by the organizations was examined. Provincial ALOs (N = 27) answered questions regarding their funding, coordination and partnership connections with other ALOs in the network. Social network analysis was employed to examine network structure and position of each ALO. Discriminant function analysis determined the extent to which degree centrality was associated with the use of the Active Alberta (AA) policy and Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20) strategy. The funding network had a low density level (density = .20) and was centralized around Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation (ATPR; degree centralization = 48.77%, betweenness centralization = 32.43%). The coordination network had a moderate density level (density = .31), and was low-to-moderately centralized around a few organizations (degree centralization = 45.37%, betweenness centrality = 19.92%). The partnership network had a low density level (density = .15), and was moderate-to-highly centralized around ATPR. Most organizations were aware of AA (89%) and AC 20/20 (78%), however more were using AA (67%) compared to AC 20/20 (33%). Central ALOs in the funding network were more likely to use AA and AC 20/20. Central ALOs in the coordination network were more likely to use AC 20/20, but not AA. Increasing formal and informal relationships between organizations and integrating disconnected or peripheral organizations could increase the capacity of the

  19. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I.; Kolber, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Participants Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. Results A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori–related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. PMID:27629690

  20. Characterization of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions at Sites of Oil Sands Extraction and Upgrading in northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J.; Simpson, I. J.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands are second only to Saudi Arabia, holding roughly 173 billion barrels of oil in the form of bitumen, an unconventional crude oil which does not flow and cannot be pumped without heating or dilution. Oil sands deposits are ultimately used to make the same petroleum products as conventional forms of crude oil, though more processing is required. Hydrocarbons are the basis of oil, coal and natural gas and are an important class of gases emitted into the atmosphere during oil production, particularly because of their effects on air quality and human health. However, they have only recently begun to be independently assessed in the oil sands regions. As part of the 2008 ARCTAS airborne mission, whole air samples were collected in the boundary layer above the surface mining operations of northern Alberta. Gas chromatography analysis revealed enhanced concentrations of 53 VOCs (C2 to C10) over the mining region. When compared to local background levels, the measured concentrations were enhanced up to 1.1-400 times for these compounds. To more fully characterize emissions, ground-based studies were conducted in summer 2010 and winter 2011 in the oil sands mining and upgrading areas. The data from the 200 ground-based samples revealed enhancements in the concentration of 65 VOCs. These compounds were elevated up to 1.1-3000 times above background concentrations and include C2-C8 alkanes, C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C2-C4 alkenes and potentially toxic aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  1. Prevalence of digital dermatitis in young stock in Alberta, Canada, using pen walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W

    2017-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious bacterial foot lesion prevalent in dairy cattle worldwide, reduces both animal welfare and production. This disease was recently identified in replacement dairy heifers, with implications including increased risk of DD and decreased milk production in first lactation, poor reproductive performance, and altered hoof conformation. Therefore, a simple and effective method is needed to identify DD in young stock and to determine risk factors for DD in this group so that effective control strategies can be implemented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of DD in young stock (based on pen walks); and (2) identify potential risk factors for DD in young stock. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 dairy farms in Alberta, Canada; pen walks were used to identify DD (present/absent) on the hind feet of group-housed, young dairy stock. A subset of 583 young stock on 5 farms were selected for chute inspection of feet to determine the accuracy of pen walks for DD detection. Pen walks as a means of identifying DD lesions on the hind feet in young stock had sensitivity and specificity at the animal level of 65 and 98%, with positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 83%, respectively, at a prevalence of 37%. At the foot level, pen walks had sensitivity and specificity of 62 and 98%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 92 and 88%, respectively, at a prevalence of 26%. Pen walks identified DD in 79 [2.9%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.3-3.6%] of 2,815 young stock on 11 (39%; 95% CI: 22-59%) of 28 farms, with all 79 DD-positive young stock ≥309 d of age. Apparent within-herd prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 9.3%, with a mean of 1.4%. True within-herd prevalence of DD in young stock, calculated using the sensitivity and specificity of the pen walks, ranged from 0 to 12.6%, with a mean of 1.4%. On the 11 DD-positive farms, the proportion of young stock >12 mo of age

  2. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  3. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  4. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  5. Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Russell, Margaret; Inglis, Tom; Mitevski, Darko; Hall, David

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

  6. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  7. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humez, P., E-mail: phumez@ucalgary.ca [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Mayer, B.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.; Becker, V.; Kingston, A. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Akbilgic, O. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); UTHSC-ORNL Center for Biomedical Informatics, 910 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38104 (United States); Taylor, S. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged − 69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n = 63) in free gas and − 65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n = 26) in dissolved gas. δ{sup 13}C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ{sup 13}C values in concert with average δ{sup 2}H{sub CH4} values of − 289 ± 44‰ (n = 45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO{sub 2} reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically > 500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100–250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. - Highlights: • Analysis of gas geochemical data from 186

  8. Deep 3-D seismic reflection imaging of Precambrian sills in the crystalline crust of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Joanna Kim

    2005-07-01

    Using deep 3-D seismic reflection datasets collected by the Canadian petroleum exploration industry in southwestern and northwestern Alberta, the Head-Smashed-In and Winagami Precambrian sill complexes within the crystalline upper crust, previously identified on Lithoprobe 2-D multichannel reflection lines, are investigated to determine their 3-D geometries and reflective characteristics. During seismic processing of the dataset in southwestern Alberta, a recently developed wavelet-based method, Physical Wavelet Frame Denoising, is applied and shown to successfully suppress ground roll contamination while preserving low frequency signals from deeper structures. A new 3-D empirical trace interpolation scheme, DSInt, is developed to address the problem of spatial aliasing associated with 3-D data acquisition. Results from applying the algorithm to both datasets are comparable to available interpolation codes while allowing for greater flexibility in the handling of irregular acquisition geometries and interpolated trace headers. Evidence of the Head-Smashed-In reflector in southwestern Alberta is obtained using a dataset acquired to 8 s TWTT (approx. 24 km depth). From locally coherent, discontinuous pockets of basement reflectivity, the dataset appears to image the tapering western edge of the deep reflections imaged by Lithoprobe. A statistical approach of tracking reflectivity is developed and applied to obtain the spatial and temporal distribution of reflections. Simple 1-D forward modelling results reveal that the brightest reflections likely arise from a 50 to 150 m thick body of high density/high velocity material although variations in the amplitudes and lateral distribution of the reflections indicate that the thickness of the sills is laterally variable. Thus, the results are consistent with imaging the tapering edge of the sill complex. Clear evidence of the Winagami reflection sequence in northwestern Alberta, emerges from the second dataset acquired to 5

  9. Stupid to the last drop : how Alberta is bringing environmental armageddon to Canada and doesn't seem to care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, W.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the book was to demonstrate the province's growing disregard for the environment. The author argued that despite global concerns over climate change, Alberta is recklessly proceeding with the uncontrolled development of its fossil fuel resources. The book explored the environmental and socio-economic impacts of oil sands development in Alberta, and included details of the day-to-day lives of oil sands workers, and descriptions of communities impacted by large-scale development. A history of oil sands development in the region was presented, and political issues related to Canada's sale of its resources to the United States were examined. The impact of oil sands development on Alberta's agricultural sector was also examined. figs.

  10. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jenny; Koper, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus). Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  11. Teacher Supply and Demand: Issues in Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchenham, Andrew; Chasteauneuf, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This two-year study (2007-2009), which examined teacher supply and demand issues in northern Canada--Fort Nelson School District (BC), the Fort Vermilion School Division (AB), the Yukon Department of Education (YK), and the Yellowknife School District (NWT)--comprised three research objectives: (a) to ascertain in which subject areas acute and…

  12. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  13. Do "Virtual" and "Outpatient" Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard; Heffernan, Courtney; Gao, Zhiwei; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Talbot, James

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB) elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a "virtual" model is attractive. However, whether "virtual" clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the "virtual" and "outpatient" public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population. In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators. In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively. Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise.

  14. Timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccinations in children by two years of age in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vineet; MacDonald, Shannon E; McNeil, Deborah A; McDonald, Sheila W; Kellner, James D; Edwards, Sarah A; Stagg, Victoria; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-06-16

    Assessing timeliness and completeness of vaccine administration is important for evaluating the effectiveness of immunization programs. Few studies have reported timeliness, particularly in Canada. The objective of this study was to examine timeliness of the receipt of vaccination for each routine childhood recommended vaccine by 24 months of age among children in a community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Survey data from a community-based pregnancy cohort in Alberta were linked to Public Health vaccination records of children (n = 2763). The proportion of children receiving early, timely, delayed, or no vaccination was calculated. A dose was considered early if it was administered before the recommended age in days as per the vaccination schedule, timely if administered at any time from start of recommended age in days to age in days when delay counts were initiated, and delayed if it was administered on or after age in days when delay counts were initiated. Series completion rates were also calculated. For multi-dose vaccines, over 80% of children had timely doses at 2, 4 and 6 months. By 12 months, this proportion decreased to 65% (95% CI: 63%-66%) for meningococcal conjugate group C, 61% (95% CI: 59%-62%) for measles antigen-containing vaccines and 64% (95% CI: 62%-65%) for varicella antigen-containing vaccines. At 18 months, only 55% (95% CI: 53%-56%) of the children had a timely 4th dose of diphtheria, acellular pertussis, tetanus, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Eventual series completion rate for all recommended vaccines was 77% (95% CI: 75%-79%). The timeliness and completeness of routine childhood vaccination in preschool children in this community-based pregnancy cohort is lower than provincial targets. Data on timeliness of vaccination can inform further work on barriers and enablers to vaccination in order to meet provincial targets.

  15. Do "Virtual" and "Outpatient" Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a "virtual" model is attractive. However, whether "virtual" clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the "virtual" and "outpatient" public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population.In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators.In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively.Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise.

  16. Identifying sources, formation pathways and geological controls of methane in shallow groundwater above unconventional natural gas plays in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Humez, P.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Kingston, A. W.; Clarkson, C.; Cahill, A.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Osadetz, K.; Lawton, D.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of shale gas development facilitated by hydraulic fracturing it has become increasingly important to develop tracer tools to scientifically determine potential impacts of stray gases on shallow aquifers. To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development, it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta (Canada) between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with often low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged -69.7 ± 11.1 ‰ in free gas and -65.6 ± 8.9 ‰ in dissolved gas. δ13C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that the methane in Alberta groundwater was formed via a similar mechanism. The low δ13C values in concert with average δ2H values of -289 ± 44 ‰ suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by gas dryness parameters typically >500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Novel approaches of in-situ concentration and isotope measurements for methane during drilling of a 530 m deep well yielded a mud-gas profile characterizing natural gas occurrences in the intermediate zone. Comparison with mudgas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100-250 meter depths in the Western

  17. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  18. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2 landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  19. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  20. Partnerships in Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case of Canmore, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianne Draper

    1992-01-01

    A variety of formal and informal "partnerships" have evolved in the course of planning for the first two of several large-scale, multi-million dollar private sector tourism development projects proposed for the small town of Canmore, adjacent to Banff National Park, Canada. This paper briefly identifies the major impetuses for and the nature of these...

  1. Total Gaseous Mercury Concentration Measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

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    Matthew T. Parsons

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations are described from total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations measured at the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA Fort McMurray—Patricia McInnes air quality monitoring station—from 21 October 2010 through 31 May 2013, inclusively. Fort McMurray is approximately 380 km north-northeast of Edmonton, Alberta, and approximately 30 km south of major Canadian oil sands developments. The average TGM concentration over the period of this study was 1.45 ± 0.18 ng∙m−3. Principal component analysis suggests that observed TGM concentrations are correlated with meteorological conditions including temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation, and also ozone concentration. There is no significant correlation between ambient concentrations of TGM and anthropogenic pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOX and sulphur dioxide (SO2. Principal component analysis also shows that the highest TGM concentrations observed are a result of forest fire smoke near the monitoring station. Back trajectory analysis highlights the importance of long-range transport, indicating that unseasonably high TGM concentrations are generally associated with air from the southeast and west, while unseasonably low TGM concentrations are a result of arctic air moving over the monitoring station. In general, TGM concentration appears to be driven by diel and seasonal trends superimposed over a combination of long-range transport and regional surface-air flux of gaseous mercury.

  2. Investigation of Primary Recovery in Low-Permeability Oil Formations: A Look at the Cardium Formation, Alberta (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi S.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight oil formations (permeability < 1 mD in Western Canada have recently emerged as a reliable resource of light oil supply owing to the use of multifractured horizontal wells. The Cardium formation, which contains 25% of Alberta’s total discovered light oil (according to Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, consists of conventional and unconventional (low-permeability or tight play areas. The conventional play areas have been developed since 1957. Contrarily, the development of unconventional play is a recent event, due to considerably poorer reservoir properties which increases the risk associated with capital investment. This in turn implies the need for a comprehensive and critical study of the area before planning any development strategy. This paper presents performance results from the low permeability portions of the Cardium formation where new horizontal wells have been drilled and stimulated in multiple stages to promote transverse hydraulic fractures. Development of the tight Cardium formation using primary recovery is considered. The production data of these wells was first matched using a black oil simulator. The calibrated model presented was used for performance perditions based on sensitivity studies and investigations that encompassed design factors such as well spacing, fracture properties and operational constraints.

  3. Legacy seismic investigations of karst surfaces: Implications for heavy oil extraction from the Devonian Grosmont Formation, northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Todd Dylan

    The Devonian Grosmont Formation in northeastern Alberta, Canada is the world's largest accumulation of heavy oil in carbonate rock with estimated bitumen in place of 64.5×109 m 3. At the studies location the eroded and buried surface of the Grosmont, referred here as the SubMannville uncoformity (SMU), was analyzed and interpret for a karsted surface. Results from legacy seismic data and available well log information were able to define the SMU as a mature karst surface within observable features such as dolines, karst valleys, karst plain and poljie and a ridge. The large scale topography of the ridge and poljie were geologically controlled by the underlying the Paleozoic rocks. Furthermore, the poljie was observed to contain the majority of the dolines in the area, noted to occur elsewhere. That said, dolines and karst valleys and other such dissolution features have the potential to erode the bitumen reservoir of the upper Grosmont members C and D. It is important for future oil prospectors to map and avoid areas such as the poljie, dolines and karst valley to increase certainty of reservoir presence. A preliminary rock-physics model was developed for the Grosmont reservoir of a bitumen-saturated dolomite. Results suggest that elastic properties of the Grosmont reservoir are temperature-frequency dispersive. This implies that there is a potential to use time-lapse seismic to map and monitor heating of the reservoir.

  4. Canadian Rheumatology Association Meeting, Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Earl D

    2016-04-15

    The 71st Annual Meeting of The Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA) was held at the Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, February 17-20, 2016. The program consisted of presentations covering original research, symposia, awards, and lectures. Highlights of the meeting include the following 2016 Award Winners: Distinguished Rheumatologist, Ronald Laxer; Distinguished Investigator, Proton Rahman; Teacher-Educator, Lori Albert; Young Investigator, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on Basic Science Research by a Trainee, Liam O'Neil; Best Abstract on Research by a Rheumatology Resident, Valérie Leclair; Best Abstract by a Medical Student, Matthew Jessome; Best Abstract by a Post-Graduate Resident, Hyein Kim; CRA/Arthritis Research Foundation (ARF) Best Epidemiology/Health Services Research Award, Cheryl Barnabe; Summer Studentship Mentor Award, Ines Colmegna; CRA/ARF Best Paediatric Research Award, Lily Lim; CRA/ARF Best Clinical Research Award, Zahi Touma; CRA/ARF Best Basic Science Research Award, Nigil Haroon; Best Abstract on SLE Research by a Trainee - Ian Watson Award, Stephanie Nantes.

  5. Super Network on the Prairie The Discursive Framing of Broadband Connectivity by Policy Planners and Rural Residents in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bakardjieva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of the SuperNet, an infrastructure project designed and sponsored by the provincial government of Alberta, Canada with the objective of providing broadband connectivity to public facilities, businesses and residences in rural communities. The data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings in the course of a collaborative research initiative (The SuperNet Research Alliance that investigated the social construction of the broadband network from multiple perspectives. The objective of the paper is to examine in parallel the discourses in which the concept of broadband connectivity acquired meaning and substance at the levels of 1 provincial government and industry policy planners and 2 the residents of the rural communities who were the intended beneficiaries of the SuperNet. Using actor-network theory as a departure point, this analysis takes stock of the framing devices employed in the two sets of discourses and of the distinctive worldviews that generated them. It looks for the meeting points and the disjunctions between the grand visions and the grounded projections underlying the positions taken by the two respective categories of actors. Differences in the interpretation and appropriation of broadband among rural Albertans themselves are discerned and related to social factors characterizing different situations within rural areas. Rural broadband connectivity thus emerges not so much as a one-dimensional access equalizer for rural people, but as a complex mediator of opportunity, participation and identity.

  6. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Sheau-Fang Hwang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Gary Peng; Hafiz Ahmed; Qixing Zhou; George Turnbull

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible c...

  7. Cultural keystone species in oil sands mine reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Ltd., Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Cultural keystone species (CKS) shape the cultural identify of people through the roles they have in diet, material and spiritual practices. The use of the CKS concept is regarded as a method of addressing linked social and ecological issues. This paper presented the results of using the CKS model in the indigenous community of Fort McKay, Alberta to address, social, ecological and spiritual values in regional mine-land reclamation. Fort McKay is at the epicenter of the existing mine developments. Its residents regard human and environmental health to be be linked and therefore experience the effects of development and subsequent reclamation on both cultural and ecological levels. The community is actively engaged in working with the local mining companies on issues of mine reclamation design. In order to hold meaning to the local people, oil sand operators used the CKS concept in their reclamation efforts to take into account ecological functionality and also address the linked social factors. Five CKS were identified through a literature review and extensive community interviews. The list includes moose, cranberry, blueberry, ratroot and beaver. These 5 CKS were used to focus discussions and make recommendations for relevant land reclamation within Fort McKay traditional territory. The project has influenced the way both the community and oil sands operators engage with reclamation. Lessons learned from this process will help direct reclamation activities on other portions of traditional territory, while offering guidance to other regional developers for addressing cultural values in reclamation on their leases. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  8. The prevalence of enteric RNA viruses in stools from diarrheic and non-diarrheic people in southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Danielle; Inglis, G Douglas; Boras, Valerie F; Brassard, Julie; Houde, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Southwestern Alberta is a region of Canada that has high rates of enteritis as well as high densities of livestock. The presence of enteric RNA viruses, specifically norovirus (NoV) GI, GII, GIII, GIV; sapovirus (SaV); rotavirus (RV); and astrovirus (AstV), was evaluated in stools from diarrheic (n = 2281) and non-diarrheic (n = 173) people over a 1-year period in 2008 and 2009. Diarrheic individuals lived in rural (46.6 %) and urban (53.4 %) settings and ranged in age from less than 1 month to 102 years, and the highest prevalence of infection in these individuals was in November. In all, viruses were detected in diarrheic stools from 388 individuals (17.0 %). NoV GII was the most frequently detected virus (8.0 %; n = 182) followed by SaV (4.3 %; n = 97), RV (2.0 %; n = 46), AstV (1.8 %; n = 42), NoV GI (0.9 %; n = 20), and NoV GIV (0.1 %; n = 1). Animal NoV GIII was never detected. The prevalence of mixed viral infections in diarrheic individuals was 2.8 % (n = 11). Children from 1 to 5 years of age accounted for the highest prevalence of positive stools, followed by the elderly individuals (≥70 years). Only NoV GII (1.2 %; n = 2) and SaV (1.2 %; n = 2) were detected in stools from non-diarrheic people. Sequence analysis of a subset of stools revealed homology to NoV, SaV and RV sequences from humans but not to strains from non-human animals. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that viruses of animal origin have a significant impact on the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis caused by RNA enteric viruses in people living in southwestern Alberta.

  9. A Framework for Integrating Transboundary Values, Landscape Connectivity, and ′Protected Areas′ Values Within a Forest Management Area in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Witiw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daishowa-Marubeni International (DMI is an integrated forest products company with operations in northern Alberta, Canada. As part of its sustainable forestry practices, it has embarked on a comprehensive plan to maintain biodiversity and landscape connectivity values within its area of operation. In addition to identification of High Conservation Value Forests (HCVF as part of an internal forest planning system and to assist forest certification interests, DMI has developed a plan for a Continuous Reserve Network (CRN. This paper describes the rationale behind DMI′s decision to identify a framework for both HCVF and the CRN. The company believes this CRN is a novel approach to ensuring visibility of connected landscape processes. DMI has introduced the concept to government, local sawmill stakeholders, and its public advisory committee, with a goal towards implementing the CRN within the area of its forest tenure as part of its forest management plan. The CRN represents nearly 44% of DMI′s tenure area, and thus makes a significant contribution to landscape connectivity and forest biodiversity. The case study represents an example where values and goals of legislated protected areas are also captured by management prescriptions within non-harvestable areas and timber-producing forests associated with an ecosystem-based approach to sustainable forest management.

  10. Mammoth tracks indicate a declining Late Pleistocene population in southwestern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Paul; Hills, L. V.; Kooyman, B.; Tolman, Shayne M.

    2005-05-01

    Much debate has raged over the role that early humans played in this most recent large extinction. Fossil mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) footprints were discovered at the St. Mary Reservoir in southwestern Canada (Wally's Beach DhPg-8). They are located in aeolian sediment dated at 11,300-11,000 years BP. By comparing the size distribution of these tracks with those of modern African elephants ( Loxodonta africana), the age distribution of this mammoth population was determined. Containing far fewer juveniles than would be expected for an expanding or stable population, these tracks provide the first evidence that a living mammoth population, coexisting with human inhabitants, was in decline. Additionally, the same site provides corroborating evidence of humans hunting megafauna (horse and bovids). This suggests that humans, in addition to climate change, played a role in the end Pleistocene extinctions in North America.

  11. Social-Ecological Thresholds in a Changing Boreal Landscape: Insights from Cree Knowledge of the Lesser Slave Lake Region of Alberta, Canada

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    Brenda L. Parlee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of the Lesser Slave Lake Cree, this paper shares understanding of how resource development has affected water, fish, forests, and wildlife as well as the well-being of Cree communities in the Lesser Slave Lake region of Alberta, Canada. In addition to descriptive observations of change, the narratives point to social-ecological thresholds or tipping points in the relationship of Cree harvesters to local lands and resources. Specifically, the study speaks to the echoing effects of ecological loss and degradation on traditional livelihood practices over the last 100 years highlighting the complexity of cumulative effects as well as the challenges of balancing resource development in the region with alternative land uses including those valued by Alberta's Aboriginal peoples.

  12. Modelling Effects of Cover Material and Cover Depth on Hydrological Regime and Salt Redistribution in Reclaimed Oil Sand Landscapes in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welegedara, N.; Grant, R. F.; Quideau, S.; Lloret, E.

    2014-12-01

    Large-Scale surface mining is continuing in the Athabasca oil sands region in northern Alberta, Canada, causing significant ecosystem disturbances and changes in hydrology. Reclamation efforts in this region require understanding processes that control water, nutrient and salt fluxes through reclaimed landscapes which is critical to restoring their productivity. These processes were tested in a comprehensive mathematical model, ecosys, which was used to determine the effect of different cover thicknesses on water balance, water buffering capacity, salinity and the productivity in the South Bison Hills reclamation site of Syncrude Canada (SCL). This site was constructed in 1999 by capping peat mineral mix and secondary (glacial till) soil over saline sodic overburden. The site was constructed with three different soil cover thicknesses: 35 cm (thin), 50 cm (intermediate) and 100 cm (thick) along a 20% north facing slope. Model outputs were validated with field measured volumetric water content, runoff, snow data, electrical conductivity (EC) and plant productivity data recorded from 1999 to 2013. Model and field results show differences in horizontal and vertical water transport among the three reclaimed prototype covers. Lower water retention capacity in the 35 cm cover compared to the 50 cm and 100 cm covers caused greater soil moisture variation so that permanent wilting point was reached during dry years, decreasing plant growth due to water stress. In addition, the modeled and field-measured EC values indicated some upward salt movement from overburden to cover material over the time. This movement caused higher EC values (6 - 8 dS m-1) to be reached in the shallow rooting zone of the 35 cm and 50 cm covers than of the 100 cm cover several years after the covers were established. The determination of cost effective but ecologically sustainable cover depth is a challenge and will be a focus in future simulations.

  13. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  14. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kindzierski, Warren; Kaul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI) are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI) hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5)) on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1) only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average), but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2) evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction), but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction); and (3) susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65) and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  15. A comprehensive land-use/hydrological modeling system for scenario simulations in the Elbow River watershed, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km(2) and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  16. Recommendations for the referral of patients for proton-beam therapy, an Alberta Health Services report: a model for Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.; Kostaras, X.; Parliament, M.; Olivotto, I.A.; Nordal, R.; Aronyk, K.; Hagen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with photon therapy, proton-beam therapy (pbt) offers compelling advantages in physical dose distribution. Worldwide, gantry-based proton facilities are increasing in number, but no such facilities exist in Canada. To access pbt, Canadian patients must travel abroad for treatment at high cost. In the face of limited access, this report seeks to provide recommendations for the selection of patients most likely to benefit from pbt and suggests an out-of-country referral process. Methods The medline, embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 1990 and May 2014 that evaluated clinical outcomes after pbt. A draft report developed through a review of evidence was externally reviewed and then approved by the Alberta Health Services Cancer Care Proton Therapy Guidelines steering committee. Results Proton therapy is often used to treat tumours close to radiosensitive tissues and to treat children at risk of developing significant late effects of radiation therapy (rt). In uncontrolled and retrospective studies, local control rates with pbt appear similar to, or in some cases higher than, photon rt. Randomized trials comparing equivalent doses of pbt and photon rt are not available. Summary Referral for pbt is recommended for patients who are being treated with curative intent and with an expectation for long-term survival, and who are able and willing to travel abroad to a proton facility. Commonly accepted indications for referral include chordoma and chondrosarcoma, intraocular melanoma, and solid tumours in children and adolescents who have the greatest risk for long-term sequelae. Current data do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend routine referral of patients with most head-and-neck, breast, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and pelvic cancers, including prostate cancer. It is recommended that all referrals be considered by a multidisciplinary team to select appropriate cases. PMID

  17. Air Pollution and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Admission in Alberta, Canada: A Three-Step Procedure Case-Crossover Study.

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    Xiaoming Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse associations between air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI are widely reported in medical literature. However, inconsistency and sensitivity of the findings are still big concerns. An exploratory investigation was undertaken to examine associations between air pollutants and risk of acute MI (AMI hospitalization in Alberta, Canada. A time stratified case-crossover design was used to assess the transient effect of five air pollutants (carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 (PM2.5 on the risk of AMI hospitalization over the period 1999-2009. Subgroups were predefined to see if any susceptible group of individuals existed. A three-step procedure, including univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and bootstrap model averaging, was used. The multivariate analysis was used in an effort to address adjustment uncertainty; whereas the bootstrap technique was used as a way to account for regression model uncertainty. There were 25,894 AMI hospital admissions during the 11-year period. Estimating health effects that are properly adjusted for all possible confounding factors and accounting for model uncertainty are important for making interpretations of air pollution-health effect associations. The most robust findings included: (1 only 1-day lag NO2 concentrations (6-, 12- or 24-hour average, but not those of CO, NO, O3 or PM2.5, were associated with an elevated risk of AMI hospitalization; (2 evidence was suggested for an effect of elevated risk of hospitalization for NSTEMI (Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction, but not for STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; and (3 susceptible subgroups included elders (age ≥65 and elders with hypertension. As this was only an exploratory study there is a need to replicate these findings with other methodologies and datasets.

  18. Comparative Detection and Quantification of Arcobacter butzleri in Stools from Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic People in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew L; Boras, Valerie F; Kruczkiewicz, Peter; Selinger, L Brent; Taboada, Eduardo N; Inglis, G Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Arcobacter butzleri has been linked to enteric disease in humans, but its pathogenicity and epidemiology remain poorly understood. The lack of suitable detection methods is a major limitation. Using comparative genome analysis, we developed PCR primers for direct detection and quantification ofA. butzleri DNA in microbiologically complex matrices. These primers, along with existing molecular and culture-based methods, were used to detectA. butzleri and enteric pathogens in stools of diarrheic and nondiarrheic people (n= 1,596) living in southwestern Alberta, Canada, from May to November 2008. In addition, quantitative PCR was used to compare A. butzleridensities in diarrheic and nondiarrheic stools.Arcobacter butzleriwas detected more often by PCR (59.6%) than by isolation methods (0.8%). Comparison by PCR-based detection found no difference in the prevalence ofA. butzleri between diarrheic (56.7%) and nondiarrheic (45.5%) individuals. Rates of detection in diarrheic stools peaked in June (71.1%) and October (68.7%), but there was no statistically significant correlation between the presence ofA. butzleri and patient age, sex, or place of habitation. Densities ofA. butzleriDNA in diarrheic stools (1.6 ± 0.59 log10 copies mg(-1)) were higher (P= 0.007) than in nondiarrheic stools (1.3 ± 0.63 log10copies mg(-1)). Of the 892 diarrheic samples that were positive for A. butzleri, 74.1% were not positive for other bacterial and/or viral pathogens. The current study supports previous work suggesting that A. butzleri pathogenicity is strain specific and/or dependent on other factors, such as the level of host resistance.

  19. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

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    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  20. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  1. Impact of Oils Sands Mining on Nitrogen-Limited Peatland Ecosystems in Alberta Canada

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    Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Scott, K.; Prsa, T.; Quinn, J.; Vitt, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    Peatlands of boreal Canada represent large reservoirs of sequestered carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Cycling of C and N in peatlands is intrinsically linked, especially in bogs - peatlands isolated from ground- and surface-water inputs, receiving nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere, which in the absence of N pollution, ensures an N-limited, nutrient-poor ecosystem. A growing concern associated with the development of Alberta’s Oil Sands Mining (OSM) is the potential for regionally elevated deposition of N-compounds (NOx). Prior to OSM, N inputs to bogs were limited exclusively to (1) biological N fixation, and (2) bulk atmospheric deposition. Currently, data examining the effect of purported increases in N and S deposition in this region are limited. Our goal was to determine patterns in atmospheric N deposition on N concentrations in bog porewaters at 5 sites spanning varying distances from the OSM region: Mildred, McKay, McMurray, Anzac and Utikuma bog (14, 24, 51, 71 and 300 km, respectively). Specifically, we wanted to test the hypothesis that OSM results in higher N deposition leading to elevated N in porewaters. Deposition of N was greatest at Mildred, followed by McKay, McMurray, and Anzac, and significantly lowest at Utikuma Bog (F4,49 = 5.9, p resin samplers placed at each site (n=50 total; 10 per site) and porewaters were collected using a modified sipper design (n=15; 3 per site; 10-10cm depth intervals per sipper).

  2. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

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    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  3. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  4. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

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    Richard Long

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally. METHODS: The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection. RESULTS: HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another. CONCLUSION: "Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  5. Permeability Estimation of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada by Statistically Combining Well-logs and Core Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Permeability estimation in carbonate reservoirs is quite challenging since they are very heterogeneous. Moreover, the amount of core measurement data is commonly limited. In this paper, we present permeability maps for Grosmont formation in Canada with very limited permeability data, using bi-variated probability density function (porosity and permeability) conditioned to geological information. Grosmont formation consists of four units: Lower Grosmont (LG); Upper Grosmont (UG1); Upper Grosmont 2 (UG2); and Upper Grosmont 3 (UG3). From the previous studies, UG2 and UG3 are more promising reservoir units since they have larger porosity and permeability with vuggy pores and fractures by diagenesis (dolomitization and karstification). Thus, we applied our method to these two units. We first investigated core measurement data (porosity and permeability) and compared them to local geological aspects, such as the degree of diagenesis and vicinity of unconformity. Then we could divide the study area into 6 groups, and we established a bivariated probability density function (pdf) for each group and each unit (total of 12 pdfs) with core measurements of porosity and permeability. In the next step, we created porosity maps using well-log data for UG2 and UG3. The final step is to generate permeability maps for UG2 and UG3 by drawing a permeability value from the bivariated pdf conditioned to porosity. The final results show more realistic permeability maps for Grosmont formation when compared to conventional kriging results. Moreover, the strengths of this approach is (1) that it can use geological information and (2) that it can handle the variability of permeability, which can be naturally occurred in carbonate reservoirs. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2008RER11P0430302009).

  6. Emission rate estimates determined for a large number of volatile organic compounds using airborne measurements for the oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada

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    Li, S. M.; Leithead, A.; Moussa, S.; Liggio, J.; Moran, M. D.; Wang, D. K.; Hayden, K. L.; Darlington, A.; Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Makar, P.; Stroud, C.; McLaren, R.; Liu, P.; O'brien, J.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Zhang, J.; Marson, G.; Cober, S.; Wolde, M.; Wentzell, J.

    2016-12-01

    In August and September of 2013, aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants were made during a field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan on Oil Sands Monitoring in Alberta, Canada. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined using a high resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) continuously at 2-5 second resolution during the flights, and from 680 discretely sampled stainless steel canisters collected during flights followed by offline GC-MS and GC-FID analyses for four large oil sands surface mining facilities. The Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA), developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), was applied to the aromatics and oxygenated VOC results from the PTR-ToF-MS to determine their emission rates. Additional VOC species, determined in the canisters, were compared with the PTR-ToF-MS VOC species to determine their emission ratios. Using these emission ratios and the emission rates for the aromatics and oxygenated VOCs, the individual emission rates for 73-90 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined for each of the four major oil sands facilities. The results are the first independently determined emission rates for a large number of VOCs at the same time for large industrial complexes such as the oil sands mining facilities. These measurement-based emission data will be important for strengthening VOC emission reporting.

  7. Contributing towards a conceptual model of soil-landscape co-evolution: observations from historic mining sites in Alberta, Canada

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    Raab, Thomas; Naeth, Anne; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    At the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta, Canada we find a diverse soil landscape which can help to conceptualize factors and processes controlling initial pedogenesis and soil distribution on very young landforms in prairie environments. Due to differing reclamation practices in the 1950s and landslides occurring after spoil dumping, four areas can be distinguished by GoogleMaps/LiDAR evaluation and onsite field survey: (i) not-mined, (ii) stock piled and unreclaimed, (iii) stock piled and reclaimed and (iv) affected by post-mining geomorphodynamics and quasi-natural redeposition. The parent material for areas (ii) to (iv) was initially dumped by spreaders but only (ii) didn't undergo further change. Landscape (iii) has seen levelling of the piles by heavy machinery. Features of landscape (iv) are formed by reshaping the originally dumped and levelled structures. This last landscape unit marks the rim of the former mine adjacent to the river valley. In practice, mining activities formed new valley slopes. In contrast to the naturally developed slopes the mine slopes were less stable. Vegetation, which could have hindered slope wash erosion, was missing after dumping the spoil slopes. Slopes were very steep (or practically undercut) and therefore, substrates were naturally re-located by mass movements such as sliding and slumping. Characteristic sliding and slumping structures can be identified in the close-ups of the LiDAR images. Both processes, mass movement and slope wash erosion, may have overlapped. Landscape (ii) is the most contrasting one. Dumped stock piles formed elongated, curved and steep ridges. These landforms do not have a natural analogue but clearly show their technological origin. Most interesting are differences in vegetation. South and southwest facing slopes are covered with grassland whereas north and northeast facing slopes are covered with aspen trees. Some of the ditches are filled with water and form small elongated ponds. The

  8. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada.

