WorldWideScience

Sample records for northeast regional biomass

  1. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  3. Northeast Regional Biomass Program: Mission, accomplishments, prospects, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This 1991 Report contains an update on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP). It describes the activities conducted during the past two years and incorporates the information contained in the 1989 publication of the NRBP Five Year Report. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the Northeast Region, and summarizes the results from the Program's technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed as well. An appendix lists the biomass-fired electricity generating stations planned or in operation in the region. The NRBP began in 1983 by developing a five year plan to guide its work. Within that time frame, the NRBP undertook over 20 applied research and technology transfer projects, and supported and guided the work of its eleven member states. During and since that period, the NRBP has brought together public and private sector organizations to promote the use in the Northeast of biomass and municipal waste energy resources and technologies. The NRBP's long-range plan was updated in 1990. In light of the accomplishments of the NRBP and the remaining challenges, this Report considers directions for future efforts. The Northeast has abundant biomass resources and markets for their use as energy. Meeting this potential will contribute to reducing the atmospheric greenhouse effect and dependence on imported oil. 49 refs

  4. Northeast regional biomass program. Second & third quarterly reports, October 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program. Final progress report, July--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ``Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste``. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  6. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  7. Characterization of biomasses available in the region of North-East India for production of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmal, Soumya; Goud, Vaibhav V.; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2012-01-01

    The lignocellulosic materials are cheap and readily available either in the form of agricultural waste or forest residues. These materials can be used as a source for energy production either in the gaseous form (CO, H 2 etc) or in liquid form (ethanol, butanol etc) to meet the rising demand of energy. The reign of lignocellulosic materials for energy production is a proven fact in this era of energy research. The present study focuses on characterization of three biomass samples namely areca nut husk (Areca catheu), moj (Albizia lucida) and bonbogori (Ziziphus rugosa), available in the region of North-East India. Physical and chemical analysis of these lignocellulosic biomass samples were performed using X-ray diffraction techniques, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and CHNSO analysis. Maximum crystalinity was observed in areca nut husk fiber (63.84%) followed by moj (46.43%) and bonbogori (42.46%). The calorific values of all the biomasses were found within the range of 17 MJ/kg to 22 MJ/kg. All these properties combined together per se shows that areca nut husk, bonbogori and moj are potential sources for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Non-conventional biomasses were considered in this study. ► Complete characterization of these biomasses are reported. ► Maximum crystalinity was observed in areca nut husk fiber followed by moj and bonbogori. ► Results confirmed that these biomasses can be utilized for biofuel production.

  8. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  9. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  10. Northeast DIVER Regional Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DIVER environmental data holdings are primarily comprised of datasets gathered from regional studies, site specific studies from non-NOAA entities, and NOAA...

  11. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  12. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  13. Soil microbial biomass in an agroforestry system of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane C. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems (AFS are considered alternative land use options to help prevent soil degradation and improve soil microbial biomass and organic C status. However, it is unclear how different densities of babassu palm [Attalea speciosa (syn. Orbignya phalerata], which is an important tree in Northeast Brazil, affect the soil microbial biomass. We investigated the soil microbial biomass C and activity under AFS with different densities of babassu palm associated with Brachiaria brizantha grass. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC, soil microbial biomass N (MBN, MBC:total organic C ratio, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and dehydrogenase activity showed highest values in plots with high density of babassu palm. On the other hand, the respiratory quotient (qCO2 was significantly greater in plots without babassu palm. Brachiaria brizantha in monoculture may promote C losses from the soil, but AFS with high density of babassu palm may increase the potential of soils to accumulate C.Keywords: Enzyme activity, tropical soil, babassu palm, silvopastoral system, soil quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(341-48

  14. Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-12-01

    To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, aerosol chemical composition such total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and inorganic ions were studied as well as stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC, and WSOC increased by a factor of 4-12 compared to non-biomass-burning periods. Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2.5, OC, EC and WSOC, suggesting an important contribution of biomass burning emission. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant. A lower average δ13C value (-26.2‰) is found for the biomass-burning aerosols, suggesting a dominant contribution from combustion of C3 plants in the studied region.

  15. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  16. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... to overfishing and are in an overfished condition. Also, in the Northeast Region, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane is subject to overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an...

  17. Process evaluation of the Regional Biomass Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.R.; Brown, M.A.; Perlack, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Regional Biomass Energy Program (RBEP) in 1983 to increase the production and use of biomass energy resources. Through the creation of five regional program (the Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and West), the RBEP focuses on regionally specific needs and opportunities. In 1992, Oak Ridge National (ORNL) conducted a process evaluation of the RBEP Program designed to document and explain the development of the goals and strategies of the five regional programs; describe the economic and market context surrounding commercialization of bioenergy systems; assess the criteria used to select projects; describe experiences with cost sharing; identify program accomplishments in the transfer of information and technology; and offer recommendations for program improvement.

  18. 78 FR 64480 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC866 Fisheries of the Northeast Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of a determination of overfishing or an...

  19. 77 FR 63296 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC159 Fisheries of the Northeast Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing and...

  20. Above- and Belowground Biomass Allocation in Shrub Biomes across the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanhe; Yang, Lucun; Zhou, Guoying

    2016-01-01

    Biomass partitioning has been explored across various biomes. However, the strategies of allocation in plants still remain contentious. This study investigated allocation patterns of above- and belowground biomass at the community level, using biomass survey from the Tibetan Plateau. We explored above- and belowground biomass by conducting three consecutive sampling campaigns across shrub biomes on the northeast Tibetan Plateau during 2011–2013. We then documented the above-ground biomass (AGB), below-ground biomass (BGB) and root: shoot ratio (R/S) and the relationships between R/S and environment factors using data from 201 plots surveyed from 67 sites. We further examined relationships between above-ground and below-ground biomass across various shrub types. Our results indicated that the median values of AGB, BGB, and R/S in Tibetan shrub were 1102.55, 874.91 g m-2, and 0.85, respectively. R/S showed significant trend with mean annual precipitation (MAP), while decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT). Reduced major axis analysis indicated that the slope of the log-log relationship between above- and belowground biomass revealed a significant difference from 1.0 over space, supporting the optimal hypothesis. Interestingly, the slopes of the allometric relationship between log AGB and log BGB differed significantly between alpine and desert shrub. Our findings supported the optimal theory of above- and belowground biomass partitioning in Tibetan shrub, while the isometric hypothesis for alpine shrub at the community level. PMID:27119379

  1. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  2. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  3. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  4. North-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  5. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  6. Competition for biomass. Regional imbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, S.E.; Bohlin, B.; Remes, M.; Aakesson, H.; Warnqvist, B.; Norrstroem, H.; Jonsson, Tomas

    1997-04-01

    The main aim of this study has been to investigate if a substantial increase in biofuel utilization may lead to pronounced regional differences in supply and demand, and what effects such imbalances could lead to. In the study the country has been split up into ten regions, from north to south, and it is confirmed that there would be an imbalance effect. confirmed that there would be an imbalance effect

  7. 40 CFR 81.256 - Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.256 Section 81.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.256 Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Iowa...

  8. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeast...

  9. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  12. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  14. 77 FR 67792 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... offered in the Northeast region. Exemption programs may allow a vessel to fish in an area that is limited.... Vessels are also required to request gillnet and lobster tags through the Northeast region permit office...

  15. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  16. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region.

  17. Response of Plant Height, Species Richness and Aboveground Biomass to Flooding Gradient along Vegetation Zones in Floodplain Wetlands, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanjing; Pan, Yanwen; Gao, Chuanyu; Jiang, Ming; Lu, Xianguo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2016-01-01

    Flooding regime changes resulting from natural and human activity have been projected to affect wetland plant community structures and functions. It is therefore important to conduct investigations across a range of flooding gradients to assess the impact of flooding depth on wetland vegetation. We conducted this study to identify the pattern of plant height, species richness and aboveground biomass variation along the flooding gradient in floodplain wetlands located in Northeast China. We found that the response of dominant species height to the flooding gradient depends on specific species, i.e., a quadratic response for Carex lasiocarpa, a negative correlation for Calamagrostis angustifolia, and no response for Carex appendiculata. Species richness showed an intermediate effect along the vegetation zone from marsh to wet meadow while aboveground biomass increased. When the communities were analysed separately, only the water table depth had significant impact on species richness for two Carex communities and no variable for C. angustifolia community, while height of dominant species influenced aboveground biomass. When the three above-mentioned communities were grouped together, variations in species richness were mainly determined by community type, water table depth and community mean height, while variations in aboveground biomass were driven by community type and the height of dominant species. These findings indicate that if habitat drying of these herbaceous wetlands in this region continues, then two Carex marshes would be replaced gradually by C. angustifolia wet meadow in the near future. This will lead to a reduction in biodiversity and an increase in productivity and carbon budget. Meanwhile, functional traits must be considered, and should be a focus of attention in future studies on the species diversity and ecosystem function in this region. PMID:27097325

  18. Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguinsin, J. L. S.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

  19. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Kehoe, M.J.; Mojica, K.D.A.; Visser, R.J.W.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63° N in the northeast Atlantic

  20. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass, composition, and productivity along a temperature and stratification gradient in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W. H.; Kulk, G.; Timmermans, K. R.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van der Woerd, H. J.; Kehoe, M. J.; Mojica, K. D. A.; Visser, R. J. W.; Rozema, P. D.; Buma, A. G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sea surface temperature (SST, > 10 m) and vertical density stratification, nutrient concentrations, and phytoplankton biomass, composition, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) specific absorption were assessed in spring and summer from latitudes 29 to 63 degrees N in the northeast

  1. Migrant biomass and respiratory carbon flux by zooplankton and micronekton in the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, A.; Garijo, J. C.; Landeira, J. M.; Bordes, F.; Hernández-León, S.

    2015-05-01

    Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) in marine ecosystems is performed by zooplankton and micronekton, promoting a poorly accounted export of carbon to the deep ocean. Major efforts have been made to estimate carbon export due to gravitational flux and to a lesser extent, to migrant zooplankton. However, migratory flux by micronekton has been largely neglected in this context, due to its time-consuming and difficult sampling. In this paper, we evaluated gravitational and migratory flux due to the respiration of zooplankton and micronekton in the northeast subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands). Migratory flux was addressed by calculating the biomass of migrating components and measuring the electron transfer system (ETS) activity in zooplankton and dominant species representing micronekton (Euphausia gibboides, Sergia splendens and Lobianchia dofleini). Our results showed similar biomass in both components. The main taxa contributing to DVM within zooplankton were juvenile euphausiids, whereas micronekton were mainly dominated by fish, followed by adult euphausiids and decapods. The contribution to respiratory flux of zooplankton (3.4 ± 1.9 mg C m-2 d-1) was similar to that of micronekton (2.9 ± 1.0 mg C m-2 d-1). In summary, respiratory flux accounted for 53% (range 23-71) of the gravitational flux measured at 150 m depth (11.9 ± 5.8 mg C m-2 d-1). However, based on larger migratory ranges and gut clearance rates, micronekton are expected to be the dominant component that contributes to carbon export in deeper waters. Micronekton estimates in this paper as well as those in existing literature, although variable due to regional differences and difficulties in calculating their biomass, suggest that carbon fluxes driven by this community are important for future models of the biological carbon pump.

  2. Regional biomass stores and dynamics in forests of coastal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaill A. Yatskov; Mark E. Harmon; Olga N. Krankina; Tara M. Barrett; Kevin R. Dobelbower; Andrew N. Gray; Becky Fasth; Lori Trummer; Toni L. Hoyman; Chana M. Dudoit

    2015-01-01

    Coastal Alaska is a vast forested region (6.2 million ha) with the potential to store large amounts of carbon in live and dead biomass thus influencing continental and global carbon dynamics. The main objectives of this study were to assess regional biomass stores, examine the biomass partitioning between live and dead pools, and evaluate the effect of disturbance on...

  3. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D.; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta; Handique, Pratap J.; Talukdar, Narayan C.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  4. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta [Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Imphal (India); Handique, Pratap J. [Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Talukdar, Narayan C., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com [Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati (India)

    2017-07-11

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

    2016-08-01

    Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

  6. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  7. Deep Sea Coral National Observation Database, Northeast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The national database of deep sea coral observations. Northeast version 1.0. * This database was developed by the NOAA NOS NCCOS CCMA Biogeography office as part of...

  8. 77 FR 47370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Logbook Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Logbook Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its...

  9. Policy Paper 05: Regional Cooperation and Environmental Issues in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Zarsky, Lyuba

    1993-01-01

    Hayes and Zarsky describe the rapidly emerging agenda for regional collaboration on environmental issues in Northeast Asia. In Part One, they describe briefly some of the major transfrontier or regional environmental issues in Northeast Asia that represent a menu of opportunities for cooperation (and potential conflict) between states. These issues include transfrontier air pollution (acid rain only), marine pollution (radionuclides and oil only), migratory species (fish only), and trade-envi...

  10. Perspectives of Sustainable Development of Tourism in the North-East Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Liviu Scutariu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to highlight the tourism evolution and its intensity in the North-East region of Romania, compared to two regions with similar touristic potential from the Eastern European Union: Subcarpathia from Poland and Central Slovakia. We analysed if the EU attachment of Romania, Poland, and Slovakia had some effects on tourism development in the three regions mentioned. Issues arising from the analysis of the current situation of tourism will allow us to draw some sustainable development directions of tourism in the North-East region based on conserving and capitalizing the uniqueness of the area. We will consider the experience of the other two regions, trying to adapt them to the situation of the North-East region. Based on the analysis we have made, we consider that other countries can inspire us by authorities’ initiatives in supporting tourism, good human resources training, entrepreneurship stimulation, and assistance in accessing financial resources, including EU ones.

  11. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Wood is an alterative fuel for electric power generation at coal-fired plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Short rotation wood energy crops (SRWC) could provide a source of this woody biomass. However, the economic and supply structures of SRWC markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region. expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields

  12. Pythiosis in dogs in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of five cases of pythiosis in dogs in northeast semiarid. The disease occurred in dogs with age between one and three years, females and males of different breeds. The dogs were created in urban areas, but were occasionally taken to the countryside and then had contact with wetlands. The main clinical signs were weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and tenesmus. Macroscopically there were intestinal wall thickening with irregular firm masses with yellowish granular areas interspersed with a whitish tissue, involving the duodenum, colon and rectum, extending to the lymph nodes and pancreas, and the vagina and liver. In the skin there were areas of alopecia and irregular ulcerations, some containing small cavitations with serosanguineous secretion. Microscopically there were pyogranulomatous inflammation and in one case also there were eosinophilic necrosis associated with negative images tubuliformes by hematoxylin and eosin, strongly stained by GMS and weakly by PAS. Hyphae were strongly marked by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-Pythium insidiosum. The disease occurs sporadically in dogs in the semiarid Northeast, however should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diseases and proliferative aspect of the gastrointestinal system, and front skin lesions of difficult treatment.

  13. Evaluating a biomass resource: The TVA region-wide biomass resource assessment model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The economic and supply structures of short rotation woody crop (SRWC) markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of SRWC biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas and coal. In this study we project the cost and supply of short-rotation woody biomass for the TVA region -- a 276 county area that includes all of Tennessee and portions of 10 contiguous states in the southeastern United States. Projected prices and quantities of SRWC are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected SRWC yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curve of SRWC biomass that is projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of SRWC production. Finally, we show the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of SRWC biomass. In particular, we examine the separate impacts of varying SRWC production yields.

  14. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  15. Adapting maize production to drought in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most prominent crop in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR), and drought has been the largest limitation for maize production in this area during recent decades. The question of how to adapt maize production to drought has received great attention from policy...

  16. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  17. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  18. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-01-01

    The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing...

  19. The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGE GAMAN; BIANCA SORINA RĂCĂȘAN

    2016-01-01

    Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detalied and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Region of Roman...

  20. Sun Grant Initiative Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Regional Sun Grant Center

    2016-12-30

    The Sun Grant Initiative partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to create the Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program. The overall goal of this project was to utilize congressionally directed funds to leverage the North Central Regional Sun Grant’s Competitive Grant program at South Dakota State University (SDSU) to address key issues and research gaps related to development of the bioeconomy. Specific objectives of this program were to: 1. Identify research projects through a Regional Competitive Grants program that were relevant to the sustainable production, harvest, transport, delivery, and processing/conversion of cost-competitive, domestically grown biomass. 2. Build local expertise and capacity at the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center at SDSU through an internal selection of key bioenergy research projects. To achieve these, three nationwide Request for Applications (RFA) were developed: one each in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Internal, capacity building projects at SDSU were also selected during each one of these RFAs. In 2013 and 2015, two additional Proof of Concept RFAs were developed for internal SDSU projects. Priority areas for each RFA were 1) Biomass feedstock logistics including biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, storage, and densification; 2) Sustainable biomass feedstock production systems including biomass crop development, production, and life-cycle analysis; 3) Biomass production systems that optimize biomass feedstock yield and economic return across a diverse landscape while minimizing negative effects on the environment and food/feed production; and 4) Promotion of knowledge-based economic development in science and technology and to advance commercialization of inventions that meet the mission of the Sun Grant Initiative. A total of 33 projects were selected for funding through this program. Final reports for each of these diverse projects are included in this summary report

  1. Green electricity externalities: Forest biomass in an Atlantic European Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, M.; Prada, A.; Vazquez, M.X.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are expected to represent a growing proportion of the primary energy sources for the production of electricity. Environmental and social reasons support this tendency. European and Spanish energy plans assign a role of primary importance to biomass in general and, especially, to forest biomass for the period up to 2010. This paper reviews, organises and quantifies the potentials and values of this renewable resource in the foremost Spanish Region in terms of silviculture. The non-market externalities (environmental, economic and social) are classified, and some of them are quantified to present a synthesis of the benefits of a partial substitution of fossil fuels by forest biomass for electricity generation. (author)

  2. Assessment of biomass cogeneration in the Great Lakes region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many biomass cogeneration facilities have successfully entered into power sales agreements with utilities across the country, often after overcoming various difficulties or barriers. Under a project sponsored by the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, DynCorp sm-bullet Meridian has conducted a survey of biomass facilities in the seven Great Lakes states, selecting 10 facilities for case studies with at least one facility in each of the seven states. The purpose of the case studies was to address obstacles that biomass processors face in adding power production to their process heat systems, and to provide examples of successful strategies for entering into power sales agreements with utilities. The case studies showed that the primary incentives for investing in cogeneration and power sales are to reduce operating costs through improved biomass waste management and lower energy expenditures. Common barriers to cogeneration and power sales were high utility stand-by charges for unplanned outages and low utility avoided cost payments due to excess utility generation capacity

  3. Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwinski, N.

    1985-01-01

    The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42 0 00 ' WGr, between parallels 15 0 and 18 0 . Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural analysis, petrography, petrochemistry, regional metamorphism/retro metamorphism and radio chronology. It is pointed out that the evolution occurred in a mobile belt initiating its history in the terminal Archean up to Inferior Proterozoic. The northeast of the region attained crustal stability during 1700 My up to 1800 My (Sao Francisco Craton) meanwhile the rest of the zone kept mobilized till upper proterozoic times. Radio chronological studies suggest for the post tectonic granitic rocks, ages from the brasiliano cycle as well as for those pre-existing rocks which suffered isotopic regeneration and metamorphose in that same cycle an original age from Archean to inferior proterozoic times, except for those which are situated in the northeast part of the region. Petrochemical data point to an origin from sedimentary processes for the majority of the metamorphosed rocks in this region. (author)

  4. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 6. Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    In the Northeast region, the physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy of some 153,000 GWH. By comparison, the available data represent about 6% of the total capacity and 11% of the hydroelectric energy potential estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 6100 MW has been installed. The remainder (27,200 MW, excluding the undeveloped capacity in the New England States) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (18,700 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (8500 MW). Small-scale facilities account for about 15% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 1800 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 500 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of New York, Maine, and New Hampshire having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Northeast region. West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine comprise the Northeast region.

  5. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L.; Raposo, C.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  6. Northeast regional assessment study for solar electric options in the period 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities are identified and assessed. Technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation are defined. The following topics are covered: a description of the Northeast Region and its solar resources, central station applications, a dispersed user analysis, user viewpoints and institutional factors, and market potential for dispersed solar electric systems. (MHR)

  7. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  8. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  9. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the region north and northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2008-01-01

    A study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy is performed. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge of this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy source: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 and 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance , the IRIS reactor. (author)

  10. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the Region North and Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to perform a study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge for this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy sources: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 the 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance, the IRIS reactor. (author)

  11. Northeast and Midwest regional species and habitats at greatest risk and most vulnerable to climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Hilberg, Laura; Janowiak, Maria; Swanton, C.O.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this Chapter are to describe climate change vulnerability, it’s components, the range of assessment methods being implemented regionally, and examples of training resources and tools. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments (CCVAs) have already been conducted for numerous Regional Species of Greatest Conservation Need and their dependent 5 habitats across the Northeast and Midwest. This chapter provides a synthesis of different assessment frameworks, information on the locations (e.g., States) where vulnerability assessments were conducted, lists of individual species and habitats with their respective vulnerability rankings, and a comparison of how vulnerability rankings were determined among studies.

  12. Additional protocols and regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kwan Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The main object of this article is to clarify the relations between the implementation of the Protocols Additional to Safeguards Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the Additional Protocols) and the feasibility of the regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Northeast Asia (NEA). The regionalism has a strong tendency to be based in advance on regional cooperation. The regionalism has three main structural elements in its definition: geographical proximity, cultural resemblance, and cooperative attitudes among all the countries concerned. The Additional Protocols allow the IAEA to access to more detailed information and nuclear activities of a State party. The aspect that the Additional Protocols could increase the nuclear transparency will result in ultimately promoting the confidence among the regional nations concerned.

  13. The Tourism Development Strategy of the North-East Region of Romania. Myth or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE GAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development strategies play an increasingly important role, representing parts of those documents that aim to socio-economic development, undertaken at local, zonal, county, regional or national level. Frequently, tourism is viewed as one the best solutions for economic recovery, but without a detalied and realistic analysis of what territory offers from this point of view, this new trend for resolving the economic dysfunctions remains at a mirage level. The North-East Region of Romania, the fifth less developed region of the European Union, with a GDP per capita (in purchasing power standard that amounted to only 34% of the EU-28 average in 2013, rushes to come with a development strategy for tourism, relying on “relief and environmental factors, diversity and beauty of landscape, cultural heritage”, strengthening the specific offers relying especially on mountain, cultural, and religious tourism. The present study uses multiple research methods (quantitative and qualitative analysis, graphical and cartographical representation of data, comparison in order to establish the reliability of the concerned document and to provide solid arguments for the type of tourism that has the largest premises of affirmation in each county of the North-East Region of Romania.

  14. Regional climate change projections of streamflow characteristics in the Northeast and Midwest U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora M.C. Demaria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Northeast and Midwest, United States. Study focus: Assessing the climate change impacts on the basin scale is important for water and natural resource managers. Here, the presence of monotonic trends and changes in climate-driven simulated 3-day peak flows, 7-day low flows, and mean base flows are evaluated in the Northeast and Midwest U.S. during the 20th and the 21st centuries using climate projections from sixteen climate models. Proven statistical methods are used to spatially and temporally disaggregate precipitation and temperature fields to a finer resolution before being used as drivers for a hydrological model. New hydrological insights for the region: Changes in the annual cycle of precipitation are likely to occur during the 21st century as winter precipitation increases and warmer temperatures reduce snow coverage across the entire domain especially in the northern basins. Maximum precipitation intensities are projected to become more intense across the region by mid-century especially along the coast. Positive trends in 3-day peak flows are also projected in the region as a result of the more intense precipitation, whereas the magnitude of 7-day low flows and mean base flows are projected to decrease. The length of the low flows season will likely extend by mid-century despite the increased precipitation as the atmospheric demand increases. Keywords: Streamflow peaks, Low flows, Trend analysis, Intense precipitation, Base flows

  15. India’s Look/Act East Policy and the Northeast Region: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Hiranya K Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available India’s Look East Policy (LEP signifies a strategic shift in its international political, economic, and military relationships. Regional integration of its Northeast Region (NER with the countries in East, Southeast and South Asia may potentially generate economic dividends to the region. However, there are formidable challenges in realizing the potentials. The proposed infrastructure projects, if completed with no further delay, will go a long way in improving connectivity with the neighbouring countries. However, improving connectivity within the region and with the rest of the country is also very important. Further, it would require a comprehensive long-term plan with well-defined projects for developing industries and services including education, health and tourism. Building infrastructure, ensuring socio-political stability and ecological balance, and improving the quality of institutions would be a major part of this plan.

  16. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  17. Assessment of economic impact of deforestations from north-east development region, romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Ana Maria; Fensholt, Rasmus; Papuc, Razvan Mihail

    2017-01-01

    as construction material and combustible. We investigated the evolution of forest areas in North-East Development Region and the incomes in economy related to forest activities (sylviculture and other forestry activities, logging, sawing and plantation of woods, joinery installations and wholesale of woods......Nowadays, deforestation process in Romania is in a growing trend considering the need for wood in industrial process, the fast rate of illegal logging and the need for lands in agriculture. Forest areas are subject of an increase pressure from socio-economic factors. Wood is used frequently...

  18. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria C.F.; Albuquerque, Antonio M.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo A.; Lima, Fabiana F.

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to activity determination of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapeutic procedures. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the radionuclide calibrators, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in the Brazilian northeast region, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  19. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  20. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  2. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  3. Eurasian continental background and regionally polluted levels of ozone and CO observed in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, Pakpong; Kato, Shungo; Katsuno, Takao; Akimoto, Hajime

    The roles of Eurasian/Siberian continental air masses transport and the impact of large-scale East Asian anthropogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide levels in northeast Asia were investigated. Seasonal behaviors of O 3 and CO mixing ratios in background continental (BC) air masses and regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses were identified using trajectory analyses of Eurasian continental air masses and multi-year O 3 and CO data observed at Happo, a mountain site in Japan. RPC air masses show significantly higher O 3 and CO mixing ratios (annual average of 53.9±6.0 and 200±41 ppb, respectively) than BC air masses (44.4±3.6 and 167±17 ppb, respectively). Large scale anthropogenic emissions in East Asia are suggested to contribute about 10 ppb of photochemical O 3 and 32 ppb of CO at Happo. A comparative study of O 3 and CO observed at other sites, i.e., Oki Islands and Mondy in northeast Asia, showed similarities suggesting that O 3 mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo could be representative for remote northeast Asia. However, CO mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo are higher than the background level in Siberia. The overestimate is probably related to an increase in the CO baseline gradient between Siberia and the East Asia Pacific rim, and perturbations by sub-grid scale pollution transport and regional-scale boreal forest fires in Siberia when the background continental air masses are transported to Japan.

  4. Note of the 20 December 2016 on the elaboration of regional biomass schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; GESLAIN-LANEELLE, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This official note informs Region prefects on modalities of elaboration of regional biomass schemes, and provides them with data on mobilizable biomass resources at the regional level. It briefly presents the legal framework of the scheme elaboration, the elaboration agenda, and the scope of usages of biomass to be considered within the scheme. It discusses the articulation between regional and national schemes, from a global point of view as well as in terms works of elaboration. It briefly describes how the regional scheme is to be assessed. Appendices present planning and programming elements to be taken into account, elements of explanation for the regional biomass table, institutions represented in the information and orientation committee of the national scheme, and regional biomass tables which contain detailed assessments of the various biomass resources for each French region

  5. Hydro - nuclear strategy in the expansion of the North and Northeast regions interconnected system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1981-04-01

    The settlement of nuclear power plants in the North and Northeast Regions Interconnected System, taking into consideration merely economic analysis, is studied. Assuming that the system isn't connected with the Southeast Region, expansion alternatives were defined supported by an optimization model which mathematical formulation was based on a Linear Programming. The main model conditioning was the eletric energy market requirements evolution of the mentioned regions, estimated up to 2010, regarding tendencies presented by forecast elaborated by ELETROBRAS. The system was designed to assure its continuously attendance, even in the case of occurrence of a critical hidrological period, employing as generation sources hidroeletric plants and PWR nuclear power plants of 1245 MWe, similar to ANGRA II. (Author) [pt

  6. Food flora in 17th century Northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-06-25

    This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as "umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), "mandacaru" (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and "carnauba" (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today.

  7. Diversity and similarity of native forest fragments located in the northeast region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Riquetti Corsini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study 26 distributed fragments of native forest in four located hydrographical Basins in the northeast region of Minas Gerais had been showed, with the purpose of analyzing the floristic similarity exists between 26 forest fragments native inserted in four basins in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais and the diversity and evenness of physiognomies studied and groups of fragments formed. Systematic sampling with units was used shows of 1000 m² each, where the sample area varied of 1 the 6 has, as the area I break up of it. We measured the circumference at 1.30m (CAP and the total height and collected botanical material of all individuals with CAP greater or equal to 15.7 cm. Six groups were formed according to the floristic similarity coefficient Sorensen, with four groups there was an association of more than a physiognomy, showing regions of transition within the area. The Shannon diversity index, ranged from 2.236 in deciduous forest to 4.523 in Semideciduous Forest. The maximum and minimum values of evenness index Pielou were 0.850 and 0.616 , respectively. The floristic group 2 (Semideciduous Forest and Cerrado sensu stricto had the highest average value of diversity (3.585 and evenness (0.750 , and group 1 (Deciduous Forest had the lowest values (H': 2.426 and J': 0.687 .

  8. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  9. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  10. Regional-scale relationships between aerosol and summer monsoon circulation, and precipitation over northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soon-Chang; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Suk-Jin; Choi, In-Jin

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the regional-scale relationships between columnar aerosol loads and summer monsoon circulation, and also the precipitation over northeast Asia using aerosol optical depth (AOD) data obtained from the 8-year MODIS, AERONET Sun/sky radiometer, and precipitation data acquired under the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). These high-quality data revealed the regional-scale link between AOD and summer monsoon circulation, precipitation in July over northeast Asian countries, and their distinct spatial and annual variabilities. Compared to the mean AOD for the entire period of 2001-2008, the increase of almost 40-50% in the AOD value in July 2005 and July 2007 was found over the downwind regions of China (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea), with negative precipitation anomalies. This can be attributable to the strong westerly confluent flows, between cyclone flows by continental thermal low centered over the northern China and anticyclonic flows by the western North Pacific High, which transport anthropogenic pollution aerosols emitted from east China to aforementioned downwind high AOD regions along the rim of the Pacific marine airmass. In July 2002, however, the easterly flows transported anthropogenic aerosols from east China to the southwestern part of China in July 2002. As a result, the AOD off the coast of China was dramatically reduced in spite of decreasing rainfall. From the calculation of the cross-correlation coefficient between MODIS-derived AOD anomalies and GPCP precipitation anomalies in July over the period 2001-2008, we found negative correlations over the areas encompassed by 105-115°E and 30-35°N and by 120-140°E and 35-40°N (Yellow Sea, Korean peninsula, and East Sea). This suggests that aerosol loads over these regions are easily influenced by the Asian monsoon flow system and associated precipitation.

  11. THE TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STRUCTURAL FUNDS IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Alexandru MOROŞAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating economic growth is one of the key issues of economic sciences. The European Union has developed several policies and has allocated a considerable budget to reduce economic disparities among its members. The states that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 undertake extensive efforts to align their economy with the community level. But a new problem arises, there is a risk that more economically developed areas absorb more funds that less developed ones, and thus amplifying the disparities within the region. This paper shows that this problem is found in the North-East Region of Romania, and as a consequence additional problems appear, that affect the sustainable economic development.

  12. Comparison of runoff and soil loss in different tillage systems in the Mollisol region of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longitudinal ridge tillage is the conventional tillage method in the cold, Mollisol region of Northeast China in which furrows are oriented up and down the slope. Soil erosion is a serious problem in this region in part due to the use of this tillage system with long slope lengths. It is unclear wha...

  13. Regional impacts of expanding gas-fired electric generation in the northeast US and eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.

    2002-01-01

    New York, New England, Ontario, Quebec and Canada's Maritime provinces come under the jurisdiction of the Northeast Power Coordinating Committee (NPCC) of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The objective of this Council is to assist with the coordination of electric supply, as well as transmission planning and reliability for the utilities. The annual ten year forecast of electric supply, demand and fuel sources produced by the NERC formed the basis for the data presented. The deregulation of the electricity market in a few jurisdictions in the region resulted in the break-up of several electric utilities into their core components, namely, generation, distribution and transmission. The generation sector is where the fastest break-up activity is taking place, and merchant energy companies are emerging. Each of these merchant energy companies is competing against the other to effect sales into the wholesale power market through the building of at risk generation plants. The deregulation process is subjected to different processes and time tables depending on each state or province regulations. The construction of new power plants in the region is being driven by the merchant energy companies. They are building low capital cost and highly efficient natural gas combined-cycle base load plants as well as lower cost and moderately efficient natural gas/oil-fired simple-cycle peaking plants. This activity is mainly restricted to the United States, since hydroelectric power, coal and nuclear power are the main presence in Canada. New England experiences summer peaks while Canada has winter peak electric demand. To optimize intra-regional peak generation capacity sharing, there is an opportunity for the electric industry to move gas by wire, and a number of projects are being developed. It is expected that pipeline expansion will be lower in Quebec and Ontario and result in more capacity expansions from the Maritimes combined with intra-regional

  14. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  15. Developing the "Compendium of Strategies to Reduce Teacher Turnover in the Northeast and Islands Region." A Companion to the Database. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Pamela; Grogan, Marian; Levy, Abigail Jurist; Tucker-Seeley, Kevon

    2008-01-01

    This report provides state-, regional-, and district-level decisionmakers in the Northeast and Islands Region with a description of the "Compendium of Strategies to Reduce Teacher Turnover in the Northeast and Islands Region," a searchable database of selected profiles of retention strategies implemented in Connecticut, Maine,…

  16. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  17. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-01-01

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level, the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in two multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass

  18. The variability and forcing of currents within a frontal region off the northeast coast of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrowicz, E. M.; Brown, J.

    1993-08-01

    During the summer of 1988 a collaborative experiment between the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) and University College North Wales (UCNW) was undertaken to study the dynamics of a near-shore frontal region off the northeast coast of England. The experiment is one of the most intensive studies of the current structure of a shelf sea front undertaken. Currents were measured using an ocean surface current RADAR (OSCR), ship-borne ADCP, Lagrangian drifters and moored current meters. The current meter moorings held conventional meters at mid-depth and near the bed and S4 electromagnetic current meters near the surface. The mean, low frequency (Continental Shelf Research, 1, 191-207) with some deviations due to nearshore effects.

  19. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Agra

    Full Text Available This work has the objective a survey of the species of plants and their uses as medicinal, which are utilized for therapeutic purposes in Northeast region of Brazil. The area of study is recognized by a rich diversity of species of plants and habitats that ranges from Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, coastal dunes systems and mangroves, to dry forests and savannas. As results, a total of 650 species belonging to 407 genera and 111 families were recorded and also their ethnomedicinal information. The floristic diversity is dominated by higher plants and only five species belonging to the families Aspleniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Equisetaceae, Polypodiaceae and Selaginellaceae were reported belonging to the Ferns group, which correspond to less than 1 % of the total of the registered species. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of investigation of those species that have not been subject of pharmacological study, although their popular uses have already been reported.

  20. The adjustment of global and partial dry biomass models for Pinus pinaster in the North-East of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Domingos; Almeida, L.R.; Castro, João Paulo; Aranha, José

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystems net primary production quantification can be done by means of allometric equations. Carbon sequestration studies also involve the quantification of growth dry biomass, knowing the carbon percentage of dry biomass. Fieldwork complexity to collect these kind of data are often limitative for obtaining these mathematical models. Allometric equations were adjusted to estimate dry biomass of individual Pinus pinaster trees, using data from 30 trees. Statisticals form the final equatio...

  1. Constructing a Regional Order: Northeast Asia and the Systemic Constraints on Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vance, Terence J

    2006-01-01

    .... Using a truly unique International Relations approach, this thesis explores the utility of Alexander Wendt's Social Theory of International Politics to address the evolving structure of Northeast...

  2. The north-east Baffin Bay region, offshore Greenland - a new frontier petroleum exploration region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregersen, U. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In recent years the Arctic has come into focus for hydrocarbon exploration, and areas offshore both West and East Greenland have been evaluated as promising frontier hydrocarbon provinces. Seven hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation licenses were awarded in 2007-2008 offshore the Disko-Nuussuaq region, and two more have been awarded in the open-door region offshore south-western Greenland. In 2007, an extensive amount of new seismic and aero-magnetic data was acquired by the TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company in the north-eastern Baffin Bay region. Geophysical mapping has been initiated by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) in the Melville Bugt region offshore North-West Greenland with the purpose of evaluating the hydrocarbon prospectivity. Initial interpretation of seismic and gravity data suggests the presence of deep sedimentary basins separated by structural highs. Geological information on source rock, reservoir rock and seal intervals from surrounding regions suggest that the Melville Bugt region is likely to have a significant petroleum potential. The study is based on public domain magnetic and gravity data, and all proprietary and public 2-D seismic data acquired before 2003. Seismic horizons from the 'seismic basement' to 'base Quaternary' are being interpreted regionally. Based on the seismic interpretation, a structural element map, depth-structure maps and isopach maps will be produced in order to assess the prospectivity of the Melville Bugt region. (au)

  3. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47 ∘ 35 N, 133 ∘ 31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C 2 -C 11 ) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C 4 ) acid > oxalic (C 2 ) acid > malonic (C 3 ) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC 2 ), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C 3 /C 4 , maleic acid/fumaric acid, C 2 /ωC 2 , and C 2 /levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  5. The relationship between precipitation and insurance data for floods in a Mediterranean region (northeast Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortès, Maria; Turco, Marco; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Llasat, Maria Carmen

    2018-03-01

    Floods in the Mediterranean region are often surface water floods, in which intense precipitation is usually the main driver. Determining the link between the causes and impacts of floods can make it easier to calculate the level of flood risk. However, up until now, the limitations in quantitative observations for flood-related damages have been a major obstacle when attempting to analyse flood risk in the Mediterranean. Flood-related insurance damage claims for the last 20 years could provide a proxy for flood impact, and this information is now available in the Mediterranean region of Catalonia, in northeast Spain. This means a comprehensive analysis of the links between flood drivers and impacts is now possible. The objective of this paper is to develop and evaluate a methodology to estimate flood damages from heavy precipitation in a Mediterranean region. Results show that our model is able to simulate the probability of a damaging event as a function of precipitation. The relationship between precipitation and damage provides insights into flood risk in the Mediterranean and is also promising for supporting flood management strategies.

  6. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  7. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  8. Nonconformity of policy ambitions with biomass potentials in regional bioenergy transition: A Dutch example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özcan, Evren; Arentsen, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Numerous regional authorities within the European Union are committed to meet renewable energy targets in line with the EU-20-20-20 strategy. Energy from biomass occupies a pivotal position in the renewable energy strategy of many regions. Effective bioenergy policy often depends on an assessment of the regional resource potential for energy from biomass. Using the Dutch province of Overijssel as a case study, this study presents a biomass resource potential assessment, based on existing statistics and a resource-focused methodology, to determine the region's theoretical and technical potential. Additionally, a methodological framework is provided to translate the outcome of this biomass resource potential assessment into the policy domain, to allow the region's bioenergy policy ambition to be evaluated. The results indicate that Overijssel's potential bioenergy target is a share of 8.3%, which does not match with the desired policy target of 14%. It is therefore clear that it is unlikely that the province's bioenergy ambition will be met with the current supply of biomass, in the absence of additional policy measures. The outcome of the biomass resource potential assessment has therefore been used to deduce and recommend multiple policy measures. - Highlights: • Biomass resource potential assessment performed with Dutch province as case study. • Methodology presented to translate technical biomass potential into policy domain. • Nonconformity found between the province's policy ambition and biomass potential. • Five policy measures identified to cope with this nonconformity

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MSW COLLECTION SERVICES ON REGIONAL SCALE: SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND URBAN DISPARITIES IN NORTH-EAST REGION, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-CONSTANTIN MIHAI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cities are facing illegal dumping of municipal solid waste (MSW because the waste collection facilities do not cover the entire population. Furthermore, this sector is poorly developed in small towns or villages annexed to administrative territory units (ATU of cities , MSW are disposed in open dumps polluting the local environment. This paper analyzes on the one hand the urban disparities on public access to waste collection services (WCS in the North-East Region on the other hand, it performs a comparative analysis between 2003 and 2010 outlining the changes made in the context of Romania’s accession to EU. Also, it performs a quantitative assessment method of uncollected waste at urban level and correlated to demographic features of each city. Spatial-temporal analysis of waste indicators using thematic cartography or GIS techniques should be a basic tool for environmental monitoring or assessment of projects from this field in every development region (NUTS 2. The EU acquis requires the closure of noncompliant landfills, the extension of waste collection services, the development of facilities for separate collection, recycling and reuse according to waste hierarchy concept. Full coverage of urban population to waste collection services is necessary to provide a proper management of this sector. Urban disparities between counties and within counties highlights that current traditional waste management system is an environmental threat at local and regional scale.

  10. Program of Regional Collaboration between Eastern Part of Russia and Northeast China: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author uses Russian and Chinese sources of information to analyze the current status and evaluate realization prospects of investment projects within the Cooperation Program between eastern regions of Russia and northeast China. State budget financed construction of transport and border infrastructure is being implemented as planned both in Russia and China. Sectoral distribution of key Program projects is found to be unbalanced: Russian regions specialize in mining and primary processing of natural resources while Chinese ones - in products with high share of added value. The study reveals that among 104 scheduled key Russian projects (at the cost of 47,9 billion USD only 24 projects are under implementation (11,77 billion USD, 8 of which are carried out with the help of Chinese investments (1,77 billion USD. Joint ventures are connected with mining operations, primary processing of wood, construction of houses, manufacturing of building materials, assembly production and trade. Among 111 scheduled Program Chinese projects (at the cost of 9,87 billion USD only 42 projects are under implementation (6,1 billion USD; they are associated with engineering products. There is only one Russian-Chinese joint venture on the territory of China (at the cost of 0,63 billion USD. The author suggests that in the near future 20 additional Program projects can be implemented in Russia (at the cost of more than 20 billion USD and 6 projects (about 0,5 billion USD - in China

  11. 75 FR 44223 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; South Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... condition. In the South Atlantic Region, red grouper is subject to overfishing and is in an overfished...; overfishing is occurring, a stock is in an overfished condition, or a stock is approaching an overfished...

  12. Impacts of the 2013 Extreme Flood in Northeast China on Regional Groundwater Depth and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flooding’s impact on shallow groundwater is not well investigated. In this study, we analyzed changes in the depth and quality of a regional shallow aquifer in the 10.9 × 104 km2 Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, following a large flood in the summer of 2013. Pre- (2008–2012 and post-flood records on groundwater table depth and groundwater chemistry were gathered from 20 wells across the region. Spatial variability of groundwater recharge after the flood was assessed and the changes in groundwater quality in the post-flood period were determined. The study found a considerable increase in the groundwater table after the 2013 summer flood across the region, with the largest (3.20 m and fastest (0.80 m·s−1 rising height occurring in western Sanjiang Plain. The rising height and velocity gradually declined from the west to the east of the plain. For the entire region, we estimated an average recharge height of 1.24 m for the four flood months (June to September of 2013. Furthermore, we found that the extreme flood reduced nitrate (NO3− and chloride (Cl− concentrations and electrical conductivity (EC in shallow groundwater in the areas that were close to rivers, but increased NO3− and Cl− concentrations and EC in the areas that were under intensive agricultural practices. As the region’s groundwater storage and quality have been declining due to the rapidly increasing rice cultivation, this study shows that floods should be managed as water resources to ease the local water shortage as well as shallow groundwater pollution.

  13. Regional climate projections for Northeast India: an appraisal from CORDEX South Asia experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Dimri, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    An appraisal of the recent changes in the present climate (1970-2005) followed by the possible future (2006-2100) changes in the climate has been carried out in the current study using the observations and regional climate model (REMO) over the Northeast Indian region. The regional climate model simulation has been used from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) South Asia framework. A consistent warming for the winter (December, January, and February (DJF)) and post-monsoon (October and November (ON)) has been observed for the present climate especially in the northern and eastern parts of the region. The changes in the near future (2020-2049) and far future (2070-2099) temperature climatology suggest a rise in temperature by 3-8 °C across different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The rate of long-term (1970-2099) increase in temperature has been found ranging between 0.01 and 0.07 °C/year across the region in the least emission (RCP2.6) to strongest emission (RCP8.5) scenarios. The daily mean precipitation statistics suggests an overall increasing trends of precipitation during the pre-monsoon (March, April, and May (MAM)) for the present across the region with a mixed trend in other seasons. A change in daily mean precipitation ranging from - 60% (during winter) to + 40% during post-monsoon has been projected by the model across different RCPs. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show a strong deficit in precipitation in the warmer climate across the region as compared to RCP2.6. This fact is also confirmed from the long-term trend of precipitation where a consistent decreasing trend dominates in the RCP4.5- and RCP8.5-simulated precipitations by the end of the twenty-first century. A large model bias in temperature and precipitation along with high amount of uncertainty is associated with the model simulations; thus, in order to use the projections, a more careful approach to improve the utility of downscaled product should be adopted.

  14. Potential of Agricultural Biomass: Comparative Review of Selected EU Regions and Region of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that the EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020, and having in mind their high dependence on import of oil and oil derivatives, which, in turn, causes instability of power supply, increasing attention is being paid to renewable energy sources. Given the ongoing pre-accession process of the Republic of Serbia in relation to the EU, in order to determine the capacity of the country to increase the share of energy use from renewable sources, in this paper clustering of selected regions in the EU-28 has been carried out, after which a comparative analysis of regions was performed in terms of potential of agricultural biomass, for the purpose of generating energy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of the region of Vojvodina in relation to ten selected EU regions, based on parameters that affect the potential for using renewable energy sources, primarily residues from agriculture. By applying the K-means method, Borda count method and comparative analysis, and based on empirical data, results show that the region of Vojvodina takes a significant fifth place. Its share of agricultural land ranks it as the first, whereas production of cereals and the total number of farms larger than 100 ha rank it as the second. It could be concluded that Vojvodina is an agricultural region with large quantities of plant remains, primarily those left over from harvest, which represents a significant potential for energy generation from agricultural biomass.

  15. Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL CAMARĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania's population has declined steadily from 23.2 million in 1990 to 21.5 million inhabitants in 2007. This overall decline in population is not entirely true for the towns and cities of the North-East Region, as during the same period they recorded both decreases and increases in population due to positive natural balance. The North-East Region (partially superimposed over the historic region of the western Moldova is considered the poorest region in the European Union and a disadvantaged area. The rural young population of Moldova is a reservoir which supplies urban areas and especially large cities. In these circumstances, the small towns of the North-East Region are seeking balance (demographic, economic, functional. This paper examines the demographic evolution of the small towns located in the area under analysis, in the post-communist period, illustrating the types of fluctuations in statistical methods as regards demographic changes and the risk of depopulation in the future, correlated with a lower overall population of Romania.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  17. Sustained mass loss of the northeast Greenland ice sheet triggered by regional warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Bevis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has been one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise over the past 20 years, accounting for 0.5 mm yr(-1) of a total of 3.2 mm yr(-1). A significant portion of this contribution is associated with the speed-up of an increased number of glaciers in southeast...... and northwest Greenland. Here, we show that the northeast Greenland ice stream, which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing sustained dynamic thinning, linked to regional warming, after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the Greenland ice sheet...... is of particular interest, because the drainage basin area covers 16% of the ice sheet (twice that of Jakobshavn Isbrae) and numerical model predictions suggest no significant mass loss for this sector, leading to an under-estimation of future global sea-level rise. The geometry of the bedrock and monotonic trend...

  18. Health work: portrait of community workers in the Northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Paloma Ribeiro Pires; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of community health workers in northeastern Brazil and aspects related to the management of their work. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 535 community agents who were distributed in 107 primary health units in northeastern Brazil. The data were extracted from eight blocks of questions related to the community agents' perceptions about social-demographic, economic and political factors; their contracts and remuneration; their evaluation as workers; their working conditions and their training. The results indicate that the majority of community agents in the northeast region were hired by direct administration. The main form of hiring community agents was by public exam, followed by public selection. Direct administration is the main form of hiring; however, new modalities, such as the public and private law foundations, social organizations, and inter-municipal consortiums are alternatives that have been adopted by managers which can produce a number of weaknesses due to flexible labor relations.