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    Aslam, Mueen; Diarra, Moussa S; Checkley, Sylvia; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Masson, Luke

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genotypes of Enterococcus spp. particularly Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail meats purchased (2007-2008) in Alberta, Canada. Unconditional statistical associations between AMR pheno- and genotypes and virulence genotypes were determined. A total of 532 enterococci comprising one isolate from each positive sample were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility. A customized enterococcal microarray was used for species identification and the detection of AMR and virulence genes. E. faecalis was found in >94% of poultry samples and in about 73% of beef and 86% of pork samples. Enterococcus faecium was not found in turkey meat and its prevalence was 2% in beef and pork and 4% in chicken samples. None of the enterococci isolates were resistant to the clinically important drugs ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. Multiresistance (≥3 antimicrobials) was more common in E. faecalis (91%) isolated from chicken and turkey (91%) than those isolated from beef (14%) or pork (45%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was also noted at varying degrees. The most common resistance genes found in E. faecalis were aminoglycosides (aac, aphA3, aadE, sat4, aadA), macrolides (ermB, ermA), tetracyclines (tetM, tetL, tetO), streptogramin (vatE), bacitracin (bcrR) and lincosamide (linB). Virulence genes expressing aggregation substances (agg) and cytolysin (cylA, cylB, cylL, cylM) were found more frequently in poultry E. faecalis and were unconditionally associated with tetM, linB and bcrR resistance genes. Other virulence genes coding for adhesion (ace, efaAfs), gelatinase (gelE) were also found in the majority of E. faecalis. Significant statistical associations were found between resistance and virulence genotypes, suggesting their possible physical link on a common genetic element. This study underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of resistance and

  9. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  10. Rural Literacy Issues in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    This paper reviews results of a questionnaire distributed to literacy workers in rural Alberta (Canada) to ascertain their views on rural literacy. The questionnaire was designed to identify: (1) distinctive features of the issue of adult illiteracy in rural areas; (2) the strengths of literacy efforts in rural Alberta; (3) the weaknesses of…

  11. Northern homelands, northern frontier: linking culture and economic security in contemporary livelihoods in boreal and cold temperate forest communities in northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Chapeskie

    2001-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental pressures that have historically been brought to bear on the northern forests of Canada. It then presents the idea of the northern frontier forests of Canada as Indigenous landscapes whose ecological diversity and abundance have historically been nurtured in no small measure by their original inhabitants. It then proposes how...

  12. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    than east-west movements across settled mountain valleys separating Mts. Our results suggest that relatively distinct subpopulations exist in this region, including the Cabinet, Selkirk South, and the decadesisolated Yellowstone populations. Current movement rates do not appear sufficient to consider the subpopulations we identify along the Canada-US border as 1 inter-breeding unit. Although we detected enough male movement to mediate gene flow, the current low rate of female movement detected among areas is insufficient to provide a demographic rescue effect between areas in the immediate future (0-15 yr). In Alberta, we found fragmentation corresponded to major east-west highways (Highways 3, 11, 16, and 43) and most inter-area movements were made by males. Gene flow and movement rates between Alberta and BC were highest across the Continental Divide south of Highway 1 and north of Highway 16. In the central region between Highways 1 and 11, we found evidence of natural fragmentation associated with the extensive glaciers and icefields along the Continental Divide. The discontinuities that we identified would form appropriate boundaries formanagement units. We related sex-specific movement rates between adjacent areas to several metrics of human use (highway traffic, settlement, and humancaused mortality) to understand the causes of fragmentation. This analysis used data from 1,508 bears sampled over a 161,500-km 2 area in southeastern BC, western Alberta, northern Idaho, and northern Montana during 1979-2007. This area was bisected by numerous human transportation and settlement corridors of varying intensity and complexity. We used multiple linear regression and ANCOVA to document the responses of female and male bears to disturbance. Males and females both demonstrated reduced movement rates with increasing settlement and traffic. However, females reduced their movement rates dramatically when settlement increased to >20% of the fracture zone. At this same

  13. The Role of Sustainability Resources of Large Greenhouse Gas Emitters: The Case of Corporations in Alberta, Canada

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    Marwa Hannouf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the global challenge of climate change, it becomes crucial to understand the factors that can guide carbon intensive companies to comply with environmental regulations through significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Using the natural-resource-based view, the argument in this paper is that focusing on sustainability-driven resources by companies is a way to meet environmental compliance and reduce GHG emissions while gaining differential competitive benefits. A specific analysis on Alberta case has discussed large GHG emitters’ environmental compliance mechanisms in the context of their sustainability resources. The aim is examining if large GHG emitters in Alberta related to corporations having sustainability resources are complying with the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation (SGER reduction requirement through cleaner-production driven internal mechanisms. The paper examines the existence of the sustainability resources in the reporting companies related to large GHG emitters responsible for 86% of total GHG reported by facilities with emissions above the threshold of 100 kilotonnes of GHG per year under SGER in Alberta. Corporations are found not using their sustainability resource potential to achieve internal reductions in GHG emissions throughout their facilities. Thus, some recommendations are presented for Alberta case as well as for environmental regulations in other jurisdictions that can potentially help policy makers improve their climate change regulations and achieve their global targets and enable companies to gain competitive advantage while meeting GHG reduction compliance.

  14. Recent trends and variability in river discharge across northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; MacDonald, Matthew K.; Gauli-Sharma, Bunu

    2016-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of the observed inter-annual variability and inter-decadal trends in river discharge across northern Canada for 1964-2013. The 42 rivers chosen for this study span a combined gauged area of 5.26 × 106 km2 and are selected based on data availability and quality, gauged area and record length. Inter-annual variability in river discharge is greatest for the eastern Arctic Ocean (coefficient of variation, CV = 16 %) due to the Caniapiscau River diversion into the La Grande Rivière system for enhanced hydropower production. Variability is lowest for the study area as a whole (CV = 7 %). Based on the Mann-Kendall test (MKT), no significant (p > 0.05) trend in annual discharge from 1964 to 2013 is observed in the Bering Sea, western Arctic Ocean, western Hudson and James Bay, and Labrador Sea; for northern Canada as a whole, however, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decline of 102.8 km3 25 yr-1 in discharge occurs over the first half of the study period followed by a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase of 208.8 km3 25 yr-1 in the latter half. Increasing (decreasing) trends in river discharge to the eastern Hudson and James Bay (eastern Arctic Ocean) are largely explained by the Caniapiscau diversion to the La Grande Rivière system. Strong regional variations in seasonal trends of river discharge are observed, with overall winter (summer) flows increasing (decreasing, with the exception of the most recent decade) partly due to flow regulation and storage for enhanced hydropower production along the Hudson and James Bay, the eastern Arctic Ocean and Labrador Sea. Flow regulation also suppresses the natural variability of river discharge, particularly during cold seasons.

  15. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

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    Isaac WONG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  16. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  17. A case history of heavy oil separation in northern Alberta : a singular challenge of demulsifier optimization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J.; Coscio, S.; Barbu, V. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly encountered in the oil industry. The type of emulsion formed are determined by the abundance of the two phases. Emulsions can be stabilized by emulsifiers which concentrate themselves at the oil-water interface and form interfacial films that reduce the interfacial tension and promote emulsification and dispersion of droplets. This paper described the continual improvement cycle for the fluid separation process of a heavy oil/oil sands production facility in northern Alberta over a 3 year period. The operator was faced with the challenge of moving away from injection of 2 separate demulsifier formulations to a single product. The different conditions that existed at the two injection locations were described. A newly developed and unique bottle testing method was used to simulate the field conditions. The dilution of the final product blend made a significant difference to the final performance in the field. The field testing and demulsifier optimization exercise showed that the injection of 2 separate demulsifier products before 2007 resulted in trouble free operation. The bottle test procedure required redesign in order to accurately simulate the field use of a single demulsifier product. The general increase in basic sediment and water (BS and W) seen at the Lease Automatic Custody Transfer (LACT) site may be due to the increase in gross fluid throughput, mostly water. Residence times were significantly reduced, and plant operability was continually changing allowing the emulsion to pass through its inversion point. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. MacIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  19. The Impact of Biomass Feedstock Supply Variability on the Delivered Price to a Biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural residue feedstock availability in a given region can vary significantly over the 20 25 year lifetime of a biorefinery. Since delivered price of biomass feedstock to a biorefinery is related to the distance travelled and equipment optimization, and transportation distance increases as productivity decreases, productivity is a primary determinant of feedstock price. Using the Integrated Biomass Supply Analysis and Logistics (IBSAL) modeling environment and a standard round bale harvest and delivery scenario, harvest and delivery price were modelled for minimum, average, and maximum yields at four potential biorefinery sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Biorefinery capacities ranged from 50,000 to 500,000 tonnes per year. Delivery cost is a linear function of transportation distance and can be combined with a polynomial harvest function to create a generalized delivered cost function for agricultural residues. The range in delivered cost is substantial and is an important consideration for the operating costs of a biorefinery.

  20. Could Poor Fens BE More Sensitive than Bogs to Elevated N Deposition in the Oil Sands Region of Northern Alberta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs and fens cover 29% of the 140,000 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area (OSAA) in northern Alberta, a region characterized by quite low background N deposition (1-2 kg/ha/yr). However, development of the oil sands resource has led to increasing emission of nitrogen oxides, which are then returned to regional ecosystems as elevated atmospheric N deposition. Given the nutrient deficient nature of bogs and poor fens, elevated N deposition from oil sands development could potentially affect peatland ecosystem structure and function. To evaluate the ecosystem-level effects of N deposition, since 2011, we have experimentally applied N to a bog and a poor fen near Mariana Lakes, Alberta, located far enough from the OSAA to be unaffected by oil sands emissions. Treatments include simulated rainfall equivalent to N deposition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg/ha/yr, plus control plots receiving no added water (3 replicate plots per site per N treatment). Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, and DON at the top of the peatland water table did not increase with increasing N deposition, averaging 0.61, 0.09, and 1.07 mg/L, respectively, in the bog, and 0.53, 0.10, and 0.81 mg/L, respectively, in the poor fen. Ericaceous shrub abundance increased with increasing N deposition in both the bog and the poor fen, although plot-scale greenness (hand-held spectral measurement of the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) index) increased with N deposition in the poor fen, but not in the bog. Segmented regression indicated that in the poor fen, at N deposition above 14-16 kg/ha/yr, total microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass in the top 5 cm of peat increased with N deposition, with no effect at lower N deposition. No effect of N deposition on microbial, bacterial, or fungal biomass was observed at 5-10 cm in the poor fen, or at either 0-5 or 5-10 cm in the bog. In the poor fen, microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass increased with NDRE, but the effect was not significant in the bog

  1. Testing Local Adaptation in Five Populations of Hyalella azteca in Northern Alberta's Oil Sands Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Steven R; Gauthier, Patrick T; Pyle, Gregory G

    2017-02-01

    Canada's oil sands hold the third largest petroleum reserves worldwide and have experienced rapid economic growth. The oil sands region provides an ideal location for studying local adaptations through reciprocal transplant (RT) because populations within the region have been historically exposed to naturally occurring bitumen. Our objectives were to (1) determine if Hyalella azteca from habitats within the oil sands region exhibited increased tolerance to constituents associated with industrial bitumen extraction compared with H. azteca from habitats outside the region; and (2) determine if any observed tolerance was attributable to local adaptation. Five populations of H. azteca were reciprocally transplanted from reclaimed and reference wetlands: four from local wetlands plus one naïve laboratory population. Survival, toxicity, and behaviour were measured before and after the RT period. Survival varied by population and site. These results show that the differences in responses among populations are likely not attributable to local adaptation and that laboratory populations of H. azteca provide ecologically relevant results when tested in the field.

  2. Native Language Dictionaries and Grammars of Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniwiecha, Mark C.; Hales, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes recent political and social activities aimed at preserving the culture of Native Americans in Alaska, Northern Canada, and Greenland. An annotated bibliography of sources for the Eskimo Aleut, Tsimshian, Haida, Athabascan (Athapascan), Eyak and Tlingit languages is provided. (CLB)

  3. Relationship Between Interpregnancy Interval and Adverse Perinatal and Neonatal Outcomes in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Innie; Jhangri, Gian S; Lacasse, Michelle; Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sujata

    2015-07-01

    Contexte : Bien qu’il soit reconnu que les issues de grossesse sont associées aux intervalles intergrossesses, certaines différences sont constatées d’une population à l’autre. Cette étude avait pour objectif d’examiner l’association entre les intervalles intergrossesses et les issues périnatales et néonatales au sein d’une population canadienne, au cours des années suivant la décision qui a rendu obligatoire l’enrichissement des aliments en folate. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude auprès de 46 243 femmes qui ont mené deux grossesses monofœtales consécutives à terme dans le nord de l’Alberta entre 1999 et 2007, en utilisant un ensemble de données liées provinciales. L’accouchement préterme, le faible poids de naissance (FPN), l’hypotrophie fœtale et le décès périnatal ont été les issues périnatales sur lesquelles nous nous sommes penchés. Pour ce qui est des issues néonatales, nous nous sommes penchés sur le faible indice d’Apgar, le faible pH mis au jour par gazométrie du sang artériel, la nécessité de procéder à une réanimation néonatale ou à une admission à l’UNSI et le décès néonatal. Une régression logistique multivariée a été utilisée pour neutraliser l’effet des caractéristiques démographiques et obstétricales maternelles. Résultats : Nous avons constaté que de multiples intervalles intergrossesses ont été marqués par une hausse du risque d’accouchement préterme : un intervalle de 0 à 5 mois était associé à un rapport de cotes corrigé (RCc) de 1,37 (IC à 95 %, 1,18 - 1,59), un intervalle de 6 à 11 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,18 (IC à 95 %, 1,04 - 1,34), un intervalle de 24 à 35 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,16 (IC à 95 %, 1,02 - 1,31) et un intervalle de plus de 36 mois était associé à un RCc de 1,36 (IC à 95 %, 1,20 - 1,53), par comparaison avec l’intervalle de référence (de 12 à 17 mois). Le risque de FPN a connu une

  4. Twelve-year trends in ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a community of the Alberta Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B; Spink, David

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air is one of a number of concerns that the First Nation Community of Fort McKay, Alberta has related to development of Canada's oil sands. An in-depth investigation of trends in ambient air VOC levels in Fort McKay was undertaken to better understand the role and possible significance of emissions from Alberta's oil sands development. A non-parametric trend detection method was used to investigate trends in emissions and ambient VOC concentrations over a 12-year (2001-2012) period. Relationships between ambient VOC concentrations and production indicators of oil sands operations around Fort McKay were also examined. A weak upward trend (significant at 90% confidence level) was found for ambient concentrations of total VOCs based on sixteen detected species with an annual increase of 0.64μg/m(3) (7.2%) per year (7.7μg/m(3) increase per decade). Indicators of production (i.e., annual bitumen production and mined oil sands quantities) were correlated with ambient total VOC concentrations. Only one of 29 VOC species evaluated (1-butene) showed a statistically significant upward trend (p=0.05). Observed geometric (arithmetic) mean and maximum ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern for most recent three years of the study period (2010-2012) were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-two VOCs are recommended for tracking in future air quality investigations in the community to better understand whether changes are occurring over time in relation to oil sands development activities and to inform policy makers about whether or not these changes warrant additional attention.

  5. Geographic Inventory Framework (GiF) for estimating N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture in the province of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, D. D.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    A Geographic Information Framework (GiF) has been created to estimate and map agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions of the province of Alberta, Canada. The GiF consists of a modelling component, a GIS component, and application software to communicate between the model, database and census data. For compatibility, GiF follows the IPCC Tier 1 method and contains census data for animal populations, crop areas, and farms for the main IPCC animal and plant types (dairy cows, cattle cows, pigs, sheep, poultry, other animals, grasses, legumes, other crops), and estimated N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management, enteric fermentation, direct soil emissions (with applied manure, synthetic fertilizer, crop residue degradation, biological fixation) and indirect soil emissions (with atmospheric deposition and leaching). Methane emissions from enteric fermentation (609.24 Gg) prevailed over those from manure (44.99 Gg), and nitrous oxide emission from manure (22.01 Gg) prevailed over those from soil (17.73 Gg), with cattle cows emitting most N2O and CH4, followed by plant N2O emissions, and pigs and dairy cows CH4 emissions. The GIS maps showed discernible pattern of N2O and CH4 emissions increasing from North and West to the central Alberta and then slightly declining to South and East, which could be useful to address various mitigation strategies. The framework allows easy replacement of Tier 1 emission factors by Tire 2 or 3 ones from process-based models. Future applying of the latter will allow accounting for CO2 source/sink strength of agricultural ecosystems, hence their complete GHG balance affected by soil, water, and climate.

  6. Of lemmings and snowshoe hares: the ecology of northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Two population oscillations dominate terrestrial community dynamics in northern Canada. In the boreal forest, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) fluctuates in cycles with an 8–10 year periodicity and in tundra regions lemmings typically fluctuate in cycles with a 3–4 year periodicity. I review 60 years of research that has uncovered many of the causes of these population cycles, outline areas of controversy that remain and suggest key questions to address. Lemmings are keystone herbivores in tundra ecosystems because they are a key food resource for many avian and mammalian predators and are a major consumer of plant production. There remains much controversy over the role of predation, food shortage and social interactions in causing lemming cycles. Predation is well documented as a significant mortality factor limiting numbers. Food shortage is less likely to be a major limiting factor on population growth in lemmings. Social interactions might play a critical role in reducing the rate of population growth as lemming density rises. Snowshoe hares across the boreal forest are a key food for many predators and their cycles have been the subject of large-scale field experiments that have pinpointed predation as the key limiting factor causing these fluctuations. Predators kill hares directly and indirectly stress them by unsuccessful pursuits. Stress reduces the reproductive rate of female hares and is transmitted to their offspring who also suffer reduced reproductive rates. The maternal effects produced by predation risk induce a time lag in the response of hare reproductive rate to density, aiding the cyclic dynamics. PMID:20980307

  7. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. Allan; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-10-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field.

  8. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations.

  9. Microfractures due to overpressures caused by thermal cracking in well-sealed Devonian reservoirs, deep Alberta basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, X.M. [Dept. de Exploracion, Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Microfractures (< 1 mm in width) filled with reservoir bitumen crosscut all diagenetic phases in the upper 200 m of the partially to completely dolomitized Upper Devonian (Leduc Formation) Strachan buildup and other buildups in the deep Alberta basin. They display three patterns: (1) subhorizontal, extending from intraskeletal pores and perpendicular to sub-vertical fractures, (2) random in the matrix, and (3) radial around vugs and fossil molds. Subhorizontal microfracturing is most common and radial is the least common. Overpressuring caused by thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial can produce most of the characteristics exhibited by these microfractures: their association with all pore types, bitumen fillings and relatively late diagenetic timing. Microfractures are restricted to isolated buildups below depths of about 3800 m in the Alberta Basin. Thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial is also indicated by finely and coarsely deformed lamellar textures of the reservoir bitumen that fill the microfractures in the Strachan buildup. Also, the stress field was modified by tectonic compression during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. Pressures generated during thermal cracking of oil together with tectonic compression probably created the microfractures in the isolated and effectively sealed reservoirs. The increased horizontal stresses resulted in subhorizontal microfractures, whereas rare radial and random microfractures formed under conditions of more uniform stress. The lack of microfractures in adjacent gas-bearing and updip buildups along the Rimbey-Meadowbrook reef trend is likely due to the connection of these buildups to a regional conduit system in the underlying Cooking Lake platform, preventing them from developing sufficient overpressures.

  10. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  11. Economic and emission accounting for acid-gas injection projects : an example from KeySpan Brazeau River, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, S.; Gunter, W.D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wichert, E. [Sogapro Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCulloch, M. [Pembina Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The Claus process has been used to treat the sour gas at the Brazeau River gas plant located 250 km southwest of Edmonton, Alberta since 1969, with a minimum sulphur requirement of 92.1 per cent. The process converts sulphur compounds to elemental sulphur, which can then be sold or stockpiled, while the residual carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is vented to the atmosphere. A SuperClaus sulphur recovery process can be added to the Claus process to convert even more residual sulphur that remains in the acid gas after having passed through the Claus beds. However, given the current low price of sulphur, the cost of sulphur recovery exceeds the value of the sulphur. Another option would be to inject the acid gas, CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), into the Nisku Q Pool, a depleted gas reservoir. The economic merits and emission characteristics of the two options were compared on a life cycle basis, with particular reference to an AGI operation at the KeySpan Brazeau River gas plant, Alberta. AGI involves compressing the acid gas and injecting it into a suitable underground zone, similar to deep well disposal of produced water. Although the purpose of the AGI operations is to dispose of the H{sub 2}S, significant quantities of CO{sub 2} are being injected at the same time. The injection of acid gas into a depleted gas reservoir would eliminate sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions at the plant site, increase plant efficiency, lower capital and life-cycle costs, extend plant life and employment. The Brazeau River Acid-Gas Injection Project effectively deals with the proactive de-grandfathering of sulphur recovery gas plants and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It was concluded that acid-gas injection at Brazeau is cost effective. The current scheme would generate a breakeven sulphur price of at least $15.5/t net of transportation cost. Obtaining CO{sub 2} credits for CO{sub 2} storage in acid-gas injection operation was shown to be feasible

  12. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  13. Northern Canada in a Changing Climate: Major Findings and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    marine waters and expansion of land- and fresh water-based transportation networks will lead to a less 'remote' northern Canada, bringing both opportunities for growth in a range of economic sectors, and challenges associated with culture, security, and the environment. Diminishing sea ice, particularly in Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea, and a lengthened summertime shipping season associated with warming, will increase opportunities for shipping and passage within Canadian Arctic waters. Loss of sea and fresh ice will also likely lead to the development of marine ports and all-season road networks to interior portions of the northern mainland and Arctic islands, particularly to access natural resources whose development has previously been unesco-nomical. Socioeconomic and cultural impacts on Arctic communities from increased economic activity, including increased marine traffic, and access associated with the opening of the Northwest Passage may be far reaching. While maintaining and protecting aspects of traditional and subsistence ways of life in many Arctic Aboriginal communities may become more difficult in a changing climate, new opportunities will also be presented

  14. Sheep-Associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever-Like Skin Disease in a Free-Ranging Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ), Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Owen M; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Lejeune, Manigandan; Gummer, David; Macbeth, Bryan; Warren, Amy; Joseph, Tomy; Li, Hong; Cunha, Cristina W; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2017-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) from Alberta, Canada, in June 2015. Antemortem and gross pathology findings included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss, and bilaterally symmetric alopecia with hyperpigmentation and crusting over the face, medial surfaces of the pinnae, dorsal trunk, distal limbs, perineal area, and tail. Histologically, the skin lesions were characterized by granulomatous mural folliculitis with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils consistent with previous reports of chronic ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infection. Multiple skin samples were positive for OvHV-2 DNA on PCR, and on partial sequencing of the viral DNA, there was 94% homology with reference GenBank OvHV-2. Quantitative PCR confirmed an increased level of OvHV-2 DNA in the lesional skin tissues. Based on exclusion of other disease processes, gross and histological lesions, PCR, and viral DNA sequencing results, a diagnosis of OvHV-2-mediated malignant catarrhal fever-like dermatitis was made.

  15. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of two typical Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-dominated basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Canada. This region is under significant water development pressure including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. Field investigations were carried out in March and July 2008 to measure radon-222 distributions in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge. Radon concentrations in these lakes ranged from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, while radon concentrations in groundwaters ranged between 2000 and 8000 Bq/m3. A radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow (from 0.5% to about 14% of the total annual water inflow. Lower discharge rates were attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite an implied seasonal constancy in groundwater discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that a combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  16. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia from the Oldman Formation (Campanian, Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Evans

    Full Text Available The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma, Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

  17. Geochemistry of the recent sediments from lake in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Sanei; F. Goodarzi; K. Telmer [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Environmental Study Group

    2005-07-01

    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent sediments and their porewaters from the Wabamun Lake in central Alberta (Canada) to elucidate the possible impact from coal utilization in this region. A multi-elemental analysis of recent sediments in conjunction with other inorganic and organic geochemical approaches are applied to determine the sources, quantity, and processes involved in the distribution of trace elements in the sediments. Concentration versus depth profiles in the sediments and the associated porewaters suggest that geochemical processes impact the mobility and vertical distribution of trace elements in these sediments. Although inputs of trace elements to ecosystems have clearly been elevated by emissions from the coal-fired power plants, diagenetic processes and natural inputs cannot be ignored in the distribution of lake sediments. A combination of various biogeochemical processes may control the distribution of elements in sediment and porewater. However, because of the alkalinity and eutrophic conditions of the studied lake, the Ca-OM fraction plays the most important role as substrate for trace elements. The higher input of calcareous fly ash in the Wabamun Lake, adjacent to the power plants, may cause scavenging of trace metals. The size of fly ash particles tends to decrease towards the more recent part of the sediment profile indicating the effect of particle emission control measures adopted by the power plants. There is no evidence of fly ash particles in the sediments deposited prior to the commencement of coal-fired power plants in the study area (before 1956).

  18. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  19. Mobile membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry for on-the-fly measurements and adaptive sampling of VOCs around oil and gas projects in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, E.; Gill, C.; Bell, R.; Davey, N.; Martinsen, M.; Thompson, A.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The release of hydrocarbons into the environment can have significant environmental and economic consequences. The evolution of smaller, more portable mass spectrometers to the field can provide spatially and temporally resolved information for rapid detection, adaptive sampling and decision support. We have deployed a mobile platform membrane introduction mass spectrometer (MIMS) for the in-field simultaneous measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. In this work, we report instrument and data handling advances that produce geographically referenced data in real-time and preliminary data where these improvements have been combined with high precision ultra-trace VOCs analysis to adaptively sample air plumes near oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada. We have modified a commercially available ion-trap mass spectrometer (Griffin ICX 400) with an in-house temperature controlled capillary hollow fibre polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer membrane interface and in-line permeation tube flow cell for a continuously infused internal standard. The system is powered by 24 VDC for remote operations in a moving vehicle. Software modifications include the ability to run continuous, interlaced tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for multiple contaminants/internal standards. All data are time and location stamped with on-board GPS and meteorological data to facilitate spatial and temporal data mapping. Tandem MS/MS scans were employed to simultaneously monitor ten volatile and semi-volatile analytes, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), reduced sulfur compounds, halogenated organics and naphthalene. Quantification was achieved by calibrating against a continuously infused deuterated internal standard (toluene-d8). Time referenced MS/MS data were correlated with positional data and processed using Labview and Matlab to produce calibrated, geographical Google Earth data-visualizations that enable adaptive sampling protocols

  20. Boron in tree-ring as an indicator of forest disturbances in the Lower Athabasca Oil Sands region, Northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, Christian; Savard, Martine M.; Marion, Joëlle; Thiffault, Évelyne; Pinno, Brad

    2016-04-01

    Industrial activities related to oil sands (OS) extraction in northeastern Alberta (Canada) have generated, since 1967, important quantities of NOx and SO2 emissions that can lead to several negative effects on forest ecosystems including the potential for soil acidification. In addition, mining processes, tailing pond treatments and heavy transport (haul roads) in mining areas are considered important sources of air contaminants that have the potential to impair forest health by affecting the nutrient balance and physiology of trees. In this study, we analysed micronutrients (B, Fe, Zn, Na, Cu) and macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Mn, K) in the tree-ring series of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and spruce (Picea glauca and Picea mariana) trees growing at different distances from the heart of mining operations (two sites for each species). Based on tree-ring records, our aims were to provide a historical perspective on the nutritional status of forest ecosystems and to identify temporal changes in tree-ring chemistry that can be attributed to OS activities. One of the key findings of this research is the direct and immediate response of boron (B) in woody tissues of all studied species to mining operations. During the pre-mining period (prior to 1967) [B] variations in tree-rings of the three species covary with other elements such as Na and Fe and are likely controlled by environmental factors, namely climatic conditions. After 1970, [B] increases and strongly departs from trends of other elements. In jack pine trees (54 km NNE of the centre of industrial operations) the increasing trend is abrupt with mean [B] increasing from 11.7 mg/kg during the pre-industrial period to 14.3 mg/kg during mining period. In spruce trees at the proximal site (14 km NE), [B] increases gradually and nicely reproduces the historical pattern of industrial emissions with mean pre-mining [B] of 29.5 mg/kg increasing to 92.1 mg/kg during the mining period. At the four spruce sites, the increasing

  1. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Harms, N., E-mail: naomi.harms@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Fairhurst, Graham D., E-mail: graham.fairhurst@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Bortolotti, Gary R., E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  2. A new species of Anomognathus and new Canadian and provincial records of aleocharine rove beetles from Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Langor, David W; Hammond, H E James; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Anomognathus athabascensis Klimaszewski, Hammond & Langor, sp. n., and nine new provincial records including one new country record of aleocharine beetles are presented for the province of Alberta. Diagnostics, images of habitus and genital structures, distribution, natural history information and new locality data are provided for the newly recorded species. A checklist for all recorded aleocharines from Alberta is updated.

  3. Palaeoenvironmental drivers of vertebrate community composition in the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, with implications for dinosaur biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas M; Evans, David C

    2016-11-15

    The Belly River Group of southern Alberta is one of the best-sampled Late Cretaceous terrestrial faunal assemblages in the world. This system provides a high-resolution biostratigraphic record of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and faunal turnover, and it has considerable potential to be a model system for testing hypotheses of dinosaur palaeoecological dynamics, including important aspects of palaeoecommunity structure, trophic interactions, and responses to environmental change. Vertebrate fossil microsites (assemblages of small bones and teeth concentrated together over a relatively short time and thought to be representative of community composition) offer an unparalleled dataset to better test these hypotheses by ameliorating problems of sample size, geography, and chronostratigraphic control that hamper other palaeoecological analyses. Here, we assembled a comprehensive relative abundance dataset of microsites sampled from the entire Belly River Group and performed a series of analyses to test the influence of environmental factors on site and taxon clustering, and assess the stability of faunal assemblages both temporally and spatially. We also test the long-held idea that populations of large dinosaur taxa were particularly sensitive to small-scale environmental gradients, such as the paralic (coastal) to alluvial (inland) regimes present within the time-equivalent depositional basin of the upper Oldman and lower Dinosaur Park Formations. Palaeoenvironment (i.e. reconstructed environmental conditions, related to relative amount of alluvial, fluvial, and coastal influence in associated sedimentary strata) was found to be strongly associated with clustering of sites by relative-abundance faunal assemblages, particularly in relation to changes in faunal assemblage composition and marine-terrestrial environmental transitions. Palaeogeography/palaeolandscape were moderately associated to site relative abundance assemblage clustering, with depositional setting

  4. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development.

  5. The application of medical informatics to the veterinary management programs at companion animal practices in Alberta, Canada: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Maclean, K; Russell, M L; Jamal, I; Stephen, C

    2014-02-01

    Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research.

  6. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  7. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D C; S.J. Barry; G. Alaie

    1996-01-01

    We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus). Species of lichens attained peak biomass at diffe...

  8. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L

    2017-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  9. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Schmidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods: This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT, and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU. Results: Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions: The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North.

  10. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  11. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Byrnes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories, injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective: To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design: Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078. Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results: The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001 and fighting (p=0.02 injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01. Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94, average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97 or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91, not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85, not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97 and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98 were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59. Conclusions: Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are

  12. CNPC, Alberta Ink Deal to Boost Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of the Provincial Government of Alberta, Canada, a petroleum delegation led by Vice President of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) Zhou Yongkang arrived in Calgary, a petroleum city in Canada, on June 8,1996 for a one-week visit.

  13. Fire - caribou - winter range relationships in northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We needed data on temporal changes in caribou forages after fire and relative use of age-classes of forests by caribou to help devise a fire suppression priority strategy for caribou winter range in north-central Canada. Consequently, from 1983 through 1986, we estimated the abundance of vegetation and relative use by caribou at 197 sites in western and eastern study areas on the winter range of the Beverly herd of caribou {Rangifer tarandus. Species of lichens attained peak biomass at different periods after fire - as early as 40-60 years for Cladonia spp. to > 150 years for Cladina rangiferina and Cetraria nivalis. Biomass of the primary "caribou lichen", Cladina mitis, increased rapidly from 21-30 years after fire to 41-50 years and attained maximum biomass at 81-90 yeats in the west and 41-60 years in the east. However, total lichen biomass increased with age of forest to 100-150 years because biomass of Stereocaulon spp. did not peak until after 100 years. The biomass of "caribou lichens" {Cladina spp. and Cetraria nivalis stabilized after 61-80 years in the west and 41-60 years in the east. The biomass of terrestrial lichen species can be predicted from their cover. Caribou lichen abundance apparently was only one of several factors that caused caribou to use stands 151-250 years after fire more than othet age classes.

  14. Climate change in the western and northern forests of Canada: Impacts and adaptations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, G. A.; Webber, S. L.; MacKendrick, N. A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This report contains summaries of papers presented at the Workshop on Climate Change in the Western and Northern Forests of Canada, held on February 17-19, 2003, in Prince George BC. The workshop provided an opportunity for the exchange of views on the expected impacts of climate change on Canada's western and northern forests, and potential adaptive strategies. Several papers also dealt with the implications of climate change on environmental, social, and economic values of the forest, and institutional barriers to adaptation. Six key topics were addressed in informal 'knowledge cafe sessions': forest fires, insects and disease, forest productivity, forest practices, biodiversity, and non-timber forest values. Another informal series of meetings, dubbed 'open space sessions' centred around managing the various mechanisms, organizations, and stakeholders involved in climate change research and adaptation strategies. Lists containing the names of authors, and of workshop participants are also included.