  19. EXPLAINING FOREST COMPOSITION AND BIOMASS ACROSS MULTIPLE BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current scientific concerns regarding the impacts of global change include the responses of forest composition and biomass to rapid changes in climate, and forest gap models, have often been used to address this issue. These models reflect the concept that forest composition and...

  20. Insight on invasions and resilience derived from spatiotemporal discontinuities of biomass at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Criag R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the social and ecological consequences of species invasions is complicated by nonlinearities in processes, and differences in process and structure as scale is changed. Here we use discontinuity analyses to investigate nonlinear patterns in the distribution of biomass of an invasive nuisance species that could indicate scale-specific organization. We analyze biomass patterns in the flagellate Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyta) in 75 boreal lakes during an 11-year period (1997-2007). With simulations using a unimodal null model and cluster analysis, we identified regional groupings of lakes based on their biomass patterns. We evaluated the variability of membership of individual lakes in regional biomass groups. Temporal trends in local and regional discontinuity patterns were analyzed using regressions and correlations with environmental variables that characterize nutrient conditions, acidity status, temperature variability, and water clarity. Regionally, there was a significant increase in the number of biomass groups over time, indicative of an increased number of scales at which algal biomass organizes across lakes. This increased complexity correlated with the invasion history of G. semen and broad-scale environmental change (recovery from acidification). Locally, no consistent patterns of lake membership to regional biomass groups were observed, and correlations with environmental variables were lake specific. The increased complexity of regional biomass patterns suggests that processes that act within or between scales reinforce the presence of G. semen and its potential to develop high-biomass blooms in boreal lakes. Emergent regional patterns combined with locally stochastic dynamics suggest a bleak future for managing G. semen, and more generally why invasive species can be ecologically successful.

  1. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  2. Estimation of hourly ultraviolet solar irradiance in the semi-arid northeast region of Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ricardo C. de; Tiba, Chigueru [Dept. de Energia Nuclear da Univ. Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Two computational codes, SPCTRAL2 and SMARTS2, were used for estimating ultraviolet solar irradiance in a locality of the semi-arid region of the Northeast of Brazil. The softwares presented simplicity of use, precision and relative ease in obtaining the input variables: zenith angle, atmospheric pressure in relation to sea level, relative humidity of the air, amount of precipitable water, total ozone and the aerosol optic depths (AOD). All these variables are measured in conventional meteorological stations, except for the aerosol optic depth. The AOD was measured with an apparatus that was constructed with a narrow band LED sensor, centered in 555nm which measures the monochromatic radiation transmission through the terrestrial atmosphere, which can be described by Beer's law. The measurements for obtaining the AOD were carried out during the months of December, 2006 and January, 2007 for Pesqueira-PE (Longitude -36.77 and Latitude 8.4 ) semi-arid region of Pernambuco, at intervals of 10 and 10 minutes, simultaneously. The ultraviolet solar irradiation was measured with a TURV (Total Ultraviolet Radiometer) Eppley Pyranometer on a minute scale. The computational simulations with SPCTRAL2 and SMARTS2 were made considering the following cases: (a) obtention of daily AOD, or be it, coming from the linear extrapolation of all the data along the day (b) obtention of hourly AOD, or be it the linearization by parts (piecewise). In the first case, the results of the simulations of ultraviolet solar irradiance and ultraviolet radiation index show an error of 4% and 13% for solar midday, and 78% at end of afternoon, when compared with the values measured with the TURV pyranometer. These results were significantly improved when using the AOD obtained on hourly bases: an error of 6.7 % for solar midday, a maximum error of 10% between 11 and 13 h, a maximum error of 20% between 10 and 14h and finally a maximum error of 30% between 9 and 15h. (orig.)

  3. MEASUREMENT THE LEVELS OF LITERACY IN THE NORTHEAST REGION OF BAHIA (1857-1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaide de Oliveira Novais Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze, in an exploratory fashion, ecclesiastical and parish records of land ownership, and municipality council notebooks from three localities in the Northeast region of Bahia: Bom Conselho (1857- 1859, Tucano (1865-1869 and Itapicuru (1875-1878, opposing the occurrence of alphabetical signatures or the delegation of signatures with the variables “geographic origin” and “sex” of those involved in the documentation, in order to measure the levels of literacy in this region of Bahia in the nineteenth century. In order to contribute with the process of diffusion of writing practices in the bahian rural society in the threshold of the non census period , by the critical application of what is called “method of the computation of signatures” to documental sources produced by the Law of Lands (1850. The results show that the ability of that type of proprietors in the documentation is relatively high in the cities we´ve investigated: Itapicuru, 86,36%, Tucano, 50,80%, and Bom Conselho, 45,91%. This is a different result if we´re comparing to the remaining population shown in the Census of 1872, once it seems to indicate a specific group, with ownerships, representing a specialization of writing ability and, also, texts mostly written by men (64,08%. Those sources include part of the rural population, specifically the proprietors of lands, and offer an approximate census survey of the ability to write signatures in the context of the regulation of lands. The main objective is to contribute with the history of the Portuguese language in the inland of Bahia, through one of the ways proposed by Houaiss (1985, the penetration of the written language in Brazil.

  4. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  5. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (RUSSULACEAE, FUNGI, BASIDIOMYCOTA IN FOREST HABITATS FROM THE NORTH-EAST REGION (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COPOT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal macromycetes are, generally, an important ecological component for forest habitats, and a valuable resource in the context of sustainable development of rural communities in the North-East Region of Romania. The woody species distribution is an extremely important factor for the ECM macromycetes presence. The purpose of this study was to elaborate maps of potential distribution for some ECM edible macromycetes from Russula and Lactarius genera, based on chorological information, ICAS Forest Types Map, vegetation tables and bibliographical sources. These information allowed the elaboration of 15 potential maps of distribution for 15 edible species of Russula and Lactarius. The study was based entirely on the plant – fungal associations. The results highlighted that in the North-East Region of Romania there is a noteworthy potential for Russulaceae species. As expected, there is a large amplitude of species presence in the field depending on the fungal specificity for tree host and tree species distribution.

  6. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...... drought and intense rainfall illustrate the importance of further development of irrigation and drainage systems for ensuring the stability of maize production in NFR....

  7. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V.; Marques, Ana Claudia S.

    1999-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil

  8. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.

  9. Regional biomass supply: three case studies in the Midwest, US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.; Alexander, R.R.; Graham, R.L. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Increased interest in the development and utilization of alternative energy sources has generated research demonstrating that fuels developed from energy crops (biofuels) can be a viable substitute for fossil fuels. A national energy program dedicated to the advancement of fuel derived from lignocellulosic crops could have major impacts on conventional energy supplied in the United States. Sufficient biofuel demand would allow conversion of croplands, as well as some pasture and forest lands, into biomass producing lands and possibly return to production acres formerly idled. A shift from crop, pasture or forest production activities to biomass production would likely require changes in the levels of inputs, outputs, and costs associated with these activities, which would impact producers and ultimately consumers. The conversion of cropland or idled land to biomass production will also have impacts on the physical characteristics of the soil. Soil erosion levels, soil chemical composition, soil structure, and organic matter content are some of the many soil attributes which will be impacted as a result of conversion. Research is needed to estimate the impact conversion activities have on these variables.

  10. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways.

  11. Uniformly Processed Strong Motion Database for Himalaya and Northeast Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, I. D.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the first uniformly processed comprehensive database on strong motion acceleration records for the extensive regions of western Himalaya, northeast India, and the alluvial plains juxtaposing the Himalaya. This includes 146 three components of old analog records corrected for the instrument response and baseline distortions and 471 three components of recent digital records corrected for baseline errors. The paper first provides a background of the evolution of strong motion data in India and the seismotectonics of the areas of recording, then describes the details of the recording stations and the contributing earthquakes, which is finally followed by the methodology used to obtain baseline corrected data in a uniform and consistent manner. Two different schemes in common use for baseline correction are based on the application of the Ormsby filter without zero pads (Trifunac 1971) and that on the Butterworth filter with zero pads at the start as well as at the end (Converse and Brady 1992). To integrate the advantages of both the schemes, Ormsby filter with zero pads at the start only is used in the present study. A large number of typical example results are presented to illustrate that the methodology adopted is able to provide realistic velocity and displacement records with much smaller number of zero pads. The present strong motion database of corrected acceleration records will be useful for analyzing the ground motion characteristics of engineering importance, developing prediction equations for various strong motion parameters, and calibrating the seismological source model approach for ground motion simulation for seismically active and risk prone areas of India.

  12. Forecasting of future earthquakes in the northeast region of India considering energy released concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarola, Amit; Sil, Arjun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the forecasting of time and magnitude size of the next earthquake in the northeast India, using four probability distribution models (Gamma, Lognormal, Weibull and Log-logistic) considering updated earthquake catalog of magnitude Mw ≥ 6.0 that occurred from year 1737-2015 in the study area. On the basis of past seismicity of the region, two types of conditional probabilities have been estimated using their best fit model and respective model parameters. The first conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (e × 1020 ergs), which is expected to release in the future earthquake, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy (E × 1020 ergs). And the second conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (a × 1020 ergs/year), which is expected to release per year, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy per year (A × 1020 ergs/year). The logarithm likelihood functions (ln L) were also estimated for all four probability distribution models. A higher value of ln L suggests a better model and a lower value shows a worse model. The time of the future earthquake is forecasted by dividing the total seismic energy expected to release in the future earthquake with the total seismic energy expected to release per year. The epicentre of recently occurred 4 January 2016 Manipur earthquake (M 6.7), 13 April 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.9) and the 24 August 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.8) are located in zone Z.12, zone Z.16 and zone Z.15, respectively and that are the identified seismic source zones in the study area which show that the proposed techniques and models yield good forecasting accuracy.

  13. Improving satellite retrievals of NO2 in biomass burning regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.; Martin, R. V.; Lamsal, L. N.; Mao, J.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The quality of space-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals from solar backscatter depends on a priori knowledge of the NO2 profile shape as well as the effects of atmospheric scattering. These effects are characterized by the air mass factor (AMF) calculation. Calculation of the AMF combines a radiative transfer calculation together with a priori information about aerosols and about NO2 profiles (shape factors), which are usually taken from a chemical transport model. In this work we assess the impact of biomass burning emissions on the AMF using the LIDORT radiative transfer model and a GEOS-Chem simulation based on a daily fire emissions inventory (FLAMBE). We evaluate the GEOS-Chem aerosol optical properties and NO2 shape factors using in situ data from the ARCTAS summer 2008 (North America) and DABEX winter 2006 (western Africa) experiments. Sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosols and the NO2 shape factors used in the AMF calculation. The mean aerosol correction over boreal fires is negligible (+3%), in contrast with a large reduction (-18%) over African savanna fires. The change in sign and magnitude over boreal forest and savanna fires appears to be driven by the shielding effects that arise from the greater biomass burning aerosol optical thickness (AOT) above the African biomass burning NO2. In agreement with previous work, the single scattering albedo (SSA) also affects the aerosol correction. We further investigated the effect of clouds on the aerosol correction. For a fixed AOT, the aerosol correction can increase from 20% to 50% when cloud fraction increases from 0 to 30%. Over both boreal and savanna fires, the greatest impact on the AMF is from the fire-induced change in the NO2 profile (shape factor correction), that decreases the AMF by 38% over the boreal fires and by 62% of the savanna fires. Combining the aerosol and shape factor corrections together results in small differences compared to the

  14. Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR) is a very important crop growing area, comprising seven sub-regions: Xing’anling (XA), Sanjiang (SJ), Northwest Songliao (NSL), Central Songliao (CSL), Southwest Songliao (SSL), Changbaishan (CB) and Liaodong (LD), which has been severely affected...... to become more severe for crop production under climate change. Adaptation measures that have already been implemented in recent decades to cope with current climatic limitations include changes in timing of cultivation, variety choice, soil tillage practices, crop protection, irrigation and use of plastic...

  15. Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross F.

    2010-01-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) / Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 X 10(exp 6) square km study area in the Province of Quebec, Canada, below the tree line. The same input datasets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include non-stratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (biomass)(exp 0.5) serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial dry biomass estimates of up to 0.35 G, with a range of 4.94 +/- 0.28 Gt to 5.29 +/-0.36 Gt. The differences among model estimates are statistically non-significant, however, and the results demonstrate the degree to which carbon estimates vary strictly as a function of the model used to estimate regional biomass. Results also indicate that GLAS measurements become problematic with respect to height and biomass retrievals in the boreal forest when biomass values fall below 20 t/ha and when GLAS 75th percentile heights fall below 7 m.

  16. Characteristics of smoke emissions from biomass fires of the Amazon region--Base-A experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Setzer, A.W.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne sampling system was used to collect grab samples of smokes for analysis of both in-plume smoke characteristics and ambient air in Brazil. In addition to the emission measurements, the chemical composition of the forest biomass burned by one fire in the Amazon region of Brazil was compared to the fuel composition for biomass burned in North America. The limited data set suggests that combustion efficiencies for tropical biomass combustion are higher than those of temperature forest fuels, as are emission factors for carbon dioxide

  17. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Triple-negative Breast Cancers in the Northeast Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Yıldız

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative (TN breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer characterised by a loss of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR expression, and the absence of human epidermal growth factor (HER2 overexpression. Aims: To identify the relationships between clinicopathological characteristics of TN breast cancers in the northeast region of Turkey and disease free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Study Design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: Seven hundred and eighty non-metastatic breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The relationships between TN breast cancer and other breast cancers with respect to clinicopathological characteristics, as well as DFS and OS, were studied. Results: The triple-negative phenotype was detected in 204 patients (27.1%. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer had more grade 2-3 tumours compared to those with other types of breast cancer (92.5% versus 84.3%, p=0.004. Invasive ductal carcinoma histology, on the other hand, was less prevalent in patients with TN breast cancer (77% versus 84.5%, p=0.016. No significant differences were identified between the groups in other clinicopathological variables. Relapse and mortality rates were higher in the TN group during the follow-up of both groups [57 (27.9% versus 89 (16.2%, p<0.001 for relapse; 27 (13.2% versus 37 (6.8%, p=0.005 for mortality]. The univariate analysis demonstrated shorter DFS and OS for patients with TN breast cancer compared to those with other types of breast cancer. In the multivariate analysis, patients with TN breast cancer were 2.21 times more likely to develop relapse, while the likelihood of death increased 3.21-fold (p<0.001 and p<0.001. Conclusion: Triple-negative breast cancers demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course compared to other breast cancers. More effective strategies should be developed for the treatment of this subgroup of breast cancer.

  18. Year-round methane emissions from permafrost in a North-east Siberian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Kaiser, Sonja; Kleinen, Thomas; Kwon, Min Jung; Kittler, Fanny; Zaehle, Sönke; Beer, Christian; Göckede, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, permafrost regions in northern latitudes are thawing as a response of climate warming. Soils in permafrost areas contain vast amounts of organic material that is released into the environment after thaw, providing new labile material for bacterial decomposition. As a result, higher production of methane in the anoxic soil layers and within anaerobic wetlands is anticipated, and this will be further released to the atmosphere. In order to assess the current large-scale methane emissions from a wetland permafrost-thaw affected area, we present results of year-round simulated methane emissions at regional scale for a section at the Russian far Northeast in Siberia, located in the low Arctic tundra and characterized by continuous permafrost. For this we use a newly developed process-based methane model built in the framework of the land surface model JSBACH. The model contains explicit permafrost processes and an improved representation of the horizontal extent of wetlands with a hydrological model (TOPMODEL). Model simulated distribution and horizontal extent of wetlands is evaluated against high-resolution remote sensing data. Total and individual regional methane emissions by ebullition, molecular diffusion, plant-mediated and emissions through snow are presented for 2014 and 2015. The model shows a reasonable seasonal transition between the individual methane emission paths. Most of the methane emissions to the atmosphere occur in summer (July, August, September), with the peak of the emissions during August. In this month, plant-mediated transport is the dominant emission path with about 15 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2014, followed by ebullition (7 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) accounting for about half of the emissions thorough plants. Molecular diffusion is a minor contributor with only 0.006 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 at the peak of the summer emissions. Methane emissions through snow occur only during spring, fall and winter months, with higher emissions in spring and autumn

  19. Distributions of recent gullies on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dichen; Fan, Haoming; Fan, Xiangguo

    2017-09-17

    Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. This study examines the recorded gullies in the BSR of Northeast China, which is included in the first census of water resources in China and in six sub-regions of the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. Specifically, digital elevation model (DEM) data are combined with data on gullies occurring on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects to study the distribution of these features. The results illustrate that gully density, developing gully density, and the proportion of cutting land initially increase with increasing slope up to some threshold value, then decrease as the slope increases further. The patterns of stable gullies are divided into unimodal and bimodal types. Three patterns of gully intensity are identified. The areas and lengths of gullies are larger on sunny slopes, but larger numbers of gullies are present on shaded slopes. In addition, more space is available for gully development in the Hulun Buir hilly and plain sub-region and the Changbai Mountain-Wanda Mountain sub-region than in the other sub-regions.

  20. Maternal near miss among women using the public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, José G; Souza, Renato T; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Leal, Maria C; Moura, Erly C; Santos, Leonor M P

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of pregnancy complications identified as maternal near miss (MNM) and associated factors among women using the public health care system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil. A secondary analysis of a population-based survey conducted in 2010 was performed focusing on women self-reporting maternal complications. The main outcome was MNM, pragmatically defined as intensive care unit admission, eclampsia, hysterectomy, or blood transfusion. In addition, the risk of MNM was estimated for certain sociodemographics and characteristics of care received. Poisson regression was performed, generating adjusted prevalence ratios (PRadj) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 13 044 women (77%) who had given birth during the prior year using the public health system were interviewed. At least one complication was reported by 37.5%, with hemorrhage (28.4%) and infection (8.3%) being the most frequent. The overall MNM ratio was 31.5 per 1 000 live births, higher for the Amazon region than for the Northeast. Factors with a higher risk for developing MNM were: indigenous ethnicity (PRadj 2.77; 95% CI: 1.50-5.14), more than one hour to reach the hospital (PRadj 1.55; 95%CI: 1.06-2.25), being refused by a full hospital and having to find another one (PRadj 1.49; 95%CI: 1.03-2.16), cesarean section (PRadj 2.56; 95%CI: 1.90-3.44), and public prenatal care (PRadj 1.95; 95%CI: 1.06-3.61). Users of public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil have high MNM rates. Some characteristics of the women and of the care they received represent inequalities associated with higher risk for MNM. Specific actions are required to improve maternal health programs in these expansive areas of the country.

  1. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities,...

  2. An evaluation of the regional supply of biomass at three midwestern sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.; Alexander, R.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Research has been conducted on both the agronomy and the conversion of biomass. However, few studies have been initiated that combine the knowledge of growing biomass with site specific resource availability information. An economic appraisal of how much biomass might be grown in a specific area for a given price has only just been initiated. This paper examines the economics of introducing biomass production to three midwest representative areas centered on the following counties, Orange County, Indiana; Olmsted County, Minnesota; and Cass County, North Dakota. Using a regional linear programming model, estimates of economic feasibility as well as environmental impacts are made. At a price of $53 per metric ton the biomass supplied to the plant gate is equal to 183,251 metric tons. At $62 per metric ton the biomass supply has increased to almost 1 million metric tons. The model predicts a maximum price of $88 per metric ton and at this price, 2,748,476 metric tons of biomass are produced.

  3. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  4. Evolution in Intensity and Frequency of Extreme Events of Precipitation in Northeast Region and Brazilian Amazon in XXI Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. M.; Veiga, J. A.; Correia, F. S.; Brito, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was evaluate changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Region, doubling CO2 concentration in agreement of IPCC A2 emissions scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2001). For this evaluation was used ETA model (Chou et al., 2011), forced with CCSM3 Global model data (Meehl, 2006) to run 4 experiments, only for January, February and March: 1980-1990, 2000-2010, 2040-2050 and 2090-2100. Using the first decade as reference (1980-1990), was evaluated changes occurred in following decades, with a methodology to classify extremes events adapted from Frich (2002) and Gao (2006). Higher was the class, more intense is the event. An increase of 25% was observed in total precipitation in Brazilian Amazon for the end of XXI century and 12% for extreme events type 1, 9% for events type 2 and 10% for type 3. By the other hand, a 17% decrease of precipitation in Brazilian Northeast was observed, and a pronounced decay of 24% and 15% in extreme events contribution type 1 and 2 to total amount of precipitation, respectively. The difference between total normal type events was positive in this three decades compared with reference decade 1980-1990, varying positively from 4 to 6 thousand events included in normality by decade, these events was decreased in your majority of Class 1 events, which presented a decay of at least 3.500 events by each decade. This suggests an intensification of extreme events, considering that the amount of precipitation by class increased, and the number of events by class decreased. To Northeast region, an increasing in 9% of contribution to events type 3 class was observed, as well as in the frequency of this type of events (about of 700 more events). Major decreasing in number of classes extreme events occur in 2000-2010, to classes 1 and 3, with 7,2 and 5,6%, and by the end of century in class 3, with 4,5%. For the three analyzed decades a total decrease of 8.400 events was

  5. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  6. Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross

    2008-01-01

    ICESat/GLAS waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 million sq km study area. the Province of Quebec, Canada, below treeline. The same input data sets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include nonstratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (square root of) biomass serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial biomass estimates of up to 0.35 Gt (range 4.942+/-0.28 Gt to 5.29+/-0.36 Gt). The results suggest that if different predictive models are used to estimate regional carbon stocks in different epochs, e.g., y2005, y2015, one might mistakenly infer an apparent aboveground carbon "change" of, in this case, 0.18 Gt, or approximately 7% of the aboveground carbon in Quebec, due solely to the use of different predictive models. These findings argue for model consistency in future, LiDAR-based carbon monitoring programs. Regional biomass estimates from the four GLAS models are compared to ground estimates derived from an extensive network of 16,814 ground plots located in southern Quebec. Stratified models proved to be more accurate and precise than either of the two nonstratified models tested.

  7. Evidence of recent plutonic magmatism beneath Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) and its relationship to regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, A.; Efstathiou, A.; Chailas, S.; Stamatakis, M.

    2018-03-01

    This work reports evidence of recent tectonically controlled plutonic magmatism related to Neogene volcanism in a broad area of Northeast Peloponnesus (Greece) that is straddled by the Hellenic Volcanic Arc and comprises the Argolid, the Argolic and Saronic gulfs and eastern Corinthia including the province of Crommyonia at the western half of Megaris peninsula (western Attica). We assess the contemporary stress field based on formal inversion of well-constrained crustal earthquake focal mechanisms and determine that it is principally extensional and NE-SW oriented, with σ1 strike and plunge being N64° and 77°, respectively and σ3 strikes and plunge N210° and 10°. This generates WNW-ESE and NW-SE faults, the former being dominant in the Saronic Gulf and the latter in the Argolic. In addition, the analysis predicts E-W and N330° faults with non-trivial right- and left-lateral heave, respectively, which are consistent with the R and R΄ directions of Riedel shear theory and explain a number of observed earthquake focal mechanisms and earthquake epicentre alignments. We also present a semi-quantitative analysis of observed aeromagnetic anomalies by performing numerical modelling of the radially averaged power spectrum with an efficient anomaly separation scheme based on a new type of 2-D Fourier domain filter introduced herein, the Radial Extended Meyer Window. This analysis identifies an extensive complex of magnetized rock formations buried at depths greater than 3 km which, given the geology and geotectonic setting of the area, can hardly be explained with anything other than calc-alkaline intrusions (plutons). At northeastern Corinthia and Crommyonia, this type of intrusive activity is unexceptional, mainly concentrated in the Gulf of Megara-Sousaki areas and consistent with the low-intensity, small-scale Pliocene dacitic volcanism observed therein. Conversely, large-scale elongate anomalies of E-W and N330° orientation have been identified in the Argolid

  8. [Effects of altitudes on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in alpine-gorge regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Fu Zhong; Yang, Wan Qin; Xu, Zhen Feng; Tani, Bo; Wang, Bin; Li, Jun; Chang, Chen Hui

    2016-04-22

    In order to understand the variations of soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities with the change of altitude, a field incubation was conducted in dry valley, ecotone between dry valley and mountain forest, subalpine coniferous forest, alpine forest and alpine meadow from 1563 m to 3994 m of altitude in the alpine-gorge region of western Sichuan. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and the activities of invertase, urease and acid phosphorus were measured in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities showed the similar tendency in soil organic layer. They increased from 2158 m to 3028 m, then decreased to the lowest value at 3593 m, and thereafter increased until 3994 m in the alpine-gorge region. In contrast, the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in mineral soil layer showed the trends as, the subalpine forest at 3028 m > alpine meadow at 3994 m > montane forest ecotone at 2158 m > alpine forest at 3593 m > dry valley at 1563 m. Regardless of altitudes, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in soil organic layer than in mineral soil layer. The soil microbial biomass was significantly positively correlated with the activities of the measured soil enzymes. Moreover, both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, organic carbon, and total nitrogen. The activity of soil invertase was significantly positively correlated with soil phosphorus content, and the soil acid phosphatase was so with soil phosphorus content and soil temperature. In brief, changes in vegetation and other environmental factors resulting from altitude change might have strong effects on soil biochemical properties in the alpine-gorge region.