  15. Adults' Knowledge of Child Development in Alberta, Canada: Comparing the Level of Knowledge of Adults in Two Samples in 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Vinturache, Angela; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Breitkreuz, Rhonda; Bukutu, Cecilia; Gibbard, Ben; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Parents and non-parental adults who interact with children influence child development. This study evaluates the knowledge of child development in two large and diverse samples of adults from Alberta in 2007 and 2013. Telephone interviews were completed by two random samples (1,443 in 2007; 1,451 in 2013). Participants were asked when specific…

  16. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown`s royalty share of Alberta`s crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission`s position as the largest crude oil marketer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1993 marked the last full year of the Commission operating as Alberta`s representative in the energy regulatory arena in Canada and the USA; due to restructuring, these functions will be transferred to the Ministry of Energy in early 1994. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission`s receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 40.2 million bbl, down 11% from 1992, and receipts of heavy crude were 3.7 million bbl, down 42% from 1992. Revenue from crude oil sales was $800 million, down 25% from 1992. The Commission`s natural gas activities in 1993 included price determination and information collection. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Isotope paleohydrology at the northern Boreal treeline, Canada and Russia (paleohydrology climate change)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, B.B.

    1997-12-31

    A Canada-Russia international research project was established to better understand the relationship between the northern treeline region and climate change. The study involved the oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of lake sediment cores using several different sedimentological, biological and geochemical techniques. The study has provided an insight into Holocene paleohydrology and watershed carbon cycling in arctic Canada and Russia. Results showed that periods of treeline advance and climate warming in central Canada and central and eastern Russia were characterized by distinct changes in moisture conditions. During these intervals, summer relative humidity increased by 10 to 15 per cent in central Canada. Central Russia was also wetter, but a drier climate was associated with treeline advance in eastern Russia. Carbon isotope records have suggested that lake carbon reservoirs at boreal treeline were greatly influenced by catchment hydrology as well as soil and vegetation development. Nitrogen isotope composition of lacustrine bulk organic matter was also useful for determining nutrient dynamics in these watersheds. It was concluded that lake sediment organic isotope tracers are an effective approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  18. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L

    2009-07-01

    Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.

  19. Energy [R]Evolution: Opportunities for Decarbonizing Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The future of conventional energy in Canada is uncertain. World oil prices have suffered steep declines recently and there are no strong arguments for recovery in the foreseeable future. The country is now engaged in serious debates and discussions over the value of GHG emissions, pipelines, oil and gas operations, and renewable energy. Oilsands deposits in northern Alberta require long-term investment and decades of consistent sales to repay those investments. The election of more progressive governments in Alberta and Canada may provide the national and global credibility and opportunity to address the environmental problems caused by Oilsands and other fossil fuel developments. The discussion will focus on the possible ways forward for Canada to diversify the regional and national economy with renewable energy networks, thereby meeting our Paris GHG emission reduction commitments. The end goal of this work is to see the Canadian economy decarbonized within two decades.

  20. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  1. Efecto de la inoculación con rizobios procedentes de Alberta, Canadá, en sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, en condiciones de campo Effect of the inoculation with rhizobia from Alberta, Canada, in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J Bécquer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento de campo con el objetivo de medir el efecto de cepas de rizobio en las variables agronómicas del sorgo, en las condiciones ambientales de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Se utilizaron 10 cepas de Sinorhizobium meliloti, procedentes de ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá; así como cuatro cepas de referencia pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobio, que procedían de la colección de Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. La confección de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas se realizaron por métodos estándar. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con 16 tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Se evaluó el peso seco aéreo, la longitud del tallo y la longitud de la panoja; además, se calculó el incremento del peso seco aéreo en los tratamientos inoculados con relación al control absoluto. Los resultados demostraron la capacidad de las cepas estudiadas de influir en las variables agronómicas, ya que los tratamientos seleccionados igualaron sus valores a los del control fertilizado y presentaron un incremento de más del 100% del peso seco aéreo, comparado con el control absoluto.A field trial was conducted with the objective of measuring the effect of rhizobium strains on the agronomic variables of sorghum under the environmental conditions of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Ten Sinorhizobium meliloti strains, from livestock production ecosystems of Alberta, Canada, were used; as well as four reference strains belonging to different rhizobium genera and strains, which were from the collection of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. The inoculi confection and seed inoculation were made by standard methods. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and four replications. The dry aerial weight, stem length and ear length were evaluated; in addition, the increase of aerial dry weight was calculated in the inoculated treatments as compared to the absolute control. The results

  2. Canada’s northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada’s remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Design: Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011–2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program’s performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. Results: NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program’s accountability. From 2011–15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program’s own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers’ pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities. PMID:28151097

  3. Desalination of oil sands process-affected water and basal depressurization water in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada: application of electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Sik; Dong, Shimiao; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The high content of inorganic species in water used to extract bitumen from the Alberta oil sands and in the groundwater below the oil sands is an increasing environmental concern. These water matrices require treatment before they can be reused or safely discharged. Desalination of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and groundwater, or basal depressurization water (BDW), can be accomplished with deionization techniques such as electrodialysis (ED). In order to achieve the effective ED treatment, OSPW and BDW were pretreated with coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation to remove solid species and turbidity. We demonstrated that a conductivity range for industrial reuse of OSPW and BDW can be achieved with the ED treatment and showed the possibility of applying ED in the oil sands industry. A continuous ED system that reuses the diluate stream as a source for the concentrate stream was designed. The cost of a hypothetical ED water treatment plant in Fort McMurray, Alberta, was estimated to be C$10.71 per cubic meter of treated water.

  4. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H.S.; Angle, R.P. [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M. [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  5. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  6. In-situ bitumen extraction associated with increased petrogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake heavy oil fields (Alberta, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Cooke, Colin A; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2016-11-01

    Most future growth in the Alberta bituminous sands will be based on thermal in-situ recovery technologies. To date, however, most attention on the environmental effects of bitumen recovery has focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. Recent uncontrolled bitumen flow-to-surface incidents (FTS; appearance at the surface of bitumen emulsions from deep subsurface recovery zones) reported at the Cold Lake heavy oil fields highlight the need to better understand the potential role of in-situ extraction as a source of contaminants to landscapes and surface waters. We analyzed sediment cores from a lake located ∼2 km away from a recent bitumen FTS incident to provide a long-term perspective on the delivery of metals, polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to surface freshwaters, and to assess whether the onset of local in-situ bitumen extraction can be linked to contaminant increases in nearby lakes. An increase in alkyl PACs coincided with the onset and expansion of commercial in-situ bitumen extraction, and multiple lines of evidence indicate a petrogenic source for recent alkyl PAC enrichment. However, no coincident increase in vanadium (enriched in bitumen) occurred that would suggest the source of petrogenic PAC enrichment is direct input of bituminous particles. Our results show that, similar to surface mining in the Athabasca region, activities associated with in-situ extraction can increase the burden of petrogenic PACs in nearby lakes, but many questions still remain regarding the exact sources and pathways of PACs into the environment. Given that more than 80% of Alberta's bitumen reserves can only be accessed using in-situ technologies, we recommend that this be made a research priority.

  7. The contribution of groundwater discharge to the overall water budget of Boreal lakes in Alberta/Canada estimated from a radon mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radon-222, a naturally-occurring radioisotope with a half-life of 3.8 days, was used to estimate groundwater discharge to small lakes in wetland-rich basins in the vicinity of Fort McMurray, Alberta, a region under significant water development pressures including both oil sands mining and in situ extraction. A program of field investigations was carried out in March and July 2008 using a Durridge RAD-7® and RAD Aqua® to measure radon-222 activity distributions in dissolved gas in the water column of two lakes as a tracer of groundwater discharge in the timeframe of 4 half-lives (15 days. Radon activity concentrations in lakes was found to range from 0.5 to 72 Bq/m3, compared to radon activity concentrations in groundwaters, measured using a RAD H2O, in the range of 2000–8000 Bq/m3. Radon mass balance, used in comparison with stable isotope mass balance, suggested that the two lakes under investigation had quite different proportions of annual groundwater inflow, one being close to 0.5% of annual inflow and the other about 14%, with lower values in the former attributed to a larger drainage area/lake area ratio which promotes greater surface connectivity. Interannual variability in groundwater proportions is expected despite constancy of groundwater discharge rates due to observed variability in annual surface runoff. Combination of stable isotope and radon mass balance approaches provides information on flowpath partitioning that is useful for evaluating surface-groundwater connectivity and acid sensitivity of individual water bodies of interest in the Alberta Oil Sands Region.

  8. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  9. Communique: Special Issue on the International Network for Cooperation in Northern Science Created at a Meeting held in Edmonton, Alberta (October 12-15, 1982). Summary of Discussions and Agreements Reached = Numero special sur le Reseau Scientifique Internationale pour le Nord cree a la reunion tenue a Edmonton, Alberta (du 12 au 15 octobre 1982). Resume des discussions et accords conclus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communique, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Delegations from Canada, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States agreed to the establishment of a network for cooperation among individuals engaged in problems peculiar to the circumpolar North. The Northern Science Network, established within the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Program, consists of three themes: studies on the…

  10. Recent changes in area and thickness of Torngat Mountain glaciers (northern Labrador, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrand, Nicholas E.; Way, Robert G.; Bell, Trevor; Sharp, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    The Torngat Mountains National Park, northern Labrador, Canada, contains more than 120 small glaciers: the only remaining glaciers in continental northeast North America. These small cirque glaciers exist in a unique topo-climatic setting, experiencing temperate maritime summer conditions yet very cold and dry winters, and may provide insights into the deglaciation dynamics of similar small glaciers in temperate mountain settings. Due to their size and remote location, very little information exists regarding the health of these glaciers. Just a single study has been published on the contemporary glaciology of the Torngat Mountains, focusing on net mass balances from 1981 to 1984. This paper addresses the extent to which glaciologically relevant climate variables have changed in northern Labrador in concert with 20th-century Arctic warming, and how these changes have affected Torngat Mountain glaciers. Field surveys and remote-sensing analyses were used to measure regional glacier area loss of 27 % from 1950 to 2005, substantial rates of ice surface thinning (up to 6 m yr-1) and volume losses at Abraham, Hidden, and Minaret glaciers, between 2005 and 2011. Glacier mass balances appear to be controlled by variations in winter precipitation and, increasingly, by strong summer and autumn atmospheric warming since the early 1990s, though further observations are required to fully understand mass balance sensitivities. This study provides the first comprehensive contemporary assessment of Labrador glaciers and will inform both regional impact assessments and syntheses of global glacier mass balance.

  11. Use of Bathymetric and LiDAR Data in Generating Digital Elevation Model over the Lower Athabasca River Watershed in Alberta, Canada

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    Ehsan H. Chowdhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower Athabasca River watershed is one of the most important regions for Alberta and elsewhere due to fact that it counts for the third largest oil reserve in the world. In order to support the oil and gas extraction, Athabasca River provides most of the required water supply. Thus, it is critical to understand the characteristics of the river and its watershed in order to develop sustainable water management strategies. Here, our main objective was to develop a digital elevation model (DEM over the lower Athabasca River watershed including the main river channel of Athabasca River (i.e., approximately 128 km from Fort McMurray to Firebag River confluence. In this study, the primary data were obtained from the Alberta Environmental Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting Agency. Those were: (i Geoswath bathymetry at 5–10 m spatial resolution; (ii point cloud LiDAR data; and (iii river cross-section survey data. Here, we applied spatial interpolation methods like inverse distance weighting (IDW and ordinary kriging (OK to generate the bathymetric surface at 5 m × 5 m spatial resolution using the Geoswath bathymetry data points. We artificially created data gaps in 24 sections each in the range of 100 to 400 m along the river and further investigated the performance of the methods based on statistical analysis. We observed that the DEM generated using the both IDW and OK methods were quite similar, i.e., r2, relative error, and root mean square error were approximately 0.99, 0.002, and 0.104 m, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of both methods over individual sections of interest; and overall deviation was found to be within ±2.0 m while approximately 96.5% of the data fell within ±0.25 m. Finally, we combined the Geoswath-derived DEM and LiDAR-derived DEM in generating the final DEM over the lower Athabasca River watershed at 5 m × 5 m resolution.

  12. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

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    Joyce S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50% of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios.

  13. The prevalence and reliability of visibility aid and other risk factor data for uninjured cyclists and pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent E; Lamy, Andrea; Rizkallah, Jacques W; Belton, Kathy L; Jhangri, Gian S; Cherry, Nicola; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and reliability of risk factors collected on uninjured cyclists-pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, and what characteristics predict cyclist-pedestrian visibility. At randomly selected locations from July 2004 to August 2004, two independent observers recorded cyclist-pedestrian characteristics such as age, sex, clothing color, use of reflectors, flags, helmets, and a subjective impression of visibility. Data were collected on 836 individuals; most were either walking/jogging (approximately 63%) or cycling (approximately 33%). For non-cyclists, the prevalence of bright colored clothing on the trunk ranged from 12.7 to 14.7%. Few people used any kind of reflective strips. Inter-observer agreement (Kappa) ranged from 0.37 (visibility assessment) to 0.99 (sex). For cyclists, 17-19% of headgear was brightly colored, and 13-14% was white. Approximately one-fourth had a front light; half had a rear reflector. Few cyclists used a flag and just over half used spoke reflectors. Kappa ranged from 0.35 (observer assessed speed) to 0.95 (head gear and sex). A major trunk color of orange, red, yellow or white resulted in a higher visibility rating for both cyclists and pedestrians. The results indicate a low prevalence of visibility aid use among cyclists and pedestrians, but there appears to be acceptable inter-observer reliability for most data collected. Further work is required before an overall visibility rating can be used in place of component scores.

  14. Digital Health Services and Digital Identity in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Aiden; Cholewa, David

    2017-01-01

    The Government of Alberta continues to improve delivery of healthcare by allowing Albertans to access their health information online. Alberta is the only province in Canada with provincial electronic health records for all its citizens. These records are currently made available to medical practitioners, but Alberta Health believes that providing Albertans access to their health records will transform the delivery of healthcare in Alberta. It is important to have a high level of assurance that the health records are provided to the correct Albertan. Alberta Health requires a way for Albertans to obtain a digital identity with a high level of identity assurance prior to releasing health records via the Personal Health Portal. Service Alberta developed the MyAlberta Digital ID program to provide a digital identity verification service. The Ministry of Health is leveraging MyAlberta Digital ID to enable Albertans to access their personal health records through the Personal Health Portal. The Government of Alberta is advancing its vision of patient-centred healthcare by enabling Albertans to access a trusted source for health information and their electronic health records using a secure digital identity.

  15. The impact of a large boreal wildfire on boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling in adjacent unburned areas: case study of the 2011 Utikuma Complex fire, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Thompson, D. K.; Chasmer, L.; Kljun, N.; Flannigan, M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal wildfire conflagrations have increased in frequency in the western boreal forest of Canada, with notable events in 2011, 2015, and 2016. Significant advances have been made in recent years in understanding fire-atmosphere interactions, with similar gains in the knowledge of carbon emissions and post-fire carbon cycling in forests. However, the focus of such studies is routinely on the burned stands themselves, with little attention to the adjacent forest whose boundary layer meteorology and carbon cycling may be impacted by smoke plume. We capitalize here on opportunistic eddy covariance observations of boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling taken over a long-term monitoring site adjacent to an active wildfire in Alberta, Canada in 2011. Over a one-week period while the wildfire was burning near the footprint of the tower the turbulent structure of the boundary layer near the tower was altered with significant changes in friction velocity, air temperature, and vapour pressure deficit. Moreover, growing season net ecosystem productivity (NEP) decreased to almost zero largely due to reduced photosynthesis likely due to smoke-related reductions in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). While the `smoke event' caused a reduction in forest CO2 sequestration by 7 g CO2 m-2 given that the smoked affected area was 120 times greater than the area burned this carbon reduction was equivalent to 30% of gross fire emissions from the fire. Consequently, we argue that smoke related inhibition of photosynthesis via reduced light should be considered when investigating the net radiative forcing of boreal forest wildfires.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Marey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR and the thermal-infrared (TIR radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT are examined for the 12 year period from 2002–2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System aircraft CO profiles (April 2009–December 2011 are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO

  19. Ethnic and Regional Differences in Prevalence and Correlates of Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors in Northern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.

  20. Temporal trends of alcohol and drug use among Inuit of Northern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Fortin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol and drug use is a serious health problem for many indigenous populations across Canada, including Inuit. The literature on substance use in these populations is too sparse to devise public health interventions. Objective: The present article portrays alcohol and drug use among Inuit living in Nunavik (Northern Quebec between the 1990s and 2000s, and identifies socio-demographic characteristics related to substance use. Design: The Santé Québec Health Survey (1992 and the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey Qanuippitaa (2004 served as databases for this empirical work. Statistical comparisons were made of substance use variables in the 2 samples. Proportions were compared by chi-square tests (p≤0.05 with benchmarking of statistics for all of Quebec and, when available, all of Canada. Results: Alcohol and drug use among Inuit increased significantly between 1992 and 2004, particularly among young adults. Alcohol users consumed significantly more alcohol per drinking episode than other Canadians in both time periods. Considerable cannabis use was widespread. In 2004, no significant differences in frequencies of heavy drinking episodes were observed by gender, with 60% of drug users consuming alcohol on a regular basis. Conclusions: As in other populations from North America, this study profiles the increase in substance use among Inuit from Nunavik in the first part of the last 20 years. We observed distinct substance use patterns among them in comparison to other Canadians. Such findings, if replicated in the coming years, emphasize the need for major, culturally-relevant public health interventions in this population.

  1. Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Rebecca C; Bayley, Suzanne E

    2012-01-01

    We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. Tailings-contaminated wetlands in particular may have problems with hydrocarbon- and salt-related toxicity. From 60 initial candidate metrics in the submersed aquatic and floating vegetation communities, we selected five to quantify biological integrity. The IBI included two diversity-based metrics: the species richness of floating vegetation and the percent of total richness contributed by Potamogeton spp. It also included three relative abundance-based metrics: that of Ceratophyllum demersum, of floating leafed species and of alkali-tolerant species. We evaluated the contribution of nonlinear metrics to IBI performance but concluded that the correlation between IBI scores and wetland condition was not improved. The method used to score metrics had an influence on the IBI sensitivity. We conclude that continuous scoring relative to the distribution of values found in reference sites was superior. This scoring approach provided good sensitivity and resolution and was grounded in reference condition theory. Based on these IBI scores, both tailings-contaminated and tailings-free reclamation wetlands have significantly lower average biological integrity than reference wetlands (ANOVA: F(2,59) = 34.7, p = 0.000000000107).

  2. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  3. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  4. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in Northern Canada's remote First Nations communities: the dietary dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, F; Fontaine-Bisson, B; Batal, M; Imbeault, P; Blais, J M; Robidoux, M A

    2010-12-01

    First Nations populations in Northwestern Ontario have undergone profound dietary and lifestyle transformations in less than 50 years, which have contributed to the alarming rise in obesity and obesity-related diseases, in particular type 2 diabetes mellitus. Even though the genetic background of First Nations peoples differs from that of the Caucasians, genetics alone cannot explain such a high prevalence in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Modifications in lifestyle and diet are major contributors for the high prevalence of chronic diseases. What remains constant in the literature is the persistent view that locally harvested and prepared foods are of tremendous value to First Nations peoples providing important health and cultural benefits that are increasingly being undermined by western-based food habits. However, the complexities of maintaining a traditional diet require a multifaceted approach, which acknowledges the relationship between benefits, risks and viability that cannot be achieved using purely conventional medical and biological approaches. This brief review explores the biological predispositions and potential environmental factors that contribute to the development of the high incidence of obesity and obesity-related diseases in First Nations communities in Northern Canada. It also highlights some of the complexities of establishing exact physiological causes and providing effective solutions.

  5. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition Enhances the Net CO2 Sink Strength in Alberta Bogs along a Post-fire Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    About 30% of the landscape of northern Alberta, Canada is occupied by peatlands, which persist at the low end range of both mean annual precipitation (moss, was not affected by N addition, suggesting that the overall response of NEE to N addition is the result of enhanced growth of ericaceous shrubs. These findings suggest that while elevated N deposition in the AOSR may enhance the strength of the overall CO2 sink of bogs in the short term, in the longer term, increased shrub growth has the potential to shade Sphagnum mosses, compromising the future bog CO2sink strength across the region.

  6. Verification of hydrological processes using the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system for simulating potential climate change impacts in an alpine watershed in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, M. W.; Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The upper North Saskatchewan River (UNSR) watershed is situated south-west of Edmonton, Alberta, with a watershed area of slightly over 20,000km2. This on-going research looks to model the UNSR watershed to help predict future streamflows in the UNSR, based on potential future climate change and land use changes within the watershed, by setting up the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system (Schulze et al., 2004). The watershed was divided into hydrological response units (HRUs) by using soil, land cover, climate, and stream data that were collected and processed using a GIS. Each HRU was set up individually, so that a minimum daily time series of 30 years is available to simulate all elements of the hydrological cycle for each of the HRUs. Initial model runs were completed with simulated output for many hydrological variables including snowpack development and snow melt, actual evaporation, transpiration, soil moisture storage, storm flow and groundwater contributions. Simulated temperatures, streamflow, actual evaporation, snow cover, and snow water equivalent (SWE) were used to help verify that hydrological processes simulated by the model are consistent with that of the watershed. Observed temperature from six high elevation fire lookout stations were used to verify simulated temperatures. Four years of MODIS images were used to verify that spatial snow cover over the watershed was being adequately simulated. Snow water equivalent (SWE) was verified using observed data from thirteen snow courses, and two snow pillows in the watershed. Observed evaporation (A-pan) data from three meteorological stations just outside the study area were used to determine if simulated evaporation values were within physically meaningful ranges for this region. Observed naturalized streamflow data from sixteen gauging stations around the watershed were used to help verify streamflows from different areas of the watershed were being properly simulated. Verification analysis is

  7. The role of climate and emission changes in future air quality over southern Canada and northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tagaris

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Potential impacts of global climate and emissions changes on regional air quality over southern (western and eastern Canada and northern Mexico are examined by comparing future summers' (i.e., 2049–2051 average regional O3 and PM2.5 concentrations with historic concentrations (i.e., 2000–2002 summers. Air quality modeling was conducted using CMAQ and meteorology downscaled from the GISS-GCM using MM5. Emissions for North America are found using US EPA, Mexican and Canadian inventories and projected emissions following CAIR and IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Higher temperatures for all sub-regions and regional changes in mixing height, insolation and precipitation are forecast in the 2049–2051 period. Future emissions are calculated to be lower over both Canadian sub-regions, but higher over northern Mexico. Global climate change, alone, is predicted to affect PM2.5 concentrations more than O3: M8hO3 concentrations are estimated to be slightly different in all examined sub-regions while PM2.5 concentrations are estimated to be higher over both Canadian sub-regions (8% over western and 3% over eastern but 11% lower over northern Mexico. Climate change combined with the projected emissions lead to greater change in pollutant concentrations: M8hO3 concentrations are simulated to be 6% lower over western Canada and 8% lower over eastern Canada while PM2.5 concentrations are simulated to be 5% lower over western Canada and 11% lower over eastern Canada. Although future emissions over northern Mexico are projected higher, pollutant concentrations are simulated to be lower due to US emissions reductions. Global climate change combined with the projected emissions will decrease M8hO3 4% and PM2.5 17% over northern Mexico.

  8. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  9. Pharmacy students screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes with a validated questionnaire in community pharmacies during their experiential rotation in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Hoan Linh; Chow, Sheldon; Li, Shuai; Letassy, Nancy; Cox, Cheryl; Cave, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%), hypertension (102/30%), taking medications for hypertension (102/30%), and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%). The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48-44.1) times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension.

  10. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Mary M; Dvonch, J Timothy; Barres, James A; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010-2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10(-5) - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10(-4) - 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130-2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems.

  11. Diversity of Piophilidae (Diptera) in northern Canada and description of a new Holarctic species of Parapiophila McAlpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Sabrina; Wheeler, Terry A

    2015-02-27

    Piophilidae (Diptera) were inventoried at 12 sites in boreal and arctic Canada as part of the 1947-1962 Northern Insect Survey and 2010-2011 Northern Biodiversity Program. Seventeen species were identified, including a new Holarctic species: Parapiophila kugluktuk sp. n. which is widespread in North America and northern Sweden. Allopiophila calceata Duda is considered a junior synonym of Parapiophila atrifrons (Melander & Spuler) syn. n. based on morphological and molecular evidence. Parapiophila baechlii Merz, previously known from Switzerland, is newly recorded in the Nearctic region, as well as Sweden and northeastern Russia (Cherskiy). Parapiophila pectiniventris (Duda), previously known from the Palaearctic region and Greenland, is newly recorded from North America. Species richness was highest in mainland subarctic sites (16 species, 246 specimens). Five species (13 specimens) were collected in boreal sites, and five species (701 specimens) were collected on the high arctic island sites.

  12. Is Alberta`s gas running out?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, G.

    1995-09-18

    The state of Alberta`s natural gas resources were reviewed and according to certain groups of experts reserves and resources were found to be less plentiful than generally believed. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) also reported that gas reserves in non-frontier areas declined by 1.8% lat year, to 67.4 trillion cubic feet. It was estimated that this supply would last for 13 years. The National Energy Board (NEB) indicated that thousands of Alberta`s unconnected pools may not be economical to develop. The CAPP annual reserves report also indicated that average gas pools found in recent times were only one quarter of the size of gas pools found before 1980. It was argued by this same group of experts that low gas prices, particularly for Alberta exports, have made drilling uneconomical, while others maintained that price fluctuations must be accepted as part of selling a commodity that is marketed world-wide. Ed Wolf, an independent geologist, estimated that gas prices,factoring in environmental costs, should be increased to $4 per mcf to justify exporting Canadian natural gas. However, others have argued that reserve figures have been underestimated. As proof of that they point to the fact that there is no shortage of investment capital; exploration and production activities, funded by investment, would not continue if natural gas production were not cost-effective. The Ziff Energy Group estimated that discovered and frontier reserves total 426 tcf, or 65 years` supply, excluding tight gas from low porosity formations which have been estimated to provide up to 300 years of supply at current levels of demand. As well, new technologies have improved the industry`s ability to find new reserves. The debate between economic nationalists and free marketeers continues.

  13. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane McClymont Peace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design: The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods: Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results: Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions: Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.

  14. Spatio-temporal dynamics of evapotranspiration from forested, ephemeral wetlands and its implication for hydrologic connectivity in the Western Boreal Plain in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Alexander; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hokanson, Kelly; Leonard, Rhoswen; Krause, Stefan; Waddington, James Michael

    2017-04-01

    In catchments where hydrologic connectivity is predominantly controlled by storage-threshold dynamics, landscape units promoting water transmission can be crucial for overall ecohydrological functioning. In Canada's Western Boreal Plain, ephemeral wetlands surrounded by upland forests on deep and coarse, glacial deposits are examples of such units. In the sub-humid climate, their importance is exacerbated due to regional, multi-year water deficits, resulting from high evapotranspirative (ET) demand coinciding with most of the annual precipitation and its variability between years. Yet, these ephemeral wetlands frequently saturate during small rain events; hence, they likely play a key role in supplying water to adjacent and downstream systems in both dry and wet periods. We assess factors controlling water losses from these wetlands to the atmosphere (via the soil surface and vegetation), how they change over time (i.e. throughout the growing season), and the extent to which they vary in space. Our goal is to generate process-based understanding of ET dynamics and to determine potential feedbacks that reduce ET losses, maximizing the magnitude and period over which these landscape units may act as water sources. We hypothesize that the following mechanisms enhance the ascribed water transmitting function: (1) external and internal shading reduces incident radiation and therefore available energy to drive ET; this effect increases with leaf area, but is counter-acted by interception. (2) Vegetation structure reduces turbulent exchange with air masses above the canopy, thereby decreasing humidity gradients driving ET. (3) High, near-surface soil tensions during periods of drying limit rates of evaporation. We applied a combined measurement approach to assess spatial and temporal dynamics of ET in the 2016 growing season (May - August) and gathered additional data to assess abiotic and biotic controls on ET rates. We continuously measured ET from the wetland's surface

  15. ASPEN, the Alberta Special Education Network: Using Appropriate Technology to Bring the Community Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. Leigh; Anthony, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    The Alberta Special Education Network (ASPEN) is a computer-based communications and information network geared to the teaching and learning of exceptional children in rural Alberta, Canada. Network features include toll-free telephone access, a menu-driven user interface, training and awareness, electronic mail, weekly news, forums, and a…

  16. Alberta's Suicide Prevention Training Programs: A Retrospective Comparison with Rothman's Developmental Research Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, R. F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared Rothman's social research and development (R&D) method with procedure used to develop Suicide Prevention Training Programs in Alberta, Canada. Retrospective review found that Alberta method closely paralleled phases of Rothman's model and that transformation of knowledge about suicide into widely disseminated suicide prevention…

  17. Instructional Leadership in Alberta: Research Insights from Five Highly Effective Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Larry; Parsons, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews original research, sponsored by the Alberta Teachers Association (ATA), to gain evidence-based insights from five case studies of leadership in exemplary elementary schools in Alberta, Canada. Schools were identified by the ATA as sites where effective leadership was practiced. In this study, effective leadership was…

  18. Examination of mercury and organic carbon dynamics from a constructed fen in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada using in situ and laboratory fluorescence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, C.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region, mined landscapes must be reclaimed to a functioning natural ecosystem as part of the mine closure process. To test wetland construction techniques on oil sands tailings, 55 ha of mined landscape on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. property is being reclaimed to a watershed containing a graminoid fen. The 18 ha constructed fen consists of an approximately 50 cm thick peat-mineral soil layer separated from underlying tailings sand by a thin layer of clay till. The water table in the fen is maintained by pumping water into the fen from a nearby lake and controlling outflow with under-drains. The objective of this study was to assess total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentration dynamics in water exported from the fen in relation to organic carbon quantity and composition. Water quality data from summer 2012 when the fen pumps were first turned on show that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are on average twice as high in water flowing through the underlying tailings sand aquifer (median: 42.0 mg/L) compared to DOC concentrations in water flowing through the fen peat package (median: 20.3 mg/L). Given these DOC concentrations, filtered THg concentrations are very low (median values are 0.81 ng/L and 0.17 ng/L for water flowing through the fen peat and sand tailings, respectively) compared to concentrations reported for other boreal wetlands. Although a relationship was identified between filtered THg and DOC (r2=0.60), its slope (0.06 ng Hg/mg C) is an order-of-magnitude smaller than the typical range of slopes found at other wetland sites potentially suggesting a small pool of mercury in the peat and/or limited partitioning of mercury into solution. Filtered MeHg concentrations in all water samples are near the limit of detection and suggest that biogeochemical conditions conducive to methylation did not exist in the fen peat or tailings sand at the time of sampling. In addition to these baseline THg and Me

  19. Holocene evolution of lakes in the forest-tundra biome of northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, William O.; Edlund, Mark B.; Umbanhowar, Charles E.; Camill, Philip; Lynch, Jason A.; Geiss, Christoph; Stefanova, Vania

    2017-03-01

    The late-Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of the western Hudson Bay region of Subarctic Canada is poorly constrained. Here, we present a regional overview of the post-glacial history of eight lakes which span the forest-tundra biome in northern Manitoba. We show that during the penultimate drainage phase of Lake Agassiz the lake water had an estimated pH of ∼6.0, with abundant quillwort (Isöetes spp.) along the lakeshore and littoral zone and some floating green algae (Botryococcus spp. and Pediastrum sp.). Based on multiple sediment proxies, modern lake ontogeny in the region commenced at ∼7500 cal yrs BP. Pioneering diatom communities were shaped by the turbid, higher alkalinity lake waters which were influenced by base cation weathering of the surrounding till following Lake Agassiz drainage. By ∼7000 cal yrs BP, soil development and Picea spp. establish and the lakes began a slow trajectory of acidification over the remaining Holocene epoch. The natural acidification of the lakes in this region is slow, on the order of several millennia for one pH unit. Each of the study lakes exhibit relatively stable aquatic communities during the Holocene Thermal Maximum, suggesting this period is a poor analogue for modern climatic changes. During the Neoglacial, the beginning of the post-Little Ice Age period represents the most significant climatic event to impact the lakes of N. Manitoba. In the context of regional lake histories, the rate of diatom floristic change in the last 200-300 years is unprecedented, with the exception of post-glacial lake ontogeny in some of the lakes. For nearly the entire history of the lakes in this region, there is a strong linkage between landscape development and the aquatic ecosystems; however this relationship appears to become decoupled or less strong in the post-LIA period. Significant 20th century changes in the aquatic ecosystem cannot be explained wholly by changes in the terrestrial ecosystem, suggesting that future

  20. Holocene ice-wedge polygon development in northern Yukon permafrost peatlands (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Michael; Wolter, Juliane; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Nazarova, Larisa; Obu, Jaroslav; Rethemeyer, Janet; Lantuit, Hugues; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Ice-wedge polygon (IWP) peatlands in the Arctic and Subarctic are extremely vulnerable to climatic and environmental change. We present the results of a multidisciplinary paleoenvironmental study on IWPs in the northern Yukon, Canada. High-resolution laboratory analyses were carried out on a permafrost core and the overlying seasonally thawed (active) layer, from an IWP located in a drained lake basin on Herschel Island. In relation to 14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates spanning the last 5000 years, we report sedimentary data including grain size distribution and biogeochemical parameters (organic carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio, δ13C), stable water isotopes (δ18O, δD), as well as fossil pollen, plant macrofossil and diatom assemblages. Three sediment units (SUs) correspond to the main stages of deposition (1) in a thermokarst lake (SU1: 4950 to 3950 cal yrs BP), (2) during transition from lacustrine to palustrine conditions after lake drainage (SU2: 3950 to 3120 cal yrs BP), and (3) in palustrine conditions of the IWP field that developed after drainage (SU3: 3120 cal yrs BP to 2012 CE). The lacustrine phase (pre 3950 cal yrs BP) is characterized by planktonic-benthic and pioneer diatom species indicating circumneutral waters, and very few plant macrofossils. The pollen record has captured a regional signal of relatively stable vegetation composition and climate for the lacustrine stage of the record until 3950 cal yrs BP. Palustrine conditions with benthic and acidophilic diatom species characterize the peaty shallow-water environments of the low-centered IWP. The transition from lacustrine to palustrine conditions was accompanied by acidification and rapid revegetation of the lake bottom within about 100 years. Since the palustrine phase we consider the pollen record as a local vegetation proxy dominated by the plant communities growing in the IWP. Ice-wedge cracking in water-saturated sediments started immediately after lake drainage at

  1. Impact of Mineralogy and Diagenesis on Reservoir Quality of the Lower Cretaceous Upper Mannville Formation (Alberta, Canada Impact de la minéralogie et de la diagenèse sur la qualité des réservoirs de la Formation Mannville Supérieur, Crétacé Inférieur (Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cretaceous Upper Mannville Formation in West- Central Alberta has been intensively penetrated by wells targeting deeper reservoirs during the last decades. Production and well log data in this area suggest that significant volumes of gas are still present in both conventional and tight reservoirs of this formation. The Upper Mannville reservoirs in West-Central Alberta consist of fluvial sandstones filling incised valleys. The valley infills are made up of arkosic sandstones with a complex mineralogy. The matrix of these sandstones is made up of various amounts of quartz, feldspars, clay minerals and rock fragments. They were subjected to a complex diagenetic history and the resulting paragenesis influenced the present reservoir properties. Consequently, heterogeneities in the petrophysical properties result in significant exploration risks and production issues. We present in this paper results of a diagenetic study, performed within a well constrained stratigraphic framework, that aims at understanding the impact of mineralogy and diagenesis on reservoir quality evolution. Seventy one core samples from eight wells were collected to perform a petrographic analysis, and to propose a paragenetic sequence. Four main diagenetic events were identified that occurred during burial: – clay coating around the grains; – compaction/dissolution of matrix grains; – quartz and feldspars dissolution that initiated smectite-illite transformation and kaolinisation; – carbonate cementation in the remaining pore space. Clay minerals content and carbonate cementation are the main factors that altered the reservoir quality of these sandstones. The Smectite-Illite transformation was initiated after potassium was released in the formation fluids due to K-feldspars dissolution. This transformation proportionally increased with temperature during burial. Carbonate cementation occured during the uplift phase of the basin, intensively plugging the pore

  2. Reserve Growth of Alberta Oil Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Cook, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File Report is based on a presentation delivered at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth on March 10-11, 2008. It summarizes the results of a study of reserve growth of oil pools in Alberta Province, Canada. The study is part of a larger effort involving similar studies of fields in other important petroleum provinces around the world, with the overall objective of gaining a better understanding of reserve growth in fields with different geologic/reservoir parameters and different operating environments. The goals of the study were to: 1. Evaluate historical oil reserve data and assess reserve growth. 2. Develop reserve growth models/functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes. 3. Study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters ? for example, pool size, porosity, oil gravity, and lithology. 4. Compare reserve growth in oil pools/fields of Alberta provinces with those from other large petroleum provinces.

  3. Opportunities and challenges related to the development of small modular reactors in mines in the Northern Territories of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam-Aggrey, H., E-mail: godfree17@hotmail.com [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective, and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants. Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the opportunities and challenges related to the deployment of SMRs in the northern territories of Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. The paper also outlines and discusses some of the potential socio-economic barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in the territories. These issues include: economic factors (such as the price of primary minerals and economics of mineral exploration, and the cost of SMR deployment), the lack of infrastructure in the territories to support mining developments, and the issues pertaining to the social acceptance of nuclear power generation. (author)

  4. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoonotic parasites have been recognized as important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland, with increased prevalence of some parasites in Indigenous and northern residents as compared to the general North American population. This is in part due to tr...

  5. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  6. Air quality over the Alberta oil sands: Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.

    2011-12-01

    A vast reserve of bitumen - oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as oil sands - resides in northern Alberta, Canada. Extraction of bitumen and its upgrade to liquid fuel is very energy intensive and generates significant emissions, including nitrogen and sulphur oxides. Satellite observations of NO2 and SO2 vertical column densities have been used to assess the magnitude and distribution of these pollutants throughout the oil sands. Preliminary results indicate a statistically significant enhancement in both species over an area (~30 x 30 km2) of intensive surface mining. Quantifying the burden of these enhancements and their recent changes over such a small area, comparable to the resolution of the best air quality satellite instruments, represents a significant challenge. The methodology used to meet this challenge will be presented, as will initial results including trends over the past decade, comparisons with other large industrial operations, and an assessment of consistency with emission inventories.

  7. Coal and oil shale of Early Carboniferous age in northern Canada - significance for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interpretations. [Canada - Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Potter, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) coal beds and oil shale occur at several locations in northern Canada. In the northern Yukon Territory coal of semi-anthracite/anthracite rank occurs in the Kayak Formation in the British Mountains and at Hoidahl Dome near the headwaters of Blow River. Farther south in the Liard Basin, Northwest Territories, coals of high volatile bituminous rank occur in the Mattson Formation. In the Arctic Islands thicker beds of the Emma Fiord Formation, the oldest unit in the Sverdrup Basin, contain thin coal seams and oil shale on Devon Island, near the southern edge of the basin and on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere islands on the north side of the basin. Organic matter in the Devon Island section is at a low maturity level (R[sub o, max] % 0.26-0.50), whereas that from Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg has reached the level of meta-anthracite. Depositional environments for these carbonaceous sediments were different. The coal-bearing Kayak strata accumulated in a coastal plain setting overlain transgressively by younger marine beds. The Mattson coal beds appear to have formed in a prograding delta, but coal and oil shale in the Emma Ford were deposited in lacustrine environments in a rift basin. These Canadian occurrences resemble penecontemporaneous deposits in Svalbard and elsewhere, adjacent to the present-day Arctic Ocean. They formed at low latitudes where conditions were favourable for the preservation of carbonaceous matter. Prior to the opening of the Arctic Ocean basin in Mesozoic times, sites on the mainland were undoubtedly closer to sites in the Arctic Islands than they are today.

  8. Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2006 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (30th, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Jun 3-7, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at the University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the…

  9. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (25th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 25-29, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG) held at the University of Alberta, May 25-39, 2000. The proceedings consist of two plenary lectures, four working groups, five topic sessions, new Ph.D. reports, an AD Hoc Session, and panel discussions. Papers include: (1)…

  10. Document Fine Scale Linkage Areas and Conservation Delivery of the Northern Rockies in US and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of fine-scale habitat linkages in the Northern Rockies through use of biological DNA, telemetry and ecological modeling to predict critical linkages for...

  11. Consumption guideline concerning cadmium in moose meat in northern British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Andrew; Joseph-Quinn, Kelly M.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Disturbed by reports of high concentrations of cadmium in large land mammals in Arctic Canada, community members wondered if they should eat less moose (Alces alces). Study design. Risk assessment modelling. Methods. We measured cadmium concentrations in moose tissues donated by food hunters. As a conservative assumption, we took the upper limits of the 95% confidence intervals for the means. Cadmium intake from other sources we estimated using risk assessment models. Assuming a...

  12. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Ralf Tappert; Karlis Muehlenbachs

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identificatio...

  13. Canada’s 2009 Northern Strategy: Cold War Policy in a Warming Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    agreement “is the charter under which a tenth of Canada may very well become the world’s most northerly banana republic.”64...accessed March 1, 2011). 196 Thomas Homer-Dixon, Positive Feedback, Dynamic Ice Sheets and the Recarbonization of the Global Fuel Supply, http...Wandrey, “USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3049: Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle,” United

  14. Alberta petroleum industry activity and oil economics. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This report, largely in graphic form, presents the following information on current petroleum industry activity in Alberta: number of oil and gas parcels requested for public tender and their average price, number of drilling rigs, capital raised by oil and gas companies in Canada, changes in federal and provincial oil/gas fiscal systems since 1985, Alberta crude oil producer netbacks, maps showing major oil play economics and intensive oil and gas activity, heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production, and project costs. 10 figs.

  15. Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Adlard, Bryan; Foster, Warren G; Donaldson, Shawn G; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-05-01

    The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990 μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population.

  16. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  17. Estimating the sensitivity of forest soils to acid deposition in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian AHERNE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Athabasca Oil Sands Region of northern Alberta is home to the largest source of S emissions in Canada, and some of the surrounding upland forests are located on acid-sensitive soils. The relative sensitivity of these ecosystems to acidic deposition is largely dependent upon the mineral weathering rate. Weathering rates were evaluated across a range of soils (n = 43 typical of the region using a soil texture approximation (STA and the PROFILE model. The STA was recalibrated for use in the region, and the weathering rates calculated with this method were used to calculate steady-state critical loads of acidity at 333 sites using the Simple Mass Balance (SMB Model and a critical chemical criterion for molar base cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ to aluminium ratio of 10. Soils are dominated by quartz, with small quantities of slowly weatherable minerals, and consequently weathering rates are among the lowest in Canada (median = 11.5 meq m–2 y–1, resulting in very low critical loads. Atmospheric acid (S and N deposition varies considerably across the region, but in general is much lower than impacted areas of central Canada. Under conditions of complete N retention, 34% of the sites receive acid deposition in excess of their critical load; if all N deposition is leached, 62% of the sites are currently exceeded. Acid-sensitive soils in the region are at risk of acidifying due to pressures from industrialization associated with extraction of fossil fuels.

  18. Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining

  19. Responses of carbon dioxide flux and plant biomass to drought in a treed peatland in northern Alberta: a climate change perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Munir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern peatland ecosystems represent large carbon stocks that are susceptible to changes such as accelerated mineralization due to water table lowering expected under a climate change scenario. During the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012 we monitored CO2 fluxes and plant biomass along a microtopographic gradient (hummocks-hollows in an undisturbed dry continental boreal treed bog (control and a nearby site that was drained (drained in 2001. Ten years of drainage in the bog significantly increased coverage of shrubs at hummocks and lichens at hollows. Considering measured hummock coverage and including tree incremental growth, we estimate that the control site was a larger sink in 2011 of −40 than that of −13 g C m−2 in 2012 while the drained site was a source of 144 and 140 g C m−2 over the same years. We infer that, drainage induced changes in vegetation growth led to increased biomass to counteract a portion of soil carbon losses. These results suggest that spatial variability (microtopography and changes in vegetation community in boreal peatlands will affect how these ecosystems respond to lowered water table potentially induced by climate change.

  20. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  1. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  2. Possible responses of northern peatlands to climate change in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubier, J.L. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space; Moore, T.R. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    More than half of the world`s peatlands occur in the boreal zone (45 - 60 deg C N. lat), a region which global climate models predict will experience large changes in temperature and precipitation with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The northern part of the boreal zone is characterised by discontinuous permafrost, an area that is particularly sensitive to climate change with the possible degradation and thawing of frozen peat. Peatlands are large sources of atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}), an important greenhouse gas. Yet few measurements of methane have been conducted in discontinuous permafrost environments. As part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), CH{sub 4} flux was measured in a diverse peatland complex (bogs, fens, peat plateaus, and collapse scars), representing the complete range of temperature, moisture, and plant community gradients found in northern peatlands. The measurement period May to September 1994 was one of the warmest and driest seasons on record, which provided an opportunity to observe the short-term responses of different parts of the peatland ecosystem to a warmer and drier climate as an analog to predicted climate change in the region. (5 refs.)

  3. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Looking Forward: Using Scenario Modeling to Support Regional Land Use Planning in Northern Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional land use planning provides opportunities for governments, land users, and stakeholders to consider multiple land and resource interests over large geographic areas and meaningful time periods. The broad and integrative nature of regional planning is therefore well suited to assessing the potential cumulative effects of current and future land use activity. For this reason, cumulative effects assessment models and management concepts are playing an increasingly important role in regional planning. We describe how the ALCES® landscape cumulative effects simulation model was used to explore possible outcomes of an oil and gas scenario in the Eagle Plain basin of the North Yukon Planning Region of Yukon Territory, Canada. Scenario modeling was conducted to facilitate informed discussion about key land use issues and practices, potential levels of landscape change, and possible socioeconomic benefits and environmental impacts. Modeling results supported the sustainable development and cumulative effects management recommendations of the North Yukon Regional Land Use Plan. Land use scenario modeling, as applied in this project, was found to be an effective approach for establishing sustainable development guidelines through a regional planning process.

  5. Using ultrasound measurements of rump fat to assess nutritional condition of woodland caribou in northern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Gustine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Body reserves (fat and protein of cervids are important to the reproductive success of individuals, and therefore may limit productivity of populations. We used a portable ultrasound machine to measure thickness of rump fat for 39 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou captured in the winters (January–February of 2003 and 2004. We compared thickness of rump fat between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals in the Besa-Prophet drainage of northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-eight of the 39 females captured in British Columbia were adults and 34 of the adult caribou were pregnant (89.5 ± 5.1%, x– ± binomial SE. Pregnant individuals had more rump fat (0.60 ± 0.067 cm than nonpregnant animals (0.20 ± 0.029 cm. Recognizing that deposition and mobilization of fat vary with age and possibly across the winter season, ultrasonography can be used as a non-invasive technique in the field to assist in estimating body fat of caribou.

  6. Enhanced detection of gossans using hyperspectral data: Example from the Cape Smith Belt of northern Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, K.; Rivard, B.; Rogge, D.

    2016-04-01

    Owing to the links between gossans and mineral deposits, detecting gossans by remote sensing means is essential for mineral exploration. In northern regions, gossans can develop as thin oxidized surfaces, named thin gossans, that can be covered with lichens. This study investigates the effects of spectral mixing between such gossans with lichens and their rock substrates using laboratory spectroscopic data obtained from samples collected in the Cape Smith Belt of Canada. These observations are then scaled up to the airborne hyperspectral data obtained from the same area. Our laboratory results indicate that the presence of lichens on gossans induces a general spectral shift towards shorter wavelengths of the iron absorption typical of gossan spectra. The opposite shift is observed due to the influence of the rock substrates. These effects can thus impede classification of gossans based on the interpretation of iron oxide mineralogy from spectra. Our airborne spectral results suggest that thin gossans can be detected and discriminated from thick gossans, and further broken down into several classes according to their host rock substrates. The ability to define distinct classes of thin gossans is significant since the association of these gossans with specific rock substrates can be exploited for exploration. The ability to distinguish thin and thick gossans alone can contribute to mineral exploration since it can be either the former or the latter group of gossans that acts as an ore deposit vector.

  7. Key operating and financial ratios for Alberta hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M

    1994-01-01

    Comparative financial and operating ratios in Canadian hospitals are examined to reveal sources of increased efficiency. The study involved 70 Alberta hospitals, which were divided into three groups: teaching hospitals, regional hospitals and smaller rural hospitals. Data were obtained from HS-1 and HS-2 reports. Hospitals across Canada can calculate their own ratios to give them a general idea of how they compare with the hospitals in this report.

  8. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Ian; McDonald, Trent L; Richardson, E S; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C

    2011-04-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the northern Beaufort Sea (NB) population occur on the perimeter of the polar basin adjacent to the northwestern islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sea ice converges on the islands through most of the year. We used open-population capture-recapture models to estimate population size and vital rates of polar bears between 1971 and 2006 to: (1) assess relationships between survival, sex and age, and time period; (2) evaluate the long-term importance of sea ice quality and availability in relation to climate warming; and (3) note future management and conservation concerns. The highest-ranking models suggested that survival of polar bears varied by age class and with changes in the sea ice habitat. Model-averaged estimates of survival (which include harvest mortality) for senescent adults ranged from 0.37 to 0.62, from 0.22 to 0.68 for cubs of the year (COY) and yearlings, and from 0.77 to 0.92 for 2-4 year-olds and adults. Horvtiz-Thompson (HT) estimates of population size were not significantly different among the decades of our study. The population size estimated for the 2000s was 980 +/- 155 (mean and 95% CI). These estimates apply primarily to that segment of the NB population residing west and south of Banks Island. The NB polar bear population appears to have been stable or possibly increasing slightly during the period of our study. This suggests that ice conditions have remained suitable and similar for feeding in summer and fall during most years and that the traditional and legal Inuvialuit harvest has not exceeded sustainable levels. However, the amount of ice remaining in the study area at the end of summer, and the proportion that continues to lie over the biologically productive continental shelf (< 300 m water depth) has declined over the 35-year period of this study. If the climate continues to warm as predicted, we predict that the polar bear population in the northern Beaufort Sea will eventually decline

  9. Implications of Climate Change for Northern Canada: Freshwater, Marine, and Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Wrona, Fred J. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Reist, James D. (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 Univ. Crescent, Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Climate variability and change is projected to have significant effects on the physical, chemical, and biological components of northern Canadian marine, terrestrial, and freshwater systems. As the climate continues to change, there will be consequences for biodiversity shifts and for the ranges and distribution of many species with resulting effects on availability, accessibility, and quality of resources upon which human populations rely. This will have implications for the protection and management of wildlife, fish, and fisheries resources; protected areas; and forests. The northward migration of species and the disruption and competition from invading species are already occurring and will continue to affect marine, terrestrial, and freshwater communities. Shifting environmental conditions will likely introduce new animal-transmitted diseases and redistribute some existing diseases, affecting key economic resources and some human populations. Stress on populations of iconic wildlife species, such as the polar bear, ringed seals, and whales, will continue as a result of changes in critical sea-ice habitat interactions. Where these stresses affect economically and culturally important species, they will have significant effects on people and regional economies. Further integrated, field-based monitoring and research programs, and the development of predictive models are required to allow for more detailed and comprehensive projections of change to be made, and to inform the development and implementation of appropriate adaptation, wildlife, and habitat conservation and protection strategies

  10. A modified approach for estimating the aquatic critical load of acid deposition in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Colin J.; Mowat, Aidan C.; Scott, Kenneth A.; Watmough, Shaun A.

    2016-12-01

    Acid-sensitive ecosystems are found in northern Saskatchewan, which lies downwind of major sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions sources associated with the oil sands extraction industry. In order to protect these ecosystems against acidification, tolerance to acid deposition must be quantified. The suitability of the central empirical relationship used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to predict historical sulphate (SO4) concentrations was investigated, and an alternate approach for determining aquatic critical loads of acidity (CL(A)) was employed for the study lakes (n = 260). Critical loads of acidity were often low, with median values of 12-16 mmolc m-2 yr-1, with the lower value reflecting a region-specific limit for acid-neutralizing capacity identified in this study. Uncertain levels of atmospheric deposition in the region, however, are problematic for characterizing acidification risk. Accurate S and chloride (Cl) deposition are needed to identify catchment sources (and sinks) of these elements in the new approach for CL(A) calculation. Likewise, accurate depiction of atmospheric deposition levels can prove useful for evaluation of lake runoff estimates on which estimates of CL(A) are contingent. While CL(A) are low and exceedance may occur according to projected increases in S deposition in the near-term, S retention appears to be an important feature in many catchments and risk of acidification may be overstated should long-term S retention be occurring in peatlands.

  11. Selenium accumulation and reproduction in birds breeding downstream of a uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech, Shari A; Scheuhammer, Anton M; Wayland, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and bird eggs collected along the treated effluent receiving environment of the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan were significantly greater than from nearby reference areas, and in some cases (e.g., eggs of common loons--Gavia immer) were higher than commonly used thresholds for adverse reproductive effects in birds (i.e., 5 μg/g dry weight in diet; 12-15 μg/g dry weight in eggs). Mean Se concentrations in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs reached a maximum of 13.3 μg/g dry weight at the point of treated effluent discharge and exhibited a gradient of decreasing Se concentrations with increasing distance from the effluent discharge, probably reflecting both effluent dilution and local site fidelity by nesting swallows. In some cases, high intra-clutch variability in Se concentrations in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and tree swallow eggs was observed in high-Se sites, suggesting that a single egg randomly sampled from a nest in an area of higher Se exposure may not be representative of Se concentrations in other eggs from the same nest. Overall, tree swallow reproductive success was similar in both exposed and reference areas.

  12. Tradition and transition: parasitic zoonoses of people and animals in Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily J; Castrodale, Louisa J; de Rosemond, Simone J C; Dixon, Brent R; Elmore, Stacey A; Gesy, Karen M; Hoberg, Eric P; Polley, Lydden; Schurer, Janna M; Simard, Manon; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are important causes of endemic and emerging human disease in northern North America and Greenland (the North), where prevalence of some parasites is higher than in the general North American population. The North today is in transition, facing increased resource extraction, globalisation of trade and travel, and rapid and accelerating environmental change. This comprehensive review addresses the diversity, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and significance of nine zoonotic parasites in animal and human populations in the North. Based on a qualitative risk assessment with criteria heavily weighted for human health, these zoonotic parasites are ranked, in the order of decreasing importance, as follows: Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella and Giardia, Echinococcus granulosus/canadensis and Cryptosporidium, Toxocara, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes. Recent and future trends in the importance of these parasites for human health in the North are explored. For example, the incidence of human exposure to endemic helminth zoonoses (e.g. Diphyllobothrium, Trichinella, and Echinococcus) appears to be declining, while water-borne protozoans such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma may be emerging causes of human disease in a warming North. Parasites that undergo temperature-dependent development in the environment (such as Toxoplasma, ascarid and anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) will likely undergo accelerated development in endemic areas and temperate-adapted strains/species will move north, resulting in faunal shifts. Food-borne pathogens (e.g. Trichinella, Toxoplasma, anisakid nematodes, and diphyllobothriid cestodes) may be increasingly important as animal products are exported from the North and tourists, workers, and domestic animals enter the North. Finally, key needs are identified to better assess and mitigate risks associated with zoonotic parasites, including enhanced

  13. Geology and Metal Contents of the Ruttan volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, northern Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, C. Tucker.; Taylor, Craig; Ames, Doreen E.

    2005-03-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Ruttan Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive-sulfide (VMS) deposit is a large, relatively low grade, bimodal-siliciclastic type deposit in the Rusty Lake volcanic belt of northern Manitoba. The deposit contained over 82.8 million tonnes of massive sulfide, of which 55.7 million tonnes were mined from 1973 to 2002. The deposit consists of a series of moderately to steeply dipping, south-facing lenses that extend along strike at the surface for 1.1 km and to a depth of 1.0 km. These lenses occur within a steeply dipping, bimodal volcanic, volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sequence. In the immediate mine area, transitional calc-alkalic to high-silica (tholeiitic), felsic, and intermediate volcanic/volcaniclastic rocks of the Mine Sequence are host to, and intercalated with, the massive-sulfide lenses. Transitional tholeiitic to calc-alkalic basalt and andesite are present in the footwall sequence, approximately 500 m down-section from the ore horizon. The overlying rocks are predominantly fine-grained volcaniclastics and siliciclastics, but include polyfragmental agglomerate that contains mafic bombs and scoriaceous felsic fragments. Syn-depositional felsic and mafic dikes, sills, and apophyses are ubiquitous throughout the Mine Sequence, including the ore lenses, indicating continued, near-vent magmatism, and volcanism during ore formation. Fabrics in altered hostrocks have consistent, down-plunge stretching lineations to the SSE that suggest the deposit has been elongated by a factor of ~1.2-1.5; otherwise, the deposit is remarkably undeformed. Syn- and post-depositional faults in the mine area have relatively minor displacements up to tens of meters. Proximal (within 200 m) footwall rocks exhibit moderate to strong chloritization, characterized by the upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies assemblages that include cordierite-almandine-andalusite-sillimanite-biotite ± staurolite ± anthophyllite ± talc, and local silicification. The proximal

  14. Snowpack and snowmelt modeling of a subarctic catchment in northern Quebec, Canada, using an energy and mass balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiller, M.; Rousseau, A. N.; Minville, M.

    2012-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modeling snowpack evolution and spring runoff in northern Quebec, Canada, where there are several large-scale hydropower complexes. This region (49th to 55th degree north), characterized by boreal forest, lakes and wetlands, is highly remote and snowpack observations are very sparse. The objective of this study is to improve the snow module of HYDROTEL, a distributed continuous hydrological model currently used to predict inflows to large hydropower reservoirs of the region, with the help of continuous in-situ measurements of snow water equivalent. Up to now HYDROTEL has relied on a mixed degree-day/energy balance method to simulate accumulation and depletion of the snow cover. This approach has the advantage of requiring a small number of input data, but under changing climate conditions such as those recently experienced unusually high temperature in late winter or rain-on-snow events it has a tendency to generate unreliable results. We thus implemented a completely physically-based snow module, CROCUS, and try to determine whether HYDROTEL could benefit from an energy and mass balance approach. CROCUS, originally developed for snowpack simulations in the French Alps, has been adapted to the specific environmental characteristics of the boreal region. The simulation can now be validated with snow water equivalent collected by a GMON sensor, which evaluates absorption of the natural ground gamma radiation by the snowpack. The number of input data required by CROCUS is more important (seven meteorological variables on an hourly basis instead of two on a daily basis for the current version of HYDROTEL's snow module) which makes it more complex to use and at this points too complex to be implemented directly as a subroutine in HYDROTEL. However, this study shows that HYDROTEL is much more effective at predicting winter and spring runoff when using CROCUS as the snow module.

  15. Holocene environmental change in the subarctic alpine treeline in northern British Columbia and the southern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisaric, M.F.J.

    2001-07-01

    Compilations of temperature data show that compared to the last several hundred years, the temperature in many parts of the world has been very high. This warmer temperature is believed to be caused by an increase in anthropogenically derived greenhouse gases. It was argued that instrumental temperature records are not adequate for assessing the impact of human activity on climate because they are very short, and a knowledge of past climatic variations is needed for longer time scales to accurately assess the natural variability of climate. Past climatic variations can also be used to see how vegetation will respond to additional warming in the coming century. This study examined the relationship between modern vegetation and pollen and stomate dispersal with particular reference to treeline dynamics and vegetation-climate relationships in the subalpine treeline in northwestern Canada. The study examined whether major vegetation assemblages can be distinguished from one another through pollen and stomate characteristics. It also investigated postglacial treeline fluctuations in the northern Rocky Mountains to see if they are driven by seasonal and latitudinal changes in distribution of solar radiation, or if they are driven by disturbance factors such as fire. Lastly, the study examined whether the twentieth century temperature increases in northeastern British Columbia and the Yukon have exceeded the natural variability of temperature in the region during the past centuries. Results suggest that climate-growth relationships are complex and the factors controlling them change with time, but it was determined that vegetation development is related to both climate change and higher fire activity. The higher temperatures in the past century most probably reflect increased levels of greenhouse gases.

  16. Consultation with First Nations stakeholders : an Alberta perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutwind, S. [Alberta Justice, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Aboriginal Law

    2005-07-01

    Aboriginal issues present risks and challenges to resource development in Alberta. This paper provided an overview of significant precedents and acts which may impact on oil and gas activities. The Constitution Act of 1982 acknowledged that existing Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada were recognized and confirmed. In the case of R v. Sparrow, justification was established where there was a valid legislative objective, such as conservation and resource management, and a precedent was set regarding the interpretation of disputes of section 35 subsection 1 concerning legal restriction of the exercise of treaty rights, such as hunting and fishing. In R v. Badger, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) advised that the framework applied to treaty rights as well as Aboriginal rights. The Natural Resources Transfer Agreement transferred powers over natural resources from Canada to Alberta in relation to hunting rights. Proof of rights issues were discussed in Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. Tulesequa Chief Mine Project, as well as in Haida Nation v. British Columbia, where it was concluded that an Aboriginal right need not be proven before a duty to consult arises. A review of Alberta's consultation practices was presented, as well as the Aboriginal issues and resource development initiative, which recognizes the importance of consultation with affected Aboriginal people and communities when regulatory and development activities infringe their existing treaty and other constitutional rights, such as the rights to hunt, fish and trap for food. Details of the Consultation Coordination Group were presented. A draft of the Government of Alberta's First Nations Consultation Policy on Land Management and Resource Development was also presented. tabs, figs.

  17. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  18. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Steel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government’s Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern former and present students, and of other community members, to identify ways of better attracting, preparing, and retaining under-represented populations in northern Alberta communities through provision and training in the use of distance delivery methods.The research reported here commences with a review of the literature to investigate the following: 1 the contribution distance education makes globally to learning access in remote areas (and resulting economic growth for under-served populations; 2 how support is provided to retain isolated students; and 3 the help needed to assist remote students to complete distance programs. Community consultations with social service and education agencies in three communities were conducted in order to obtain their perspectives about what helps to attract and support students to educational programs and the barriers students typically encounter, which might be mitigated by distance methods. Finally, a survey was designed and distributed in 87 Alberta-North communities in northern Alberta and across Canada’s Northwest Territories to add perspective to the consultation results.

  19. Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta's Mineable Oil Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Foote

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km² of open pit mining and 4600 km² of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very attractive because proven reserves of known quality occur in an accessible, politically stable environment with existing infrastructure and an estimated 5.5 billion extractable barrels to be mined over the next five decades. Extraction occurs under a set of limiting factors or thresholds including: limited social tolerance at local to international levels for externalities of oil sand production; water demands > availability; limited natural gas supplies for oil processing leading to proposals for hydroelectric dams and nuclear reactors to be constructed; difficulties in reclaiming sufficient habitat area to replace those lost. Replacement of the 85 km² of peat-forming wetlands forecast to be destroyed appears unlikely. Over 840 billion liters of toxic fluid byproducts are currently held in 170 km² of open reservoirs without any known process to purify this water in meaningful time frames even as some of it leaches into adjacent lands and rivers. Costs for wetland reclamation are high with estimates of $4 to $13 billion, or about 6% of the net profits generated from mining those sites. This raises a social equity question of how much reclamation is appropriate. Time frames for economic, political, and ecological actions are not well aligned. Local people on or near mine sites have had to change their area use for decades and have been affected by industrial development. Examining mining effects to estimate thresholds of biophysical realities, time scales

  20. International Conference held at the University of Alberta

    CERN Document Server

    Strobeck, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference in Population Biology held at The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 22 to June 30, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by The University of Alberta and The Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, and overlapped with the summer meeting of CAMS. The main objectives of this Conference were: to bring mathematicians and biologists together so that they may interact for their mutual benefit; to bring those researchers interested in modelling in ecology and those interested in modelling in genetics together; to bring in keynote speakers in the delineated areas; to have sessions of contributed papers; and to present the opportunity for researchers to conduct workshops. With the exception of the last one, the objec­ tives were carried out. In order to lend some focus to the Conference, the following themes were adopted: models of species growth, predator-prey, competition, mutualism, food webs, dispersion, age structure, stability, evol...

  1. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  2. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  3. Using Cognitive Coaching to Build School Leadership Capacity: A Case Study in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W. Todd; Hauserman, Cal P.; Skytt, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Cognitive Coaching? included as part of the Leader2Leader (L2L) Leadership Pilot Program for beginning principals in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated in the present study. Fifteen qualified principals (coaches) and 23 new principals completed the L2L Pilot Program that took place over 18 months. Questionnaires for coaches and new…

  4. An Evaluation of a Distance Education Project Designed To Provide Equity in Rural Alberta High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieman, E.; Clark, W. B.

    Alberta (Canada) is experiencing a phenomenon common to many other regions the world over: there is a movement of population away from rural areas to urban centers. Such migration has a profound impact on rural schools and school systems in these areas, including a decrease in school population, school staff, and school programs. In an attempt to…

  5. Lessons from a Comparative Study of Community Grant Programs in Alberta Health Authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale

    In the early 1990s, a restructuring of the health services system of Alberta (Canada) amalgamated public health units and hospital districts into 17 Regional Health Authorities. Many of the regions have pursued community grant initiatives in addition to their regular funding, and it seemed that there would be value in comparing the experiences of…

  6. Difficulties Associated with the Coding and Categorization of Students with Emotional and Behavioural Disabilities in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Diane; Jahnukainen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    In Canada, there is a recent trend toward non-categorization of services of students with emotional and behavioural disabilities (EBD). Yet in Alberta, the coding of students with EBD provides opportunities to diagnose students' learning difficulties but is hindered in this process, in large part, by being tied into special needs funding. Current…

  7. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Normative data collected for the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test from children (ages 7-14) in urban and rural Alberta and for Inuit children in the Northwest Territories, Canada, were consistently below the Harris norms particularly for the Draw-a-Woman test. Alternate sets of Draw-a-Person norms are proposed for use with these groups. (Author/VW)

  8. New uses of gas in Canada : oil sands gas demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarta, N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The relationship between the price of natural gas and the development of oil sands in northern Alberta was discussed with reference to Shell Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP), its resource base and plans for future expansion. Several graphs were presented, depicting world scale resources, Canadian oil production, and the North American oil market. Graphs depicting future projections for oil sands natural gas demand and cogeneration capacity showed that the trend for both demand and capacity is steadily increasing. The AOSP is a large high quality reserve with low overburden. The project utilizes advanced bitumen clean-up technology and the site is equipped with a highly integrated refinery that exploits infrastructure synergies. Some of the risk factors associated with oil sand development were described as being capital costs, operating costs, commodity prices, labour supply, and the Kyoto Protocol. 24 figs.

  9. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  10. Regional drought-induced reduction in the biomass carbon sink of Canada's boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhihai; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; Chen, Huai; Yu, Guirui; Li, Weizhong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Wang, Weifeng; Zhang, Wenhua

    2012-02-14

    The boreal forests, identified as a critical "tipping element" of the Earth's climate system, play a critical role in the global carbon budget. Recent findings have suggested that terrestrial carbon sinks in northern high-latitude regions are weakening, but there has been little observational evidence to support the idea of a reduction of carbon sinks in northern terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we estimated changes in the biomass carbon sink of natural stands throughout Canada's boreal forests using data from long-term forest permanent sampling plots. We found that in recent decades, the rate of biomass change decreased significantly in western Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba), but there was no significant trend for eastern Canada (Ontario and Quebec). Our results revealed that recent climate change, and especially drought-induced water stress, is the dominant cause of the observed reduction in the biomass carbon sink, suggesting that western Canada's boreal forests may become net carbon sources if the climate change-induced droughts continue to intensify.

  11. InSAR Observations and Modeling of Anthropogenic Surface Deformation in the Alberta Oil Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Li, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations over northern Alberta, Canada show persistent surface uplift occurring at rates of 1-4 cm/year, localized at several sites where the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technique is currently being used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. We find that uplift rates above the horizontal injector wells are strongly correlated with rates of steam injection, even though there is a net fluid loss from the reservoir pore space as oil and water are withdrawn through the production wells. In combination with available steam injection and bitumen production data at four sites, we use numerical reservoir flow models to explain how the thermal and geomechanical effects of steam injection on an oil sand reservoir can generate uplift at the surface. Results of our numerical experiments show that persistent surface heave consistent with observed rates can be driven by stress changes in the reservoir due to porous flow and thermal expansion.