  9. Overview of childhood cancers at a regional cancer centre in North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munlima; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Bhuyan, Cidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Monalisha; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.

  10. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... coastal currents thus reducing density of water masses influencing major deep water formation areas in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean. Ultimately, the observed freshening could have implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  11. Decree nr 2016-1134 of the August 19, 2016 related to the national strategy of mobilisation of biomass and to biomass regional schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene; Le Foll, Stephane; Cosse, Emmanuelle; Macron, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This decree concern operators of some specific sectors (agriculture, forest and wood, waste collection and management, fishery, algae and aquaculture) and local authorities, and addresses the implementation of regional biomass schemes and the national strategy of mobilisation of biomass. It determines the content of this strategy and of these regional schemes with application of various legal articles of the Code of Energy and of the Code of the Environment

  12. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  13. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  14. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  15. Regional impacts of expanding gas-fired electric generation in the Northeast U.S. and Eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, the author placed emphasis on the northeast United States, including New York, New England, plus Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces in Canada. The entire region comes under the Northeast Power Coordinating Committee (NPCC) of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). The objective of this Council is to assist with the coordination of electric supply as well as transmission planning and reliability of the utilities. The annual ten year forecast of electric supply, demand and fuel sources produced by the NERC formed the basis for the data presented. The deregulation of the electricity market in a few jurisdictions in the region resulted in the break-up of several electric utilities into their core components: generation, distribution and transmission. The generation sector is where the fastest break-up activity is taking place and merchant energy companies are emerging. Each of these merchant energy companies is competing against the other to effect sales into the wholesale power market through the building of at risk generation plants. The deregulation process is subjected to different processes and time tables depending on each state or provincial regulations. The construction of new power plants in the region is being driven by the merchant energy companies. They are building low capital cost and highly efficient natural gas combined-cycle base load plants as well as lower cost and moderately efficient natural gas/oil-fired simple-cycle peaking plants. This activity is mainly restricted to the United States, since hydroelectric power, coal and nuclear power are the main presence in Canada. New England experiences summer peaks while Canada has winter peak electric demand. To optimize intra-regional peak generation capacity sharing, there is an opportunity for the electric industry to move gas by wire, and a number of projects are being developed. It is expected that pipeline expansion will be lower in

  16. Regional mapping of forest canopy water content and biomass using AIRSAR images over BOREAS study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan; Rignot, Eric; Vanzyl, Jakob

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring vegetation biomass over various climate zones has become the primary focus of several studies interested in assessing the role of the ecosystem responses to climate change and human activities. Airborne and spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems provide a useful tool to directly estimate biomass due to its sensitivity to structural and moisture characteristics of vegetation canopies. Even though the sensitivity of SAR data to total aboveground biomass has been successfully demonstrated in many controlled experiments over boreal forests and forest plantations, so far, no biomass estimation algorithm has been developed. This is mainly due to the fact that the SAR data, even at lowest frequency (P-band) saturates at biomass levels of about 200 tons/ha, and the structure and moisture information in the SAR signal forces the estimation algorithm to be forest type dependent. In this paper, we discuss the development of a hybrid forest biomass algorithm which uses a SAR derived land cover map in conjunction with a forest backscatter model and an inversion algorithm to estimate forest canopy water content. It is shown that unlike the direct biomass estimation from SAR data, the estimation of water content does not depend on the seasonal and/or environmental conditions. The total aboveground biomass can then be derived from canopy water content for each type of forest by incorporating other ecological information. Preliminary results from this technique over several boreal forest stands indicate that (1) the forest biomass can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, and (2) the saturation level of the SAR signal can be enhanced by separating the crown and trunk biomass in the inversion algorithm. We have used the JPL AIRSAR data over BOREAS southern study area to test the algorithm and to generate regional scale water content and biomass maps. The results are compared with ground data and the sources of errors are discussed. Several SAR

  17. The Challenging Task of Governing Cross-Border Investment in Peripheral Regions: Polish Investors in Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinder Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the challenging task of governing cross-border investment in peripheral regions. The main objective is to identify common opportunities and obstacles in the Pomerania Euroregion by taking the case study of Polish citizens/ entrepreneurs investing in northeast Germany. This relatively new phenomenon is accompanied by large uncertainties and risks, and lacks further empirical insights. At the same time it breaks new ground, creates alternatives, calls for the development of efficient modes of cross-border cooperation and addresses mutual governance issues on an inter-regional basis between manifold stakeholders on both sides of the border. The case study summarises findings from fieldwork, elaborates a quantitative and qualitative assessment of cross-border governance measures within formal and informal institutions, and tries to formulate policy recommendations for prospective approaches

  18. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot). Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  19. Bridging scale gaps between regional maps of forest aboveground biomass and field sampling plots using TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, G.

    2017-12-01

    Several large-scale maps of forest AGB have been released [1] [2] [3]. However, these existing global or regional datasets were only approximations based on combining land cover type and representative values instead of measurements of actual forest aboveground biomass or forest heights [4]. Rodríguez-Veiga et al[5] reported obvious discrepancies of existing forest biomass stock maps with in-situ observations in Mexico. One of the biggest challenges to the credibility of these maps comes from the scale gaps between the size of field sampling plots used to develop(or validate) estimation models and the pixel size of these maps and the availability of field sampling plots with sufficient size for the verification of these products [6]. It is time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient number of field sampling data over the plot size of the same as resolutions of regional maps. The smaller field sampling plots cannot fully represent the spatial heterogeneity of forest stands as shown in Figure 1. Forest AGB is directly determined by forest heights, diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, forest density and tree species. What measured in the field sampling are the geometrical characteristics of forest stands including the DBH, tree heights and forest densities. The LiDAR data is considered as the best dataset for the estimation of forest AGB. The main reason is that LiDAR can directly capture geometrical features of forest stands by its range detection capabilities.The remotely sensed dataset, which is capable of direct measurements of forest spatial structures, may serve as a ladder to bridge the scale gaps between the pixel size of regional maps of forest AGB and field sampling plots. Several researches report that TanDEM-X data can be used to characterize the forest spatial structures [7, 8]. In this study, the forest AGB map of northeast China were produced using ALOS/PALSAR data taking TanDEM-X data as a bridges. The TanDEM-X InSAR data used in

  20. Analysis of genomic regions of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 related to biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucello, Aline; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; dos Santos, Clelton Aparecido; Viana, Américo José Carvalho; Beloti, Lilian Luzia; de Toledo, Marcelo Augusto Szymanski; Vincentz, Michel; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 secretes high levels of cellulolytic-active enzymes and is therefore a promising strain for use in biotechnological applications in second-generation bioethanol production. However, the T. harzianum biomass degradation mechanism has not been well explored at the genetic level. The present work investigates six genomic regions (~150 kbp each) in this fungus that are enriched with genes related to biomass conversion. A BAC library consisting of 5,760 clones was constructed, with an average insert length of 90 kbp. The assembled BAC sequences revealed 232 predicted genes, 31.5% of which were related to catabolic pathways, including those involved in biomass degradation. An expression profile analysis based on RNA-Seq data demonstrated that putative regulatory elements, such as membrane transport proteins and transcription factors, are located in the same genomic regions as genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and exhibit similar expression profiles. Thus, we demonstrate a rapid and efficient tool that focuses on specific genomic regions by combining a BAC library with transcriptomic data. This is the first BAC-based structural genomic study of the cellulolytic fungus T. harzianum, and its findings provide new perspectives regarding the use of this species in biomass degradation processes.

  1. Experts’ Perceptions of the Effects of Forest Biomass Harvesting on Sustainability in the Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Grilli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the EU political agenda, the use of forest biomass for energy has grown rapidly and significantly, in order to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and reduce the energy dependence on fossil fuels of European member countries. The target of the EU climate and energy package is to raise the share of renewable energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% in 2020 (Directive 2009/28/EC. With regards to biomass energy, the supply of forest wood biomass is expected to rise by 45% (reference period: 2006-2020, in response to increasing demand for renewable sources. The increase of forest biomass supply could have both positive and negative effects on several forest ecosystem services (ESs and local development. These effects should be assessed in a proper manner and taken into account when formulating management strategies. The aim of the paper is to assess the environmental, economic and social sustainability of forest biomass harvesting for energy, using the Figure of Merit (FoM approach. Materials and Methods: Sustainability was assessed through a set of four indicators: two focused on experts’ opinions regarding the effects of forest biomass harvesting and the other two focused on the cost-benefit analysis (potential energy obtained and costs for wood chips. The research was developed through four case studies located in the Alpine Region. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 32 selected experts. The perceived effects of forest biomass harvesting for energy on ESs and local development were evaluated by experts using a 5-point Likert scale (from “quite negative effect” to “quite positive effect”. Results: All experts agree that forest biomass harvesting has a positive effect on forest products provision and local economic development (employment of local workforce, local entrepreneurship and market diversification, while the effects on other ESs are controversial (e

  2. Hybrid concentrated solar power (CSP)–biomass plants in a semiarid region: A strategy for CSP deployment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Rafael; Portugal-Pereira, Joana; Szklo, Alexandre; Milani, Rodrigo; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The production of electricity using concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is not yet possible in Brazil due to the technology’s high capital costs and the lack of a local industry. However, this study introduces a low-cost approach to CSP in Brazil by describing and simulating the operation of hybrid CSP plants that use sustainably managed biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast. Biomass hybridisation of a CSP plant with a solar multiple (SM) of 1.2 and a biomass fill fraction (BFF) of 30% can generate electricity at 110 USD/MWh. The high direct normal irradiation (DNI) and the availability of local low-cost biomass in Brazil’s semiarid northeast suggest the possibility of developing a CSP industry capable of supplying low-cost components under a national program framework, with the co-benefits of local job and income generation. For example, the deployment of 10 CSP plants of 30 MWe each would generate 760 direct and indirect jobs during the 24 months of plant construction and approximately 2100 annual jobs associated with the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the generating units. These 10 new units would generate additional local income on the order of USD 57 million. - Highlights: • CSP plant with supplementary biomass hybridisation is a strategic option for Brazil. • DNI and biomass availability in Brazil's semiarid can foster local CSP industry. • LCOE of CSP would cost 11 cent USD/kWh becoming competitive at solar auctions. • Co-benefits of local job and income generation due to CSP in Brazil are high.

  3. Biomass fuel use by the rural households in Chittagong region, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesh Miah; Romel Ahmed; Mohammad Belal Uddin [University of Chittagong (Bulgaria). Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences

    2003-05-01

    An exploratory survey was carried out to assess biomass fuel use by the rural households in the Chittagong region, Bangladesh. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to perform the study. Based on the monthly income, respondents were categorized into rich, medium and poor and a total of 45 homesteads, 15 from each category were selected randomly for the study. The study revealed that stems, branches, leaves of trees and agricultural residues were the biomass fuel used by the respondents. Market, homestead, agricultural field, secondary forests/plantation were the sources of biomass fuel identified. Male and female were identified as the major collectors of fuelwood from the nearby forests/plantations and homesteads, respectively. Six fuelwood species were identified as the most preferred in the study area. The study identified the rainy season as the woodfuel shortage period spanning between May and August. (author)

  4. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Hsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind

  5. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active

  6. Evaluating the economics of biomass energy production in the Watts Bar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, R.R.; English, B.C.; Bhat, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Graham, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    While the commercial potential of biofuel technology is becoming more feasible, it is not clear whether the supply of biomass feedstock will be available in competitive markets. In order to exploit the potential of biomass crops as a reliable source of biofuels, a significant commitment on the part of farmers to convert large amounts of cropland would be required. Dedicated energy crops have to compete with conventional crops which could result in significant interregional shifts in crop production. Those changes could further affect overall agricultural production, food prices, consumer spending, and government spending on farm programs. Evaluating these economic impacts provides important information for the ongoing debate. This research is a case study incorporating an existing power plant. The objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of short rotation woody crops as a fuel source in the Watts Bar facility located in eastern Tennessee. The appraisal includes estimates of environmental impacts as well as of economic feasibility. This is achieved by estimating the amounts of biomass that would be supplied at a predetermined price. By changing prices of biomass at the plant in an incremental fashion, a regional supply curve for biomass is estimated. The model incorporates current agricultural production possibilities in the region along with the proposed short rotation woody crop production activities. In order to adequately model the landscape, several variables are considered. These variables include soil type, crop production, government policy, land use conversion to crop land, and distance from the plant. Environmental issues including erosion, chemical usage, and potential leaching are also incorporated within the modeling framework; however, only estimates on erosion are available in this analysis. Output from the model provides insight on where and what types of land should shift from current land use to biomass production.

  7. THE ONLINE VISIBILITY OF THE ROMANIAN HOTELS. EMPHASIS ON THE HOTELS FROM THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea MAHA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to analyze the online visibility of Romanian hotel websites and what mistakes are identified once we analyze the hotel content. At the same time we want to provide a complex overview of how Romanian hotels use the Internet for their business. The research method used for creating this article is documentary study and content analysis. We have carried out the content analysis of all hotel websites categorized between 3 to 5 stars in the North-East region of Romania. The main mistakes identified consist in the use of websites just for information purposes, the information are often not up to date which promote hotels that no longer exist, and not allow reservations/payments in real time. Many links and services that apparently exist on the website are inactive.

  8. Radiological Study Investigation of the Black Sand Region of the North-East of the Nile Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafy, W.A.; El-Tahawy, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Within a comprehensive radiological investigation of the Mediterranean cost of Egypt an environmental radiation survey of the black sand region of the North-East of Nile Delta was carried out. The activity concentration of the natural 226 Ra , 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K for 18 soil samples, 25 shore sediment samples and 6 bottom sediment samples were determined using gamma spectrometers based on HpGe detector and were found to reach 193 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 267 Bq/kg of 232 Th for some shore sediment samples. Ten sea water samples were analyzed using laser fluorimetry technique after applying a radiochemical separation procedure and the determined total uranium concentration in these samples was found to be in the range (5.2-21.8) mBq/lt.

  9. The Regional Biomass-Energy Agency (ERBE): an opportunity for the biomass-energy development in Wallonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, P.; Menu, J.F.; Belle, J.F. van; Schenkel, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the European Commission (Directorate-General for Energy) and the Walloon government set up a biomass-energy agency (ERBE), to promote and build biomass-energy projects in Wallonia (Belgium). A survey of biomass-energy potential indicates that wood-energy seems to offer the best utilization opportunities. Forest and logging residues, sawmills' and joineries' off-cuts, pallets residues, etc. could be burnt in wood district heating units with a significant social benefit. Consequently, the ERBE Agency is trying to set up projects in this way in Austria (+/- 100 wood heating systems) or in Sweden. It serves to inform industries and municipalities about biomass-energy, to advise them in the building of biomass-energy projects, to identify their energy needs and their biomass resources, to carry out prefeasibility studies, to inform them about financing opportunities, and so on. (author)

  10. Report of 457 sporotrichosis cases from Jilin province, northeast China, a serious endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Li, S-S; Zhong, S-X; Liu, Y-Y; Yao, L; Huo, S-S

    2013-03-01

    Most reported sporotrichosis cases came from South American countries, the USA, India and Japan. This mycosis is also endemic in Northeast China. However, the situation is not clear for international researchers due to lack of large series reported in English. To report and analyse 457 sporotrichosis cases. Retrospective study of 457 cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed by fungal culture at the First Hospital of Jilin University from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009. In this series, the male: female ratio was 1:1.42. Mean age was 41.2 years. Cases from age group 51-60 years accounted for most of the cases (22.54%). A total of 434 patients lived in rural areas (94.97%). The onset of symptoms in 67.61% cases happened in cold seasons (winter and spring). History of trauma presented in 133 cases (29.1%). The mean duration of the symptoms before the presentation was 6.41 months. A total of 190 (41.58%) showed lymphocutaneous form, 252 patients (55.14%) showed fixed form, 8 patients (1.75%) showed disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis and the clinical form of 7 patients (1.53%) could not be defined. Extremities and nodules were the most frequently involved sites and founded manifestation. Main histopathology findings were suppurative granuloma, tuberculoid granuloma and mixed inflammatory granuloma. A total of 75 cases (19.74%) had fungal elements revealed by Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Patients responded well to potassium iodide (KI), itraconazole, terbinafine and combinations of these agents with a mean course of 2.17 months to resolve. As the first report of a large series of sporotrichosis cases from China to be published in English literature, our study indicated a serious sporotrichosis endemic situation in Jilin province, Northeast China, with epidemiological and clinical characteristics similar to those of previous Chinese reports, but different from those in other countries. KI, itraconazole and terbinafine are effective for the treatment. © 2011 The Authors

  11. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida and microfaunal (benthic foraminifera data, unveiling paleoecological relationships of these organisms and the evolutionary scenario of Guaratiba Mangrove. Radiocarbon results indicate an estimated age of about 2400 yrs cal BP for the core base. Textural, geochemical and benthic foraminifera data suggest that the study area changed significantly during the last 2400 yrs cal BP. It experienced coastal waves action and shoreface processes in the period between ≈2.400-1.400 yrs cal BP; then, this phase gave place to a shallow marine environment similar to that found currently in internal and protected areas of Sepetiba Bay, between ≈1.400-350 yrs cal BP. Thenceforth, the study area evolved to the present mangrove environment. Factors related to climatic oscillations and the formation, evolution and events of rupture of Marambaia sand ridge influenced the late Holocene evolution of the northeast intertidal area of Sepetiba Bay.

  12. ENVIRONMENT DEGRADING AGENTS AT THE BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST: A STUDY OF CASE AT THE SERIDÓ POTIGUAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fransualdo de Azevedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The occupation and settlement of the Brazilian geographical space by the European settlers happened in a quite anachronic and heterogeneous way, in the historical and space point of view. In what it refers to the northeast of the Brazil, two settlement fronts stood out with base mainly on two primary economical activities: at the Atlantic forest zone the sugar-cane planters dropped the forest and there the farmers implanted the sugar plantations, totally linked to the economical market of the European metropolis, all this in the centuries XVI and XVII; in the backland central the cattle creators that ventured to penetrate the interiorsexpanding your flocks Caatinga biome inside were aiming at gives support to the animal driving force of the mills of sugar-cane at forest zone, as well as to provision with meat the population. Several conflicts were observed between the cane planters and the cattle creators because they disputed for lands for the development of your activities at the forest zone. After years of conflicts the delimitation behind space and territorial was established for the sameones. Now, Atlantic Forest remainder serve as ecological refuges for the fauna that still resists to the devastation caused by the man. The soil was indeed quite cultivated, in some cases in a disordered way, what provoked a considerable loss of your production potential, it’s presented a several focuses erosion and degradation, although the activity of sugar-cane is still strong at that area.

  13. Silencing Boko Haram: Mobile Phone Blackout and Counterinsurgency in Nigeria’s Northeast region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2013, the Nigerian military, as part of its counterinsurgency operations against Boko Haram insurgents, shut down GSM mobile telephony in three northeast states – Adamawa, Borno and Yobe. This article explores the rationale, impact and citizens’ opinion of the mobile phone blackout. It draws on focus group discussions with local opinion leaders and in-depth personal interviews with military and security insiders, as well as data of Boko Haram incidences before, during and after the blackout from military sources and conflict databases. It argues that, although the mobile phone shutdown was ‘successful’ from a military- tactical point of view, it angered citizens and engendered negative opinions toward the state and new emergency policies. While citizens developed various coping and circumventing strategies, Boko Haram evolved from an open network model of insurgency to a closed centralized system, shifting the center of its operations to the Sambisa Forest. This fundamentally changed the dynamics of the conflict. The shutdown demonstrated, among others, that while ICTs serve various desirable purposes for developing states, they will be jettisoned when their use challenges the state’s legitimacy and raison d'être, but not without consequences.

  14. Study of mobilizable agricultural and first fermentation biomass in the PACA region. Methodology and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, Christian; Chailan, Guy; Arnaud, Marie Therese; Bourgade, Beatrice; Bassoleil, Monique; Garcia, Julien; Mouton, Remi; Pourriere, Christine; Gazeau, Gerard

    2009-06-01

    Whereas the PACA region produces less energy than it consumes, this study focusses on the assessment of biomass-based energy production in this region. It aimed at identifying the different agricultural biomass sources which could produce energy, and at assessing, in an objective and realistic way, the valorisation potential of this biomass through combustion or methanization. This assessment was made without compromising existing valorisation activities and while preserving the return to soil of organic materials. Thus, for each considered product, this study aimed at determining whether it has physical-chemical characteristics allowing energy production, which quantity can be mobilised within the region, and at determining technical and possible organisational conditions for its mobilisation. Product sheets are provided. A synthesis proposes a synthetic table, an overview of similar products which can be used for energy production through combustion or methanization, a geographical distribution of these products, an identification of best suitable organisations (collective or individual units), an energy assessment at the regional scale, and an assessment of product availability on the short and medium terms

  15. Spatial and topographic trends in forest expansion and biomass change, from regional to local scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian; Barrett, Tara M

    2015-09-01

    Natural forest growth and expansion are important carbon sequestration processes globally. Climate change is likely to increase forest growth in some regions via CO2 fertilization, increased temperatures, and altered precipitation; however, altered disturbance regimes and climate stress (e.g. drought) will act to reduce carbon stocks in forests as well. Observations of asynchrony in forest change is useful in determining current trends in forest carbon stocks, both in terms of forest density (e.g. Mg ha(-1) ) and spatially (extent and location). Monitoring change in natural (unmanaged) areas is particularly useful, as while afforestation and recovery from historic land use are currently large carbon sinks, the long-term viability of those sinks depends on climate change and disturbance dynamics at their particular location. We utilize a large, unmanaged biome (>135 000 km(2) ) which spans a broad latitudinal gradient to explore how variation in location affects forest density and spatial patterning: the forests of the North American temperate rainforests in Alaska, which store >2.8 Pg C in biomass and soil, equivalent to >8% of the C in contiguous US forests. We demonstrate that the regional biome is shifting; gains exceed losses and are located in different spatio-topographic contexts. Forest gains are concentrated on northerly aspects, lower elevations, and higher latitudes, especially in sheltered areas, whereas loss is skewed toward southerly aspects and lower latitudes. Repeat plot-scale biomass data (n = 759) indicate that within-forest biomass gains outpace losses (live trees >12.7 cm diameter, 986 Gg yr(-1) ) on gentler slopes and in higher latitudes. This work demonstrates that while temperate rainforest dynamics occur at fine spatial scales (biomass accumulation suggest the potential for relatively rapid biome shifts and biomass changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Geological setting of silica in Dehnow-Abid region (Eshghabad northeast using fluid inclusions studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Yazdanpanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dehnow-Abid area is a part of the geological map of Eshghabad with scale 1:100000 (Aghanabati, 1994 that is located about 20 kilometers northeast of Eshghabad and in the coordinates of 57° 6´ 0" to 57° 10´ 0" eastern longitude and 34° 28´ 0" to 34 21´ 0" northern latitude. The Dehnow-Abid area is located in Tabas block and east of central Iran structural zone. The small continent east central Iran (Takin, 1972 includes blocks: Loot, Tabas and Yazd that constitute Iran's eastern part (Davoudzadeh and Schmidt, 1982. In geology, we can acquire more information about temperature forming minerals and rocks, pressure, density of the fluid and the chemical composition of the ore bearing fluids by fluid inclusions studies. Properties as well as their role in our understanding of the sources and evolution of ore bearing hydrothermal fluids and genesis of mineral deposits are very important (Rodder, 1979. In this study, we tried to use both field and laboratory studies, including petrography and thermometry studies of fluid inclusions, environment formation of quartz in the specified Dehno-Abid. Materials and methods At first, in order to identify the area, the 1:100000 map of Eshghabad was used. Then, for a complete cognition of mentioned area, after a few field visits and sampling of outcrops of quartz, we prepared 16 double polishing sections from some crystalline and milky quartz. Then, 10 thin sections of sandstones of that area were prepared for identification the host rock. Microscopic examinations on fluid inclusions were done by a LEICA DMLSP polarizing light microscope. Fluid inclusion micro-thermometry studies were done by using a Linkam THM S600 heating and freezing stage and with a TMS94 controller. Also, a cooling LNP which is mounted on an Olympus BX-41 microscope in Laboratory Fluid inclusion of Earth Sciences, Damghan University was used. Discussion and results Lithology of the Dehnow-Abid area included dark shale

  17. Effects of warming on N2O fluxes in a boreal peatland of Permafrost region, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Song, Changchun; Wang, Xianwei; Shi, Fuxi; Yu, Xueyang; Tan, Wenwen

    2018-03-01

    Climate warming is expected to increasingly influence boreal peatlands and alter their greenhouse gases emissions. However, the effects of warming on N 2 O fluxes and the N 2 O budgets were ignored in boreal peatlands. Therefore, in a boreal peatland of permafrost zone in Northeast China, a simulated warming experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of warming on N 2 O fluxes in Betula. Fruticosa community (B. Fruticosa) and Ledum. palustre community (L. palustre) during the growing seasons from 2013 to 2015. Results showed that warming treatment increased air temperature at 1.5m aboveground and soil temperature at 5cm depth by 0.6°C and 2°C, respectively. The average seasonal N 2 O fluxes ranged from 6.62 to 9.34μgm -2 h -1 in the warming plot and ranged from 0.41 to 4.55μgm -2 h -1 in the control plots. Warming treatment increased N 2 O fluxes by 147% and transformed the boreal peatlands from a N 2 O sink to a source. The primary driving factors for N 2 O fluxes were soil temperature and active layer depth, whereas soil moisture showed a weak correlation with N 2 O fluxes. The results indicated that warming promoted N 2 O fluxes by increasing soil temperature and active layer depth in a boreal peatland of permafrost zone in Northeast China. Moreover, elevated N 2 O fluxes persisted in this region will potentially drive a noncarbon feedback to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring the Regional Availability of Forest Biomass for Biofuels and the Potential of GHG Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S. is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests and the associated harvest residues from this area has not been fully explored. In this study time trend analyses was employed for long term timber assessment and developed mathematical models for harvest residue estimation, as well as the implications of use for ethanol. The GHG savings potential of ethanol over gasoline was also modeled. The methods were applied in Michigan under scenarios of different harvest solutions, harvest types, transportation distances, conversion technologies, and higher heating values over a 50-year period. Our results indicate that the study region has the potential to supply 0.75–1.4 Megatonnes (Mt dry timber annually and less than 0.05 Mt of dry residue produced from these harvests. This amount of forest biomass could generate 0.15–1.01 Mt of ethanol, which contains 0.68–17.32 GJ of energy. The substitution of ethanol for gasoline as transportation fuel has potential to reduce emissions by 0.043–1.09 Mt CO2eq annually. The developed method is generalizable in other similar regions of different countries for bioenergy related analyses.

  19. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  20. Contribution of susceptibility locus at HLA class I region and environmental factors to occurrence of nasopharyngeal cancer in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Rahman, Tashnin; Sharma, Jagnnath; Singh, M Madhumangal; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Verma, Saurabh; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Singh, Y Mohan; Wajid, Saima; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been reported from China, Southeast Asia and Northeast (NE) region of India. Populations at geographic regions having higher incidence of NPC display human leukocyte antigen (HLA) distribution patterns different from areas having low incidence. The current study has investigated the contribution of environmental risk factors and ethnic variation of microsatellite markers in HLA region for the high incidence of NPC in NE India. Genotyping of HLA region using 33 microsatellite markers by fragment length analysis was done in 220 study subjects (120 NPC patients and 100 healthy controls). Association analysis showed two adjacent microsatellite markers HL003 (allele 121) and D6S2704 (allele 218) in the HLA class I region having association with high risk of NPC while allele 127 of HL003 and allele 255 of D6S2678 conferred a protective effect. The environmental factors mainly use of firewood (odds ratio (OR) = 3.797385, confidence interval (CI) = 1.97-7.30, P < 0), living in mud house (OR = 3.46, CI = 1.19-10.08, P = 0.022) and consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.11, CI = 1.02-4.37, P = 0.043) were found as major risk factors for NPC. Higher-order interaction showed combination of smoked food consumption and firewood use for cooking in multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis and interaction of non-firewood users, non-ventilated houses and residence in mud houses in classification and regression tree (CART) analysis as the significant risk factors for NPC. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA was found in 92% (23/25) of NPC cases suggesting its significant role in NPC aetiopathogenesis. This study identified association of NPC with a susceptibility locus in the HLA class I region which has complex interaction with viral DNA and environmental factors.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Gan, E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Yue; Guo Lingli [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang Jianhui [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Lee, Celine S.L. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Yingjun [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 {+-} 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 2.5 {+-} 1.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.8 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 {+-} 4.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  2. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gan; Li Jun; Li Xiangdong; Xu Yue; Guo Lingli; Tang Jianhui; Lee, Celine S.L.; Liu Xiang; Chen Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 ± 4.5 μg/m 3 , EC = 2.5 ± 1.9 μg/m 3 ) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 ± 2.6 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.8 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 ± 4.0 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.5 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  3. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  4. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The absence of a formidable U.S. and allied Theater Missile Defense (TMD) capability in the East Asian region has encouraged a build-up in offensive missile capability on the part of the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  5. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2–5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2–3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources. (letter)

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF E.U. INTEGRATION ON THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS NORTH-EAST OF ROMANIA, SUBCARPATHIA OF POLAND AND CENTRAL SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of some notable development differences in EU at interstate and interregional level imposed the elaboration of a regional development policy aimed at reducing such disparities. The financial assistance provided by the EU is to help the underdeveloped regions. In this article we highlight the overall level of development and its evolution in Romania, Poland and Slovakia, at regional level, in the context of EU accession. Our attention will be focused on the North-East region of Romania, achieving a comparative analysis with two other similar regions from Poland and Slovakia: Subcarpathia and Central Slovakia, respectively.

  7. Regional economic impacts of biomass based energy service use: A comparison across crops and technologies for East Styria, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trink, Thomas; Schmid, Christoph; Schinko, Thomas; Steininger, Karl W.; Loibnegger, Thomas; Kettner, Claudia; Pack, Alexandra; Toeglhofer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Biomass action plans in many European countries seek to expand biomass heat and fuel supply, mainly to be supplied by peripheral, agricultural regions. We develop a two-plus-ten-region energy-focused computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that acknowledges land competition in analysing the sub-state local-regional economic implications of such a strategy, embedded within a global context. Our model is based on a full cost analysis of selected biomass technologies covering a range of agricultural and forestry crops, as well as thermal insulation. The local-regional macroeconomic effects differ significantly across technologies and are governed by factors such as net labour intensity in crop production. The high land intensity of agricultural biomass products crowds out conventional agriculture, and thus lowers employment and drives up land prices and the consumer price index. The regional economic results show that net employment effects are positive for all forestry based biomass energy, and also show for which agriculture based biomass systems this is true, even when accounting for land competition. When regional consumer price development governs regional wages or when the agricultural sector is in strong enough competition to the international market, positive employment and welfare impacts vanish fully for agriculture based bio-energy.

  8. The Use of Wood Biomass in the Regional System of Renewable Energy Sources as a Chance for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kluczkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The world needs energy. It is an obvious truth you do not need to prove. The modern world needs the electricity. With advancing civilization and the rate of consumption, and the demand for electricity is growing. At the same time, conventional resources are running out. This situation leads to the search for new renewable sources of energy. Therefore a crucial role of forests should be taken into consideration. The study shows that, in the relatively short term, the wood biomass (mainly forest will play a significant role in the regional energy system.

  9. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  10. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ...) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). This build-up has destabilized a region of vital importance to the national interest of the United States by encouraging the idea that offensive military action can be utilized to attain national...

  11. Semi-arid Northeast Brazil: integrated modelling of regional development and global change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Fuhr, Dagmar; Döring, Andreas; Unruh, Jon D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Kliot, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    Societies in semi-arid areas in developing regions are amongst those most vulnerable to climate variability and potentially most vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability to climate variability emerges from a combination of the level of availability of natural resources and the human

  12. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  13. Evaluation of eco-physiological indicators in Northeast Asia dryland regions based on MODIS products and ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem carbon-energy-water circles have significant effect on function and structure and vice verse. Based on these circles mechanism, some eco-physiological indicators, like Transpiration (T), gross primary productivity (GPP), light use efficiency (LUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), are commonly applied to assess terrestrial ecosystem function and structure dynamics. The ecosystem weakened function and simple structure in Northeast dryland regions resulted from land degradation or desertification, which could be demonstrated by above-mentioned indicators. In this study, based on MODIS atmosphere (MYD07, MYD04, MYD06 data) and land products (MYD13A2 NDVI, MYD11A1 LST, MYD15A2 LAI and land cover data), we first retrieved transpiration and LUE via Penman-Monteith Model and modified Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), respectively; and then evaluated dynamics of these eco-physiological indicators (Tair, VPD, T, LUE, GPP and WUE) and some hotspots were found for next land degradation assessment. The results showed: (1) LUE and WUE are lower in barren or sparsely vegetated area and grasslands than in forest and croplands. (2) Whereas, all indicators presented higher variability in grassland area, particularly in east Mongolia. (3) GPP and transpiration have larger variability than other indicators due to fraction of absorbed Photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR). These eco-physiological indicators are expected to continue to change under future climate change and to help to assess land degradation from ecosystem energy-water-carbon perspectives.

  14. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  15. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus taeniasis in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohil, K; Benchikh El Fegoun, M C; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    In North Africa, the domestic dog is regarded as the main reservoir for infection by Echinococcus granulosus of domestic livestock and man. In Algeria, there is very little data on the rate of infestation of dogs, while the prevalence of E. granulosus in the definitive host is a very reliable marker of the potential risk of transmission of cystic tapeworm to humans and livestock. To find out this information, a survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of infection with E. granulosus in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria). We autopsied and examined 120 stray dogs, 22 (18.3%) of which were infected with E. granulosus, with an average intensity of infestation of 249 worms. The prevalence in the area of survey was evaluated: 15.5% (14/90) and 26.6% (8/30) dogs were parasitized by E. granulosus in urban and rural areas respectively. The influence of age on the rate of infection was very marked. In addition, the appreciation of the prevalence of parasitism by cestodes as a whole showed that 56 (46.6%) animals out of 120 were infected. Facing such a situation of endemic tapeworm parasitism, with a potential risk of transmission to humans, there is an urgent need to take measures to control and break the epidemiological cycles of the parasite.

  16. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  17. Regional Economic Resilience: Resistance and Recoverability of Resource-Based Cities during Economic Crises in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of resource-based cities (RBCs in Northeast China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis and the global financial crisis. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. First, the RBCs in general demonstrated poor resistance during both recessions, but there were variations among the different types of RBCs. Petroleum and metal cities demonstrated the most resistance, whereas coal cities performed the worst. Second, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles, but location advantage, research and development (R and D intensity, foreign trade dependence ratio, and supporting policies had positive effects on resilience during both economic cycles, while the proportion of employed persons in resource industries had a negative effect. Industrial diversity had a weak and ambiguous effect on resilience. Third, the secondary industry was more resilient during the Asian financial crisis, but the tertiary industry was more resilient during the global financial crisis. This shift may be attributed to both the nature of the crises and the strength of the sectors at the time of the crises.

  18. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Rebecca L; Lander, Alastair G; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L; Mattos, Angela P; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2012-11-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

  19. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  20. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Demerval S.; Longo, Karla M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Mercado, Lina M.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Gloor, Emauel; Viana, Rosane S. M.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Domingues, Lucas K. G.; Correia, Caio C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to -104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high

  1. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50–50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry

  2. Deglaciation of the Scoresby Sund fjord region, north-east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1972-01-01

    by a short period of advance at the end of the period. (3) The Post-glacial warm period (c. 7000-5000 BP) was a time when the glaciers retreated behind their present limits. A warm climate is indicated by the presence of the now-extinct bivalves Mytillls edulis and Chlamys islandica in raised marine deposits....... (4) Historical time is marked by are-advance. The deglaciation of the region was greatly influenced by relief. This is reflected in the location of the glacier fronts during the major stages and the differences in the behaviour of neighbouring fjord glaciers. The fjord morphology probably also...

  3. The effect of South American biomass burning aerosol emissions on the regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Gillian D.; Ryder, Claire L.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Johnson, Ben T.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on the regional climate in South America is assessed using 30-year simulations with a global atmosphere-only configuration of the Met Office Unified Model. We compare two simulations of high and low emissions of biomass burning aerosol based on realistic interannual variability. The aerosol scheme in the model has hygroscopic growth and optical properties for BBA informed by recent observations, including those from the recent South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) intensive aircraft observations made during September 2012. We find that the difference in the September (peak biomass emissions month) BBA optical depth between a simulation with high emissions and a simulation with low emissions corresponds well to the difference in the BBA emissions between the two simulations, with a 71.6 % reduction from high to low emissions for both the BBA emissions and the BB AOD in the region with maximum emissions (defined by a box of extent 5-25° S, 40-70° W, used for calculating mean values given below). The cloud cover at all altitudes in the region of greatest BBA difference is reduced as a result of the semi-direct effect, by heating of the atmosphere by the BBA and changes in the atmospheric stability and surface fluxes. Within the BBA layer the cloud is reduced by burn-off, while the higher cloud changes appear to be responding to stability changes. The boundary layer is reduced in height and stabilized by increased BBA, resulting in reduced deep convection and reduced cloud cover at heights of 9-14 km, above the layer of BBA. Despite the decrease in cloud fraction, September downwelling clear-sky and all-sky shortwave radiation at the surface is reduced for higher emissions by 13.77 ± 0.39 W m-2 (clear-sky) and 7.37 ± 2.29 W m-2 (all-sky), whilst the upwelling shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere is increased in clear sky by 3.32 ± 0.09 W m-2, but decreased by -1.36±1.67 W m-2 when cloud changes are

  4. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  5. Hydrocarbon composition and distribution in a coastal region under influence of oil production in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Angela de L R; Carreira, Renato S; Hamacher, Claudia; Scofield, Arthur de L; Farias, Cassia O; Cordeiro, Lívia G M S; Luz, Letícia G; Baêta, Aída P; Kalas, Francine A

    2011-08-01

    Waters and sediments from the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazilian coast) were investigated for the presence and nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The region receives treated produced waters through a submarine outfall system serving the industrial district. The total dispersed/dissolved concentrations in the water column ranged from 10-50 ng L(-1) for ∑16PAH and 5-10 μg L(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the sediments, hydrocarbon concentrations were low (0.5-10 ng g(-1)for ∑16PAH and 0.01-5.0 μg g(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons) and were consistent with the low organic carbon content of the local sandy sediments. These data indicate little and/or absence of anthropogenic influence on hydrocarbon distribution in water and sediment. Therefore, the measured values may be taken as background values for the region and can be used as future reference following new developments of the petroleum industry in the Potiguar Basin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P S; Hanken, R B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C M.O., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  7. QUALITY OF IRRIGATED APPLES IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÍNTIA PATRÍCIA MARTINS DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The great solar radiation in the Brazilian semiarid region, combined with an adequate irrigation management, favors fruit production and quality of crops that were adapted to this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality of two apple cultivars grown in the Sub-Mid São Francisco River Valley under different irrigation water depths. A complete randomized block experimental design in a split -plot arrangement with five replications was used. The plots consisted of four irrigation water depths (ID (60, 80, 100 and 120% of the reference evapotranspiration - ETo, the subplots consisted of two apple cultivars (C (Julieta and Princesa and the sub-subplots consisted of fruit positions in the tree canopies (FP (east and west sides. The soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, pulp firmness (PF and fresh weight (FW of the fruits were evaluated. The factors evaluated showed no triple interaction between the evaluated factors, however, the SS and TA were significantly affected by them; the interaction between ID and C significantly affected the PF; the interaction between ID and FP significantly affected the PF, SS/TA ratio and FW; and the interaction between C and FP significantly affected the SS/TA ratio. The increase in water depth increased the fruit size of both cultivars, without compromising the post-harvest quality. The cultivar Princesa presented the best results regarding SS, TA, PF and FW, however, both cultivars had organoleptic characteristics within the recommended standards for commercialization. The fruits harvested on the west side presented better post-harvest quality.

  8. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Proposed Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 16 to the Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

  9. ANALYSIS REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT VARIETY AMONG THE YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The specialty literature pointed out the fact that the unemployment represents a dysfunction of the labor market and among the main factors of this, a central role is represented by the economic factors. Moreover, especially for the unemployed between 15-24 years old we could identify a more increased influence. In this research we have used statistic data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania among which we have selected a series of relevant variables regarding the characterization of the economic environment in the North-East Region. Their influence on the variation of the unemployment rate and the employment rate concerning the young people in the North-East Region was studied using the method of the statistics regression, undergoing a filtration using the Stepwise procedure, implemented within the informatics program SPSS.

  10. RESEARCH CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF THE PUBLIC POLICIES ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG THE YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE NORTH-EAST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the goal to identify the specific role that various regulatory institutions of the labor market have on the variation of the macroeconomic indicators which describe the employment situation of the young people on the labor market in the North-East Region of Romania. In this research we have used statistic data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania among which we have selected a series of relevant variables regarding the characterization of the public policies for the labor market and the legislation of employees’ protection. Their influence on the variation of the unemployment rate and the employment rate concerning the young people in the North-East Region was studied using the method of the statistics regression, undergoing a filtration using the Stepwise procedure, implemented within the informatics program SPSS.

  11. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in the

  12. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  13. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  14. Regional Distribution of Forest Height and Biomass from Multisensor Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifan; Saatchi, Sassan; Heath, Linda S.; LaPoint, Elizabeth; Myneni, Ranga; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Elevation data acquired from radar interferometry at C-band from SRTM are used in data fusion techniques to estimate regional scale forest height and aboveground live biomass (AGLB) over the state of Maine. Two fusion techniques have been developed to perform post-processing and parameter estimations from four data sets: 1 arc sec National Elevation Data (NED), SRTM derived elevation (30 m), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) bands (30 m), derived vegetation index (VI) and NLCD2001 land cover map. The first fusion algorithm corrects for missing or erroneous NED data using an iterative interpolation approach and produces distribution of scattering phase centers from SRTM-NED in three dominant forest types of evergreen conifers, deciduous, and mixed stands. The second fusion technique integrates the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) ground-based plot data to develop an algorithm to transform the scattering phase centers into mean forest height and aboveground biomass. Height estimates over evergreen (R2 = 0.86, P forests (R2 = 0.93, P forests were less accurate because of the winter acquisition of SRTM data and loss of scattering phase center from tree ]surface interaction. We used two methods to estimate AGLB; algorithms based on direct estimation from the scattering phase center produced higher precision (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 25 Mg/ha) than those estimated from forest height (R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 66 Mg/ha). We discuss sources of uncertainty and implications of the results in the context of mapping regional and continental scale forest biomass distribution.

  15. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Liriomyza sp. IN THE NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST REGIONS OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELAINE CRISTINA BATISTA FERREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, species of the genus Liriomyza are widely distributed and have economic importance as they cause damage to at least 14 plant families, especially Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. Studies suggest existence of a species complex within this genus, based on the presence of morphological similarities among the species Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, L. sativae Blanchard and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard. The present study aimed to use DNA barcoding to establish new distribution records of L. sativae in distinct regions in Brazil, determine intra- and inter-population genetic diversity, and reconstruct the phylogeny of Liriomyza species using the DNA barcode sequences. Identity values were between 97% and 99%, confirming that all the examined Brazilian populations belonged to the species L. sativae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of a single clade of L. sativae, composed of seven populations. Intra-population analysis on individuals of these populations indicated low levels of nucleotide and haplotype diversity. The haplotype network indicated presence of only 14 haplotypes distributed among the Brazilian populations. The genetic similarities shared by the Brazilian populations of L. sativae suggest that these populations are closely related. Genetic patterns observed among populations of L. sativae might be associated with bottleneck events or founder effect during establishment of this leafminer in Brazil.

  16. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  17. The distribution and biochemical composition of biogenic particles across the subtropical Front in June 1993 (Azores-Madeira region, Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vezzulli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected in the north-east Atlantic Ocean between the Azores and Madeira (33°N-36°N and 24°W-26°W during the Oceanographic Cruise SEMAPHORE in June 1993. Temperature, salinity, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and particulate organic matter (organic carbon, organic nitrogen, carbohydrates, proteins and phytopigment were investigated in the water column to a depth of 2000 m. The presence of the subtropical front (STF separating warmer more saline Western Atlantic Water (WAW from colder and fresher Eastern Atlantic Water (EAW in the upper 100 m, and a tongue of salt water arising from the influence of Mediterranean Water (MW at a depth of 1000 m, were well identified by the physical and chemical parameters. POC and PON concentrations, in the surface layer (0-100 m, ranged between 23.3-64.5 and 2.9-9.1 µg l-1 respectively, while concentration between 12.4-30.5 and 1.1-4.0 µg l-1 prevailed below the thermocline (100-2000 m. The very low POC and PON concentrations together with the low nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations confirmed the oligotrophic nature of the Azores-Madeira region. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the difference in the quantity and quality of POM between water masses. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between POC and PON but the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines did not differ significantly between WAW and EAW. In contrast, an examination of vertical profiles as well as mean integrated values of biochemical variables in the upper 100 m suggest a difference in the quantity and quality of biogenic particles between the water masses. WAW showed the lowest integrated concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, particulate protein and particulate carbohydrate. In contrast, frontal stations showed the highest values while EAW stations showed intermediate values. All these results, coupled with the occurrence of the highest POC

  18. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Cloud Formation in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Wu, Y.; Reid, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, shallow and deep convective cloud structures organize in hierarchy of spatial scales ranging from meso-gamma (2-20 km) to planetary scales (40,000km). At the lower end of the spectrum is shallow convection over the open ocean, whose upscale growth is dependent upon mesoscale convergence triggers. In this context, cloud systems associated with land breezes that propagate long distances into open ocean areas are important. We utilized numerical model simulations to examine the impact of biomass burning on such cloud systems in the maritime continent, specifically along the coastal regions of Sarawak. Numerical model simulations conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model show spatial patterns of smoke that show good agreement to satellite observations. Analysis of model simulations show that, during daytime the horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) that form over land play an important role in organizing transport of smoke in the coastal regions. Alternating patterns of low and high smoke concentrations that are well correlated to the wavelengths of HCRs are found in both the simulations and satellite observations. During night time, smoke transport is modulated by the land breeze circulation and a band of enhanced smoke concentration is found along the land breeze front. Biomass burning aerosols are ingested by the convective clouds that form along the land breeze and leads to changes in total water path, cloud structure and precipitation formation.

  19. Oxygen isotope regional pattern in granitoids from the Cachoeirinha Belt, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Four groups of granitoids are present within the Cachoeirinha belt and in the adjacent migmatitic basement, between 37 0 and 40 0 W long. and 7 0 and 8 0 15' S lat., States of Pernambuco and Paraiba: a) K 2 O - enriched, very porphyritic; b) a calc-alkalic slightly porphyritic group; c) group with trondjemitic affinities; and d) peralkalic group. Petrology and oxygen isotope geochemistry for over 100 samples from these groups were studied. Almost all plutons for which 5 or more samples were analyzed, exhibit a total range of gamma 18 O less than 2% o. A broad range of mean oxygen isotope composition is observed, varying from 6.93 to 12.79% o. There is a systematic regional trend in which the calc-alkalic granitoids (conceicao-type) found within the Cachoeirinha space are the most 18 O - enriched rocks (10.6 to 12.9% o) while the lowest mean gamma 18 O values (4.5 to 9.7% o) are found in the K 2 O - enriched granitoids (Itaporanga-type). Intermediate gamma 18 O values were recorded in the bodies with trondhjemitic affinities (8.9 to 9.8% o) which intruded metasediments of the Salgueiro Group and in the peralkalic granitoids of Catingueira (8.1 to 9.8% o) which intruded Cachoeirinha metamorphics. Among the potassic granitoids, mean gamma 18 O increases from Bodoco to Itaporanga (from west to east). As a whole, the W.R. gamma 18 O of these plutons correlate with the type of grade of metamorphism of the host rocks and, therefore, with the tectonic framework, increasing from those which intruded the gneiss-migmatites to those which intruded the low-grade metamorphics of the Cachoeirinha Group. The possible origin of each rock group is discussed in light of the oxygen isotope geochemistry. (Author) [pt

  20. Regional supply, demand and utilization of forest biomass in South-East Finland; Metsaeenergian kaeytoen kasvun liiketoimintamahdollisuudet Kaakkois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihanen, M.; Karhunen, A.; Ranta, T.