  12. The next big thing : unconventional gas explorers lay technical foundations for shale gas development across Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2007-12-15

    Canadian exploration companies have successfully developed strategies for economically extracting gas from coal seams and unconventional tight reservoirs. According to Talisman Energy Inc., the next step is to tap into Canada's shale gas resource. In contrast to conventional gas targets, shale gas acts both as a source rock and reservoir rock with the natural gas contained within shale sequences. The gas is stored as adsorbed gas attached to kerogen in the shale, or exists as free gas in pores and fractures. The 2 main types of shale reservoirs include those where the gas was produced thermogenically through high temperatures and those where the gas was produced biogenically through bacterial breakdown. Innovative drilling and stimulation technologies are needed to extract sufficient volumes of gas and to commercially produce either type of shale play. Western Canada is the primary focus for shale gas exploration, mostly in deeper thermogenic shales in northern Alberta and British Columbia. Industry experts are comparing a play in the Fort Nelson area to the prolific Barnett Shale in Texas. Directional drilling and measurement while drilling technology has allowed shale developers in the United States to more accurately hit target prospects and to intersect more of the prospective pay zone. Improved fracturing technology has also allowed developers to improve the permeability of shale reservoirs. This experience will be helpful in Canada, although much experimenting is still required, including microseismic mapping that provides images of the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing. The area for biogenic shale exploration in Canada is in the Colorado Cretaceous Group of shales stretching across central Alberta and Saskatchewan. Stealth Ventures Ltd. and PanTerra Resource Corp. have been testing several technologies to make the shale play economic. Developing the plays will require the appropriate drilling and completion technologies to assess the plays. It

  13. Relationships between Structure, Composition, and Dynamics of the Pristine Northern Boreal Forest and Air Temperature, Precipitation, and Soil Texture in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Duchesne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the contemporary structure, composition, and dynamics of the pristine northern boreal forest in Quebec, Canada, associated with air temperature, precipitation, and soil texture, using 147 permanent sample plots located at the limit of continuous forest in Quebec. The results show that tree species composition of stands is associated with stand age, soil texture, air temperature, and precipitation regime. After establishment of the pioneer cohort, the postsuccessional stand dynamics differed among temperature and precipitation regimes, probably because of their influence on tree growth. Our results support the hypothesis that shifts in forest composition related to stand dynamics and the subsequent senescing phase associated with the old growth stage generally occur sooner and proceed faster on more fertile sites due to quicker growth and the subsequent earlier mortality of pioneer species. This study suggests that climate warming should accelerate the successional dynamics of these ecosystems through its positive influence on tree growth.

  14. Northwest Territories Inuit, and Urban and Rural Alberta Normative Data: A Final Note on the Re-Norming/versus Scoring Revision Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Item analysis data were collected for the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, from urban and rural Alberta (Canada) youngsters and Inuit youngsters from the Northwest Territories (Canada). Both tests were inadequate in individual item difficulty levels, suggesting the necessity of revising scoring systems and…

  15. Developing Alberta's crudes - a review of provincial resource development policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, Christopher J. [Alberta Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Canada is endowed with important fossil fuel resources, most of them are located in Alberta's oil sands and heavy oil reservoirs. Although these deposits are considered as some of the most challenging ones to develop, most of them can now be economically exploited thanks to public policy approaches which have promoted innovation. The aim of the paper is to present the different public policies implemented in Alberta over the last century and to show the approaches employed to develop Alberta's crude depending upon the circumstances. This paper reviewed the different innovation directions taken in the past. The author stated that social and environmental objectives will have increasing importance in the future and that innovation will therefore be required to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the approaches applied in the past and concluded that more resources will need to be put into research and innovation in the future to meet the objectives.

  16. Satellite Based Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Levels Over Alberta Oil Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid expansion of oil sands activities and massive energy requirements to extract and upgrade the bitumen require a comprehensive understanding of their potential environmental impacts, particularly on air quality. In this study, satellite-based analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) levels was used to assess the magnitude and distribution of this pollutant throughout Alberta oil sands region. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) V5 multispectral product that uses both near-infrared and the thermal-infrared radiances for CO retrieval were used. MOPITT-based climatology and inter-annual variations were examined for 12 years (2002-2013) on spatial and temporal scales. Seasonal climatological maps for CO total columns indicated conspicuous spatial variations in all seasons except in winter where the CO spatial variations are less prominent. High CO loadings are observed to extend from the North East to North West regions of Alberta, with highest values in spring. The CO mixing ratios at the surface level in winter and spring seasons exhibited dissimilar spatial distribution pattern where the enhancements are detected in south eastern rather than northern Alberta. Analyzing spatial distributions of Omega at 850 mb pressure level for four seasons implied that, conditions in northeastern Alberta are more favorable for up lofting while in southern Alberta, subsidence of CO emissions are more likely. Time altitude CO profile climatology as well as the inter-annual variability were investigated for the oil sands and main urban regions in Alberta to assess the impact of various sources on CO loading. Monthly variations over urban regions are consistent with the general seasonal cycle of CO in Northern Hemisphere which exhibits significant enhancement in winter and spring, and minimum mixing ratios in summer. The typical seasonal CO variations over the oil sands region are less prominent. This study has demonstrated the potential use of multispectral CO

  17. Summertime distribution of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species in the northern high-latitude atmosphere of eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of key reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, PPN, NO3(-), NO(y)), C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, acetone, O3, chemical tracers (C2Cl4, CO), and important meteorological parameters were performed over eastern Canada during July to August 1990 at altitudes between 0 and 6 km as part of an Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE3B). In the free troposphere, PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species constituting a major fraction of NO(y) and was significantly more abundant than NO(x) and HNO3. PAN and O3 were well correlated both in their fine and gross structures. Compared to data previously collected in the Arctic/subarctic atmosphere over Alaska (ABLE3A), the lower troposphere (0-4 km) over eastern Canada was found to contain larger reactive nitrogen and anthropogenic tracer concentrations. At higher altitudes (4-6 km) the atmospheric composition was in many ways similar to what was seen over Alaska and supports the view that a large-scale reservoir of PAN (and NO(y)) is present in the upper troposphere over the entire Arctic/subarctic region. The reactive nitrogen budget based on missions conducted from the North Bay site (missions 2-10) showed a small shortfall, whereas the budget for data collected from the Goose Bay operation (missions 11-19) showed essential balance. It is calculated that 15-20 ppt of the observed NO(x) may find its source from the available PAN reservoir. Meteorological considerations as well as relationships between reactive nitrogen and tracer species suggest that the atmosphere over eastern Canada during summer is greatly influenced by forest fires and transported industrial pollution.

  18. TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS IN WOOD BISON (BISON BISON ATHABASCAE) IN NORTHERN CANADA: A RENEWED NEED TO DEVELOP OPTIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shury, Todd K; Nishi, John S; Elkin, Brett T; Wobeser, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Effective, long-term strategies to manage the threat of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis spillback from northern, diseased bison to the Canadian cattle herd and adjacent disease-free wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) herds have eluded policy makers in recent decades. A controversial plan to depopulate infected herds and repopulate them with disease-free wood bison was rejected in 1990 because of significant public concern. Since then, technical advances in vaccine technology, genetic salvage, selective culling, and diagnostic test development have occurred. Containment strategies to reduce further spread of these diseases are a necessary first step; recent progress has been made in this area, but challenges remain. This progress has produced more options for management of these herds in northern Canada, and it is time to consider wood bison conservation and long-term disease eradication as equally important goals that must satisfy concerns of conservation groups, agriculture sectors, aboriginal groups, and the general public. Management of wildlife disease reservoirs in other areas, including Yellowstone and Riding Mountain national parks, has demonstrated that effective disease management is possible. Although combinations of different strategies, including vaccination, genetic salvage techniques, and selective culling, that use sensitive and specific diagnostic tests may offer alternatives to depopulation/repopulation, they also have logistic constraints and cost implications that will need consideration in a multistakeholder, collaborative-management framework. We feel the time is right for this discussion, so a long-term solution to this problem can be applied.

  19. Oil and gas planning and development in Alberta : new approaches to integrate grizzly bear conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, G. [Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Program, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reported on a grizzly bear research program that was initiated in the province of Alberta to provide new knowledge and tools to ensure the long term survival of grizzly bears on a multiple use landscape. The Foothills Model Forest (FMF) Grizzly Bear Research Program was formed by scientists from across Canada from a variety of scientific disciplines. A strong partner base has been created to allow the FMF's research efforts to span the entire current distribution of grizzly bear habitat in Alberta. The FMF has provided new large scale seamless maps of grizzly bear habitat and, using detailed grizzly bear GPS movement data, has constructed and tested models that can identify key grizzly bear habitat. This presentation focused on the results of 9 years of applied research and described the new tools and models that are now available to program partners in Alberta. The products are currently being used by both industry and government in Alberta as new standards in landscape management planning in grizzly bear habitat. The author suggested that the approach taken with grizzly bears in Alberta could be used and adapted for a variety of wildlife species in the north. figs.

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; W. Fraczek; S. Schilling; D. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric...

  1. Mind the Gap: How a Project in Alberta Attempted to Narrow the Gap between Classroom Teachers and Language Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Justine; Gnida, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the development, rollout, and subsequent uptake of the Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language (ATESL) document Best Practices for "Adult English as a Second Language (ESL)/Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) Programming" in the light of literature on teacher engagement with second-language…

  2. CBM split title in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Laurin, W.

    2006-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) coal underlies most of central and southern Alberta. This article discussed disputes surrounding CBM ownership and split-titles. Historically, ownership of lands in Alberta implied possession and rights of all under- and overground substances. Surface estates are now typically separated from the subsurface estate, and subsurface estates are further divided either on the basis of substances or stratigraphically to create a split-title. Mineral severances are used to separate respective mineral rights among owners. While there is a relative certainty that under provincial Crown tenure CBM is included in natural gas tenure, there is currently no Canadian jurisprudence in respect of CBM entitlement on split-title private lands. Where compressed natural gas (CNG) and coal are separately held, and CBM ownership is not specifically addressed in the mineral severance, there is no Canadian law respecting CBM ownership. Resolution of ownership issues has proceeded on a case by case basis. Coal owners argue that there is a distinct interrelationship between CBM and its host coal strata. Gas owners argue that the chemical composition of CBM is identical to CNG, and that the recovery method is similar to that of CNG. Courts have historically applied the vernacular test to resolve mineral substance ownership disputes, which considers the meanings of the word coal and coalbed methane as defined by industry. The most recent and relevant application of the vernacular test were the Borys/Anderson, which effectively implemented a gas-oil interface ownership determination, which if applied to a coal grant or reservation, may lead to the conclusion that the coal strata includes CBM. It was concluded that there are 26,000 individual mineral owners in Alberta that may become involved in CBM litigation. and could become parties to litigation. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project is a collaborative online bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. This paper introduces the partners, briefly summarizes the purpose of the project, describes the progress and challenges encountered thus far, and discusses the intended project outcomes and impacts.

  4. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  5. A comparative study of institutional adaptive capacity : South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada, and Elqui River Basin, Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauchyn, D.; Diaz, P.; Gauthier, D. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed the strategies and materials developed for a five-year study of the capacity of institutions in two dryland regions (the South Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada and the Elqui River Basin of north-central Chile) to adapt to the impacts of climate change. The purpose of the project was to obtain a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the capacities of regional institutions to formulate and implement strategies of adaptation to climate change risks and the forecasted impacts of climate change on the supply and management of water resources in dryland environments. Both regions are at different stages of social and environmental vulnerability and yet have a dry climate adjacent to a major mountain system and landscapes at risk of desertification, as well as an agricultural economy dependent on irrigation water derived from mountain snow and glaciers. tabs., figs.

  6. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate.

  7. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  8. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  9. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Part of the feasibility study for geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of investigating the presence of subsurface fluid pathways in the crystalline basement rocks. The deepest borehole drilled in Northeastern Alberta has a depth of 2350 m and offers substantial depth coverage to study the basement rocks. Due to the limited cores available for this deep borehole, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs and borehole seismic methods are used to provide subsurface characterization of the basement in addition to the existing surface seismic reflection data. Interpretation of the geophysical logs indicate potential fracture zones at different depths that could serve as zones with enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. Fractures within the subsurface tend to be aligned by the deviatoric stress in the subsurface and their orientations can be imaged using the Formation MicroImager (FMI) log. Two sets of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired in the deep borehole in July 2011. First, a high resolution zero-offset VSP was acquired to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. Upgoing tube waves can be identified and attributed to fracture zones interpreted from the geophysical logs. Since VSP data contains higher frequency content, the final corridor stack from the zero-offset VSP offers greater resolution in correlating seismic reflections with the primary reflectors and multiples interpreted from the surface seismic reflection data. The second set of VSP data is a multi-azimuth, multi-depth walk-away VSP acquired using three-component receivers placed at depths of 800 and 1780 m. The degree of seismic anisotropy in the crystalline basement can be revealed by analyzing the first arrivals at different geophone depths. Using an assumption that the presence of fractures causes P-wave reflection anisotropy, interpretation from the walk-away VSP can be used as a method for gross fracture detection

  10. Black gold rush in Canada[Tar sand oil]; Svart gullrush i Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, Ina

    2006-07-01

    In Alberta, Canada, oil companies are competing for licences to extract oil from the tar sand deposits. The occurrences cover an area equal to Belgium, and the total of recoverable oil is estimated to around 1700 million barrels. Descriptions of the recovery process and the competing companies are given.

  11. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta: Model and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reserve growth is recognized as a major component of additions to reserves in most oil provinces around the world, particularly in mature provinces. It takes place as a result of the discovery of new pools/reservoirs and extensions of known pools within existing fields, improved knowledge of reservoirs over time leading to a change in estimates of original oil-in-place, and improvement in recovery factor through the application of new technology, such as enhanced oil recovery methods, horizontal/multilateral drilling, and 4D seismic. A reserve growth study was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada, with the following objectives: 1) evaluate historical oil reserve data in order to assess the potential for future reserve growth; 2) develop reserve growth models/ functions to help forecast hydrocarbon volumes; 3) study reserve growth sensitivity to various parameters (for example, pool size, porosity, and oil gravity); and 4) compare reserve growth in oil pools and fields in Alberta with those from other large petroleum provinces around the world. The reported known recoverable oil exclusive of Athabasca oil sands in Alberta increased from 4.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) in 1960 to 17 BBO in 2005. Some of the pools that were included in the existing database were excluded from the present study for lack of adequate data. Therefore, the known recoverable oil increased from 4.2 to 13.9 BBO over the period from 1960 through 2005, with new discoveries contributing 3.7 BBO and reserve growth adding 6 BBO. This reserve growth took place mostly in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of known recoverable oil. Pools with light oil accounted for most of the total known oil volume, therefore reflecting the overall pool growth. Smaller pools, in contrast, shrank in their total recoverable volumes over the years. Pools with heavy oil (gravity less than 20o API) make up only a small share (3.8 percent) of the total recoverable oil; they showed a 23-fold growth compared to

  12. Assessing clinical support and inter-professional interactions among front-line primary care providers in remote communities in northern Canada: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care in remote communities in northern Canada is delivered primarily by nurses who receive clinical support from physicians in regional centres and the patient transportation system. To improve continuity, quality and access to care in remote northern communities, it is important to understand the perspectives of front-line providers and the complex challenges they face. Objective: To design and implement a survey of primary care providers to identify issues relating to inter-professional communication, clinical support and patient evacuation. Methods: In collaboration with the territorial government and regional health authority partners, we developed a 21-item self-administered questionnaire survey, which could be completed online. The survey was sent to 218 physicians and nurses who were employed in the Northwest Territories (NWT at the time of the survey and were involved in sending patients out of the community and/or receiving patients. The survey also contained an open-ended question at the end seeking comments regarding primary health care. Results: The overall low response rate of 39% among nurses and 19% among physicians threatens the validity of the quantitative results. The majority of providers were satisfied with their ability to communicate with other providers in a timely manner, their freedom to make clinical decisions and their overall experience practicing in the NWT. The patient transfer system appears to work from both the sender and receiver perspectives. However, a common theme reported by nurses was that physicians providing clinical advice, especially short-term locums, were not familiar with the local situation, whilst physicians at the receiving end remarked that the clinical information provided to them often lacked clarity. Conclusions: Important lessons were learnt from the pilot study, especially in better engagement of providers in planning and dissemination. The questionnaire design and the

  13. A multitrophic approach to monitoring the effects of metal mining in otherwise pristine and ecologically sensitive rivers in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paula; Bowman, Michelle F; Dubé, Monique G

    2008-07-01

    It is not known if current chemical and biological monitoring methods are appropriate for assessing the impacts of growing industrial development on ecologically sensitive northern waters. We used a multitrophic level approach to evaluate current monitoring methods and to determine whether metal-mining activities had affected 2 otherwise pristine rivers that flow into the South Nahanni River, Northwest Territories, a World Heritage Site. We compared upstream reference conditions in the rivers to sites downstream and further downstream of mines. The endpoints we evaluated included concentrations of metals in river water, sediments, and liver and flesh of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus); benthic algal and macroinvertebrate abundance, richness, diversity, and community composition; and various slimy sculpin measures, our sentinel forage fish species. Elevated concentrations of copper and iron in liver tissue of sculpin from the Flat River were associated with high concentrations of mine-derived iron in river water and copper in sediments that were above national guidelines. In addition, sites downstream of the mine on the Flat River had increased algal abundances and altered benthic macroinvertebrate communities, whereas the sites downstream of the mine on Prairie Creek had increased benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness and improved sculpin condition. Biological differences in both rivers were consistent with mild enrichment of the rivers downstream of current and historical mining activity. We recommend that monitoring in these northern rivers focus on indicators in epilithon and benthic macroinvertebrate communities due to their responsiveness and as alternatives to lethal fish sampling in habitats with low fish abundance. We also recommend monitoring of metal burdens in periphyton and benthic invertebrates for assessment of exposure to mine effluent and causal association. Although the effects of mining activities on riverine biota currently are limited, our

  14. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  15. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T. R. Romanow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV or with severe injuries (hospitalized. Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27], intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14], retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98], and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]. Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96] and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82] were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety.

  16. Environmental Determinants of Bicycling Injuries in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Couperthwaite, Amy B.; McCormack, Gavin R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined environmental risk factors for bicycling injuries, by combining data on bicyclist injuries collected by interviews in the emergency department (ED) with street-level environmental audits of injury locations, capturing path, roadway, safety, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Cases were bicyclists struck by a motor vehicle (MV) or with severe injuries (hospitalized). Controls were bicyclists who were not hit by a car or those seen and discharged from the ED, matched on time and day of injury. Logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, sex, peak time, and bicyclist speed with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to relate injury risk to environmental characteristics. Factors contributing to MV events included greater traffic volume (OR 5.13; 95% CI [1.44, 18.27]), intersections (OR 6.89; 95% CI [1.48, 32.14]), retail establishments (OR 5.56; 95% CI [1.72, 17.98]), and path obstructions (OR 3.83; 95% CI [1.03, 14.25]). Locations where the road was in good condition (OR 0.25; 95% CI [0.07, 0.96]) and where there was high surveillance from surrounding buildings (OR 0.32; 95% CI [0.13, 0.82]) were associated with less severe injuries. These findings could be used by bicyclists and transportation planners to improve safety. PMID:23251192

  17. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  18. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1986-04-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic water level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Changes in chronology of seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding and erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Our 1985 pair count data indicated that 95 to 143 nests may have been present. Hatching success for 1985 nests (55%) was low compared to long-term averages for the region. Predation was the predominant cause of ground nest failure (25 nests); we documented 2 nest failures due to flooding. The maximum gosling count in the study area for 1985 was 197. Six key brood-rearing areas were identified. Most (80%) sites were located in the herbaceous or pasture cover type and the riparian bench landform. Analysis of aerial photographs taken prior to construction of Kerr Dam documented the loss of 1859 acres of habitat along the north shore of Flathead Lake. Losses were attributed to inundation and to continuing erosion due to operation of Kerr Dam. Lake and river water level regimes were compared with the chronology of important periods in the nesting cycle. Low lake levels in May and early June coincide with the breed-rearing period. Mudflats are heavily used by broods, but their effect on survival must still be documented. Preliminary recommendations to protect and enhance Canada goose habitat and production are being developed.

  19. Soil solution and sugar maple response to NH(4)NO (3) additions in a base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean-David; Houle, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Nitrogen additions (NH4NO3) at rates of three- and ten-fold ambient atmospheric deposition (8.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) were realised in an acid- and base-poor northern hardwood forest of Québec, Canada. Soil solution chemistry, foliar chemistry, crown dieback and basal area growth of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were measured. Except for a transitory increase of NO3 and NH4 concentrations, there was no persistent increase in their level in soil solution 3 years after N treatments, with the exception of one plot out of three, that received the highest N addition, beginning to show persistent and high NO3 concentrations after 2 years of N additions. Three years of N additions have significantly increased the N DRIS index of sugar maple but not N foliar concentration. Potassium, Ca and Mn foliar concentrations, as well as P and Ca DRIS indices, decreased in treated plots after 3 years. No treatment effect was observed for basal area growth and dieback rate. One unexpected result was the significant decrease in foliar Ca even in the treated plots that received low N rates, despite the absence of significant NO3-induced leaching of Ca. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in foliar Ca is not known. Our results, however, clearly demonstrate that increased N deposition at sites with low base saturation may affect Ca nutrition even when clear signs of N saturation are not observed.

  20. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Seabert

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3 than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72 from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs and hair (mercury. We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  1. Growth Response of Northern White-Cedar (Thuja occidentalis to Natural Disturbances and Partial Cuts in Mixedwood Stands of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Ruel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis is a species of high commercial and ecological value, the abundance of which has been declining since the middle of the 19th century. Very little information regarding its silviculture in mixedwood stands is currently available, even though a significant portion of wood resources comes from these stands. The present study is a retrospective analysis of white-cedar growth in partially harvested mixedwood stands of western Quebec, Canada. Eight stands distributed across two regions were analyzed. Dendrochronological approaches examined long-term diameter growth for sample white-cedar trees and stems of associated species. These approaches were used to reconstruct stand characteristics at the time of harvesting, together with local harvesting intensity. The study demonstrated white-cedar’s capacity to maintain good growth for long periods of time and at large tree sizes. Accession to the upper canopy positions occurs through repeated episodes of suppression/release, most of which seem to be associated with spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana outbreaks. White-cedar response to partial harvesting varies with tree size, residual basal area and species composition. Growth response was generally stronger for small trees, even though large trees still maintained the best diameter growth. Growth of white-cedar was negatively affected by an increase in softwood proportion in basal area. Growth responses to harvesting could be sustained for a period of 20 years.

  2. An examination of traditional foods and cigarette smoking as cadmium sources among the nine First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, Northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, Nadia A; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Coté, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p traditional food consumption was not a good predictor of Cd exposure. Our findings suggest that consumption of traditional foods should not be restricted in Eeyou Istchee for fear of increased Cd exposure risk. Further studies of smoking prevalence among the Cree First Nations and additional public health initiatives to reduce smoking are recommended.

  3. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Levamisole tainted cocaine causing severe neutropenia in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts < 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in 2008. Alberta and British Columbia (BC) public health officials issued an advisory and urged health care professionals to report cases to public health. This paper presents the findings of the public health investigations. Methods Cases were identified prospectively through reporting by clinicians and a retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiners data from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2009. Cases were categorized as confirmed, probable or suspect. Only the confirmed and probable cases are included in this paper. Results We compare cases of severe neutropenia associated with tainted cocaine (NATC) identified in Alberta and BC between January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Of the 42 NATC cases: 23(55%) were from Alberta; 19(45%) were from British Columbia; 57% of these cases reported crack cocaine use (93% of those who identified type of cocaine used); 7% reported using cocaine powder; and the main route of cocaine administration was from smoking (72%). Fifty percent of the NATC cases had multiple episodes of neutropenia associated with cocaine use. Cases typically presented with bacterial/fungal infections and fever. One Alberta NATC case produced anti-neutrophil antibodies, and four were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). Analysis of two crack pipes and one drug sample obtained from NATC cases confirmed the presence of both cocaine and levamisole. A further 18 cases were identified through the retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiner data in Alberta Interpretation Our findings support a link between neutropenia and levamisole tainted cocaine; particularly from smoking the crack form of cocaine. Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. Awareness of the

  5. Levamisole tainted cocaine causing severe neutropenia in Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shihe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts 9 cells/L associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in 2008. Alberta and British Columbia (BC public health officials issued an advisory and urged health care professionals to report cases to public health. This paper presents the findings of the public health investigations. Methods Cases were identified prospectively through reporting by clinicians and a retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiners data from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2009. Cases were categorized as confirmed, probable or suspect. Only the confirmed and probable cases are included in this paper. Results We compare cases of severe neutropenia associated with tainted cocaine (NATC identified in Alberta and BC between January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Of the 42 NATC cases: 23(55% were from Alberta; 19(45% were from British Columbia; 57% of these cases reported crack cocaine use (93% of those who identified type of cocaine used; 7% reported using cocaine powder; and the main route of cocaine administration was from smoking (72%. Fifty percent of the NATC cases had multiple episodes of neutropenia associated with cocaine use. Cases typically presented with bacterial/fungal infections and fever. One Alberta NATC case produced anti-neutrophil antibodies, and four were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA. Analysis of two crack pipes and one drug sample obtained from NATC cases confirmed the presence of both cocaine and levamisole. A further 18 cases were identified through the retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiner data in Alberta Interpretation Our findings support a link between neutropenia and levamisole tainted cocaine; particularly from smoking the crack form of cocaine. Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. Awareness

  6. Alberta euthanasia survey: 1. Physicians' opinions about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, T D; Verhoef, M J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the opinions of a sample of Alberta physicians about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia, the determinants of these opinions and the frequency and sources of requests for assistance in active euthanasia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Alberta physicians, grouped by site and type of practice. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2002 (46%) of the licensed physicians in Alberta were mailed a 38-item questionnaire in May through July 1991; usable responses were returned by 1391 (69%). RESULTS: Of the respondents 44% did believe that it is sometimes right to practice active euthanasia; 46% did not. Moral acceptance of active euthanasia correlated with type of practice and religious affiliation and activity. In all, 28% of the physicians stated that they would practice active euthanasia if it were legalized, and 51% indicated that they would not. These opinions were significantly related to sex, religious affiliation and activity, and country of graduation. Just over half (51%) of the respondents stated that the law should be changed to permit patients to request active euthanasia. Requests (usually from patients) were reportedly received by 19% of the physicians, 78% of whom received fewer than five. CONCLUSIONS: This survey revealed severely disparate opinions among Alberta physicians about the morality of active euthanasia. In particular, religious affiliation and activity were associated with the polarized opinions. The desire for active euthanasia, as inferred from requests by patients, was not frequent. Overall, there was no strong support expressed by the physicians for the personal practice of legalized active euthanasia. These data will be vital to those involved in health education and public policy formation about active euthanasia in Alberta and the rest of Canada. PMID:8500029

  7. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  8. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: July 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  9. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  10. Waterfowl breeding pair survey: Southern Alberta: 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Waterfowl production survey: Southern Alberta: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  12. Trace metals in scalp hair of children and adults in three Alberta Indian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Smith, T J; Tamaro, S; Enarson, D; Fadl, S; Davison, A J; Weldon, L

    1986-10-01

    This study examined trace metal levels in scalp hair taken from 122 children and 27 adult residents of three small northern Alberta (Canada) Indian villages, one of which is situated close to the world's first tar sands oil extraction plants. The three communities studied were: Fort McKay (the exposed village), Fort Chipewyan (also in the tar sands ecosystem but distant from the plants), and Garden River (not in the tar sands ecosystem). Inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy was used to determine hair sample metal content. Nineteen metals were included in data analysis. Children from Fort McKay had the highest average hair lead, cadmium and nickel levels. Chromium levels were approximately equal in hair from Fort McKay and Garden River children, and significantly elevated above levels found in the hair of Fort Chipewyan children. Children from Garden River showed highest hair levels of eight metals: vanadium, aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, zinc, magnesium and calcium. Fort Chipewyan children had the highest hair levels of copper, but the lowest levels of all other metals. Among adults, hair lead, nickel and cadmium levels were highest in Fort McKay residents, while phosphorous and vanadium were highest in hair from Garden River residents. Bioaccumulation of lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair from Fort McKay residents may be related to exposure to extraction plant pollution. Plant stack emissions are known to contain appreciable amounts of lead, nickel and chromium. Spills into the Athabasca River, until recently the source of Fort McKay drinking water, have been reported from plant wastewater holding ponds, known to contain elevated levels of lead, nickel and cadmium. An increased number of significant metal-metal correlations in hair metal levels for Fort McKay children suggests a richer source of multiple metal exposure, relative to children in the other two communities.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  14. Estimating ice phenology on large northern lakes from AMSR-E: algorithm development and application to Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-K. Kang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series of brightness temperatures (TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E are examined to determine ice phenological parameters on the two largest lakes of northern Canada: Great Bear Lake (GBL and Great Slave Lake (GSL. TB measurements from the 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz channels (H- and V- polarization are compared to assess their potential for detecting freeze-onset/melt-onset and ice-on/ice-off dates on both lakes. The 18.7 GHz (H-pol channel is found to be the most suitable for estimating these ice dates as well as the duration of the ice cover and ice-free seasons. A new algorithm is proposed using this channel and applied to map all ice phenological parameters on GBL and GSL over seven ice seasons (2002–2009. Analysis of the spatio-temporal patterns of each parameter at the pixel level reveals that: (1 both freeze-onset and ice-on dates occur on average about one week earlier on GBL than on GSL (Day of Year (DY 318 and 333 for GBL; DY 328 and 343 for GSL; (2 the freeze-up process or freeze duration (freeze-onset to ice-on takes a slightly longer amount of time on GBL than on GSL (about 1 week on average; (3 melt-onset and ice-off dates occur on average one week and approximately four weeks later, respectively, on GBL (DY 143 and 183 for GBL; DY 135 and 157 for GSL; (4 the break-up process or melt duration (melt-onset to ice-off lasts on average about three weeks longer on GBL; and (5 ice cover duration estimated from each individual pixel is on average about three weeks longer on GBL compared to its more southern counterpart, GSL. A cross-comparison of dates for several ice phenological parameters derived from other satellite remote sensing products (e.g. NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, QuikSCAT, and Canadian Ice Service Database show that, despite its relatively coarse spatial resolution, AMSR-E 18.7 GHz provides a

  15. Estimating ice phenology on large northern lakes from AMSR-E: algorithm development and application to Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-K. Kang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series of brightness temperatures (TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E are examined to determine ice phenology variables on the two largest lakes of northern Canada: Great Bear Lake (GBL and Great Slave Lake (GSL. TB measurements from the 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz channels (H- and V- polarization are compared to assess their potential for detecting freeze-onset/melt-onset and ice-on/ice-off dates on both lakes. The 18.7 GHz (H-pol channel is found to be the most suitable for estimating these ice dates as well as the duration of the ice cover and ice-free seasons. A new algorithm is proposed using this channel and applied to map all ice phenology variables on GBL and GSL over seven ice seasons (2002–2009. Analysis of the spatio-temporal patterns of each variable at the pixel level reveals that: (1 both freeze-onset and ice-on dates occur on average about one week earlier on GBL than on GSL (Day of Year (DY 318 and 333 for GBL; DY 328 and 343 for GSL; (2 the freeze-up process or freeze duration (freeze-onset to ice-on takes a slightly longer amount of time on GBL than on GSL (about 1 week on average; (3 melt-onset and ice-off dates occur on average one week and approximately four weeks later, respectively, on GBL (DY 143 and 183 for GBL; DY 135 and 157 for GSL; (4 the break-up process or melt duration (melt-onset to ice-off lasts on average about three weeks longer on GBL; and (5 ice cover duration estimated from each individual pixel is on average about three weeks longer on GBL compared to its more southern counterpart, GSL. A comparison of dates for several ice phenology variables derived from other satellite remote sensing products (e.g. NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, QuikSCAT, and Canadian Ice Service Database show that, despite its relatively coarse spatial resolution, AMSR-E 18.7 GHz provides a viable means for

  16. Exploring the Effects of GCM Uncertainty on the Hydrology and Water Allocation of a Small Mountain Watershed in Northern British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, F.; Anderson, A.; Sui, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and allocation of water supplies are causing water shortages and low flow conditions that threaten aquatic ecosystems around the world. Small mountain streams in Western Canada are experiencing increased water use from small diversion hydropower, increasing population, mining, agriculture, and changing energy extraction techniques. In addition, there are very few gauging sites for baseline water data because of the rugged mountain terrain and cold climate. Baseline data is important due to the sensitivity of small mountain streams to shifts in timing of snow pack melt and mid-winter melting, especially near and in coastal regions. Here we use HBV-EC to simulate the range in future flow in a northern mountain watershed under various climate scenarios and explore the uncertainty induced by different GMC models and downscaling for the Goathorn Creek watershed. To explore the effects of GCM model variability we selected four models (CGCM3, ECHAM5, GFDL-CM2.1, and CSIRO-Mk) and used the TreeGen downscaling method to generate multiple ensembles for emissions scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) for each GCM model. The calibrated HBV-EC model was sensitive to the climate inputs and produced a 50 percent variation in flows for the 2050's and 2080's with the greatest reduction in mean flows by 0.33 m3/s predicted for the 2020's climate. Although, modeled future discharge is highly variable, some consistent trends are useful for water managers: results suggest spring discharge may occur up to two months earlier (CGCM3, A2 scenario), but was constantly one month earlier for all emission scenarios. This can lead to feasible management strategies such as granting fewer water permits or in areas with high future demand issuing permits with provisions for future storage.

  17. Tourism Standards: Western Canada. Certification Field Test. Final Report. Formative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Tourism Education Council, Edmonton.

    The Tourism Standards Consortium (TSC) is a partnership of the governments of Canada's western provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia), the provinces' tourism industries, and the Pacific Rim Institute of Tourism in British Columbia. In an effort to increase professionalism in Western Canada's tourism industry, the TSC…

  18. Ice beer process may be adaptable for use to treat northern mine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-02-25

    Research carried out at the University of Alberta suggests that the process used to make ice beer may also prove to be useful in removing pollutants from contaminated mine wastewater in northern Canada. The ice beer approach to environmental cleanup is an example of using freezing temperatures to advantage in engineering a pollution solution. The higher alcohol content in ice beer is the result of a process called freeze separation. When the beer is cooled to below 0 degree C, the alcohol concentrates in the liquid component of the beer and the ice, which is mostly water can be removed. The researchers believe that allowing the wastewater to partially freeze would concentrate the contaminants in a smaller more easily removable fluid component. Experimental work is also being done on natural attenuation (which includes everything from evaporation to chemical decay) that reduce the concentration of the contaminant. Most interesting among these natural attenuation processes are those in which existing microbes in the subsurface convert toxic compounds into non-toxic ones. Although natural bacterial and chemical conversion processes are already included in environmental risk management and remediation guidelines in some parts of the United States, many questions still remain about how contaminants such as crude oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons can be degraded in northern climates and soils. The research at the University of Alberta focuses on this aspect of the problem. Further work is also planned on the influence of oil and natural gas additives on the microbial and chemical breakdown of petroleum.

  19. Survey of northern informal and formal mental health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This survey is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods in an effort to better understand mental health in a northern context. Objective. The main objective of the 3-year study was to document the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The intent of developing a survey was to include more participants in the research and access those working in small communities who would be concerned regarding confidentiality and anonymity due to their high profile within smaller populations. Design. Based on the in-depth interviews from the qualitative phase of the project, the research team developed a survey that reflected the main themes found in the initial qualitative analysis. The on-line survey consisted of 26 questions, looking at basic demographic information and presenting lists of possible challenges, supports and client mental health issues for participants to prioritise. Results. Thirty-two participants identified various challenges, supports and client issues relevant to their mental health support work. A vast majority of the respondents felt prepared for northern practice and had some level of formal education. Supports for longevity included team collaboration, knowledgeable supervisors, managers, leaders and more opportunities for formal education, specific training and continuity of care to support clients. Conclusion. For northern-based research in small communities, the development of a survey allowed more participants to join the larger study in a way that protected their identity and confidentiality. The results from the survey emphasise the need for team collaboration, interdisciplinary practice and working with community

  20. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  1. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  2. Coupling lead isotopes and element concentrations in epiphytic lichens to track sources of air emissions in the Alberta Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted that coupled use of element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes collected during 2002 and 2008, to assess the impacts of air emissions from the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR, Canada) mining and processing operations...

  3. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  4. Widespread tungsten isotope anomalies and W mobility in crustal and mantle rocks of the Eoarchean Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: Implications for early Earth processes and W recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Touboul, Mathieu; Ishikawa, Akira; Walker, Richard J.; Graham Pearson, D.

    2016-08-01

    Well-resolved 182W isotope anomalies, relative to the present mantle, in Hadean-Archean terrestrial rocks have been interpreted to reflect the effects of variable late accretion and early mantle differentiation processes. To further explore these early Earth processes, we have carried out W concentration and isotopic measurements of Eoarchean ultramafic rocks, including lithospheric mantle rocks, meta-komatiites, a layered ultramafic body and associated crustal gneisses and amphibolites from the Uivak gneiss terrane of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada. These analyses are augmented by in situ W concentration measurements of individual phases in order to examine the major hosts of W in these rocks. Although the W budget in some rocks can be largely explained by a combination of their major phases, W in other rocks is hosted mainly in secondary grain-boundary assemblages, as well as in cryptic, unidentified W-bearing 'nugget' minerals. Whole rock W concentrations in the ultramafic rocks show unexpected enrichments relative, to elements with similar incompatibilities. By contrast, W concentrations are low in the Uivak gneisses. These data, along with the in situ W concentration data, suggest metamorphic transport/re-distribution of W from the regional felsic rocks, the Uivak gneiss precursors, to the spatially associated ultramafic rocks. All but one sample from the lithologically varied Eoarchean Saglek suite is characterized by generally uniform ∼ + 11 ppm enrichments in 182W relative to Earth's modern mantle. Modeling shows that the W isotopic enrichments in the ultramafic rocks were primarily inherited from the surrounding 182W-rich felsic precursor rocks, and that the W isotopic composition of the original ultramafic rocks cannot be determined. The observed W isotopic composition of mafic to ultramafic rocks in intimate contact with ancient crust should be viewed with caution in order to plate constraints on the early Hf-W isotopic evolution of the

  5. Social rates of return to investment in skills assessment and residency training of international medical graduates in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J C Herbert; Crutcher, Rodney A; Harrison, Alexandra C M; Wright, Howard

    2006-12-01

    Governments and physician organizations in Canada have identified current and anticipated future shortages of physicians. The creation of opportunities for licensure for the sizeable population of unlicensed international medical graduates (IMG) residing in Canada can alleviate some of the shortage of medical manpower. We examine whether expenditures on IMG skills assessment, training and licensing are a socially desirable use of resources. We estimate the financial rate of return to Alberta taxpayers from resources allocated to the Alberta International Medical Graduate (AIMG) program, started in 2001. Our estimates show that resources allocated to providing skills assessment and residency training opportunities for IMGs that lead to licensing as a Canadian physician generate real annual rates of return of 9-13%.

  6. Update on the Alberta Surface Rights Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, C.J. [Surface Rights Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The difference between surface and mineral rights in Alberta was defined. Surface rights give ownership of the surface of the land and the right to work it. Mineral rights, on the other hand, give ownership and the right to explore and develop or extract minerals beneath the surface. Oil and gas are the most common minerals in Alberta, however, gold, silver, uranium and salt are also included under mineral rights. Sand, gravel, clay, marl and peat, are excluded. The conditions which apply to the mineral owner`s right to explore and develop were summarized. Some case studies of appeals to the court regarding mineral and surface right were presented as illustrations.

  7. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  8. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  9. White-throated Sparrow Response to Forest Harvesting in North-Central Alberta: Results Not So Clear-Cut?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Hannah; Fiona K.A. Schmiegelow; Kathryn E. H. Aitken

    2008-01-01

    The use of density to measure a species' responses to habitat change remains prevalent despite warnings that relying on such parameters can be misleading. We evaluated whether density was a useful surrogate of habitat quality for the White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), an apparent habitat generalist, in a recently logged landscape near Calling Lake, Alberta, Canada. We detected significant differences in the territory density of birds among three distinct habitat types: inte...

  10. Historical and potential changes of precipitation and temperature of Alberta subjected to climate change impact: 1900-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao

    2017-02-01

    We investigated changes to precipitation and temperature of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate change on precipitation and temperature of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and temperature were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed temperature showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 °C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could change from -25 to 36 %, while the temperature would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 °C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while temperature is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and temperature. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for

  11. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  12. Canadian Children's Literature: An Alberta Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Joyce; Carbonaro, Mike; Green, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an online survey administered to Alberta elementary school teachers in 2000-2001. The survey explored the teachers' knowledge and use of Canadian children's literature and their thoughts about the role of Canadian literature in elementary school classrooms. Canadian children's trade books espouse particular…

  13. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  14. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  15. From waste molecules to consumer products : upgrader and refinery off-gases processing on the rise in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2010-10-15

    Only two companies process off-gases from bitumen upgraders in Alberta: Williams Energy Canada and Aux Sable Canada LP. Their projects, one at the Suncor plant north of Fort McMurray and the other at the Scotford complex near Edmonton, are designed to convert the streams into value-added petrochemical and fuel feedstock. In 2002, Williams built a cryogenic liquids extraction unit at the Suncor plant and a fractioning and distribution facility near Redwater, Alberta, which processes off-gases into liquid propane, propylene, condensates, butane, and butylenes. An expansion to the Redwater processing plant will allow for the upgrading of butane and butylene components as well as octane. Williams wants to build extraction units at two upgraders near Fort McMurray and is working with the Alberta Government to attract a petrochemical plant to Alberta that can process propylene, which must be exported at present. Aux Sable will process off-gases to produce hydrogen, ethane, and a propane-plus mix. Processing off-gases substantially reduces carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions from upgraders. Off-gas has the potential to be a new feedstock supply for the petrochemical industry in Alberta. The volumes processed by Williams are olephenic, whereas the volumes processed by Aux Sable are paraffinic, but both companies take molecules that would otherwise become atmospheric carbon dioxide and turn them into plastic for consumer goods. The off-gas projects are being driven by market forces without government incentives. Low natural gas prices have made it economical for upgraders to use more gas and sell off-gases for value-added use. 1 fig.

  16. An approach to managing cumulative effects to groundwater resources in the Alberta oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, J.; Forrest, Francine [WorleyParsons Canada, Infrastructure and Environment (Canada); Klebek, Margaret [Alberta Environment, Clean Energy Policy Branch (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the Athabasca region of Northern Alberta, oil sands activity has raised many concerns over how mining and extracting processes might affect groundwater quality and quantity. The groundwater management framework was developed by Alberta Environment to address these concerns by identifying and managing the potential environmental effects of oil sands activity on groundwater in a science-based manner. This paper develops the framework using risk identification and performance monitoring. The decision-making approach was conducted using decision support tools such as modeling, monitoring and management. Results showed the complexity and variability of groundwater conditions in the Athabasca region and pointed out that knowledge in this area is still developing. This paper presented how the groundwater management framework was developed and pointed out that it will have to be updated as new information arrives.

  17. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L

    2014-10-19

    We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.

  18. Development, testing and implementation of an emergency services methodology in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasoph, H; Ashdown, C

    1995-01-01

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to mandate reporting of hospital-based emergency services. This reporting is based on a workload measurement system that groups emergency visits into five discreet workload levels/classes driven by ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Other related workload measurement variables are incorporated, including admissions, transfers, maintenance monitoring, nursing and non-nursing patient support activities, trips, staff replacement, and personal fatigue and delay. The methodology used to design the reporting system has been subjected to extensive testing, auditing and refinement. The results of one year of province-wide data collection yielded approximately 1.5 million emergency visits. These data reveal consistent patterns/trends of workload that vary by hospital size and type. Although this information can assist in utilization management efforts to predict and compare workload and staffing levels, the impetus for establishing this system derived from its potential for funding hospital-based emergency services. This would be the first time that such services would be funded on a systemic, system-wide basis whereby hospitals would be reimbursed in relation to workload. This proposed funding system would distribute available funding in a consistent, fair and equitable manner across all hospitals providing a similar set of services, thus achieving one of the key goals of the Alberta Acute Care Funding Plan. Ultimately, this proposed funding methodology would be integrated into a broader Ambulatory Care Funding system currently being developed in Alberta.

  19. The surface energy balance of a saline-sodic overburden restoration cover, Fort McMurray, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.K. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography and Environmental Studies; Duncan, B.S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-07-01

    Areas mined by the Canadian oil sands industry are restored to an equivalent capability to that which existed before any mining activity took place. In the restoration process, the surface-vegetation-atmosphere continuum is entirely changed. As such, ecosystems are created that bare little resemblance to the boreal forest that existed prior to mining. This paper presented the results of a study conducted in northern Alberta's Mildred Lake mine, operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. The integrated salt and water balance of a saline-sodic overburden pile was measured during the summers of 2003 to 2005 using the eddy covariance method. The marine clay substrate was covered by soils consisting of reclaimed peat, foxtail barley, small amounts of sweet clover and aspen. The climate in 2005 was cooler and wetter than the previous summers and there were strong seasonal differences in precipitation among the years. In each year, vegetation growth began in May and full maturity was reached by late July, with maximum seasonal leaf area index varying between 1.2 in 2004 and 0.8 in 2005. The largest energy balance component throughout and among the years was sensible heat. Latent heat dominated the turbulent fluxes only in rare circumstances following continual wet periods. The study revealed that the meagre vegetation growth had minimal influence on the partitioning of fluxes. Ground heat flux accounted for 10 and 15 per cent of net radiation. Total evapotranspiration ranged from 210 to 240 mm between May to August, and exceeded rainfall inputs throughout the growing seasons. Evaporation rates are expected to increase, while latent heat will become a larger fraction of the surface energy balance as vegetation succession continues and forest species establish.

  20. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Paula J.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Whelan, Heather K.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Rosner, William K.; Brenner, Darren R.; Cook, Linda S.; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A.; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Methods: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Results: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Interpretation: Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease. PMID:27730115

  1. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  2. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  3. Aeromagnetics of southern Alberta within areas of hydrocarbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, G. E.; Morris, W. A. [McMaster Univ., School of Geography and Geology, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between the observed geomagnetic field and hydrocarbon pools is investigated by reviewing the sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary basins and the methods for isolating individual contributions, with specific reference to noise suppression. A recent high resolution aeromagnetic survey acquired by the Geological Survey of Canada in southern Alberta is used as the test case to demonstrate the method and the potential of aeromagnetic surveys to resolve structural controls on hydrocarbon emplacement. The investigation was undertaken in an effort to account for the fact that several features of the residual magnetic field appear to be common to a majority of hydrocarbon pools. Some of these commonalities are: (1) the long axis of the pool appears to be coincident with the strike of the basement-sourced magnetic signal, (2) hydrocarbon pools encompass areas of broad low amplitude magnetic anomalies, (3) cross-cutting fractures or faulting systems are located within areas of a majority of hydrocarbon pools, and (4) pools are associated with linear and/or curvilinear magnetic lineaments, of which a great number have topographic expression. These associations may arise as a result of eH/pH conditions of the hydrocarbons and the surrounding sediments, or they may arise purely as a result of the trapping structures. The physical extent of the interaction area of the pool with the surrounding sediment may be another factor in explaining the association of hydrocarbons and magnetics. 48 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  5. Alberta Euthanasia Survey: 3-year follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, M.J.; Kinsella, T D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the opinions of Alberta physicians about active euthanasia had changed and to assess the determinants of potential changes in opinion. DESIGN: Follow-up survey (mailed questionnaire) of physicians included in the 1991 Alberta Euthanasia Survey. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 1391 physicians who participated in the 1991 survey 1291 (93%) had indicated that they were willing to take part in a follow-up survey. A follow-up questionnaire was mailed in 1994 ...

  6. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS.

  7. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  8. Fold-related-fracturing at the Livingstone River anticline (AB; Canada) by coupling field surveying and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Bauville, Arthur; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pana, Dinu; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The interpretation of fold-related joints and faults is of primary importance in terms of fluids prospection (e.g. water, oil, gas, C02) since anticlines are potential structural trap while fracturing can strongly influence the storage capacity as well as the migration pathways. Located at the front of the Foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta (Canada), the Livingstone Range (LRA) is analogous to hydrocarbon reservoir that occur elsewhere in the Foothills (Cooley et al., 2011). The Livingstone Range fold system is related to the development of the Livingstone thrust that cuts around 1000m up-section from a regional decollement in the Palliser Formation (Devonian) to another in the Fernie Formation (Jurassic). Our study focuses on the detailed structural investigation of the Livingstone River anticline (northern part of the LRA). It aims at characterizing the anticline geometry as well as the fracturing pattern (orientation, mode, infilling, spacing, trace length, density, and cross-cutting relationships) in order to propose a kinematic interpretation of the fold-related fracturing genesis. The study area is investigated at different scales by combining field surveys with remote sensing (HR-Digital Elevation Model, Ground-based LiDAR, Gigapixel photography) and thin-sections analyses. In a second step we performed finite difference 3D numerical simulations in order to compute the evolution of local principal stress orientation during folding. We compared the fracture (or plastic bands) distribution in the field with 1) a dynamic numerical model of detachment folding; and 2) an instantaneous numerical model based on the final fold geometry. Cooley, M.A., Price, R.A., Dixon, J.M., Kyser, T.K. 2011. Along-strike variations and internal details of chevron-style flexural slip thrust-propagation folds within the southern Livingstone Range anticlinorium, a paleo-hydrocarbon reservoir in southern Alberta Foothills, Canada. AAPG bulletin, 95 (11), 1821-1849.

  9. Alberta euthanasia survey: 2. Physicians' opinions about the acceptance of active euthanasia as a medical act and the reporting of such practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, M J; Kinsella, T D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the opinions of Alberta physicians about the acceptance of active euthanasia as a medical act (the "medicalization" of active euthanasia) and the reporting of colleagues practising active euthanasia, as well as the sociodemographic correlates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Alberta physicians, grouped by site and type of practice. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2002 (46%) of the licensed physicians in Alberta were mailed a 38-item questionnaire in May through July 1991; usable responses were returned by 1391 (69%). RESULTS: Although only 44% of the respondents considered active euthanasia morally "right" at least 70% opted to medicalize the practice if it were legal by restricting it to be performed by physicians and to be taught at medical sites. Even though active euthanasia is criminal homicide in Canada, 33% of the physicians stated that they would not report a colleague participating in the act of anyone, and 40% and 60% stated that they would not report a colleague to medical or legal authorities respectively. Acceptance or rejection of active euthanasia as a medical act was strongly related to religious affiliation and activity (p euthanasia revealed profound incongruities in the opinions of the sample of Alberta physicians concerning their ethical and social duties in the practice of medicine. These data highlight the need for relevant modifications of health education policies concerning biomedical ethics and physicians' obligations to society. PMID:8500030

  10. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the water and land use in Alberta forum : sustainable resource management in a boom economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Alberta's booming oil and gas industry has led to concerns over land and water use in the province. This forum provided a venue for the discussion of issues related to water and land use in Alberta. Various strategies for land use planning were evaluated. Regulatory frameworks for water and land pollution abatement were considered along with strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of oil and gas resource development in the province. The Wildlife, Habitat, and Species at Risk Act was discussed, as well as issues related to Canada's new endangered species laws. Issues concerning water scarcity and stakeholder relations were discussed. Various water management strategies were evaluated. One of the 14 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Climate change is the primary driver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) range expansion at the northern extent of its range; land use is secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, Kimberly L; Boutin, Stan

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying the relative influence of multiple mechanisms driving recent range expansion of non-native species is essential for predicting future changes and for informing adaptation and management plans to protect native species. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been expanding their range into the North American boreal forest over the last half of the 20th century. This has already altered predator-prey dynamics in Alberta, Canada, where the distribution likely reaches the northern extent of its continuous range. Although current white-tailed deer distribution is explained by both climate and human land use, the influence each factor had on the observed range expansion would depend on the spatial and temporal pattern of these changes. Our objective was to quantify the relative importance of land use and climate change as drivers of white-tailed deer range expansion and to predict decadal changes in white-tailed deer distribution in northern Alberta for the first half of the 21st century. An existing species distribution model was used to predict past decadal distributions of white-tailed deer which were validated using independent data. The effects of climate and land use change were isolated by comparing predictions under theoretical "no-change between decades" scenarios, for each factor, to predictions under observed climate and land use change. Climate changes led to more than 88%, by area, of the increases in probability of white-tailed deer presence across all decades. The distribution is predicted to extend 100 km further north across the northeastern Alberta boreal forest as climate continues to change over the first half of the 21st century.

  12. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  13. Education Reform in Alberta: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda L.; Webber, Charles F.

    This paper discusses what educational leadership might look like at the start of the 21st century, specifically within the context of Alberta. It also provides a brief synopsis of some of Alberta's major reforms of the past decade, and it presents some of the key findings and recommendations of a 1998 study entitled "An Analysis of Attitudes…

  14. Laboratory based surveillance of travel-related Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in Alberta from 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrato Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri in Alberta, Canada were acquired from Central America, the Indian subcontinent and North America. Of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. This study provides a Canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the Indian subcontinent. Shigella is a common cause of diarrheal illness in North America with a rate of 2.0 per 100,000 in Canada 1 and a rate of 3.2 per 100,000 in the United States 23. Imported cases of Shigella infections have been reported in developed countries following travel to a foreign or developing country 45 and may be impacted by factors including socio-economic factors 6, food distribution networks 5 and microbiologic factors 7. Across multiple geographic regions, high rates of antimicrobial resistance to multiple agents (e.g. sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have limited the choices for empiric antimicrobial therapy required to manage Shigella infections and reduce fecal excretion of the bacteria 8910 with descriptions of shifting species dominance and changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1011. Generally, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the dominant species and are heavily impacted by changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1213. This study identifies the global regions associated with travel-related cases of S. flexneri and S. sonnei in Alberta, Canada and compares antibiotic resistance patterns of these isolates for 2002 to 2007 inclusive. Specimens collected 2002-2007 (inclusive from S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections in Alberta, Canada were included for study. Data collected at time of specimen submission included: date of specimen collection, outbreak association if present, travel

  15. HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA POPULATIONS FROM A MINING REGION IN NORTHERN ONTARIO (CANADA: EFFECT OF SOIL LIMING AND ANALYSIS OF GENETIC VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic of metals in soil and plants and population diversity in Northern Ontario is essential in determining progress toward ecosystem sustainability in reclaimed sites. The objectives of the present study were to assess the levels of metal content in soils and their accumulation in red oak plants from limed and unlimed sites. Genetic variation in red oak populations from the Northern Ontario region was also analyzed. The levels of soil acidity was lower in limed areas compared to un limed sites, an indication of the prolonged beneficial effect of liming 20 to 30 years ago on soil toxicity. The levels of total metals were very high for most elements, but the proportion of metals that were bio available and readily available to plants was very small. The enrichment factors were16.78, 4.98 and 2.94 for total arsenic, copper and nickel, respectively. The Translocation Factor (TF values for available metals from soil to branches were high. There was more metal accumulation in leaves compared to branches. The degrees of genetic variability in red oak populations from limed and unlimed areas were compared using ISSR markers. The levels of polymorphic loci were moderate to high ranging from 44 to 65%. There were no significant differences in polymorphisms between areas that were limed and unlimed. Overall the red oak populations in stressed areas in Northern Ontario are sustainable.

  16. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  17. Community-based educational intervention to limit the dissemination of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding George R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance examining the incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA was conducted over 8 years beginning in 2001 in three health regions covering the northern half of Saskatchewan. The annual rate of individuals reported with CA-MRSA infection in these regions dramatically increased from 8.2 per 10,000 population in 2001 (range to 4.4-10.1 per 10,000 to 168.1 per 10,000 in 2006 (range 43.4-230.9 per 10,000. To address this issue, a team of community members, healthcare professionals, educators and research scientists formed a team called "the Northern Antibiotic Resistance Partnership" (NARP to develop physician, patient, community, and school based educational materials in an attempt to limit the spread of CA-MRSA. Methods Posters, radio broadcasts, community slide presentations, physician treatment algorithms, patient pamphlets, and school educational programs Do Bugs Need Drugs http://www.dobugsneeddrugs.org and Germs Away http://www.germsaway.ca were provided to targeted northern communities experiencing high rates of infections. Results Following implementation of this program, the rates of MRSA infections in the targeted communities have decreased nearly two-fold (242.8 to 129.3 infections/10,000 population from 2006 to 2008. Through pre-and post-educational intervention surveys, this decrease in MRSA infections coincided with an increase in knowledge related to appropriate antimicrobial usage and hand washing in these communities. Conclusion These educational materials are all freely available http://www.narp.ca and will hopefully aid in increasing awareness of the importance of proper antimicrobial usage and hygiene in diminishing the spread of S. aureus and other infectious diseases in other communities.

  18. An analysis of flaring and venting activity in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R; Coderre, Adam R

    2011-02-01

    Alberta, Canada, is an important global producer of petroleum resources. In association with this production, large amounts of gas (1.14 billion m3 in 2008) are flared or vented. Although the amount of flaring and venting has been measurably reduced since 2002, data from 2005 reveal sharp increases in venting, which have important implications in terms of resource conservation and greenhouse gas emissions (which exceeded 8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2008). With use of extensive monthly production data for 18,203 active batteries spanning the years 2002-2008 obtained in close cooperation with the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, a detailed analysis has been completed to examine activity patterns of flaring and venting and reasons behind these trends in the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry. In any given year, approximately 6000 batteries reported flaring and/or venting, but the distribution of volumes flared and vented at individual sites was highly skewed, such that small numbers of sites handled large fractions of the total gas flaring and venting in the Province. Examination of month-to-month volume variability at individual sites, cast in terms of a nominal turndown ratio that would be required for a compressor to capture that gas and direct it into a pipeline, further revealed that volumes at a majority of sites were reasonably stable and there was no evidence that larger or more stable sites had been preferentially reduced, leaving potential barriers to future mitigation. Through linking of geospatial data with production data coupled with additional statistical analysis, the 31.2% increase in venting volumes since 2005 was revealed to be predominantly associated with increased production of heavier oils and bitumen in the Lloydminster region of the Province. Overall, the data suggest that quite significant reductions in flaring and venting could be realized by seeking mitigation solutions for only the largest batteries in

  19. Precious grasses : Alberta Research Council releases new native species for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2006-03-15

    The Alberta Research Council has released 6 new varieties of native plant species suitable for reclamation in Alberta's Parkland region, which is characterized by sandy soils. The Parkland stretches for 37,000 kilometres and is the most densely populated of the province's 6 ecoregions. Because of farming, grazing, oil and gas development and recreation, only 5 per cent of the area remains undisturbed. It was anticipated that the native grasses will help disturbed sites eventually resemble their original state. Varieties included: Aspen Milk Vetch; Centennial Canada Wild Rye; Hillbilly Nodding Brome; Butte Rocky Mountain Fescue; Porter Indian Rice Grass; and Metisko Awned Wheatgrass. The varieties were evaluated for their ability to provide rapid cover and their ability to compete with invading weeds, as well as their ability to allow recruitment of other native species. Multi-environmental testing trials were established to evaluate the species' seed production potential. Seeds were tested for germination in species-specific growth chambers, grown in greenhouses and then taken to an agricultural setting where data on forage density; ground cover; vigour; and biomass were then recorded. The species have also been targeted to ensure that the oil and gas industry has better options for reclaiming disturbed sites. In addition to their ability to combat threats from invasive species, the native plant species have been investigated for their ability to remediate hydrocarbon and salt contaminants and sequester carbon dioxide. Details of Alberta's current reclamation criteria for wellsites and associated facilities were also presented. 4 figs.

  20. The implementation and evaluation of a healthy communities process in central Alberta: some implications for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a Healthy Communities Initiative (HCI) by the David Thompson Health Region in central Alberta, Canada. The HCI model provided for a facilitated, community-based, strategic planning process. Its key steps include development of a shared vision of health, assessment of needs and strengths, selection of key priority areas for action, and implementation of strategies to achieve change. A three-level evaluation model was developed, which incorporates project-level evaluation, cluster-level evaluation, and critical reflection on the David Thompson Health Region's own capacity to engage in community development work.

  1. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Schneider

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  2. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  3. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; McNeil, Debbie; Yee, Wendy; Siever, Jodie; Rose, Sarah

    2014-09-16

    To evaluate a possible association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta births. The study design was a retrospective cohort of all births in Alberta for the years 2001 and 2006. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index for each Statistics Canada census dissemination area. Births were linked to dissemination area using maternal postal codes. The analysis comprised 73,585 births, in which the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks was 5.3%. The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery for each neighbourhood socio-economic category ranged from 4.9% (95% CI 4.5%-5.2%) in the highest category to 6.3% (95% CI 6.0%-6.7%) in the lowest (p<0.001). After controlling for smoking, parity, maternal age and year, we found that women living in the highest socio-economic status neighbourhoods had an adjusted spontaneous preterm birth rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.7%-5.5%) compared to 6.0% (95% CI 5.6%-6.4%) for women living in the lowest (p=0.003). This study documented a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth with low socio-economic status. The possibility of confounding bias cannot be ruled out.

  4. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients' examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Total number of patients' charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries.

  5. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, L. [Direct Energy Marketing Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning.

  6. Volatiles in basaltic glasses from a subglacial volcano in northern British Columbia (Canada): Implications for ice sheet thickness and mantle volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J.E.; Filiberto, J.R.; Moore, J.G.; Hickson, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved H2O, CO2, S and Cl concentrations were measured in glasses from Tanzilla Mountain, a 500 m-high, exposed subglacial volcano from the Tuya-Teslin region, north central British Columbia, Canada. The absence of a flat-topped subaerial lava cap and the dominance of pillows and pillow breccias imply that the Tanzilla Mountain volcanic edifice did not reach a subaerial eruptive phase. Lavas are dominantly tholeiitic basalt with minor amounts of alkalic basalt erupted at the summit and near the base. Tholeiites have roughly constant H2O (c.0.56 ?? 0.07 wt%), CO2 (ice thicknesses of 400 to 900 m. Maximum calculated ice thickness (c. 1 km) is at the lower end of the range of predicted maximum Fraser glaciation (c. 1-2 km), and may indicate initiation of volcanism during the waning stages of glaciation. Temporal evolution from tholeiitic to alkalic compositions may reflect compositional gradients within a melting column, instead of convective processes within a stratified magma chamber. The mantle source region for the subglacial volcanoes is enriched in incompatible elements similar to that for enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalt (e.g. Endeavour Ridge) and does not contain residual amphibole. Thus, metasomatic enrichment most likely reflects small degree partial melts rather than hydrous fluids.

  7. Lichens and mosses as monitors of industrial activity associated with uranium mining in Northern Ontario, Canada. Pt. 1. Field procedures, chemical analysis and inter-species comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, L.J.R.; Beckett, P.J.; Lavoie, P.; Richardson, D.H.S. (Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Nieboer, E. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1982-07-01

    A modified X-ray fluorescence spectrometry technique allowed the detection of uranium in cryptograms with a detection limit of 0.5 to 1 ..mu..g U g/sup -1/ of plant material. The levels of five elements (Ti, Fe, Ni, Pb and U) in 109 lichen and 98 moss samples collected around two uranium mining communities in northeastern Ontario, Canada, are reported. Similar metal accumulation tendencies were observed for the pair of lichens, Cladonia rangiferina and C. mitis, and for the moss pair, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum spp. This interchangeability, combined with favourable availability, made the above species the most useful biological monitors. Inter-elemental content comparisons employing Pearson's linear correlation statistic indicated a strong positive association among the pairs iron/titanium, and uranium/lead. Somewhat weaker positive correlations were observed in the individual comparisons of uranium levels with iron, or titanium, or nickel content. The associations between elements in mosses and lichens were in excellent agreement with the grouping based on the composition of the local uranium ores and tailings.

  8. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  9. Seventy-five-million-year-old tropical tetra-like fish from Canada tracks Cretaceous global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbrey, M G; Murray, A M; Wilson, M V H; Brinkman, D B; Neuman, A G

    2009-11-01

    Newly discovered fossil fish material from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, documents the presence of a tropical fish in this northern area about 75 million years ago (Ma). The living relatives of this fossil fish, members of the Characiformes including the piranha and neon tetras, are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, being limited in their distribution by colder temperatures. Although characiform fossils are known from Cretaceous through to Cenozoic deposits, none has been reported previously from North America. The modern distribution of characiforms in Mexico and southern Texas in the southernmost United States is believed to have been the result of a relatively recent colonization less than 12 Ma. The new Canadian fossils document the presence of these fish in North America in the Late Cretaceous, a time of significantly warmer global temperatures than now. Global cooling after this time apparently extirpated them from the northern areas and these fishes only survived in more southern climes. The lack of early Cenozoic characiform fossils in North America suggests that marine barriers prevented recolonization during warmer times, unlike in Europe where Eocene characiform fossils occur during times of global warmth.

  10. Nuclear energy as a subsurface heavy oil recovery technique (Project Athabasca). [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear energy may become an acceptable thermal recovery technique in the subsurface heavy oil deposits of N. Alberta. The subterranean detonation cavern also may facilitate secondary and tertiary in situ recovery methods, steam injection, and fireflood. Less than 5% of Canada's heavy oil reserves, variously estimated at up to 600-billion bbl, are producible by surface mining. Recovery theory is simple--the nuclear detonation releases both thermal and shock energy to convert otherwise immobile viscous heavy oil deposits into conventionally recoverable hydrocarbons. The proposed Project Athabaska, to employ a 10-kt device, requires exhaustive planning to overcome formidable technical, political, and environmental concerns. Technically, precedent shows that project cost is practically indepencent of yield. The crude oil production unit will comprise a central detonation or emplacement well and several peripheral production wells. Each successive recovery technique will benefit from vastly improved permeability resulting from the prior recovery method.

  11. A new chasmosaurine from northern Laramidia expands frill disparity in ceratopsid dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J; Evans, David C; Currie, Philip J; Loewen, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    A new taxon of chasmosaurine ceratopsid demonstrates unexpected disparity in parietosquamosal frill shape among ceratopsid dinosaurs early in their evolutionary radiation. The new taxon is described based on two apomorphic squamosals collected from approximately time equivalent (approximately 77 million years old) sections of the upper Judith River Formation, Montana, and the lower Dinosaur Park Formation of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. It is referred to Chasmosaurinae based on the inferred elongate morphology. The typical chasmosaurine squamosal forms an obtuse triangle in dorsal view that tapers towards the posterolateral corner of the frill. In the dorsal view of the new taxon, the lateral margin of the squamosal is hatchet-shaped with the posterior portion modified into a constricted narrow bar that would have supported the lateral margin of a robust parietal. The new taxon represents the oldest chasmosaurine from Canada, and the first pre-Maastrichtian ceratopsid to have been collected on both sides of the Canada-US border, with a minimum north-south range of 380 km. This squamosal morphology would have given the frill of the new taxon a unique dorsal profile that represents evolutionary experimentation in frill signalling near the origin of chasmosaurine ceratopsids and reinforces biogeographic differences between northern and southern faunal provinces in the Campanian of North America.

  12. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  13. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  15. Waterfowl production survey: Southern and central Alberta: July 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Proportion of adults fasting for lipid testing relative to guideline changes in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Irene; Viczko, Jeannine; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines have historically recommended measuring lipid profile tests in a fasting state. However, in April 2011 and 2014, the Canadian city of Calgary and its province of Alberta, respectively, have changed their lipid guidelines to allow testing for individuals in any fasting state; several years prior to the release of the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Hypertension Canada guidelines. The purpose of this study was to document the proportion of individuals in Calgary who fasted for a lipid encounter in relation to the change in various guidelines and policies. Counts were collected each month per gender from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016 for community-based adults ≥18years old who fasted (≥8h) or did not fast (fasting state. The proportion of adults who fasted declined from 98.59%±0.379% (mean±SD) in 2010 to 41.65%±1.295% (mean±SD) in 2016. However, a marked decline in the proportion of adults fasting for a lipid encounter was not observed until February 2015, which coincided with the release of Alberta's Toward Optimized Practice Clinical Practice Guidelines. This documentation of individuals fasting for a lipid encounter may assist other jurisdictions in Canada with the new nonfasting lipid guideline changes. We recommend releasing provincial clinical practice guidelines, in addition to laboratory bulletins and continuing medical education presentations, regarding the new nonfasting lipid recommendations in other jurisdictions to ensure community patients are aware of this change. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  18. Eugene Dening: Young Artist from Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Eugene Dening, an emerging artist in Canada, recently earned his Bachelors degree at the Calvin College (Grand Rapids, MI). This essay on his artwork explores the value of art making to LGBT youth, those gay and lesbian artists who have influenced their work, and those queer and critical readings practices that one can apply to arts' viewing.…

  19. Eugene Dening: Young Artist from Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Eugene Dening, an emerging artist in Canada, recently earned his Bachelors degree at the Calvin College (Grand Rapids, MI). This essay on his artwork explores the value of art making to LGBT youth, those gay and lesbian artists who have influenced their work, and those queer and critical readings practices that one can apply to arts' viewing.…

  20. Geology of the Eoarchean, > 3.95 Ga, Nulliak supracrustal rocks in the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: The oldest geological evidence for plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shogo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Akira; Tashiro, Takayuki; Koshida, Keiko; Shimojo, Masanori; Aoki, Kazumasa; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2015-11-01

    The Earth is a unique planet, which has been highly evolved, diversified and complicated through geologic time, and underwent many key events, including giant impact, magma ocean, core formation, large-scale mantle differentiation and late heavy bombardment, especially in its dawn. But, our knowledge of early Earth is limited due to the lack of the Hadean supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks with the Eoarchean ages provide key evidence for the Earth's early evolution, but few supracrustal rocks have been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we mapped in seven areas of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, where ancient supracrustal sequences are interleaved with a diverse assemblage of orthogneisses. Early studies suggested that some of them have the Mesoarchean ages because of the lack of the Mesoarchean Saglek dyke, but we found the Saglek dykes in the areas to recognize the Eoarchean Nulliak supracrustal rocks and Uivak Gneiss in all the areas. Recent reassessment of U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescence observation of zircons from the oldest suites of the Uivak Gneiss showed that the Uivak Gneiss has the Eoarchean age, > 3.95 Ga, and forms the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneiss series. Because our geological survey clearly showed that the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneisses were intruded into the Nulliak supracrustal belts, the Nulliak supracrustal rocks are the oldest supracrustal rock in the world. The supracrustal belts consist of piles of fault-bounded blocks, which are composed of the ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks in ascending order, similar to modern ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). In addition, small-scale duplex structures are found over the areas. The presence of duplex structure and OPS indicates that the > 3.95 Ga Nulliak supracrustal belts originate from an accretionary complex. The presence of the accretionary complex, ophiolite and granitic continental crust provides the oldest evidence for the plate tectonics on the early Earth.