    2011-07-01

    Rising demand of forest biomass in South-East Finland has created need to evaluate the impact for different energy users and producers. The aim of this study is to settle the current demand and availability of forest biomass and to evaluate the opportunities the growth offers. Initial data of study base on current structure of energy supply and on current energy demand. The information can be used as a guideline when evaluating local sufficiency of energy wood and business opportunities for local actors such as energy producers and forest fuel suppliers. Main aim of the study is to create prosperity and entrepreneurship to South-East Finland. Analysis included following tasks: gathering data about the current and potential use and users of forest biomass (logging residues, stumps and small diameter energy wood), settling local availability of forest fuels, creating forest biomass balance to indicate the sufficiency of local resources and to identify the effects of current business opportunities around forest biomass sector. Results of the study illustrate local balance between use and availability of energy wood, need for labor and revenue of forest biomass supply in South-East Finland. Evaluation analysis constructed for regional and local needs combine the current and potential use of forest biomass with local availability. Analysis represents model for evaluating local possibilities of utilization of forest biomass. Co-operation with Forestry Centre of South-East Finland was productive through entire study. (orig.)

  1. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  2. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  3. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  4. Invertebrate herbivory on floating-leaf macrophytes at the northeast of Argentina: should the damage be taken into account in estimations of plant biomass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fedra S; Franceschini, Celeste

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the damage produced by invertebrate herbivores per leaf lamina and per m2 of populations floating-leaf macrophytes of Neotropical wetlands in the growth and decay periods, and assessed if the damage produced by the herbivores should be taken into account in the estimations of plant biomass of these macrophytes or not. The biomass removed per lamina and per m2 was higher during the growth period than in decay period in Nymphoides indica and Hydrocleys nymphoides, while Nymphaea prolifera had low values of herbivory in growth period. During decay period this plant is only present as vegetative propagules. According to the values of biomass removed per m2 of N. indica, underestimation up to 17.69% should be produced in cases that herbivory do not should be taking account to evaluate these plant parameters on this macrophyte. Therefore, for the study of biomass and productivity in the study area, we suggest the use of corrected lamina biomass after estimating the biomass removed by herbivores on N. indica. The values of damage in N. indica emphasize the importance of this macrophyte as a food resource for invertebrate herbivores in the trophic networks of the Neotropical wetlands.

  5. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  6. Clinicopathological profile of patients with non-hodgkin's lymphoma at a regional cancer center in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikarimayum Ambika Devi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is increasing in all parts of the world, especially over the past few decades. An insight into the clinical presentation may help in the prevention, control, and treatment of NHL. Aim: To observe the clinicopathological patterns of NHL among patients in Northeast India. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective case study on 100 proven cases of NHL registered at the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Manipur, during the period January 2013–May 2017 was conducted, and data were reviewed and analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and results were presented in percentages and simple frequency. Results: Majority (43.0% of the patients were in the age group of 41 and 60 years. The mean age was 54.01 ± 18.1 years. Male:female ratio was 1.2:1. The most common presenting symptom was neck swelling (57.0%, and peripheral lymphadenopathy (76.0% was the most common sign. Primary site distribution was nodal (57.0% and extra-nodal NHL (43.0%. Most common nodal site involved was cervical lymph nodes (65.0%, and gastrointestinal tract (17.0% was the most common extranodal subsite. Majority of the patients were in stage II (36.0% at the time of diagnosis. B-cell NHL accounts for 66.0% compared to T-cell lymphoma (23.0%. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most frequent B-cell lymphoma (45.0%, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma was the most common T-cell variant (15.0%. Conclusions: A thorough insight into the clinical spectrum of NHL is necessary for optimum management and improved treatment outcome.

  7. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  8. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  9. Composition and content analysis of sugars and organic acids for 45 grape cultivars from northeast region of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaozhu, G.N.; Jia, Z.; Zhihu, R.; Zuhui, Z.; Quan, G.; Hongyan, G.; Xiuwu, G.

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to 124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white. (author)

  10. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls, whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC – Live Birth Information System and supplemented by data obtained by the research of “active search of death and birth”. Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. CONCLUSIONS The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality.

  11. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  12. Highway/Railroad Accident Report: Collision Of Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) Train And Transportation Joint Agreement School District 47/155 School Bus At Railroad/Highway Grade Crossing In Fox River Grove, Illinois, On

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-29

    This report explains the collision of a Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation commuter train with a Transportation Joint Agreement School District 47/155 school bus that was stopped at a railroad/highway grade crossing in Fox Rive...

  13. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210 Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g -1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Northeast Regional Lab (NRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesNRL is a mega-laboratory capable of analyzing most analytes for which food and drug samples are collected for chemical analysis.NRL performs the...

  15. Habitat risk assessment for regional ocean planning in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Katherine H; Griffin, Robert; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Fogarty, Michael; Arkema, Katie K

    2017-01-01

    Coastal habitats provide important benefits to people, including habitat for species targeted by fisheries and opportunities for tourism and recreation. Yet, such human activities also can imperil these habitats and undermine the ecosystem services they provide to people. Cumulative risk assessment provides an analytical framework for synthesizing the influence of multiple stressors across habitats and decision-support for balancing human uses and ecosystem health. To explore cumulative risk to habitats in the U.S. Northeast and Mid-Atlantic Ocean Planning regions, we apply the open-source InVEST Habitat Risk Assessment model to 13 habitats and 31 stressors in an exposure-consequence framework. In doing so, we advance the science priorities of EBM and both regional planning bodies by synthesizing the wealth of available data to improve our understanding of human uses and how they affect marine resources. We find that risk to ecosystems is greatest first, along the coast, where a large number of stressors occur in close proximity and secondly, along the continental shelf, where fewer, higher consequence activities occur. Habitats at greatest risk include soft and hard-bottom nearshore areas, tidal flats, soft-bottom shelf habitat, and rocky intertidal zones-with the degree of risk varying spatially. Across all habitats, our results indicate that rising sea surface temperatures, commercial fishing, and shipping consistently and disproportionally contribute to risk. Further, our findings suggest that management in the nearshore will require simultaneously addressing the temporal and spatial overlap as well as intensity of multiple human activities and that management in the offshore requires more targeted efforts to reduce exposure from specific threats. We offer a transparent, generalizable approach to evaluating cumulative risk to multiple habitats and illustrate the spatially heterogeneous nature of impacts along the eastern Atlantic coast and the importance of

  16. Regionalized Techno-Economic Assessment and Policy Analysis for Biomass Molded Fuel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a relatively mature technology, biomass molded fuel (BMF is widely used in distributed and centralized heating in China and has received considerable government attention. Although many BFM incentive policies have been developed, decreased domestic traditional fuel prices in China have caused BMF to lose its economic viability and new policy recommendations are needed to stimulate this industry. The present study built a regionalized net present value (NPV model based on real production process simulation to test the impacts of each policy factor. The calculations showed that BMF production costs vary remarkably between regions, with the cost of agricultural briquette fuel (ABF ranging from 86 US dollar per metric ton (USD/t to 110 (USD/t, while that of woody pellet fuel (WPF varies from 122 USD/t to 154 USD/t. The largest part of BMF’s cost composition is feedstock, which accounts for up 50%–60% of the total; accordingly a feedstock subsidy is the most effective policy factor, but in consideration of policy implementation, it would be better to use a production subsidy. For ABF, the optimal product subsidy varies from 26 USD/t to 57 USD/t among different regions of China, while for WPF, the range is 36 USD/t to 75 USD/t. Based on the data, a regional BMF development strategy is also proposed in this study.

  17. Economic and financial evaluation of the wind power project in Northeast region, Brazil; Avaliacao economico-financeira de projeto de central eolica na regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo Glicio da; Lima, Maria Angela de Queiroz; Melo Junior, Adalberto de Bastos [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DFPL/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Planejamento Economico-Financeiro], Emails: paulogr@chesf.gov.br, angelq@chesf.gov.br, adalbert@chesf.gov.br; Bezerra, Pedro; Bittencourt, Rogerio [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DEFA/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Projetos de Fontes Alternativas], E-mails: pbezerra@chesf.gov.br, rogeriob@chesf.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of economic and financial feasibility of using wind power in the Northeast region for electric power production, considering the new electricity sector model. The case study presented here refers to the design of a 50 MW Wind Farm in the region, based on preliminary data from wind collected in the period from 1993 to 1995. Some programs were used to evaluate this project: ALWIN, which estimates the potential for wind energy production; NEWAVE for determination operating marginal costs and generation plants values and ANAFIN, for economic and financial evaluation of the project, using scenarios, through the deterministic and probabilistic analysis.

  18. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001–2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically signific...

  19. Assessing the regional impact of indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during the dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and the diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass backward trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  20. Aboveground biomass mapping of African forest mosaics using canopy texture analysis: toward a regional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Barbier, Nicolas; Couteron, Pierre; Adams, Benoît; Shapiro, Aurélie; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles

    In the context of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation (the REDD+ program), optical very high resolution (VHR) satellite images provide an opportunity to characterize forest canopy structure and to quantify aboveground biomass (AGB) at less expense than methods based on airborne remote sensing data. Among the methods for processing these VHR images, Fourier textural ordination (FOTO) presents a good method to detect forest canopy structural heterogeneity and therefore to predict AGB variations. Notably, the method does not saturate at intermediate AGB values as do pixelwise processing of available space borne optical and radar signals. However, a regional-scale application requires overcoming two difficulties: (1) instrumental effects due to variations in sun–scene–sensor geometry or sensor-specific responses that preclude the use of wide arrays of images acquired under heterogeneous conditions and (2) forest structural diversity including monodominant or open canopy forests, which are of particular importance in Central Africa. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a rigorous regional study of canopy texture by harmonizing FOTO indices of images acquired from two different sensors (Geoeye-1 and QuickBird-2) and different sun–scene–sensor geometries and by calibrating a piecewise biomass inversion model using 26 inventory plots (1 ha) sampled across very heterogeneous forest types. A good agreement was found between observed and predicted AGB (residual standard error [RSE] = 15%; R2 = 0.85; P biomass map (100-m pixels) was produced for a 400-km2 area, and predictions obtained from both imagery sources were consistent with each other (r = 0.86; slope = 1.03; intercept = 12.01 Mg/ha). These results highlight the horizontal structure of forest canopy as a powerful descriptor of the entire forest stand structure and heterogeneity. In particular, we show that quantitative metrics resulting from such

  1. [Simulating the effects of climate change and fire disturbance on aboveground biomass of boreal forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Wang, Yu Li; Zhang, Jin Quan

    2018-03-01

    Predicting the effects of climate warming and fire disturbance on forest aboveground biomass is a central task of studies in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The alteration of temperature, precipitation, and disturbance regimes induced by climate warming will affect the carbon dynamics of forest ecosystem. Boreal forest is an important forest type in China, the responses of which to climate warming and fire disturbance are increasingly obvious. In this study, we used a forest landscape model LANDIS PRO to simulate the effects of climate change on aboveground biomass of boreal forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared direct effects of climate warming and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on forest aboveground biomass. The results showed that the aboveground biomass in this area increased under climate warming scenarios and fire disturbance scenarios with increased intensity. Under the current climate and fire regime scenario, the aboveground biomass in this area was (97.14±5.78) t·hm -2 , and the value would increase up to (97.93±5.83) t·hm -2 under the B1F2 scenario. Under the A2F3 scenario, aboveground biomass at landscape scale was relatively higher at the simulated periods of year 100-150 and year 150-200, and the value were (100.02±3.76) t·hm -2 and (110.56±4.08) t·hm -2 , respectively. Compared to the current fire regime scenario, the predicted biomass at landscape scale was increased by (0.56±1.45) t·hm -2 under the CF2 scenario (fire intensity increased by 30%) at some simulated periods, and the aboveground biomass was reduced by (7.39±1.79) t·hm -2 in CF3 scenario (fire intensity increased by 230%) at the entire simulation period. There were significantly different responses between coniferous and broadleaved species under future climate warming scenarios, in that the simulated biomass for both Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla showed decreasing trend with climate change, whereas the simulated biomass for Pinus

  2. Environmental consequences of the use of biomass and combustible waste in the Baltic Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denafas, G.; Revoldas, V.; Zaliauskiene, A.; Bendere, R.; Kudrenickis, I.; Mander, U.; Oja, T.; Sergeeva, L.; Esipenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    Three Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and the Russian Kaliningrad region possess similar natural conditions as well as natural resources and are closely related by network of energy systems. Therefore joint research into the potentialities hidden in biomass and combustive waste as alternative fuel and into the related problems of air pollutions has been carried out. Based on the methods worked out by the main coordinator of the research work - the Kaunas University of Technology (Dept. of Env. Engineering) - emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , CO, NO x and solid particles at combustion of various fuels have been studied and the energy potential and resource of alternative fuels (different kinds of wood fuel, straw, combustible waste, bio diesel oil, bio ethanol and biogas) have been estimated with regard to each of the mentioned regions. In the paper, possibilities for substitution of the alternative fuels for traditional ones in energy production and transport are discussed and the forecasts as to possible limitations of emissions due to the substitution are given. The work presents the tabulated results of exhaustive calculation of air pollutant formation on the scale of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the Kaliningrad region made with due consideration for the current requirements on the primary energy and existing renewable sources of alternative fuel. A separate conclusion is made concerning Lithuania, where the issue of alternative fuels is closely connected with the operation of the Ignalina NPP and its expected decommissioning. (authors)

  3. [Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

    2014-05-01

    The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.

  4. Quantifying changes in abundance, biomass and spatial distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the Nordic Seas from 2007 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøttestad, Leif; Utne, Kjell Rong; Óskarsson, Gudmundur .J.

    2016-01-01

    The Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a widely distributed pelagic fish species that plays a key role in the marine ecosystem. In recent years, there has been a large fishery targeting mackerel in the NEA. At the same time as the geographic range of the mackerel fishery has...... on coordinated and standardized swept-area surface trawling in July–August from IESSNS increased from 1.96 million t [relative standard error (RSE) ¼ 30.35%] in 2007 to 8.77 million t (RSE ¼ 7.95%) in 2014. Simultaneously, the mackerel stock expanded its geographic range during the feeding season from 1......%). Furthermore, evaluation of the performance of the estimated abundance indices by age for this time-series, based on internal consistency and catch curves, suggest that the abundance indices of ages 3–12 track the temporal variation in abundance reasonably, and thus is applicable for stock assessments...

  5. HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with or without cervical lesions in the Northeast region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. While Romania has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in Europe, the prevalence of HPV has not been evaluated. We report the first data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in Northeast Romania. Methods HPV prevalence and genotype distribution was investigated in 514 consecutively women with or without cervical lesions in Northeast Romania. Genotyping was performed with Linear Array Genotyping/Roche kit. Results In our study group, 192/514 (37.4%) patients were positive for HPV (infected with single and with multiple HPV types). Most frequent types were: 16 (10.5%), 53 (5.44%), 51 (5.05%), 52 (4.08%) 18 (2.91%) and 31 (2.73%). Conclusions Infection with high risk types of HPV is common in Northeast Romania. Enhanced and systematic screening for cervical cancer is needed. Our results call for the implementation of a National HPV vaccine program in Romania. PMID:22192090

  6. Simulated biomass, environmental impacts and best management practices for long-term switchgrass systems in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Limei; Qian, Yaling; Brummer, Joe E.; Zheng, Jiyong; Wilhelm, Sarah; Parton, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term information on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop grown on marginally saline soil and the associated impacts on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and best management practices (BMPs) are limited. In this study, we employed the DAYCENT model, based on a 4-year switchgrass field experiment, to evaluate the long-term biomass yield potential and environmental impacts, and further to develop BMPs for switchgrass in a semi-arid region. The model showed that long-term (14-year) annual mean biomass yields were 9.6 and 5.2 Mg ha −1 for irrigated and rainfed switchgrass systems, respectively. The simulated biomass yields correlated well with field-measured biomass with r 2 values of 0.99 and 0.89 for irrigated and rainfed systems, respectively. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) accumulated rapidly after switchgrass establishment, with mean accrual rates of 0.99–1.13 Mg C ha −1  yr −1 and 0.04–0.08 Mg N ha −1  yr −1 , respectively. Based on the outputs of numerous long-term model simulations with variable irrigation water supplies and N rates, the irrigation regime and N rate with the highest yield to input ratio were chosen as BMPs. The DAYCENT model predicted-BMP was irrigating every 14 days at 70% potential evapotranspiration combined with an N rate of 67 kg ha −1  yr −1 . Switchgrass established and produced biomass reasonably well in this semi-arid region; however, appropriate irrigation and N fertilization were needed for optimal biomass yield. Switchgrass had a great potential to sequester C into soils with low N 2 O emissions while supplying significant quantities of biomass for biofuel synthesis. - Highlights: • The DAYCENT model reliably simulated the growth of switchgrass on marginal land. • Long-term biomass and environmental impacts were simulated using the DAYCENT model. • Switchgrass produced biomass well on marginal land, but

  7. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  8. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  9. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  10. The impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food consumption: a comparative study of the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Naiara; Rodrigues, Cristiana Tristão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (PBF) on food consumption in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil. The database was obtained from the individual food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-09. Consumption was assessed through two food records. The food was categorized into four groups: fresh or minimally processed food; culinary ingredients; processed food; and ultra-processed food. To analyze the impact, the propensity score matching method was used, which compares the individual recipients and non-recipients of the PBF in relation to a group of socioeconomic characteristics. After the propensity score was calculated, the impact of the PBF was estimated through the nearest-neighbor matching algorithm. In both regions, more than 60% of the daily total calories consumed by PBF recipients came from foods that had not undergone industrial processing. The recipients of PBF had a low level of consumption of processed and ultra-processed food in both regions, and an increased level of consumption of fresh or minimally processed food in the northeast. The results indicate the importance of adopting intersectoral policies in parallel to the PBF in order to strengthen healthy eating practices.

  11. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  12. Le biomasse come opportunità per il territorio: analisi tecnico-economica per la Regione Basilicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Romano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Basilicata region there is a considerable amount of unused wood as well as the capacity to use it as feedstock for the production of bioenergy. Thus, the supply of renewable energy could be increased through greater utilization of forest biomass. However, for a better planning of the production and processing chain, the energy and forestry sectors require better estimates of the availability of unused roundwood and residues. The aim of the research was the development of a model for the spatial evaluation of biomass quantities obtainable from forestland. The results obtained point out a significant amounts of biomass distributed on most of the territory; b good opportunities related to white certificate trading and c potential of business creation, entrepreneurship and local employment.

  13. Seasonal characterization of CDOM for lakes in semiarid regions of Northeast China using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Li, Lin; Zang, Shuying; Shao, Tiantian; Li, Sijia; Du, Jia

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal characteristics of fluorescent components in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) for lakes in the semiarid region of Northeast China were examined by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Two humic-like (C1 and C2) and protein-like (C3 and C4) components were identified using PARAFAC. The average fluorescence intensity of the four components differed under seasonal variation from June and August 2013 to February and April 2014. Components 1 and 2 exhibited a strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.628). Significantly positive linear relationships between CDOM absorption coefficients a(254) (R2 = 0.72, 0.46, p DOC). However, almost no obvious correlation was found between salinity and EEM-PARAFAC-extracted components except for C3 (R2 = 0.469). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the EEM-PARAFAC technique can be used to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of CDOM fluorescent components for inland waters in the semiarid regions of Northeast China, and to quantify CDOM components for other waters with similar environmental conditions.

  14. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  15. Very high resolution regional climate simulations on the 4 km scale as a basis for carbon balance assessments in northeast European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna; Rinke, Annette; Matthes, Heidrun; Marchenko, Sergej; Daanen, Ronald; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Simulations with global circulation models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes in polar regions can be expected during the 21st century. Model studies have shown that the area of the Northern Hemisphere underlain by permafrost could be reduced substantially in a warmer climate. However, thawing of permafrost, in particular if it is ice-rich, is subject to a time lag due to the large latent heat of fusion. State-of-the-art GCMs are unable to adequately model these processes because (a) even the most advanced subsurface schemes rarely treat depths below 5 m explicitly, and (b) soil thawing and freezing processes cannot be dealt with directly due to the coarse resolution of present GCMs. Any attempt to model subsurface processes needs information about soil properties, vegetation and snow cover, which are hardly realistic on a typical GCM grid. Furthermore, simulated GCM precipitation is often underestimated and the proportion of rain and snow is incorrect. One possibility to overcome resolution-related problems is to use regional climate models (RCMs). Such an RCM, HIRHAM, has until now been the only one used for the entire circumpolar domain, and its most recent version, HIRHAM5, has also been used in the high resolution study described here. Instead of the traditional approach via a degree-day based frost index from observations or model data, we use the regional model to create boundary conditions for an advanced permafrost model. This approach offers the advantage that the permafrost model can be run on the grid of the regional model, i.e. in a considerably higher resolution than in previous approaches. We here present results from a new time-slice integration with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of only 4 km, covering northeast European Russia. This model simulation has served as basis for an assessment of the carbon balance for a region in northeast European Russia within the EU-funded Carbo-North project.

  16. GIS-based assessment of the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreurs, Eloi; Voets, Thomas; Thewys, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Dedicated energy crop cultivation is expected to be the prevalent form of biomass production for reaching renewable energy targets set by the European Union. However, there are some concerns with regard to its sustainability. This study demonstrates how this problem can be evaded by applying phytoremediation, i.e. the use of plants to remove pollutants from moderately contaminated soils. By selecting the appropriate plants a considerable biomass flow is produced without taking in scarce agricultural land, while simultaneously remediating the soil to levels of contamination below threshold values. Since phytoremediation is only applicable within a limited range of soil pollutant concentrations, the outer values of this range have to be determined at first. Subsequently, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is needed to perform further analyses. The contamination in the region is predicted using GIS, after which the agricultural area is determined that can be committed to energy crop cultivation. This way, the biomass potential and the resulting bioenergy potential from phytoremediation can be assessed. In this paper the Campine region in Belgium, a region diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium (Cd), is examined. It is illustrated that more than 2000 ha of agricultural land hold Cd concentrations exceeding guide values set by the Flemish Government. However, a large majority of these soils can be remediated by phytoremediation within a reasonable time span of 42 years. Concurrently, a significant amount of biomass is supplied for renewable energy production. -- Highlights: → More than 2000 ha of agricultural land have elevated Cd concentrations. → 87% can be remediated within 42 years by phytoremediation. → Annual biomass flow of 19 067 Mg for 21 years.

  17. Regional characteristics of land use in northeast and southern Blue Ridge province: Associations with acid-rain effects on surface-water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liegel, L.; Cassell, D.; Stevens, D.; Shaffer, P.; Church, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) is one of several being conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to assess risk to surface waters from acidic deposition in the eastern United States. In one phase of DDRP, land use, wetland, and forest cover data were collected for statistical samples of 145 northeast lakes and 35 southern Blue Ridge Province stream watersheds. Land use and other data were then extrapolated from individual to target watershed populations in both study regions. Project statistical design allows summarization of results for various subsets of the target population. The article discusses results and implications of the land-use and land-cover characterization for both regions

  18. Performance of a regional study related to biomass energetic valorisation within the frame of the elaboration of the regional renewable energy scheme of the Languedoc-Roussillon region - March 20, 2011 - Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moundy, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    After a recall of national objectives related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and of the defined content of a regional renewable energy scheme (determination of quantitative and qualitative objectives in terms of valorisation of the renewable and fatal energy potential within the region territory), and a recall of the different origins of biomass, the objective of this report was to compare potential energy usages with the available biomass resource (the present one and by 2020), in order to support the definition of regional objectives of development of biomass energy in the different geographical areas of the Languedoc-Roussillon region. Wood resource is first analysed. Assessments and perspectives are discussed for the different origins: (forests, sawmill by-products, wood scraps, green wastes), and regional consumptions of wood under various forms are also commented. The next part addresses agricultural biomass, its origins (crops, trimming residues, other agricultural activities, and agri-food industries), and the case of energy-oriented crops. The next part addresses biomass from domestic wastes (resource type and destruction, disposal or valorisation processes). The last part discusses objectives and development opportunities by 2020 for biomass and for heat, and in terms of the role of agricultural cooperatives and industries. Development levers and tools are briefly discussed

  19. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humans have dramatically influenced biomass burn- ing for agricultural needs ... implications for climatic change as a result of land- scape change ... Comprehensive modelling-based emission esti- mates of .... Cloud coverage could be also a ...