  1. Ice jam-caused fluvial gullies and scour holes on northern river flood plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derald G.; Pearce, Cheryl M.

    2002-01-01

    Two anomalous fluvial landforms, gullies and scour holes, eroded into flood plains bordering meandering and braiding river channels have not been previously reported. We observed these features along the Milk River in southern Alberta, Canada, and northern Montana, USA, which has a history of frequent (50% probability of recurrence) and high-magnitude (12% probability of recurrence greater than bankfull) ice jam floods. Gullies have palmate and narrow linear shapes with open-ends downvalley and measure up to 208 m long×139 m wide×3.5 m deep (below bankfull). Channel ice jams reroute river water across meander lobes and cause headward gully erosion where flow returns to the main channel. Erosion of the most recent gully was observed during the record 1996 ice breakup flood and ice jams. Scour holes (bowl-shaped, closed depressions), eroded by water vortices beneath and between grounded ice jam blocks, measure up to 91 m long×22 m wide×4.5 m deep. Ice jam-caused gullies may be precursors to the formation of U-shaped oxbow lakes and multiple channels, common in many northern rivers.

  2. InSAR Monitoring of Surface Deformation in Alberta's Oil Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, J.; Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Shipman, T.; Froese, C. R.

    2013-05-01

    Alberta's oil sands are among the world's largest deposits of crude oil, and more than 80% of it is too deep to mine, so unconventional in-situ methods are used for extraction. Most in situ extraction techniques, such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), use steam injection to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen, allowing it to flow into wells to be pumped to the surface. As part of the oil sands safety and environmental monitoring program, the energy regulator uses satellite radar to monitor surface deformation associated with in-situ oil extraction. The dense vegetation and sparse infrastructure in the boreal forest of northern Alberta make InSAR monitoring a challenge; however, we have found that surface heave associated with steam injection can be detected using traditional differential InSAR. Infrastructure and installed corner reflectors also allow us to use persistent scatterer methods to obtain time histories of deformation at individual sites. We have collected and processed several tracks of RADARSAT-2 data over a broad area of the oil sands, and have detected surface deformation signals of approximately 2-3 cm per year, with time series that correlate strongly with monthly SAGD steam injection volumes.

  3. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  4. Coal in Canada : production staying strong in the west

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2007-09-15

    Most coal operations in Canada are in Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, with some ongoing coal production in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. This article discussed the factors that influence the growth distribution of coal. While metallurgical coal produced in British Columbia is primarily exported, Canada's thermal coal production is largely consumed internally, nearly exclusively for power generation purposes. Thermal coal in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Alberta has increased steadily. Although Ontario is a big coal consumer, it has seen a reduced consumption in recent years due to a higher output from its nuclear fleet. Coal is evaluated by a set of properties, including its thermal content and the nature of impurities in the coal such as ash, moisture and sulphur. Quality and heating value are important because each power plant is designed for certain coal characteristics. Most of Canada's thermal coal production is directed to mine-mouth operations, notably power plants that were built in the immediate vicinity of a mine in order to keep transportation costs as low as possible. The single largest driver for the revival of seaborne thermal and metallurgical coal markets is the pronounced growth in China and the associated demand for raw materials to fuel the growth. This article listed the major coal producers in Canada along with their production capacity. 3 figs.

  5. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  6. The Immatsiak network of groundwater wells in a small catchment basin in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northern Quebec, Canada: A unique opportunity for monitoring the impacts of climate change on groundwater (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, R.; Lemieux, J.; Molson, J. W.; Therrien, R.; Ouellet, M.; Bart, J.

    2013-12-01

    During a summer drilling campaign in 2012, a network of nine groundwater monitoring wells was installed in a small catchment basin in a zone of discontinuous permafrost near the Inuit community of Umiujaq in Northern Quebec, Canada. This network, named Immatsiak, is part of a provincial network of groundwater monitoring wells to monitor the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. It provides a unique opportunity to study cold region groundwater dynamics in permafrost environments and to assess the impacts of permafrost degradation on groundwater quality and availability as a potential source of drinking water. Using the borehole logs from the drilling campaign and other information from previous investigations, an interpretative cryo-hydrogeological cross-section of the catchment basin was produced which identified the Quaternary deposit thickness and extent, the depth to bedrock, the location of permafrost, one superficial aquifer located in a sand deposit, and another deep aquifer in fluvio-glacial sediments and till. In the summer of 2013, data were recovered from water level and barometric loggers which were installed in the wells in August 2012. Although the wells were drilled in unfrozen zones, the groundwater temperature is very low, near 0.4 °C, with an annual variability of a few tenths of a degree Celsius at a depth of 35 m. The hydraulic head in the wells varied as much as 6 m over the last year. Pumping tests performed in the wells showed a very high hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer. Groundwater in the wells and surface water in small thermokarst lakes and at the catchment outlet were sampled for geochemical analysis (inorganic parameters, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H), and radioactive isotopes of carbon (δ14C), hydrogen (tritium δ3H) and helium (δ3He)) to assess groundwater quality and origin. Preliminary results show that the signature of melt water from permafrost thawing is observed in the

  7. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  8. Alberta, crisis or opportunity? IPPSA's vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G. [Canadian Gas and Electric Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation discussed the role of IPPSA and the facts about Alberta's power market, the goal of restructuring and the reality behind it in terms of managing the transition. IPPSA is a non-profit organization to promote a competitive electric marketplace for the benefit of non-regulated power producers and marketers. The role of IPPSA, which has been active in Alberta since deregulation began in 1993, is to ensure that Alberta deregulation protects consumer choice, renewable energy options and competition. IPPSA's environmental concerns involve tax based incentives, national climate change issues and the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental concerns can be addressed through responsible power generation to reduce greenhouse gases through the use of low impact generation sources such as run of river hydro, biomass and wind power. Alberta has also pioneered flare gas generation with currently 50 units in operation. IPPSA believes that in the long-term, Alberta's deregulation program will bring undeniable benefits to the industry and the consumer since competition will eventually create a downward pressure on price and spark innovation and choice. tabs., figs.

  9. Perceptions of Healthy Eating in Four Alberta Communities: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Brent A; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace; Nieuwendyk, Laura M

    2015-01-23

    Peoples' perceptions of healthy eating are influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. Despite this general acceptance by health practitioners and social scientists, studies suggest that there remains a relative homogeneity around peoples' perceptions that informs a hegemonic discourse around healthy eating. People often describe healthy eating in terms of learned information from sources that reflect societies' norms and values, such as the Canada Food Guide and the ubiquitous phrase "fruits and vegetables". Past research has examined how built environments shape people's access to healthy living options, such as distribution of grocers versus convenience stores and fast food restaurants. Often overlooked is an in-depth understanding of how social contexts interact with built environments, molding peoples' perceptions of healthy eating. This paper reports on perceptions of healthy eating in four communities across Alberta, Canada. A photovoice methodology was employed to elicit perceptions of healthy eating with 35 participants. This study illustrates how participants' photographs and their stories convey multiple meanings about healthy eating within their own lives and communities. Findings suggest that a 'local' context is an important part of the discourse centered around the promotion of healthy eating practices in these and potential other communities.

  10. Alberta euthanasia survey: 1. Physicians' opinions about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsella, T D; Verhoef, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the opinions of a sample of Alberta physicians about the morality and legalization of active euthanasia, the determinants of these opinions and the frequency and sources of requests for assistance in active euthanasia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Alberta physicians, grouped by site and type of practice. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2002 (46%) of the licensed physicians in Alberta were mailed a 38-item questionnaire in May through ...

  11. Evaluation of occupational exposure to free silica in Alberta foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalp, A; Myroniuk, D

    1982-11-01

    The Occupational Hygiene Branch of Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation conducted a comprehensive study of the foundry industry in Alberta. The surveys assessed both the degree of health hazards present and the effectiveness of existing control systems for airborne contaminants. All nine of Alberta's ferrous foundries were surveyed in the course of the project. The foundries varied from those which were small with limited mechanization to those which were large and highly automated. The concentrations of free silica in the work environment are correlated to the different attempts to control silica using substitution and various ventilation systems. The particular foundry processes evaluated for airborne free silica were sand preparation, shakeout, dry sand transport and sand molding. Workers' exposure to free airborne silica was evaluated by personal and area samples. The free silica content of the samples was determined by infra-red spectrophotometry. The results indicated most control systems were inadequate. Effective control methods are described to reduce the health hazard.

  12. Attracting, Preparing, and Retaining Under-Represented Populations in Rural and Remote Alberta-North Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Nancy; Fahy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the government of the western Canadian province of Alberta has drafted policies and conducted research on the problem of populations under-represented in adult education. This Alberta-North and Athabasca University study, funded by the Alberta government's Innovation Fund, uses the advice and educational experiences of northern…

  13. Alberta Surface Rights Board; CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, C.J. [Surface Rights Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    The difference between surface and mineral rights in Alberta was defined. By definition, surface rights give ownership only to the surface of the land and the right to work it. Mineral rights in contrast give ownership and the right to explore and develop or extract minerals beneath the surface. Oil and gas are the most common minerals in Alberta, however, gold silver, uranium and salt are also included under mineral rights, but sand, gravel, clay, marl and peat, are not. Conditions which limit the mineral owner`s right to explore and develop were summarized. Some case studies of appeals to the court regarding mineral and surface rights were presented.

  14. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to…

  15. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  16. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  17. Coal-bed methane in Alberta : ownership and incidental production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.

    2006-04-05

    Some of the challenges facing the emerging coal-bed methane (CBM) industry in Alberta include concerns regarding water protection, compression noise, well spacing and fracturing issues. One of the most fundamental questions regarding CBM is who in fact owns the resource and what rules oversee its production. The characteristics, development potential and origins of split title ownership of CBM in North America were examined in this paper. The history of freehold and Crown-owned land and the law regarding ownership and incidental production of petroleum, natural gas and bitumen in split-title situations were reviewed. The legal status of CBM in other jurisdictions was also examined. The issues of ownership and incidental production in Alberta were also discussed. The basic common law ownership principles regarding mineral ownership were applied to the characteristics of CBM in situ to conclude its possible owner in Alberta. The extension of established incidental mineral production principles to CBM were examined in the context of its characteristics. The official governmental position on CBM issues and the prospect of future legislative intervention were identified and the implications for industry and resource companies were also presented. The paper presented several recommendations including that Alberta should legislate to eliminate any right of recovery for historical or current venting of CBM during coal mining in order to remove a cloud of uncertainty over the industry. refs.

  18. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  19. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  20. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  1. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of…

  2. Potential health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in muscle tissues of fishes from the Athabasca and Slave Rivers, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released to the environment from oil sands operations and from natural sources in Alberta, Canada. Concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were measured in tissues of fishes collected from three locations on the Athabasca River in Alberta and two downstream locations on the Slave River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. A total of 425 individual fish were collected including 89 goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), 93 whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), 104 northern pike/jackfish (Esox lucius), 96 walleye (Sander vitreus) and 43 burbot/loche mariah/mariah (Lota lota). Fish were sampled during the summer and fall of 2011 and spring of 2012. Dorsal muscle of fishes from upstream reaches of the Athabasca River, close to oil sands extraction and upgrading activities, contained greater concentrations of individual PAHs than concentrations in muscle of fishes from further downstream in the Slave River. Concentrations of the sum of USEPA indicator PAHs (∑PAHs) in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort McKay, closest to oil sands activities, varied among seasons with average concentrations ranging from 11 (burbot, summer) to 1.2 × 10(2) ng/g, wm (burbot, spring) with a mean of 48 ng/g, wm. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort Resolution, the location most distant from oil sands activities, also varied among species and seasons, with average concentrations ranging from 4.3 (whitefish, summer) to 33 ng/g, wm (goldeye, summer) with a mean of 13 ng/g, wm. Significant differences in concentrations of ∑PAHs in muscle were observed within goldeye, jackfish, walleye and whitefish among sites. Health risks posed by PAHs to humans were assessed probabilistically using a B[a]P equivalents approach (B[a]Peq). The average lifetime risk of additional cancers for humans who consumed fish was deemed to be within an 'acceptable' range of risk (i.e., less than 10(-6)).

  3. Unconventional attitudes: New thinking drives gas in south Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2002-05-01

    New natural gas wells under development and coming on stream in southern Alberta are discussed. These new wells are contrary to expectations since conventional wisdom holds that the future lies in the north frontier and the foothills of northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia. Among these new developments are the wells of the Okotoks field which have been producing for years, but over 100 Bcf of gas remains to be exploited. The same company (Compton Petroleum Inc) is continuing to develop its deep gas Hooker play by drilling 15 successful wells in 2001 and acquiring additional land. The average stabilized rate on the Hooker wells is 1.7 MMcf/d, with expected decline rates of 10 per cent. West of Calgary Compton holds some more speculative opportunities on the Tsuu Tina Reserve and the Stoney Reserve. Impact Energy is another player generating interest in southern Alberta with its Whisky Creek play in the historic Turner Valley area. Impact Energy hit pay dirt at Whisky Creek last year with the 7-5 discovery well which is currently producing at a restricted rate of 5.0 MMcf/d with 50 bbl/MMcf of liquids. Two more wells in the play are expected to potentially add 30 Bcf of reserves, if successful. EnCana Energy and Quicksilver Resources subsidiary MGV Energy are also pushing the technological frontier with their coalbed methane play in the Palliser triangle in southeastern Alberta. A 250 well development is planned within the Palliser Block for later in 2002. Government figures put the potential for coalbed methane on Alberta's plains between 125 and 250 Tcf, more gas than remains in conventional reserves.

  4. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Planning ahead : although Canada could experience a shortage of some 300,000 workers within the next 20 years, long-term strategies can help companies cope : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-01-15

    This article is the second in a 2-part series examining the impacts of the labour shortage in the energy industry. Most oil and gas companies are implementing long-term strategies in order to deal with the anticipated labour crisis. Labour, material, services and other factors are taken into consideration when developing business plans, and industry will adjust projects accordingly to accommodate labour constraints and uneconomic cost environments. Companies are collecting and analyzing data in order to define strategies to address retirement and longer-term workforce planning issues. EnCana is supporting a heavy equipment operator training program jointly with the government of British Columbia to help recruit aboriginal communities. EnCana is also recognizing the value of new immigrant professionals and has identified the group as an emerging recruitment talent pool. Shell Canada's long term plans for recruiting experienced staff include dedicating significant resources to a campus recruitment campaign, and connecting with Royal Dutch Shell to extend their recruitment reach. Shell Canada is also strengthening its on-boarding program for both new permanent full-time and part-time employees. The company recently announced its largest single community investment in the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology's Building on Demand campaign. The $3 million will be used to create the Shell Manufacturing Centre, as well as to provide bursaries for students pursuing apprenticeships and technical training. Petro-Canada's long-term recruitment strategy includes continually identifying and bringing in talented employees to meet the company's business goals. Devon Canada is also focusing on career path development and has established significant budgets for training and professional development. It was concluded that employers in the oil and gas industry must develop effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain critical talent for the short and

  6. Uncertainty based assessment of dynamic freshwater scarcity in semi-arid watersheds of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Faramarzi

    2017-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Natural hydrologic features of the region create a unique hydrological system, which must be accurately represented in the model for reliable estimates of water supply at high spatial and temporal resolution. Accounting for EFR, increases the number of months of water scarcity and the population exposed. Severe blue water scarcity in spring and summer months was found to be due to irrigated agriculture, while in winter months it was mostly due to the demands of petroleum or other industries. We found over exploitation of the groundwater in southern subbasins and concluded that more detailed analysis on groundwater flow and connectivity is required. Our study provides a general and unified approach for similar analyses in other jurisdictions around the world.

  7. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Significance of ichnofossils to genetic stratigraphy--Examples from the Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Trace fossils represent both sedimentological and paleontological entities, representing a unique blending of potential environmental indicators in the rock record. Trace fossils and trace fossil suites can be employed effectively to aid in the recognition of various discontinuity types and to assist in their genetic interpretation. Ichnology may be employed to resolve surfaces of stratigraphic significance in two main ways: 1) through the identification of discontinuities using substrate-controlled ichnofacies, and 2) through careful analysis of vertical softground (penecontemporaneous) ichnologic successions (analogous to facies successions). Ichnological analysis is a valuable tool in genetic stratigraphic studies. Integrating the data derived from substrate-controlled ichnofacies with paleoecological data from vertical ichnologic successions greatly enhances the recognition and interpretation of a wide variety of stratigraphic surfaces. When this is coupled with conventional facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy, a powerful approach to the interpretation of the rock record is generated.

  9. Significance of ichnofossils to genetic stratigraphy——Examples from the Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.George; Pemberton; James; A.MacEachern; Murray; K.Gingras; 张建平

    2000-01-01

    Trace fossils represent both sedimentological and paleontological entities, representing a unique blending of potential environmental indicators in the rock record. Trace fossils and trace fossil suites can be employed effectively to aid in the recognition of various discontinuity types and to assist in their genetic interpretation. Ichnology may be employed to resolve surfaces of strati-graphic significance in two main ways: 1) through the identification of discontinuities using substrate-controlled ichnofacies, and 2) through careful analysis of vertical softground (penecontem-poraneous) ichnologic successions (analogous to facies successions). Ichnological analysis is a valuable tool in genetic stratigraphic studies. Integrating the data derived from substrate-controlled ichnofacies with paleoecological data from vertical ichnologic successions greatly enhances the recognition and interpretation of a wide variety of stratigraphic surfaces. When this is coupled with conventional facies analysis and se

  10. Using UAV photogrammetry to study topographic change: application to Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier Cardinal, G.; Demuth, M. N.; Kinnard, C.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are an important source of fresh water in the headwaters of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and ongoing climate warming could reduce their future hydrological contribution. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs) are an emergent technology that allow studying glacial processes with an unprecedented level of detail, but their usefulness for deriving accurate topographic data on glaciers has not yet been fully assessed. In this perspective we tested the use of a UAV platform to acquire images at a very high spatial resolution (tracking techniques to the orthomosaics. Further, the dominant scales of topographic spatial variability were examined using a semivariogram analysis of the DEMs. Results show that UAV-based photogrammetry is promising to further our understanding of high-resolution glacier surface processes and to perform repeat, on-demand monitoring of glacier changes, but their application on remote glaciers remains challenging.

  11. Postglacial palaeoenvironments of the upper Bow Valley, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Mel A.; Huber, Ulrike M.

    1999-03-01

    Crowfoot Lake sediments provide a sensitive 11,300 14C year record of glacial activity and vegetation change in the central Canadian Rocky Mountains. Bow Valley ice had receded from the Crowfoot Lake basin shortly before ca. 11,330 14C yr BP. Inorganic sediments associated with an expansion of alpine glaciers (Crowfoot Advance) were deposited in the basin during the Younger Dryas Chron. Prior to ca. 10,100 14C yr BP, the local vegetation was a sparse shrub-herb community dominated by Artemisia and Poaceae. Dramatic changes in the palaeobotanical record concomitant with the abrupt onset of organic sedimentation reflect the establishment of an open Pinus-dominated forest at ca. 10,100 14C yr BP. Fires may have accentuated the effects of climate in maintaining an open forest between ca. 9000 and 4160 14C yr BP. After ca. 4160 14C yr BP, Picea and Abies were dominant components of the local closed forest and subordinate xerophytic taxa were in decline. The consistent presence of mesophytic taxa after ca. 4160 14C yr BP indicate increases in precipitation associated with the onset of Neoglacial conditions. Sharp declines in local arboreal taxa occurred at ca. 900 14C yr BP along with increases in several taxa common to modern alpine tundra and subalpine meadows. These changes probably reflect expansions of valley floor meadows and descending alpine timberline in the drainage and are coincident with renewed glaciogenic sedimentation in the basin.

  12. The fast oxidation of SO2 in oil sands regions of Alberta,Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Norman, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary aerosols in the atmosphere play a significant role in the Earth's radiation budget and in human health. It is important to understand how secondary aerosols are formed. Atmospheric SO2 oxidation leads to secondary sulfate aerosols. The SO2 oxidation rate needs to be well defined to better understand aerosols and their effects and oxidation varies depending on the oxidants present. This research presents the results of a field campaign from 13 Aug to 5 Sep 2013 at the Wood Buffalo Air Monitoring Station 13 (AMS13) site just south of Fort MacKay, in which two lines of evidence show fast oxidation of SO2 in the region. Size-segregated sulfate aerosols and SO2 gas were collected on microfiber glass filters and filters treated by K2CO3 and glycerin respectively. The sulfur isotopic composition of sulfate aerosols and SO2 were measured. Periods when a nearby instrument was in operation (20m away), displayed markedly distinct d34S values from periods when it was not operational. The nearby instrument used enriched 34SO2, and this affected the resulting d34S values for all sulfate size fractions but not SO2 from our high volume sampler. The most pronounced contamination was observed for sulfate aerosols Dambient tracer experiment in the Oil Sands region, and that this SO2 was oxidized before reaching the high volume sampler. The results from our study show that SO2 oxidation in the Oil Sands regions in the presence of pollutants such as hydrocarbons is rapid.

  13. Demography of a harvested population of wolves (Canis lupus) in west-central Alberta, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, N.F; Allen, J.R; Merrill, E.H

    2011-01-01

    Wolves ( Canis lupus L., 1758) are subject to liberal public harvests throughout most of their range in North America, yet detailed information on populations where sport harvest is the primary source of mortality are limited...

  14. Assessment of a reclamation cover system for phosphogypsum stacks in Central Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Ingrid L; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of the phosphate fertilizer industry, was produced and stockpiled at the Agrium Fort Saskatchewan facility from 1965 to 1991. Upon decommissioning, the outer slopes of the PG stacks were reclaimed by applying 15 cm of topsoil and planting a non-native seed mix. Physical, chemical, and hydrologic evaluations of the cover system confirmed that plants were successfully growing in various soil capping depths and were often rooting more than 200 mm into the PG. Percolation past the substrate into PG during a typical storm event was low (< 10 mm), and runoff from the stacks was negligible. Runoff quality met most guidelines, but some parameters, including fluoride, were up to 18 times higher than provincial or federal guidelines for soil and water quality. However, the cover system, when applied appropriately, does meet basic reclamation objectives. The exceedances are found in areas where the cover system has been compromised by erosion or mixing or in areas where the cover system has not been fully applied, such as roads or the inner basin. In areas where the cover system has been applied successfully, basic reclamation requirements are met.

  15. Edmonton IAP, Alberta, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-30

    66.9 6f. 66.9 660 ?o000 t5 . 66. 66 669 67. 67.3 67, 67. 67. 6766 " 8 0 b6-.3 65-1 IS o1 ’"-’ 70. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71.9 72, 72. 72, 72.2 72 ti 72.6 72...60 60.2 60a 60- 60 Q 60e3 60.3 603 63.3 60.3 6063 > 40 59.f 6-i. 60 60. 61.3 61. 61.5 61. 61.5 61.5 61.6 61:6 61.6 61.b 61f6 61.6 ’o00 t c 64 64 6...66’ S,, S2/S1 |1 l IS 1.5 . 72 72! 701 6 SO/* 󈨟 1,0 Sao l1 101 11 -, / s.t 6.6 .1 .3 I is t5 o 97 061 *5 41*i 3 *a I , 96 96 82 8 **/ i3 3.3 00 *1 63

  16. Development and implementation of a watershed management plan forLlac la Biche, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Logan, M; Rawles, M

    2006-01-01

    Lakeland County is experiencing increasing developmental pressures arising from the oil and gas boom at nearby Fort McMurray. There is increased industrial traffic passing through the county, and 600 new residential lots are proposed in 2005, almost double from 5 years ago. Deteriorating surface water quality has been a concern in the area due to an increase in development and agriculture, while excessive fish harvesting and winterkills have impacted commercial and recreational fisheries. Today, walleye and pike populations in the lake remain collapsed and restocking efforts have not been successful. Due to the lack of studies done on the watershed, the county is leading a multidisciplinary research study which includes a baseline water quality study, riparian health assessments, land use mapping and ground-truthing and projects with the local health authority. This research has been summarized in a comprehensive state of the watershed report, which will be used to complete a watershed management plan for the Lac la Biche watershed. Recommendations from the state of the watershed report and watershed management plan will also be incorporated into municipal planning documents and recommend changes to the Municipal Government Act itself.

  17. Lab on a chip Canada--rapid diffusion over large length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncker, David; Wheeler, Aaron R; Sinton, David

    2013-07-07

    The roots of lab on a chip in Canada are deep, comprising of some of the earliest contributions and first demonstrations of the potential of microfluidic chips. In an editorial leading off this special issue, Jed Harrison of University of Alberta reflects on these early days and Canada's role in the field's development (DOI: 10.1039/c3lc50522g). Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip research efforts grew exponentially - rapidly diffusing across the vast Canadian length scales.

  18. Harnessing Canada's wind resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2004-10-01

    Canada's latest wind farm, the 20-turbine Magrath Wind Power project, a $48 million joint venture between Suncor, EHN Wind Power Canada Inc., and Enbridge Inc. is described. This latest addition to Canada's growing renewable energy generation capacity is situated near the town of Magrath in Alberta, 40 km south of Lethbridge. The 20 turbines are erected along a distance of eight kilometres; they are capable of generating enough electricity to light approximately 13,000 homes. Each hub stands 65 metres above the ground, equivalent in height to a 23-story building; the turbine's bladespan is 34 metres, which is close to the wingspan of a Boeing 737-900 airliner. The Magrath is Suncor's second wind power project, and is part of the oil giant's continuing commitment to the development of renewable energy sources as a means of providing a reliable source of electricity and protect the environment at the same time. The construction activity took three months over a 12-month period and provided employment for 70 people at the peak construction period. Each turbine generates 1.5 megawatts of energy, and will offset 82,000 tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually (equivalent to the removal of 12,000 cars from Canadian roads). At present, the cost of generating wind energy ranges between 6 cents and 12 cents per kilowatt-hour, depending on location, compared to about 5 cents for electricity generated by hydro power. The Magrath Wind Power project joins 30 other wind farms currently in operation in Canada.

  19. Alberta Folklore and Local History Collection--A Digital Library of Local Folklore%地方民俗数字图书馆--阿尔伯塔传统与当地历史典藏中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕权; 刘晓东; 杨晴虹

    2015-01-01

    阿尔伯塔传统与当地历史典藏中心致力于收藏加拿大阿尔伯塔地区历史和风俗知识,为阿尔伯塔文化的传播和共享做出贡献。主要藏品为1941-1946年间收藏的资料,从2000年6月开始实施数字化,收集的各种类型资料多达1000多份,具有较高的文献价值。本案例介绍该项目的历史背景、信息资源组织状况,服务和技术特点。%Alberta Folklore and Local History Col ection aims at providing the local history and culture of Alberta in Canada. The majority of the col ections were completed during 1941-1946 while the digitalization started in June 2000. The col ection boasts nearly 1000 anecdotes, essays, poetry, tal tales, personal reminiscences of Alberta pioneers, school histories and yearbooks, photographs, correspondences, plays and radio scripts, newspaper clippings, and excerpts of stories from published documents. Those materials play an important role in broadcasting and sharing of the Alberta culture. This paper tries to explore the project based on the background, col ection organization, service and technology features, then make objective comments.

  20. Linking evapotranspiration to stormwater reduction and attenuation in green roofs in Calgary, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, P. A.; Robinson, C. E.; Voogt, J. A.; Smart, C. C.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Green roofs have been used for centuries to insulate buildings and beautify urban environments. European countries, especially Germany, have adopted green roofs use in modern buildings, helping raise awareness of their many potential benefits. Green roofs have been shown to: effectively reduce and filter stormwater thereby decreasing the burden on urban sewer systems; provide insulation and lower roof surface temperature leading to a decrease in building energy load and reduced sensible heat flux to the urban atmosphere; and to extend the life of a roof by decreasing the temperature fluctuations which cause roof damage. Given that green buildings can mitigate against the negative impacts of storm water runoff and reduce the heating and cooling demands, use of green roofs in Canada might prove extremely beneficial due to our intense climate. However, the implementation of green roofs in North American urban environments remains underused, in part due to a lack of climate appropriate green roof design guidelines that are supported by scientific understanding of their performance in North American climates. The capacity of a green roof installation to moderate runoff depends on the storage capacity of the rooting medium at the start of the rainfall event which in turn is constrained by roof loading. The influence of medium depth is investigated through comparison to 15 cm and 10cm deep planting modules. Storage capacity has a finite limit, making rapid drainage and evapotranspiration loss essential to restore the retardation of a subsequent storm. Sustaining live plant cover requires avoidance of saturated conditions and retention of minimum soil moisture levels. These limits constrain the design options with distinctive climatic stresses. Here the performance of experimental green roof modules is investigated under particularly high climatic stressing at Calgary Alberta Canada. 10 cm modules show rapid drying to unacceptably low residual moisture content, whereas 15

  1. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design. Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results. Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older (P=0.009. Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion. Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada.

  2. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design. Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results. Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older (P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion. Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada. PMID:28127230

  3. Canada`s oceans: Experiences and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Canada has the world`s longest coastline. In recent years, growth in Canada`s oceans sector has resulted in increased pressures on the ocean environment. In many areas the biodiversity and ecological integrity of marine ecosystems are being threatened. There is a need to proactively conserve, restore, and protect marine ecosystem functions, species, and habitats for future generations. This document provides an overview of the economic contributions of the oceans sector to Canada`s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), explains Canada`s oceans management strategy, the national system of marine protected areas, and programs of action for the protection of the marine environment from land-based activities. The broad objectives of Canada`s Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, and the Program of Living Marine Resource Management are reviewed. Harmonization of Canada`s shipping policy and its marine safety and environmental policies with international maritime laws are discussed, along with offshore energy and mineral resource development, and the integral role that oceans play in the earth`s climate. Oceans management and development assistance provided by Canada through the Canadian International Development Agency and the International Development Research Centre, especially in the areas of management of the uses of the ocean and seabed, protection of the marine environment, and fisheries management and development are also highlighted. Establishing a framework for sustainable ocean development, an ocean policy and related law, and further development of the knowledge bases in fisheries and marine science are some of the other priorities of CIDA`s oceans-related programs. 21 refs.

  4. Alberta Euthanasia Survey: 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, M J; Kinsella, T D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the opinions of Alberta physicians about active euthanasia had changed and to assess the determinants of potential changes in opinion. DESIGN: Follow-up survey (mailed questionnaire) of physicians included in the 1991 Alberta Euthanasia Survey. SETTING: Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 1391 physicians who participated in the 1991 survey 1291 (93%) had indicated that they were willing to take part in a follow-up survey. A follow-up questionnaire was mailed in 1994 to 1146 physicians who could be traced through the 1994 Medical Directory of the provincial college of physicians and surgeons; 25 questionnaires were returned because they could not be delivered. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' opinions about (a) the morality of active euthanasia, (b) changes in the law to permit active euthanasia and (c) the practice of legalized euthanasia. RESULTS: Of the 1121 physicians sent a follow-up questionnaire 866 (77%) returned it completed. The responses of these same 866 physicians in 1991 provided a basis for comparison. Of the 866, 360 (42%) stated in the 1994 survey that it is sometimes right to practise active euthanasia; a similar proportion (384 [44%]) gave this response in 1991. However, other opinions changed significantly. In 1991, 250 of the respondents (29%) indicated that they would practise active euthanasia if it were legalized, as compared with 128 (15%) in 1994 (p euthanasia, as compared with 316 (37%) in 1994 (p euthanasia between 1991 and 1994, in both surveys at least 70% of those who responded to this question indicated that active euthanasia, if it were legalized, should be performed only by physicians and should be taught at medical sites. CONCLUSION: Alberta physicians' support for the practice and legalization of active euthanasia decreased considerably between 1991 and 1994. However, most physicians remain in favour of restricting active euthanasia, if it were legalized, to the medical profession. These results suggest a

  5. Implementation of open access in Alberta: Implications of tight supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaster, D. (Power Pool of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the principal elements of the electric power industry in Alberta. It describes the responsibilities of the major component parts and it reviews the current supply situation and the various supply/demand initiatives. It outlines some future developments regarding new generation, an expanded market framework, direct sales, retail access and the development and process of power purchase arrangement auction as a replacement for the 'legislated hedge'.

  6. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Report of Four Alberta Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta E Singh

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Alberta cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome are reported. Three cases required intensive care, with one experiencing a fulminant course resulting in death. A fourth case with milder illness was identified after epidemiological investigations. Ribavirin was used in one patient who experienced a successful outcome. A recent open label trial has not supported the efficacy of this drug. The epidemiology of Peromyscus maniculatus, the primary rodent host, and the clinical features of this syndrome are summarized.

  7. Spatial genetic structure of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in western Canada: historical patterns and contemporary dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri Samarasekera, G D N; Bartell, Nicholas V; Lindgren, B Staffan; Cooke, Janice E K; Davis, Corey S; James, Patrick M A; Coltman, David W; Mock, Karen E; Murray, Brent W

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change has a wide range of ecological consequences, including species extinction and range expansion. Many studies have shown that insect species respond rapidly to climatic change. A mountain pine beetle epidemic of record size in North America has led to unprecedented mortality of lodgepole pine, and a significant range expansion to the northeast of its historic range. Our goal was to determine the spatial genetic variation found among outbreak population from which genetic structure, and dispersal patterns may be inferred. Beetles from 49 sampling locations throughout the outbreak area in western Canada were analysed at 13 microsatellite loci. We found significant north-south population structure as evidenced by: (i) Bayesian-based analyses, (ii) north-south genetic relationships and diversity gradients; and (iii) a lack of isolation-by-distance in the northernmost cluster. The north-south structure is proposed to have arisen from the processes of postglacial colonization as well as recent climate-driven changes in population dynamics. Our data support the hypothesis of multiple sources of origin for the outbreak and point to the need for population specific information to improve our understanding and management of outbreaks. The recent range expansion across the Rocky Mountains into the jack/lodgepole hybrid and pure jack pine zones of northern Alberta is consistent with a northern British Columbia origin. We detected no loss of genetic variability in these populations, indicating that the evolutionary potential of mountain pine beetle to adapt has not been reduced by founder events. This study illustrates a rapid range-wide response to the removal of climatic constraints, and the potential for range expansion of a regional population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  9. Detecting oil sands process-affected waters in the Alberta oil sands region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Richard J; Burnison, B Kent; Frank, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2009-06-01

    Large volumes of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. There are approximately 10(9) m(3) of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil sands mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study was conducted in order to determine if synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) could detect OSPW contamination in water systems. Water samples collected from ponds containing OSPW and selected sites in the Alberta oil sands region were evaluated using SFS with an offset value of 18 nm. OSPW ponds consistently displayed a minor peak at 282.5 nm and a broad major peak ranging between 320 and 340 nm. Water from reference sites within the oil sands region had little fluorescence at 282.5 nm but greater fluorescence beyond 345 nm. Naphthenic acids are the major toxic component of OSPW. Both a commercial naphthenic acid and a naphthenic acid extract prepared from OSPW had similar fluorescent spectra with peaks at 280 nm and 320 nm and minor shoulders at approximately 303 and 331 nm. The presence of aromatic acids closely associated with the naphthenic acids may be responsible for unique fluorescence at 320-340 nm. SFS is proposed to be a simple and fast method to monitor the release of OSPW into ground and surface waters in the oil sands region.