  20. The regional effects of a biomass fuel industry on US agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at the potential competitiveness of the emerging biomass-based biofuel industry in the current economic environment. A simulation model suggests that a mature biomassbased biofuel industry is potentially competitive with gasoline, and capable of filling a significant fraction of motor fuel supplies. However, the existing land policy has a narrow definition of agricultural land for a biomass-based fuel industry. A broader definition of agricultural land suitable for biomass inputs would reduce biofuel processing costs, relieve the food versus fuel conflict, and increase the net gain to fuel consumers, food consumers, and producers of food and fuel. - Highlights: • We look at the potential competitiveness of a mature biomass fuel (BF) industry in the US. • We model a land policy that allows BF-cattle competition for forage, crop residues, and pasture. • We estimate the cost reductions and welfare gains associated with modifying the land use policy

  1. Multilevel analysis of hepatitis A infection in children and adolescents: a household survey in the Northeast and Central-west regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Braga, Maria Cynthia; de Lima, Maria Luíza Carvalho; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Costa, Marcelo Abrahão; de Alencar, Luiz Cláudio Arraes; Moreira, Regina Célia; Figueiredo, Gerusa Maria; Pereira, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among children and adolescents from the Northeast and Midwest regions and the Federal District of Brazil and to identify individual-, household- and area-levels factors associated with hepatitis A infection. Methods This population-based survey was conducted in 2004–2005 and covered individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. A stratified multistage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used to select 1937 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years living in the Federal capital and in the State capitals of 12 states in the study regions. The sample was stratified according to age (5–9 and 10- to 19-years-old) and capital within each region. Individual- and household-level data were collected by interview at the home of the individual. Variables related to the area were retrieved from census tract data. The outcome was total antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected using commercial EIA. The age distribution of the susceptible population was estimated using a simple catalytic model. The associations between HAV infection and independent variables were assessed using the odds ratio and corrected for the random design effect and sampling weight. Multilevel analysis was performed by GLLAMM using Stata 9.2. Results The prevalence of hepatitis A infection in the 5–9 and 10–19 age-group was 41.5 and 57.4%, respectively for the Northeast, 32.3 and 56.0%, respectively for the Midwest and 33.8 and 65.1% for the Federal District. A trend for the prevalence of HAV infection to increase according to age was detected in all sites. By the age of 5, 31.5% of the children had already been infected with HAV in the Northeast region compared with 20.0% in the other sites. By the age of 19 years, seropositivity was ∼70% in all areas. The curves of susceptible populations differed from one area to another. Multilevel modeling showed that variables relating to different levels of

  2. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Bittencourt, Sonia Duarte de Azevedo; Torres, Raquel Maria Cardoso; Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de

    2017-03-02

    This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls), whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC - Live Birth Information System) and supplemented by data obtained by the research of "active search of death and birth". Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality. Identificar os determinantes sociais, demográficos, da saúde reprodutiva e de utilização dos serviços de saúde associados ao óbito infantil em municípios de pequeno e médio porte

  3. GIS-Based Suitability Model for Assessment of Forest Biomass Energy Potential in a Region of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinta-Nova, Luis; Fernandez, Paulo; Pedro, Nuno

    2017-12-01

    This work focuses on developed a decision support system based on multicriteria spatial analysis to assess the potential for generation of biomass residues from forestry sources in a region of Portugal (Beira Baixa). A set of environmental, economic and social criteria was defined, evaluated and weighted in the context of Saaty’s analytic hierarchies. The best alternatives were obtained after applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The model was applied to the central region of Portugal where forest and agriculture are the most representative land uses. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the set of factors and their associated weights was performed to test the robustness of the model. The proposed evaluation model provides a valuable reference for decision makers in establishing a standardized means of selecting the optimal location for new biomass plants.

  4. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  5. Generating emissions and meteorology to model the impacts of biomass burning emissions on regional air quality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, WS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available inventory, trajectory analysis. 1. Introduction The Kruger National Park (KNP), situated on the border of South Africa and Mozambique was intensively studied for its emission contributions and effects on the atmosphere during both the SAFARI...-1992 and SAFARI-2000 campaigns. It is a region that is characterised by dry season biomass burning with more than 52% of its fires occurring throughout the winter months. As an initial step in this study, pyrogenic emissions from savanna...

  6. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  7. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, N.; Domac, J.

    2007-01-01

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO 2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  8. A regional chemical transport modeling to identify the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg/m3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg/m3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. An impact pattern can be found in April, while the impact becomes slightly broader and goes up to Yangtze River Delta. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward tendency from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active biomass burning year to obtain an upper limit and climate effects.

  9. The willingness of farmers to engage with bioenergy and woody biomass production: A regional case study from Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convery, I.; Robson, D.; Ottitsch, A.; Long, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the willingness of Cumbrian farmers to switch land use from food production to biomass production in a landscape where food production is both heavily subsidised and the area is a centre for tourism. This is against a policy background of a switch of subsidies from food production to environmental benefits, increased concerns about emissions from farming and an increased demand for renewable energy. We identified an awareness of new markets for renewable energy, alongside increasing volatility of other crops (against a background of increasing demand for food). From this, our conclusions are that the main short-term opportunities for increasing biomass production in this region are through intensifying management of existing woodlands. In the medium term, as the financial case for biomass crops becomes more certain, we can envisage a ‘tipping point’ which would favour a switch from marginal agricultural land to biomass. - Highlights: ► Profit motive not driving force. ► Reluctance to change farming methods. ► Logs and chipped wood options.

  10. Hybridization of concentrated solar power with biomass gasification in Brazil’s semiarid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Rodrigo; Szklo, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Bettina Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of three hybridization concepts between CSP and biomass gasification. • Modelling of a benchmark power plant for each of the hybridization concepts. • The method relies on using Aspentech Hysys and SAM for thermodynamic analysis. • Technical and economic performance of the three benchmark power plants as result. - Abstract: This study aims to propose and analyze different options for hybridizing Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with biomass, through gasification for power generation. A hybrid CSP-biomass power plant through gasification is an innovative concept which allows the integration of combined cycle for power generation, sun-biomass hybridization and syngas storage. Therefore, this study addressed the proposition of the hybridization concept and the simulation of benchmark power plants for a suitable Brazilian site (high direct normal irradiation and low-cost biomass availability). Three power plant concepts are proposed and simulated in Aspentech Hysys and System Advisor Model (SAM): (i) Series design; (ii) Parallel design, and (iii) Steam Extraction design. For the same gasifier, the Series design holds the highest levelized cost, while the Parallel design presents the highest installed capacity, but the lowest capacity factor. Finally, the Steam Extraction design is placed between the other two proposed plants regarding the capacity factor and the annual energy generation.

  11. The characteristic and influence factors of extinction depth of shallow groundwater on the high-latitude region: a case study on the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of extinction depth of shallow groundwater (EDSG) and identification of its influence factors are important for sustainable management of groundwater resources, ecological protection, and human health in intensively irrigated region. In this study, the ratio of actual groundwater depth and EDSG (RAE) method was used to understand the spatial variability of EDSG in the Sanjiang Plain, one of China's largest grain production bases and China's largest inland freshwater wetland region. The study showed a large spatial variation of EDSG in the region. Spatially, the sites, which were in the northeast and center had the deepest and the shallowest EDSG, whereby, indicate that it has higher and lower pumping potential capacity. Many factors including climate, soil parameters, vegetation and topography affected the EDSG. We also identified an area of 3.86 × 10 10  m 2 , which accounting for 35.3% of the entire Sanjiang Plain, has exceeded the ESGD by over exploited for years. Knowledge of the variation and influence factors of EDSG for a certain plant system and the current shallow groundwater condition in the higher latitude region can be a key to the development of preventive actions for large quantity pumping groundwater and protection regional and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  12. Precursory enhancement of EIA in the morning sector: Contribution from mid-latitude large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.

  13. Role of sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region in the northeast Asia severe drought in summer 2014: month-to-month perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqing; Fan, Ke; Wang, HuiJun

    2017-09-01

    The severe drought over northeast Asia in summer 2014 and the contribution to it by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region were investigated from the month-to-month perspective. The severe drought was accompanied by weak lower-level summer monsoon flow and featured an obvious northward movement during summer. The mid-latitude Asian summer (MAS) pattern and East Asia/Pacific teleconnection (EAP) pattern, induced by the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) rainfall anomalies respectively, were two main bridges between the SST anomalies in the tropical Indo-Pacific region and the severe drought. Warming in the Arabian Sea induced reduced rainfall over northeast India and then triggered a negative MAS pattern favoring the severe drought in June 2014. In July 2014, warming in the tropical western North Pacific led to a strong WNPSM and increased rainfall over the Philippine Sea, triggering a positive EAP pattern. The equatorial eastern Pacific and local warming resulted in increased rainfall over the off-equatorial western Pacific and triggered an EAP-like pattern. The EAP pattern and EAP-like pattern contributed to the severe drought in July 2014. A negative Indian Ocean dipole induced an anomalous meridional circulation, and warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific induced an anomalous zonal circulation, in August 2014. The two anomalous cells led to a weak ISM and WNPSM, triggering the negative MAS and EAP patterns responsible for the severe drought. Two possible reasons for the northward movement of the drought were also proposed.

  14. Sensitisation to aeroallergens among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents living in a poor region in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, E C S; Mariano, J; Sarinho, S W; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Almerinda R, S; Solé, D

    2009-01-01

    To assess the kind and frequency of sensitisation to aeroallergens (skin prick test - SPT) of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents (13-14 years old) living in the city of Caruaru, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyse their exposure to some environmental factors. A case-control study was conducted with asthmatic (50) and non-asthmatic (150) adolescents diagnosed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. All were submitted to SPT with aeroallergens (house dust mites, cat and dog epithelium, cockroaches, moulds and grass) and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their environmental exposure. There were no significant differences between groups regarding gender, age, number of siblings and environmental exposure. Asthmatic subjects exhibited a higher frequency of positive SPTs than non-asthmatic subjects (54.0% vs 33.3%, p=0.009) mainly due to Periplaneta americana (34.0% vs 12.7%, p=0.0007 respectively) and Canis familiaris (20.0% vs 8.7%, p=0.029). Although sensitisation to aeroallergens was high among non-asthmatic adolescents, asthma was associated with parental history of atopic disease and sensitisation to P. americana and Canis familiaris but not to D. pteronyssinus showing that local studies are mandatory for the tailoring of appropriate management of allergic diseases.

  15. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg·ha−1, dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data...

  16. Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Fischer, H.; Freitas, S. R.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Hansel, A.; Hoor, P.; Kormann, R.; Krejci, R.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Lindinger, W.; Longo, K.; Peters, W.; de Reus, M.; Scheeren, B.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Ström, J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Williams, J.

    2001-01-01

    During LBA-CLAIRE-98, we found atmospheric layers with aged biomass smoke at altitudes >10 km over Suriname. CO, CO2, acetonitrile, methyl chloride, hydrocarbons, NO, O3, and aerosols were strongly enhanced in these layers. We estimate that 80-95% of accumulation mode aerosols had been removed

  17. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  18. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  19. Biomass energy for the economic sustain ability of isolated communities in the Amazon region; Energia de biomassa para a sustentabilidade economica das comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascio, Marco Alfredo di [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Freitas, Marcos Aurelio V. [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Recursos Hidricos; Marques, Ana Claudia S. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Economia

    1999-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of forestry biomass as energy source for dispersed communities in the Amazon region. The photovoltaic alternative is also presented, including the experience obtained with two demonstration photovoltaic installations in the state of Rondonia, Brazil.

  20. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  1. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage.

  2. A fuzzy multi-regional input–output optimization model for biomass production and trade under resource and footprint constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Raymond R.; Aviso, Kathleen B.; Barilea, Ivan U.; Culaba, Alvin B.; Cruz, Jose B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in bioenergy in recent years has been stimulated by both energy security and climate change concerns. Fuels derived from agricultural crops offer the promise of reducing energy dependence for countries that have traditionally been dependent on imported energy. Nevertheless, it is evident that the potential for biomass production is heavily dependent on the availability of land and water resources. Furthermore, capacity expansion through land conversion is now known to incur a significant carbon debt that may offset any benefits in greenhouse gas reductions arising from the biofuel life cycle. Because of such constraints, there is increasing use of non-local biomass through regional trading. The main challenge in the analysis of such arrangements is that individual geographic regions have their own respective goals. This work presents a multi-region, fuzzy input–output optimization model that reflects production and consumption of bioenergy under land, water and carbon footprint constraints. To offset any local production deficits or surpluses, the model allows for trade to occur among different regions within a defined system; furthermore, importation of additional biofuel from external sources is also allowed. Two illustrative case studies are given to demonstrate the key features of the model.

  3. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD4 epitope mutations in the pre-core/core region of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B carriers in Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhand, Sareh; Tabarraei, Alijan; Nazari, Amineh; Moradi, Abdolvahab

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is vulnerable to many various mutations. Those within epitopes recognized by sensitized T cells may influence the re-emergence of the virus. This study was designed to investigate the mutation in immune epitope regions of HBV pre-core/core among chronic HBV patients of Golestan province, Northeast Iran. In 120 chronic HBV carriers, HBV DNA was extracted from blood plasma samples and PCR was done using specific primers. Direct sequencing and alignment of the pre-core/core region were applied using reference sequence from Gene Bank database (Accession Number AB033559). The study showed 27 inferred amino acid substitutions, 9 of which (33.3%) were in CD4 and 2 (7.4%) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTL) epitopes and 16 other mutations (59.2%) were observed in other regions. CTL escape mutations were not commonly observed in pre-core/core sequences of chronic HBV carriers in the locale of study. It can be concluded that most of the inferred amino acid substitutions occur in different immune epitopes other than CTL and CD4.

  4. Population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng in human-dominated landscapes of the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We studied the population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm, Attalea speciosa, in three human-dominated landscapes located near a rural community in the region of Araripe, in the Northeast Region of Brazil, that were under intense fruit harvest. Fifty 10 x 10 m plots were randomly established in each of the three landscapes, and all individuals of A. speciosa within the plots were classified as seedlings, juveniles or adults, with the height of all adult individuals being measured. An additional 20 individuals were marked in each landscape, and the number of total bunches, fruits per bunch and bunches per palm tree were recorded. The populations of A. speciosa in the three landscapes exhibited an inverted J-shape plot, but pasture and shifting cultivation possessed a significantly higher number of individuals, seedlings and adults than the seasonal semideciduous forest, plus they possessed a greater seedling/adult ratio. Shifting cultivation was found to be favorable for fructification. The present study found that shifting cultivation and pastures are landscape practices that can contribute to the rapid expansion and establishment of A. speciosa, which can become a dominant species in the region of Araripe.

  5. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  6. Biomass burning aerosols in a savanna region of the Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Ducret, J.; Bremond, M.P.; Yoboue, V.; Lacaux, J.P.; Gaudichet, A.; Baudet, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to characterize the biomass burning particulate emissions, the authors sampled aerosols at Lamto in the wooded savanna of the Ivory Coast, during periods when the atmosphere is primarily influenced by various prescribed nearby or distant fires. They present here the results of parallel analyses which focus on the problem of tracing biomass burning aerosols at different levels of investigation. Soluble ion measurements give evidence of enhanced levels of various cations (potassium, calcium) and anions (sulfate, nitrate, oxalate), and the appearance of detectable oxalate concentrations. Further indication is obtained by analytical transmission electron microscopy of the small individual particles focusing on their trace element content. In addition, studies of the bulk carbonaceous content of the particles appear to provide primarily some possible indicators of the fire variability such as the isotropic composition fraction in the carbonaceous material (Cb to Ct ratio)

  7. Mapping growing stock volume and forest live biomass: a case study of the Polissya region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilous, Andrii; Myroniuk, Viktor; Holiaka, Dmytrii; Bilous, Svitlana; See, Linda; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2017-10-01

    Forest inventory and biomass mapping are important tasks that require inputs from multiple data sources. In this paper we implement two methods for the Ukrainian region of Polissya: random forest (RF) for tree species prediction and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) for growing stock volume and biomass mapping. We examined the suitability of the five-band RapidEye satellite image to predict the distribution of six tree species. The accuracy of RF is quite high: ~99% for forest/non-forest mask and 89% for tree species prediction. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of elevation as a predictor variable in the RF model improved the performance of tree species classification. We evaluated different distance metrics for the k-NN method, including Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance, most similar neighbor (MSN), gradient nearest neighbor, and independent component analysis. The MSN with the four nearest neighbors (k = 4) is the most precise (according to the root-mean-square deviation) for predicting forest attributes across the study area. The k-NN method allowed us to estimate growing stock volume with an accuracy of 3 m3 ha-1 and for live biomass of about 2 t ha-1 over the study area.

  8. Biomass burning contribution to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Chen, Yuan; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Xie, Shaodong; Chen, Wentai; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Cao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured intensively using an online gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at Ziyang in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR) from 6 December 2012 to 4 January 2013. Alkanes contributed the most (59%) to mixing ratios of measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), while aromatics contributed the least (7%). Methanol was the most abundant oxygenated VOC (OVOC), contributing 42% to the total amount of OVOCs. Significantly elevated VOC levels occurred during three pollution events, but the chemical composition of VOCs did not differ between polluted and clean days. The OH loss rates of VOCs were calculated to estimate their chemical reactivity. Alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity, among which ethylene and propene were the largest contributors; the contributions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were also considerable. Biomass burning had a significant influence on ambient VOCs during our study. We chose acetonitrile as a tracer and used enhancement ratio to estimate the contribution of biomass burning to ambient VOCs. Biomass burning contributed 9.4%-36.8% to the mixing ratios of selected VOC species, and contributed most (>30% each) to aromatics, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  9. Skill of ship-following large-eddy simulations in reproducing MAGIC observations across the northeast Pacific stratocumulus to cumulus transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, J.; Bretherton, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) in October 2011 to September 2012, a container ship making periodic cruises between Los Angeles, CA, and Honolulu, HI, was instrumented with surface meteorological, aerosol and radiation instruments, a cloud radar and ceilometer, and radiosondes. Here large-eddy simulation (LES) is performed in a ship-following frame of reference for 13 four day transects from the MAGIC field campaign. The goal is to assess if LES can skillfully simulate the broad range of observed cloud characteristics and boundary layer structure across the subtropical stratocumulus to cumulus transition region sampled during different seasons and meteorological conditions. Results from Leg 15A, which sampled a particularly well-defined stratocumulus to cumulus transition, demonstrate the approach. The LES reproduces the observed timing of decoupling and transition from stratocumulus to cumulus and matches the observed evolution of boundary layer structure, cloud fraction, liquid water path, and precipitation statistics remarkably well. Considering the simulations of all 13 cruises, the LES skillfully simulates the mean diurnal variation of key measured quantities, including liquid water path (LWP), cloud fraction, measures of decoupling, and cloud radar-derived precipitation. The daily mean quantities are well represented, and daily mean LWP and cloud fraction show the expected correlation with estimated inversion strength. There is a -0.6 K low bias in LES near-surface air temperature that results in a high bias of 5.6 W m-2 in sensible heat flux (SHF). Overall, these results build confidence in the ability of LES to represent the northeast Pacific stratocumulus to trade cumulus transition region.Plain Language SummaryDuring the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign in October 2011 to September 2012, a cargo container ship making regular cruises between Los Angeles, CA, and Honolulu, HI, was fitted with tools to

  10. Willow clones with high biomass yield in short rotation coppice in the southern region of Tohoku district (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Yu; Seto, Shoko; Nishio, Mari; Minato, Kazuya; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to select willow (Salix spp.) clones with a high potential for use as biomass energy crops in the southern region of Tohoku district in Japan. Cuttings of 8 willow clones were planted on an abandoned farmland near Sendai (av. annual temp., 10.9 o C) in March 2006, grown throughout the year and cut back in late December 2006 to resprout from the remaining stools in March 2007. The biomass yield in December 2007, after the first growing season, was highest in Salix pet-susu clone KKD, followed by Salix pseudolinearis clone FXM and Salix sachalinensis clone SEN. The biomass yield on December 2008, after the second growing season, was again highest in clone KKD followed by clone FXM, S. pet-susu clone HB471 and S. sachalinensis clone SEN; the average annual yield of dry mass after the second growing season being 3.09, 2.58, 2.17 and 1.85 kgDM plant -1 for the clones in this order. Plant growth form differed among the clones. Clones FXM and SEN had several shoots of almost uniform base diameter, whereas clones KKD and HB471 showed plagiotropic growth with one thick and several thin shoots. The calorific values of dried stem segments were similar among clones, ranging from 18.7 to 19.1 kJ g -1 . The dried stem segments contained 78.9-81.2 wt.% hollocellulose, 27.2-32.3 wt.% lignin and 2.1-4.0 wt.% extractives with ethanol-benzene, depending on clones. Based on these results, we could select four clones (KKD, FXM, HB471 and SEN) suitable for biomass production by SRWC in this area.

  11. [Aboveground biomass and nutrient distribution patterns of larch plantation in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yang, Kai; Yu, Li-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Larch is the main timber species of forest plantations in North China. Imbalance in nutrient cycling in soil emerged due to single species composition and mono system structure of plantation. Thus it is necessary to grasp its biomass and nutrients allocation for scientific management and nutrient cycling studies of larch plantation. We measured aboveground biomass (stem, branch, bark and leaf) and nutrient concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), and analyzed the patterns of accumulation and distribution of 19-year-old larch plantation with diameter at breast height of 12. 8 cm, tree height of 15. 3 m, and density of 2308 trees · hm(-2), in a montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China. The results showed that aboveground biomass values were 70.26 kg and 162.16 t · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. There was a significant difference between biomass of the organs, and decreased in the order of stem > branch > bark > leaf. Nutrient accumulation was 749.94 g and 1730.86 kg · hm(-2) for the individual tree of larch and the stand, respectively. Nutrient accumulation of stem was significantly higher than that of branch, bark and leaf, whether it was macro-nutrient or micro-nutrient. Averagely, 749.94 g nutrient elements would be removed from the system when a 19-year-old larch tree was harvested. If only the stem part was removed from the system, the removal of nutrient elements could be reduced by 40.7%.

  12. The effect of land cover change to the biomass value in the forest region of West Java province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M. I.; Waryono, T.; Rokhmatullah; Shidiq, I. P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the issue of climate change as a public concern, information of carbon stock availability play an important role to describe the condition of forest ecosystems in the context of sustainable forest management. This study has the objective to identify land cover change during 2 decades (1996 – 2016) in the forest region and estimate the value of forest carbon stocks in west Java Province using remote sensing imagery. The land cover change information was obtained by visually interpreting the Landsat image, while the estimation of the carbon stock value was performed using the transformation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) which extracted from Landsat image. Biomass value is calculated by existing allometric equations. The results of this study shows that the forest area in the forest region of West Java Province have decreased from year to year, and the estimation value of forest carbon stock in the forest region of West Java Province also decreased from year to year.