  10. Advantage or illusion: is Alberta's progress sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anielski, M. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    A new indicator of economic and environmental well-being, the Genuine Progress Indicators, of GPI, is discussed as part of an attempt to gauge the state of health of Alberta's economy, and to establish whether the tremendous apparent economic progress made by the province in recent decades is real or illusory. The GPI, an accounting system by which nations can measure real progress and real wealth, was developed by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development of Alberta. It combines 51 indicators of economic, social and environmental measures, and is consistent with international efforts to find new measures of well-being and human development. Based on a study using the GPI system, real disposable income of Albertans was 5.5 per cent lower in 1999 than in 1982, despite a 36.3 per cent rise in Alberta's GDP per capita. This finding suggests that not all people are sharing in the the economic good times. Personal and household debt has also risen substantially and now exceeds real disposable income for the first time in history. Ability to save has been squeezed, resulting in protracted decline in personal savings, while Albertans pay 500 per cent more taxes in real dollars since 1961. Social and human health indicators highlight signs of social stress, such as rising levels of divorce, problem gambling and falling voter participation. Other indicators raise concerns about the condition of Alberta's natural capital, such as forests, agricultural soils, air and water quality, fish, wildlife and protected areas. Environmental GPIs show that Albertans have the fourth-highest ecological footprint in the world, exceeded only by the Arab Emirates, Singapore and the United States. The bigger the footprint the more is someone else on the planet shortchanged. The Pembina Institute report concludes that the development of Alberta's fossil fuel energy resources has come with a tremendous ecological price tag. It also shows that conventional crude oil

  11. Pre-dispersal seed predator dynamics at the northern limits of limber pine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon S. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is listed provincially as endangered in the northern part of its geographic range (Alberta) due to the high mortality caused by white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola) and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and limited regeneration opportunities due to fire exclusion. In the case of an endangered species, seed...

  12. The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership: an international collaboration to inform cancer policy in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John; Foot, Catherine; Bomb, Martine; Hiom, Sara; Coleman, Michel; Bryant, Heather; Vedsted, Peter; Hanson, Jane; Richards, Mike

    2013-09-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) was initiated by the Department of Health in England to study international variation in cancer survival, and to inform policy to improve cancer survival. It is a research collaboration between twelve jurisdictions in six countries: Australia (New South Wales, Victoria), Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario), Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Wales). Leadership is provided by policymakers, with academics, clinicians and cancer registries forming an international network to conduct the research. The project currently has five modules examining: (1) cancer survival, (2) population awareness and beliefs about cancer, (3) attitudes, behaviours and systems in primary care, (4) delays in diagnosis and treatment, and their causes, and (5) treatment, co-morbidities and other factors. These modules employ a range of methodologies including epidemiological and statistical analyses, surveys and clinical record audit. The first publications have already been used to inform and develop cancer policies in participating countries, and a further series of publications is under way. The module design, governance structure, funding arrangements and management approach to the partnership provide a case study in conducting international comparisons of health systems that are both academically and clinically robust and of immediate relevance to policymakers.

  13. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  14. An ethnographic study of communication challenges in maternity care for immigrant women in rural Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O'Brien, Beverley; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    many immigrant and ethno-cultural groups in Canada face substantial barriers to accessing health care including language barriers. The negative consequences of miscommunication in health care settings are well documented although there has been little research on communication barriers facing immigrant women seeking maternity care in Canada. This study identified the nature of communication difficulties in maternity services from the perspectives of immigrant women, health care providers and social service providers in a small city in southern Alberta, Canada. a focused ethnography was undertaken incorporating interviews with 31 participants recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. A community liaison and several gatekeepers within the community assisted with recruitment and interpretation where needed (n=1). All interviews were recorded and audio files were transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriptionist. The data was analysed drawing upon principles expounded by Roper and Shapira (2000) for the analysis of ethnographic data, because of (1) the relevance to ethnographic data, (2) the clarity and transparency of the approach, (3) the systematic approach to analysis, and (4) the compatibility of the approach with computer-assisted qualitative analysis software programs such as Atlas.ti (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Germany). This process included (1) coding for descriptive labels, (2) sorting for patterns, (3) identification of outliers, (4) generation of themes, (5) generalising to generate constructs and theories, and (6) memoing including researcher reflections. four main themes were identified including verbal communication, unshared meaning, non-verbal communication to build relationships, and trauma, culture and open communication. Communication difficulties extended beyond matters of language competency to those encompassing non-verbal communication and its relation to shared meaning as well as the interplay of underlying pre

  15. Description and evaluation of REFIST v1.0: a regional greenhouse gas flux inversion system in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A regional greenhouse gas flux inversion system (REFIST v1.0) is described. This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of REFIST for three provinces in Canada that include Alberta (AB), Saskatchewan (SK) and Ontario (ON). Using year 2009 fossil fuel CO2 CarbonTracker model results as the target, the synthetic data experiment analyses examined the impacts of the errors from the Bayesian optimisation method, inversion time span, prior flux distribution, region definition and the atmospheric...

  16. Danger in the nursery : impact on birds of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J. [Boreal Songbird Initiative, Seattle, WA (United States); Casey-Lefkowitz, S.; Chavarria, G. [Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY (United States); Dyer, S. [Pembina Institute, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This report discussed the impacts of tar sands oil development in Canada's boreal forest. The Canadian boreal forest is one of the world's most important breeding areas for migratory birds, with 1 billion to 3 billion individual birds from at least 300 species known to regularly breed there. Approximately 30 per cent of all shorebirds and 30 per cent of all landbirds that breed in the United States and Canada do so within the boreal. The section of the boreal forest that sits over the tar sands region of Alberta is rapidly being fragmented by oil development. As much as 34 to 66 per cent of the Canadian boreal forest, up to 438 million acres, may no longer be intact. In Alberta, 86 per cent of the boreal forest is no longer considered intact, thus putting valuable bird habitat at risk. This report first provided background information on Canada's boreal forest as North America's nesting bird destination. It then reviewed the dangers created by tar sands operations for boreal birds. It noted that tar sands mining destroys boreal bird habitat; tailings ponds trap birds in oil waste; tar sands drilling fragments bird habitat; tar sands water withdrawals harm wetlands and water habitats; and tar sands toxins weaken and kill boreal birds. The impacts of tar sands pipelines and refineries were also discussed along with global warming impacts on boreal birds and the path forward for habitat protection. It was recommended that Alberta should implement a moratorium on new tar sands lease sales, and that Alberta and Canada should halt project approvals until long-term mitigation strategies and conservation measures are in place. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. An assessment of nitrogen saturation in Pinus banksiana plots in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the amount of reactive nitrogen (N in the atmosphere, leading to concerns that chronic elevated N deposition may result in negative effects on natural ecosystems. This study examines the response of jack pine (Pinus banksiana plots to N air concentrations within the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR in northern Alberta, which has experienced elevated N emissions since the 1990s. Air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia, and nitric acid at the study plots are generally low although NO2 is strongly correlated with sulphur dioxide indicating an exposure gradient associated with industrial emissions. Nitrogen concentrations in P. banksiana foliage and two lichen indicator species (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha were significantly correlated with annual NO2 exposure. Relationships between NO2 (or N exposure and other aspects of N cycling were less evident. Nitrogen content and carbon to nitrogen ratio in the forest floor and soil or potential net N mineralization rates were not correlated with N exposure. Nitrification was negligible suggesting efficient ecosystem immobilization of current N deposition. Based on the response of foliage to N exposure, sites closest to industrial activity appear to be in the early stages of N saturation.

  18. Dr Malcolm King Honoured at University of Alberta Annual General Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 25, 2003, Dr Malcolm King, former Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS President and member, was honoured by the University of Alberta (U of A with the University of Alberta Board of Governors Award of Distinction for 2003. The following are highlights of an article written by Ryan Smith for ExpressNews.

  19. Funding Mechanisms, Cost Drivers, and the Distribution of Education Funds in Alberta: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Dean; Taylor, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Critical analysis of historical financial data of the Calgary Board of Education (CBE) examined the impact of Alberta's 1994 funding changes on the CBE and the distribution of Alberta's education funding. Findings illustrate how funding mechanisms are used to govern from a distance and how seemingly neutral accounting/funding techniques function…

  20. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  1. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  2. Alberta's Pluriform School System: Beyond the "Public-Secular" versus "Private-Religious" Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, John

    2017-01-01

    The Canadian province of Alberta runs a unique school system that offers ten options for school plurality and choice, nine of which provide some form of faith-based schooling. This article argues that Alberta has created a pragmatic version of a "pluriform school system." This system breaks with the assumption, shared by many Christian…

  3. Alberta's systems approach to chronic disease management and prevention utilizing the expanded chronic care model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, Sandra; Mackinnon, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.

  4. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  5. Joint orientation measurements in Western Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint orientations were measured in the mountains of Western Alberta
    and British Columbia. These were then evaluated statistically according
    to the standard method of Kohlbeck and Scheidegger. If the bisectrices
    of the preferred joint orientations are interpreted as principal directions
    of the neotectonic stress field, the maximum compression in the latter
    is found to be from NE-SW (in the South to NNE-SSW (in the North.
    This agrees well with data regarding the neotectonic intraplate stresses
    observed from oil-well break-out data.

  6. Off-loading Responsibility in Alberta's Post-Secondary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Barnetson

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a performance-based funding mechanism by Alberta's provincial  government alters the public definition of "educational quality" and fully shifts the  responsibility for declining educational quality from the provincial government onto institutions. This article outlines the process by which the provincial government has  compelled institutions to accept this redefinition and transfer despite the substantial  loss of institutional autonomy it entails. The implications of this change are explored  and possible reasons are suggested.

  7. Compliance with postpartum Rh isoimmunization prophylaxis in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective review of obstetric records for 1979 in two major Calgary hospitals was undertaken to determine the rate of compliance with postpartum Rh isoimmunization prophylaxis in Alberta. The charts of 4528 women ranging in age from 13 to 46 years were reviewed. The prevalence rate of Rh negativity was found to be 16%. Of the 710 Rh-negative women 490 (69%) were eligible to receive Rh immune globulin (RhIG); that is, they had no anti-D antibodies, and the baby/fetus was Rh-positive or R...

  8. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC (Hydrologiska Byråns attenbalansavdelning, Environment Canada), in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (global climate model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). The GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. Flow also decreased in July and August, when irrigation is important; these reduced river flows during this season could impact agriculture production. The amplification in the streamflow is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, resulting in lower water availability during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty in streamflows were higher in spring and summer than in winter and fall. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing the winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  9. Nitrogen and sulphur deposition and the growth of Sphagnum fuscum in bogs of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. VILE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of ongoing development of the oil sands reserve in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada (56° 39' N, 111° 13' W is an increase in emissions of nitrogen (N and sulphur (S, with an attendant increases in regional atmospheric N and S deposition. Regional land cover across northeastern Alberta is a mixture of Boreal Mixedwood, Boreal Highlands, and Subarctic areas. Peatlands occupy between 22 and 66% of these natural regions, and the land cover of bogs varies between 6.7% in the Mixedwood Region to 46% in the Subarctic Region. Ombrotrophic bog ecosystems may be especially sensitive to atmospheric deposition of N and S. Across 10 ombrotrophic bog sites in the AOSR over four years (2005– 2008, we found no evidence of elevated deposition of NH4 +-N, NO3 –-N, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN; NH4 +-N plus NO3 –-N, or SO4 2–-S, with values measured using ion exchange resin collectors averaging 0.61 ± 04, 0.20 ± 0.01, 0.81 ± 0.04, and 1.14 ± 0.06 kg ha–1 y–1, respectively. Vertical growth and net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, an indicator of elevated deposition, did not differ consistently across sites, averaging 11.8 ± 0.2 mm y–1 and 234 ± 3.3 g m–2 y–1, respectively, over the four years. Neither vertical growth nor net primary production of S. fuscum was correlated with growing season atmospheric N or S deposition. Our data provide a valuable benchmark of background values for monitoring purposes in anticipation of increasing N and S deposition over a broader geographic region within the AOSR.

  10. Can Decommissioned Oil Pads in Boreal Alberta BE Reclaimed to Carbon Accumulating Peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    In northern Alberta where peatland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature, construction of oil drilling pads and access roads is a major disturbance. Reclamation of decommissioned oil pads has been hampered by the lack of research. At two decommissioned oil pads at Shell Oil’s Peace River Complex (northeastern Alberta), initially constructed in a bog/fen complex, we established a field experiment to assess reclamation approaches that could lead to a system reflecting undisturbed peatland structure (vegetation composition) and function (net carbon accumulation). In the fall of 2007, mineral soil was removed from two decommissioned pads in areas approximately 100-m x 30-m creating a mineral surface at or near the surrounding bog water table level. We established the following treatments: pad (fertilized vs. unfertilized); water table position (at and 5-cm above the surrounding bog water level); texture (tilling soil amendments into the mineral soil or not); amendment (controls; commercial peat, peat that had been stockpiled in a farmer’s field; landscape fabric; slough hay (native species hay from harvested from local farms), aspen wood chips); planting (in 1-m x 1-m subplots within 2-m x 2-m amendment plots: no planting, 9 Carex aquatilis plants, 5 C. aquatilis and 4 Salix lutea plants; 3 C. aquatilis, 3 S. lutea and 3 Larix laricina seedlings). Treatments were nested (planting within amendment, within texture, within water table level, within pad), with 6 replicate 2-m x 2-m plots of each amendment within each pad x texture x water level combination. Net CO2 exchange was quantified under a range of PAR conditions from full sunlight to complete darkness in each 1-m x 1-m planting subplot repeatedly during the summers of 2008, 2009 and 2010 using closed chambers and infrared gas analyzers. Both dark respiration and maximum net ecosystem production (NEPSAT; net CO2 sequestration when PAR>1000 μmol m-2 s-1) exhibited year x planting interactions (p<0.0001 and

  11. Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew Gan, Thian; Gizaw, Mesgana

    2016-04-01

    The impact of climate change on extreme precipitation events in the Oldman (ORB), Bow, (BRB) and Red Deer (RRB) River Basins of southern Alberta, Canada, was assessed using six extreme climate indices for the rainy period of May-August (MJJA), and 9-km resolution Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and A1B climate scenarios of four Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) Global Climate Models (GCMs) dynamically downscaled by a regional climate model, MM5. R95p of the three study sites showed an increase of 4% for the 2050s (2041-2070) and 10% for the 2080s (2071-2100) period, whereas R99p increased by 39% (2050s) and 42% (2080s) which suggest a projected increase in the volume of precipitation expected in future very wet and particularly extremely wet days. Similarly, R20mm, P30yr, RX1day and RX5day are also projected to increase by about 15% by the mid- and late 21st century in the three study sites. However, compared to BRB and RRB, ORB located in the southernmost part of the study site is projected to undergo a relatively higher increase in both temperature and precipitation intensity, which is assessed in terms of indices such as P30yr, RX1day and RX5day. On the other hand, RRB and BRB are projected to experience higher increase in R20mm, which suggest a relatively higher increase in the number of very heavy precipitation days projected for these two basins. Overall, these results suggest that in the 2050s and 2080s, southern Alberta will be expected to experience more frequent and severe intensive storm events in the MJJA season that could potentially increase the risk of future flooding in this region. Ref: Gizaw, M., and Gan, T. Y., 2015, Possible Impact of climate change on future extreme precipitation of the Oldman, Bow and Red Deer River Basins of Alberta, Int. Journal Climatology, DOI:10.1002/joc.4338

  12. Environmental impact assessment in the Alberta oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, I.B.; Herasymuik, G.; Schmidt, N.; Kovats, Z.; Clipperton, K. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Some of the activities associated with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in oil sands operations in Alberta were reviewed with particular reference to key regional issues such as instream flow needs (IFN), basal water management, lake acidification potential, and climate change. The proven approaches to maintain timelines and maximize success were also discussed with reference to the factors that can be managed to promote an efficient application, review and approval process. It was noted that although the EIA process is well-defined and robust, it is evolving due to new challenges such as increasingly complex tools and new regulations. Alberta's Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) continuously refines environmental objectives for NOx, SOx, surface water, and the Muskeg River and the Athabasca River watersheds. In particular, much effort has gone into determining the water withdrawals from the Athabasca River during the winter months and its effect on resident fish populations. Operators must determine the viability of a project if studies of IFN indicate that there is limited river flow available for abstraction. This paper identified several factors that can be addressed to keep the process on schedule. These include planning, understanding issues, completing baseline surveys, and commanding the attention of regulators. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. Potential effects of climate change on ecosystem distribution in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, R.R.; Farr, D.; Boutin, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Hamann, A.; Wang, X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources

    2009-05-15

    This paper proposed a method of extending the utility of bioclimatic envelope models for land use planning and adaptation under climate change. The trajectory of vegetation changes was set by the model, while the rate of transition was determined using a disturbance model. The method was used to explore potential changes to the distribution of ecosystems in Alberta under various climate and disturbance scenarios. The study showed that use of the disturbance model slowed the rate of ecosystem transition when compared with the results obtained from the bioclimatic envelope model alone. A northward shift of grasslands into large areas of existing parklands occurred over the simulation's 50-year time period. Between 12 and 21 per cent of Alberta's Boreal region was converted to parklands. Boreal transitions will initially occur in forests adjacent to current parklands and spread outwards. Fires over 100 km {sup 2} provided an indication of the anticipated size of potential transition patches. It was concluded that using a disturbance model to quantify transition logs can improve uncertainties in the parameter estimates of bioclimatic envelope models. 43 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Climate Change, Health, and Vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Furgal; Jacinthe Seguin

    2006-01-01

    Background: Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities...

  15. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  16. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  17. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Portier, Jeanne; Gauthier, Sylvie; Leduc, Alain; Arseneault, Dominique; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-01-01

      Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands...

  18. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi H. Alyami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy supply and demand in an effort to mitigate the current demand deficiency. The volume ratio of air to liquid air is nearly 700:1. Liquid air is a dense energy carrier that is by converting renewable energy at off-peak periods into liquid air the energy can be stored until a peak-demand period when energy producers are maximising output to meet the demand. The energy is then retrieved from the liquid air through rapid expansion as it re-gasifies through a gas turbine and converted into electricity. A commercial scale pilot plant in Slough, UK illustrates the application of this technology empirically. The application of this technology in Canada might have challenges as public policy respective jurisdictions play a role. A case of point of applications where LAES can be integrated is the renewable energy market; particularly the wind power in Alberta. This paper’s analysis embraces wind power industry in Alberta from the perspective of both the electric system operator and the power generation plant. As such, it serves as an alleviating proposal of the current wind energy issues in Alberta – including the uncertainty of forecasting system. The analysis assumed energy storage technologies as a viable stand-alone mitigation with no consideration of the current technological and operational advancements in power systems such HVDC grids, distributed generation concepts and among others.

  19. Addressing complexity and uncertainty: conceptual models and expert judgments applied to migratory birds in the oil sands of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Nelitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and uncertainty are inherent in social-ecological systems. Although they can create challenges for scientists and decision makers, they cannot be a reason for delaying decision making. Two strategies have matured in recent decades to address these challenges. Systems thinking, as embodied by conceptual modeling, is a holistic approach in which a system can be better understood by examining it as a whole. Expert elicitation represents a second strategy that enables a greater diversity of inputs to understand complex systems. We explored the use of conceptual models and expert judgments to inform expansion of monitoring around oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada, particularly related to migratory forest birds. This study area is a complex social-ecological system for which there is an abundance of specific information, but a relatively weak understanding about system behavior. Multiple conceptual models were developed to represent complexity and provide a more fulsome view of influences across the landscape. A hierarchical approach proved useful, and a mechanistic structure of the models clarified the cumulative and interactive nature of factors within and outside the study area. To address gaps in understanding, expert judgments were integrated using a series of structured exercises to derive "weightings" of importance of different components in the conceptual models, specifically pairwise comparisons, Likert scaling, and a maximum difference conjoint approach. These exercises were helpful for discriminating the importance of different influences and illuminating the competing beliefs of experts. Various supporting tools helped us engage a group of experts from across North America, which included a virtual meeting, online polling, desktop sharing, web survey, and financial incentive. This combination of techniques was innovative and proved useful for addressing complexity and uncertainty in a specific natural resource

  20. Abridged Life Tables for Registered Indians in Canada, 1976-1980 to 1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalowski, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper presents the analyses of the new estimates of abridged life tablescomprising life expectancy at birth, and their estimates of variance andconfidence limits by males and females for Registered Indians in Canada andtwo broad regions (East: Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba; and West:Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories forthe periods, 1976-80, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995 and 1996-2000. Thelife tables were constructed using the Chiang Method based on the adjusted dataon deaths and population by age and sex from the Indian Registry, maintainedby the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Government ofCanada. The data on the register are subjected to late reported and non reportedvital events. At the Canada level, life expectancy at birth for Registered Indianmales was 59.9 years in 1976-1980, rising to 68.3 years in 1996-2000. Forfemales, the life expectancy at birth was relatively higher, 66.6 years in 1976-80,and 74.5 years in 1996-2000. The recent life expectancies at birth forRegistered Indians are comparable to those observed for the total Canadian maleand female populations during the period 1960-1962 at 68.4 and 74.3 years. In1999, life expectancy at birth for the total Canadian population was reported to be 76.3 years formales and 81.7 years for females. The life expectancy at birthfor the Registered Indians in the Eastern region was higher than for those in theWestern region. The pattern of regional variation in life expectancy at birth forthis population seems to be the reverse of the regional variation for the totalCanadian population.FrenchCe document présente les analyses des nouvelles estimations des tables desurvie abrégées comprenant l’espérance de vie à la naissance, l’estimation deleur variance et la limite de confiance selon le sexe pour les Indiens inscrits auCanada et dans 2 grandes régions (Est : Atlantique, Québec, Ontario etManitoba; et

  1. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  2. Impacts and mitigations of in situ bitumen production from Alberta oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, Neil

    2010-09-15

    85% or more of Alberta's oil sands is too deep to mine and will be recovered by in situ methods, i.e. from drill holes. This has been made commercially possible through the development in Alberta of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). Does this impending development threaten the local ecosystem? A quantitative account is given of the principal impacts of in situ oil sands development in Alberta. Impacts on land (habitats), water, and air are considered in terms of local capacity, global benchmarks, and comparisons to alternative renewable technologies. Improvements due to new solvent-additive technology are highlighted.

  3. The regulatory environment for drilling and oilfield waste disposal and remediation in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, L.J.; Stimpson, S. [Macleod Dixon, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    The legislative basis of regulation of all aspects of oilfield waste, including all oil and gas, oil sands, and oilfield waste management facility operations in Alberta is discussed. The appropriate waste management practices for the upstream petroleum industry and all waste stream associated with the petroleum industry are outlined. Major topics discussed include: (1) the roles and the jurisdictions of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP), (2) drilling waste and oilfield waste disposal, EUB guides 50 and 58, (3) wellsite abandonment and reclamation of wellsites, (4) spills and contaminated sites, (5) environmental offences, enforcement, penalties and defences.

  4. One Canada, Two Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ByMurrayGreig; 赵金前

    2004-01-01

    Canada is one of the few nations in theworld to have two official languages: Englishand French. There are 10 provinces in thecountry but only one of these--Quebec isknown as "French Canada". This is because itwas founded by French explorers while Britishadventurers discovered the rest.

  5. Improving hypertension management through pharmacist prescribing; the rural alberta clinical trial in optimizing hypertension (Rural RxACTION: trial design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Norman RC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with hypertension continue to have less than optimal blood pressure control, with nearly one in five Canadian adults having hypertension. Pharmacist prescribing is gaining favor as a potential clinically efficacious and cost-effective means to improve both access and quality of care. With Alberta being the first province in Canada to have independent prescribing by pharmacists, it offers a unique opportunity to evaluate outcomes in patients who are prescribed antihypertensive therapy by pharmacists. Methods The study is a randomized controlled trial of enhanced pharmacist care, with the unit of randomization being the patient. Participants will be randomized to enhanced pharmacist care (patient identification, assessment, education, close follow-up, and prescribing/titration of antihypertensive medications or usual care. Participants are patients in rural Alberta with undiagnosed/uncontrolled blood pressure, as defined by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program. The primary outcome is the change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 24 weeks in the enhanced-care versus usual-care arms. There are also three substudies running in conjunction with the project examining different remuneration models, investigating patient knowledge, and assessing health-resource utilization amongst patients in each group. Discussion To date, one-third of the required sample size has been recruited. There are 15 communities and 17 pharmacists actively screening, recruiting, and following patients. This study will provide high-level evidence regarding pharmacist prescribing. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00878566.

  6. Well-being in residency training: a survey examining resident physician satisfaction both within and outside of residency training and mental health in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patten Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the critical importance of well-being during residency training, only a few Canadian studies have examined stress in residency and none have examined well-being resources. No recent studies have reported any significant concerns with respect to perceived stress levels in residency. We investigated the level of perceived stress, mental health and understanding and need for well-being resources among resident physicians in training programs in Alberta, Canada. Methods A mail questionnaire was distributed to the entire resident membership of PARA during 2003 academic year. PARA represents each of the two medical schools in the province of Alberta. Results In total 415 (51 % residents participated in the study. Thirty-four percent of residents who responded to the survey reported their life as being stressful. Females reported stress more frequently than males (40% vs. 27%, p Residents highly valued their colleagues (67%, program directors (60% and external psychiatrist/psychologist (49% as well-being resources. Over one third of residents wished to have a career counselor (39% and financial counselor (38%. Conclusion Many Albertan residents experience significant stressors and emotional and mental health problems. Some of which differ among genders. This study can serve as a basis for future resource application, research and advocacy for overall improvements to well-being during residency training.

  7. Oil and gas well site reclamation criteria in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shergill, R. [Alpine Environmental Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Drilling waste disposal sites are one of the most difficult sites to reclaim in the oil and gas industry, due to contamination of the site with heavy oils and salts. The fundamental principle of well site reclamation is the return of a disturbed site to a land capability equivalent to the pre-disturbance land capability, which is sustainable under normal management of the land. A list of legislative requirements for reclamation in Alberta was provided. Steps involved in bioremediation were discussed. The concept of landfarming as a drilling waste disposal option for heavy invert mud systems over a selected plot of land, was introduced. Although theoretically landfarming can take place in either the topsoil or subsoil, studies have shown that topsoil provides a more favourable environment for microbial biodegradation of the hydrocarbons contained in invert drilling muds. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  9. Legal issues concerning oilfield waste management in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, B.S. [Bennett Jones Verchere, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is the regulatory authority with regard to oilfield wastes and oilfield waste management facilities. This presentation provided an overview of existing legislation and regulations in this area. Highlights of EUB Guide 58, and the application of the release of substances and contaminated sites provisions of the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) regarding oilfield wastes and oilfield waste management facilities were also discussed. Generators, transporters and receivers of oilfield waste are potentially liable under the EPEA if oilfield wastes are released into the environment. Liabilities could imply clean-up orders, fines or penalties. The offences, penalties and enforcements of two acts, the Gas Conservation Act and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, were compared.

  10. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle......, this study provides a “post-BSE” assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings...... of earlier beef studies that have employed different methodological approaches. The results also suggest that consumers are willing to pay significant premiums for bison steaks that are certified as being produced without genetically modified organisms, an attribute that has so far been unexplored...

  11. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsato, J.

    2010-09-15

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  12. Top income shares in Canada: recent trends and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veall, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    According to Canadian taxfiler data, over the last thirty years there has been a surge in the income shares of the top 1%, top 0.1% and top 0.01% of income recipients, even with longitudinal smoothing by individual using three- or five-year moving averages. Top shares fell in 2008 and 2009, but only by a fraction of the overall surge. Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario have much more pronounced surges than other provinces. Part of the Canadian surge is likely attributable to U.S. factors, but a comprehensive explanation remains elusive. Even so, I draw implications for policies that might achieve some support from across the political spectrum, including the elimination of tax preferences that favour those with high incomes, the promotion of shareholder democracy and, to maintain Canada's relatively high intergenerational mobility, continued wide accessibility to healthcare and education.

  13. Assessment of the aerosol optical depths measured by satellite-based passive remote sensors in the Alberta oil sands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Abboud, Ihab

    2017-02-01

    Several satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products are assessed in terms of their data quality in the Alberta oil sands region. The instruments consist of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), POLDER (Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), and AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer). The AOD data products are examined in terms of multiplicative and additive biases determined using local Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) (AEROCAN) stations. Correlation with ground-based data is used to assess whether the satellite-based AODs capture day-to-day, month-to-month, and spatial variability. The ability of the satellite AOD products to capture interannual variability is assessed at Albian mine and Shell Muskeg River, two neighbouring sites in the northern mining region where a statistically significant positive trend (2002-2015) in PM2.5 mass density exists. An increasing trend of similar amplitude (˜ 5 % year-1) is observed in this northern mining region using some of the satellite AOD products.

  14. The Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Red Deer and Medicine Hat, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of asthma among school-aged children in two Alberta communities, to understand host and indoor environmental factors associated with asthma, and to compare these factors between the two communities.

  15. Diamonds from the Buffalo Head Hills, Alberta: Formation in a non-conventional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Anetta; Stachel, Thomas; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; McCandless, Tom E.

    2007-01-01

    Kimberlite pipes K11, K91 and K252 in the Buffalo Head Hills, northern Alberta show an unusually large abundance (20%) of Type II (no detectable nitrogen) diamonds. Type I diamonds range in nitrogen content from 6 ppm to 3300 ppm and in aggregation states from low (IaA) to complete (IaB). The Type IaB diamonds extend to the lowest nitrogen concentrations yet observed at such high aggregation states, implying that mantle residence occurred at temperatures well above normal lithospheric conditions. Syngenetic mineral inclusions indicate lherzolitic, harzburgitic, wehrlitic and eclogitic sources. Pyropic garnet and forsteritic olivine characterize the peridotitic paragenesis from these pipes. One lherzolitic garnet inclusion has a moderately majoritic composition indicating a formation depth of ˜ 400 km. A wehrlitic paragenesis is documented by a Ca-rich, high-chromium garnet and very CaO-rich (0.11-0.14 wt.%) olivine. Omphacitic pyroxene and almandine-rich garnet are characteristic of the eclogitic paragenesis. A bimodal δ13C distribution with peaks at - 5‰ and - 17‰ is observed for diamonds from all three kimberlite pipes. A large proportion (˜ 40%) of isotopically light diamonds ( δ13C Proterozoic metamorphic age (2.3-2.0 Ga) and hence an unconventional setting for diamond exploration. Buffalo Hills diamonds formed during multiple events in an atypical mantle setting. The presence of majorite and abundance of Type II and Type IaB diamonds suggests formation under sublithospheric conditions, possibly in a subducting slab and resulting megalith. Type IaA to IaAB diamonds indicate formation and storage under lower temperature in normal lithospheric conditions.

  16. Investigation of the 2013 Alberta flood from weather and climate perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Bernardo; Diro, G. T.; Whan, K.; Milrad, S. M.; Jeong, D. I.; Ganji, A.; Huziy, O.; Winger, K.; Gyakum, J. R.; de Elia, R.; Zwiers, F. W.; Sushama, L.

    2016-06-01

    During 19-21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30 % over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important moisture source and was likely enhanced by antecedent rainfall that increased soil moisture over the northern Great Plains. Event attribution analysis suggests that human induced greenhouse gas increases may also have contributed by causing evapotranspiration rates to be higher than they would have been under pre-industrial conditions. Frozen and snow-covered soils at high elevations are likely to have played an important role in generating record streamflows. Results point to a doubling of surface runoff due to the frozen conditions, while 25 % of the modelled runoff originated from snowmelt. The estimated return time of the 3-day precipitation event exceeds 50 years over a large region, and an increase in the occurrence of similar extreme precipitation events is projected by the end of the 21st century. Event attribution analysis suggests that greenhouse gas increases may have increased 1-day and 3-day return levels of May-June precipitation with respect to pre-industrial climate conditions. However, no anthropogenic influence can be detected for 1-day and 3-day surface runoff, as increases in extreme precipitation in the present-day climate are offset by decreased snow cover and lower frozen water content in soils during the May-June transition months, compared to pre

  17. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kent Brown; W. James Rettie; Bob Wynes; Kim Morton

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis o...

  18. Hepatic disease in Alberta horses: A retrospective study of 'alsike clover poisoning' (1973-1988)

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nick

    1991-01-01

    Over sixteen years, 49 horses were diagnosed by Alberta Agriculture Animal Health laboratories as having “alsike clover poisoning”. There was a distinct northwestern distribution of cases, the majority coming from the Peace River district. This distribution is opposite to that of the Alberta horse population, but coincides with areas of alsike clover cultivation. Cases could be divided into chronic or nervous clinical presentations, as described by Schofield. Tissues from 45 animals were retr...

  19. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  20. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF THE QUON SANG LUNG LAUNDRY BUILDING, FORT MACLEOD, ALBERTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dawson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an emergency recording and archiving of a historic structure in Southern Alberta and explores the lessons learned. Digital recording of the Quon Sang Lung Laundry building in Fort Macleod, Alberta, was a joint initiative between Alberta Culture and Tourism and the University of Calgary. The Quon Sang Lung Laundry was a boomtown-style wood structure situated in the Fort Macleod Provincial Historic Area, Alberta. Built in the mid-1800s, the structure was one of the four buildings comprising Fort Macleod’s Chinatown. Its association with Chinese immigration, settlement, and emergence of Chinese-owned businesses in early twentieth-century Alberta, made the Quon Sang Lung Laundry a unique and very significant historic resource. In recent years, a condition assessment of the structure indicated that the building was not safe and that the extent of the instability could lead to a sudden collapse. In response, Alberta