  13. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions, is a crucial contributor to the total local aerosol loading. Furthermore, the impact of the ITCZ, and Monsoonal circulation patterns coupled with complex topography also have a prominent impact on the aerosol loading throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, at the present time, biomass burning emissions are highly underestimated over this region, in part due to under-reported emissions in space and time, and in part due to an incomplete understanding of the physics and chemistry of the aerosols emitted in fires and formed downwind from them. Hence, a better understanding of the four-dimensional source distribution, plume rise, and in-situ processing, in particular in regions with significant quantities of urban air pollutants, is essential to advance our knowledge of this problem. This work uses a new modeling methodology based on the simultaneous constraints of measured AOD and some trace gasses over the region. The results of the 4-D constrained emissions are further expanded upon using different fire plume height rise and in-situ processing assumptions. Comparisons between the results and additional ground-based and remotely sensed measurements, including AERONET, CALIOP, and NOAA and other ground networks are included. The end results reveal a trio of insights into the nonlinear processes most-important to understand the impacts of biomass burning in this part of the world. Model-measurement comparisons are found to be consistent during the typical burning years of 2016. First, the model performs better under the new emissions representations, than it does using any of the standard hotspot based approaches currently employed by the community. Second, long range transport and mixing between the boundary layer and free troposphere contribute to the spatial-temporal variations. Third, we indicate some source regions that are new, either because of increased urbanization, or of

  14. Radiation dose measurement by electron spin resonance studies of tooth enamel in lime and non-lime consuming individuals from the Silchar region of northeast India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Deborshi; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Bhattacharyya, Joyeeta; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ivannikov, Alexander I.; Stepanenko, Valeriy F.; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Ohtaki, Megu; Toyoda, Shin

    2009-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry of teeth is used extensively for dose estimation following exposure to radiation. The population inhabiting the northeast region of India is prone to different cancers of the head and neck, and their prevalence is several times the national average. The objective of this study was to determine the role of radiation in the causation of this high cancer incidence by performing ESR spectroscopic measurements of tooth samples collected from the general population living in and around the city of Silchar. Nineteen tooth samples were used, and the age of the patients was 13-60 years. The excess dose, determined by subtraction of the natural background dose from the dose absorbed by the enamel, was found to the extent of 123±43 mGy. However, the individual excess dose was found to be higher in subjects who consumed lime (5/6) than in non-lime-consuming subjects (2/13). It is not entirely clear if radiation is the cause of this excess cancer in this region of India. Therefore there is a need for wider studies including consideration of tobacco consumption as well as a larger number of samples for tooth enamel dosimetry. (author)

  15. Habitat’s of innovation in the knowledge economy: a comparative analysis of technology parks located in the Northeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Magalhães Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological advance has been the main driving force behind the developing regions, accounting for much of the increase in productivity, income, job creation and international competitiveness. In that sense, the Habitat's innovation, but specifically, the technological parks, undertakings promoters of the culture innovation, competitiveness, increase and business qualification, substantiated in the transference of knowledge and technology, with the objective of increase the output of wealth of a region. Thus, the objective this paper is to identify the potential to economic development and innovative place technology parks that are in operation in northeast Brazil. The results are derived from a qualitative research study, based on descriptive and exploratory research, which through a five case studies it was possible to obtain information about the topic. The finding indicates that the technology parks presents potentials that identify them, as inductors of the economic development and local inovativon. Also, it presents limits that in spite of it they do not lessen the potential the localities of excellence for the transfer of technology based in technological base companies. It presents itself as difficulties that should be minimized or depending on the situation, solved through actions of the actors involved in behalf of the economic development and local inovativon.

  16. Regional distribution of styrene analogues generated from polystyrene degradation along the coastlines of the North-East Pacific Ocean and Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Saido, Katsuhiko; Koizumi, Koshiro; Sato, Hideto; Ogawa, Naoto; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kusui, Takashi; Kodera, Yoichi; Kogure, Kazuhio

    2014-01-01

    Beach sand and seawater taken from the coastlines of the North-East Pacific Ocean and Hawaii State were investigated to determine the causes of global chemical contamination from polystyrene (PS). All samples were found to contain styrene monomer (SM), styrene dimers (SD), and styrene trimers (ST) with a concentration distribution of styrene analogues in the order of ST > SD > SM. The contamination by styrene analogues along the West Coast proved more severe than in Alaska and other regions. The Western Coastlines of the USA seem be affected by both land- and ocean-based pollution sources, which might result from it being a heavily populated area as the data suggest a possible proportional relationship between PS pollution and population. Our results suggest the presence of new global chemical contaminants derived from PS in the ocean, and along coasts. - Highlights: • This study reports for the first time the regional distribution of styrene analogues. • Styrene analogues can be originated from polystyrene decomposition. • This study can contribute to assessing the fate of polystyrene (PS) degradation. - This study represents a first step in establishing the relationship between plastic pollution from polystyrene in the ocean and the presence of styrene analogues as low molecules

  17. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  18. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A de; Costa, F B [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences; and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  19. Space-based retrieval of NO2 over biomass burning regions: quantifying and reducing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of space-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals from solar backscatter radiances critically depends on a priori knowledge of the vertical profiles of NO2 and aerosol optical properties. This information is used to calculate an air mass factor (AMF), which accounts for atmospheric scattering and is used to convert the measured line-of-sight "slant" columns into vertical columns. In this study we investigate the impact of biomass burning emissions on the AMF in order to quantify NO2 retrieval errors in the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products over these sources. Sensitivity analyses are conducted using the Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (LIDORT) model. The NO2 and aerosol profiles are obtained from a 3-D chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem), which uses the Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) daily biomass burning emission inventory. Aircraft in situ data collected during two field campaigns, the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX), are used to evaluate the modeled aerosol optical properties and NO2 profiles over Canadian boreal fires and West African savanna fires, respectively. Over both domains, the effect of biomass burning emissions on the AMF through the modified NO2 shape factor can be as high as -60%. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that the effect of aerosol and shape factor perturbations on the AMF is very sensitive to surface reflectance and clouds. As an illustration, the aerosol correction can range from -20 to +100% for different surface reflectances, while the shape factor correction varies from -70 to -20%. Although previous studies have shown that in clear-sky conditions the effect of aerosols on the AMF was in part implicitly accounted for by the modified cloud parameters, here it is suggested that when clouds are present above a surface layer of scattering aerosols, an explicit

  20. Seasonal characterization of CDOM for lakes in semi-arid regions of Northeast China using excitation-emission matrices fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Song, K.; Wen, Z.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Shao, T.; Li, S.; Du, J.

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal characteristics of fluorescence components in CDOM for lakes in the semi-arid region of Northeast China were examined by excitation-emission matrices fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Two humic-like peaks C1 (Ex/Em = 230, 300/425 nm) and C2 (Ex/Em = 255, 350/460 nm) and two protein-like B (Ex/Em = 220, 275/320 nm) and T (Ex/Em = 225, 290/360 nm) peaks were identified using PARAFAC. The average fluorescence intensity of the four components differed with seasonal variation from June and August 2013 to February and April 2014. The total fluorescence intensity significantly varied from 2.54 ± 0.68 nm-1 in June to the mean value 1.93 ± 0.70 nm-1 in August 2013, and then increased to 2.34 ± 0.92 nm-1 in February and reduced to the lowest 1.57 ± 0.55 nm-1 in April 2014. In general, the fluorescence intensity was dominated by peak C1, indicating that most part of CDOM for inland waters being investigated in this study was originated from phytoplankton degradation. The lowest C2 represents only a small portion of CDOM from terrestrial imported organic matter to water bodies through rainwash and soil leaching. The two protein-like intensities (B and T) formed in situ through microbial activity have almost the same intensity. Especially, in August 2013 and February 2014, the two protein-like peaks showed obviously difference from other seasons and the highest C1 (1.02 nm-1) was present in February 2014. Components 1 and 2 exhibited strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.633). There were significantly positive linear relationships between CDOM absorption coefficients a(254) (R2 = 0.72, 0.46, p DOC. However, almost no obvious correlation was found between salinity and EEM-PARAFAC extracted components except for C3 (R2 = 0.469). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the EEM-PARAFAC technique can be used to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of CDOM fluorescence components for inland waters in semi-arid regions of Northeast China.

  1. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  2. [Sowing date of corn in semiarid region of Jilin Province, Northeast China in adapting to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying-Hua; Zhou, Dao-Wei; Qin, Li-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Under the background of global climate change, the climate in semiarid region of west Jilin Province changed greatly, producing a profound impact on the corn production in this region. In this study, the corn seeds were under three treatments (accelerating germination at 10 and 25 degrees C, and dry seeds), and a field experiment with early sowing and traditional sowing was conducted in 2008 to investigate the effects of early sowing these seeds on the seedling emergence, growth, and yield, and compare the effects of early sowing and traditional sowing dates on the corn production and yield. In 1961-2010, the first day of the growth season of corn in semiarid region of west Jilin Province was advanced, the air temperature increased significantly, and the precipitation displayed a decreasing trend. At present, the corn sowing date in this region could be advanced to 11th, April. Accelerating germination at 10 degrees C, directly sowing dry seeds, and bed-irrigation sowing all benefited the seedling emergence and cold resistance of early-sown seeds, and the corn plant height and leaf area under early sowing were significantly higher, with the yield increased by 35% - 48%, compared with those under traditional sowing.

  3. Estimativa de radiação solar via modelagem atmosférica de mesoescala aplicada à região nordeste do Brasil Estimation of solar radiation by mesoscale atmospheric modeling applied to the northeast Brazil region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacilio Leandro De Menezes Neto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de fontes alternativas de energias, como a solar, a eólica e a biomassa, vem crescendo significativamente nos últimos anos, sendo a energia solar, em particular, uma fonte abundante na região Nordeste do Brasil. O conhecimento preciso da radiação solar incidente é, assim, de grande importância para o planejamento energético brasileiro, servindo de base para o desenvolvimento de futuros projetos de plantas fotovoltaicas e de aproveitamento da energia solar. Este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia para o mapeamento da energia solar incidente ao nível do solo para a região Nordeste do Brasil, utilizando um modelo atmosférico de mesoescala (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System - RAMS, validado e ajustado por meio dos dados medidos pela rede de plataformas de coleta de dados (PCDs da Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos (FUNCEME. Os resultados mostraram que o modelo apresenta erros sistemáticos, sobreestimando a radiação na superfície, porém após as devidas correções estatísticas, utilizando-se uma relação entre a fração de cobertura de nuvens prevista pelo modelo e a radiação observada na superfície e estimada no topo da atmosfera, encontram-se correlações de 0,92 com intervalos de confiança de 13,5 W/m² para dados com base mensal. Usando essa metodologia, a estimativa do valor médio anual (após ajustes da radiação solar incidente no estado do Ceará é de 215 W/m² (máximo em outubro: 260 W/m².The use of renewable energy sources, like solar, wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years, with solar radiation being a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. Thus, the proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy generation planning in Brazil, serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploration. This work presents a methodology for mapping the

  4. Total Costs and Benefits of Biomass in Selected regions of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, A. de; Bauen, A.; Costa, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant;- production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel...... and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power;- production of biogas from animal slurry for municipal combined heat an power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use fo Danish natural gas in the same engine;- gasification of woody...... in a similar engine;- production of rape-seed oil methyl ester (RME) and its use for goods transport in Germay, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks;- production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use...

  5. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  6. [Dynamics and modeling of water content of ten shrub species in their growth period in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sen; Yan, Xue-Jiao

    2012-12-01

    Based on the two successive years observation of the water content of ten representative shrub species in Maoershan Mountain region of Northeast China, this paper studied the dynamics of the water content of these shrub species during their growth period and related affecting factors, with the prediction models of the shrub water content established. For the ten shrub species, their minimal water content during growth period was higher than 100% , and most of the species had a water content higher than 200% within the period from the late phase of leaf-unfolding to early phase of leaf-falling. Euonymus verrucosus, Sorbaria sorbifolia, and Sambucus williamsii were incombustible in their whole growth period due to the extremely high water content, while Syringa reticulate, Philadelphus schrenkii, Euonymus verrucosus, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, Lonicera maackii, Lonicera ruprechtiana, and Rhamnus parvifolia were combustible only in the phases of budding and leaf-falling. Soil moisture content and daily maximum temperature had effects on the water content of most (7) of the ten shrubs, and canopy drought severity index affected the water content of 5 of the ten shrubs. The established 9 prediction models could explain more than 35% of the water content variance of the shrub species, with a mean MRE of 35.9% and a mean MRE of 13.4%.

  7. Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2008-01-01

    Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized.

  8. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fausto de Souza Coutinho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area.

  9. Trans-boundary movement of mercury in the Northeast Asian region predicted by CAMQ-Hg from anthropogenic emissions distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jin-Ho; Roy, Debananda; Oh, Joo-Sung; Back, Seung-Ki; Jang, Ha-Na; Kim, Seong-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Chong Bum; Han, Young-Ji

    2018-05-01

    The percentage contribution of trans-boundary mercury (Hg) from China at different locations in South Korea was estimated from Hg anthropogenic emission distributions using the Hg dispersion model, CMAQ-Hg. This investigation quantifies the trans-boundary Hg emissions as contribution ratios. In addition, the long-range transportation frequency is also calculated, to verify inflow cases from China. The seasonal distribution of the Hg contribution ratio was found to be highest in winter (40%), followed by fall (16%). Seasonal observations of Hg inflow frequencies were estimated as 40%, 25%, 21%, and 4% in winter, fall, summer, and spring, respectively, at the same location. Such results would be produced by the wind generally blowing from the west and north-west with a speed of 5.0 m/s and 4.5 m/s, respectively, during winter and fall, around the study area. This study made an effort to quantify the trans-boundary Hg transport and to plot Hg anthropogenic emissions distribution in the region.

  10. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  11. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report 1986. Volume 4. Part A. Hierarchical Region-Based Approach to Automatic Photointerpretation. Part B. Application of AI Techniques to Image Segmentation and Region Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial (If applicaole)nelincCostum(AcRome Air Development Center (COCU) Inteligence Consortium (NAIC)I 6c. ADDRESS...f, Offell RADC-TR-88-1 1, Vol IV (of eight) Interim Technical ReportS June 1988 NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT 1986...13441-5700 EMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO62702F 5 8 71 " " over) I 58 27 13 " ൓ TITLE (Include Security Classification) NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

  12. Internal, external and location factors influencing cofiring of biomass with coal in the U.S. northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been identified as a viable option to diminish reliance on fossil fuels. We parameterized the effect of selected internal (e.g. coal-fire presence), external (e.g. price and renewable energy mandates) and location (e.g. biomass availability, infrastructure) variables on the likelihood of using biomass in cofiring with coal...

  13. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  14. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade nas regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil Overweight and obesity prevalence in Northeast and Southeast Regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Militão Abrantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças, adolescentes, adultos e idosos brasileiros das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste; MÉTODOS: Avaliação antropométrica de 17.184 pessoas, estudadas na Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida (PPV realizada pelo IBGE em 1996/97, através do índice de massa corporal sendo usados como limite para sobrepeso e obesidade os valores propostos por Cole et al. por permitirem uma continuidade de critério de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância, adolescência e idade adulta. RESULTADOS: Predomínio do sexo feminino, 53,1%, na população estudada. A média de idade foi de 29 anos e 5 meses (desvio padrão de ± 20 anos, a mediana foi de 25 anos e 6 meses. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 10,8% entre crianças, 9,9% nos adolescentes e 28,3% entre adultos e a de obesidade foi 7,3%, 1,8% e 9,7%, respectivamente. Observado um aumento gradativo da prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade desde a infância até a idade adulta, com declínio entre os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: Prevalência conjunta de sobrepeso e obesidade na população brasileira é maior no sexo feminino sendo que mais da metade das mulheres das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil, com idade entre 50 e 69 anos, têm sobrepeso e/ou obesidade. A comparação de estudos de prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância e adolescência é dificultada pela escassez de estudos populacionais nacionais e diversidade de critérios utilizados na avaliação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, adolescents, adults and elderlies from Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS: anthropometric evaluation of 17.184 people, studied in Life Pattern Research conducted by Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics in 1996/97, by body mass index. Overweight and obesity definitions according to body mass index values proposed by Cole et al. which are related to adult definition. RESULTS: It

  15. 78 FR 76077 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Final Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector... allows fishing access for Northeast multispecies sectors to two portions of the Southern New England... of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional Office...

  16. Seabather's eruption: report of case in northeast region of Brazil Prurido do traje do banho: relato de caso na região nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rossetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seabather's eruption is characterized by the occurrence of intensely itchy erythematous papules observed mainly in the region covered by swimwear. The dermatitis occurs due to the contact of planula larvae of scyphomedusae Linuche unguiculata with the skin. The swimsuit pressure triggers the action of the poisonous stinging structures carried by the larvae. The case described occurred in a child who, while bathing in the ocean waters of the Northeast coast of Bessa's Beach located in the city of Joao Pessoa, state of Paraiba, showed typical clinical signs of the disease. It was concluded that the report of the case showed clinical and therapeutic implications for doctors working in all of the Brazilian coastal areas.O prurido do traje de banho é uma erupção caracterizada por pápulas eritematosas, intensamente pruriginosas, localizadas principalmente sob os trajes dos banhistas de mar. A dermatite ocorre pelo contato com as larvas plânulas da cifomedusa Linuche unguiculata que disparam seus nematocistos na pele do acidentado a partir das suas células de defesa, os cnidócitos. O caso ocorreu em uma criança que ao se banhar nas águas oceânicas do litoral da Região Nordeste na Praia do Bessa localizada na cidade de João Pessoa, Estado da Paraíba, apresentou quadro clínico típico da enfermidade. Concluiu-se que o relato do caso evidenciou implicações clínicas e terapêuticas para os médicos que atuam em todas as áreas litorâneas brasileiras.

  17. Examining Pseudotsuga menziesii biomass change dynamics through succession using a regional forest inventory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Bell; Andrew N. Gray

    2015-01-01

    Models of forest succession provide an appealing conceptual framework for understanding forest dynamics, but uncertainty in the degree to which patterns are regionally consistent might limit the application of successional theory in forest management. Remeasurements of forest inventory networks provide an opportunity to assess this consistency, improving our...

  18. IASI-derived NH3 enhancement ratios relative to CO for the tropical biomass burning regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Simon; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-10-01

    Vegetation fires are a major source of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. Their emissions are mainly estimated using bottom-up approaches that rely on uncertain emission factors. In this study, we derive new biome-specific NH3 enhancement ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO), ERNH3 / CO (directly related to the emission factors), from the measurements of the IASI sounder onboard the Metop-A satellite. This is achieved for large tropical regions and for an 8-year period (2008-2015). We find substantial differences in the ERNH3 / CO ratios between the biomes studied, with calculated values ranging from 7 × 10-3 to 23 × 10-3. For evergreen broadleaf forest these are typically 50-75 % higher than for woody savanna and savanna biomes. This variability is attributed to differences in fuel types and size and is in line with previous studies. The analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the ERNH3 / CO ratio also reveals a (sometimes large) within-biome variability. On a regional level, woody savanna shows, for example, a mean ERNH3 / CO ratio for the region of Africa south of the Equator that is 40-75 % lower than in the other five regions studied, probably reflecting regional differences in fuel type and burning conditions. The same variability is also observed on a yearly basis, with a peak in the ERNH3 / CO ratio observed for the year 2010 for all biomes. These results highlight the need for the development of dynamic emission factors that take into better account local variations in fuel type and fire conditions. We also compare the IASI-derived ERNH3 / CO ratio with values reported in the literature, usually calculated from ground-based or airborne measurements. We find general good agreement in the referenced ERNH3 / CO ratio except for cropland, for which the ERNH3 / CO ratio shows an underestimation of about 2-2.5 times.

  19. Northeast Isidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    7 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mesa in northeastern Isidis Planitia. The mesa might be a remnant of terrain that once more extensively covered the region. Location near: 20.3oN, 267.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  20. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  1. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Miao, E-mail: hemiao.cmu@gmail.com [Environment and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Research Center, College of Public Health, China Medical University, 11001 Shenyang (China); Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi, E-mail: ichinose@oita-nhs.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Song, Yuan, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: songyuan1107@163.com [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi, E-mail: arashi@snow.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555 Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi, E-mail: syoshida@oita-nhs.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Liu, Boying, E-mail: boyingliu321@gmail.com [Environment and Chronic Non-communicable Disease Research Center, College of Public Health, China Medical University, 11001 Shenyang (China); Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 870-1201 Oita (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka, E-mail: mnishi@nies.go.jp [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 305-8506 Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa, E-mail: htakano@health.env.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environmental Health Division, Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and β-glucan (ASD1 < ASD2) and SiO{sub 2} (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 < ASD2) and chemokine eotaxin (ASD1 > ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and β-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 −/−), TLR4 −/−, and MyD88 −/− mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 −/− BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1α secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 −/− BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 −/− BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. • The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. • The ASDs contained different LPS and β-glucan (ASD1

  2. Dynamics and sources of soil organic C following afforestation of croplands with poplar in a semi-arid region in northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Hu

    Full Text Available Afforestation of former croplands has been proposed as a promising way to mitigate rising atmospheric CO2 concentration in view of the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Central to this C sequestration is the dynamics of soil organic C (SOC storage and stability with the development of afforested plantations. Our previous study showed that SOC storage was not changed after afforestation except for the 0-10 cm layer in a semi-arid region of Keerqin Sandy Lands, northeast China. In this study, soil organic C was further separated into light and heavy fractions using the density fractionation method, and their organic C concentration and (13C signature were analyzed to investigate the turnover of old vs. new SOC in the afforested soils. Surface layer (0-10 cm soil samples were collected from 14 paired plots of poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica W. Y. Hsu & Liang plantations with different stand basal areas (the sum of the cross-sectional area of all live trees in a stand, ranging from 0.2 to 32.6 m(2 ha(-1, and reference maize (Zea mays L. croplands at the same sites as our previous study. Soil ΔC stocks (ΔC refers to the difference in SOC content between a poplar plantation and the paired cropland in bulk soil and light fraction were positively correlated with stand basal area (R (2 = 0.48, p<0.01 and R (2 = 0.40, p = 0.02, respectively, but not for the heavy fraction. SOCcrop (SOC derived from crops contents in the light and heavy fractions in poplar plantations were significantly lower as compared with SOC contents in croplands, but tree-derived C in bulk soil, light and heavy fraction pools increased gradually with increasing stand basal area after afforestation. Our study indicated that cropland afforestation could sequester new C derived from trees into surface mineral soil, but did not enhance the stability of SOC due to a fast turnover of SOC in this semi-arid region.

  3. Effects of two Asian sand dusts transported from the dust source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on murine lung eosinophilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Liu, Boying; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    The quality and quantity of toxic materials adsorbed onto Asian sand dust (ASD) are different based on dust source regions and passage routes. The aggravating effects of two ASDs (ASD1 and ASD2) transported from the source regions of Inner Mongolia and northeast China on lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in ASD. The ASDs contained different amounts of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and β-glucan (ASD1 2 (ASD1 > ASD2). CD-1 mice were instilled intratracheally with ASD1, ASD2 and/or ovalbumin (OVA) four times at 2-week intervals. ASD1 and ASD2 enhanced eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, with goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium. ASD1 and ASD2 synergistically increased OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 (ASD1 ASD2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. ASD2 aggravating effects on lung eosinophilia were greater than ASD1. The role of LPS and β-glucan in ASD2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators was assessed using in vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild type, Toll-like receptor 2-deficient (TLR2 −/−), TLR4 −/−, and MyD88 −/− mice (on Balb/c background). ASD2-stimulated TLR2 −/− BMDMs enhanced IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1α secretion compared with ASD2-stimulated TLR4 −/− BMDMs. Protein expression from ASD2-stimulated MyD88 −/− BMDM were very low or undetectable. The in vitro results indicate that lung eosinophilia caused by ASD is TLR4 dependent. Therefore, the aggravation of OVA-related lung eosinophilia by ASD may be dependent on toxic substances derived from microbes, such as LPS, rather than SiO 2 . - Highlights: • Asian sand dust (ASD) from the deserts of China causes serious respiratory problems. • The aggravating effects of two ASDs on lung eosinophilia were compared. • The ASDs contained different LPS and β-glucan (ASD1 2 (ASD1 > ASD2). • The ASD2 aggravating effects on lung

  4. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-06-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  5. Effects of a Reservoir Water on the GW Quality in a Coastal Aquifer of Semi-arid Region, North-east of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, C.; Kawachi, A.; Tsujimura, M.; Tarhouni, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated effects of a reservoir water in a salinized shallow aquifer based on spatial distribution of geochemical properties in groundwater (GW). In many coastal shallow aquifers of arid and semi-arid regions, groundwater table (GWT) depression and salinization have occurred due to GW overexploitation. In Korba aquifer, north-east of Tunisia, after a dam reservoir has been constructed in order to assure a water resource for irrigation, improvement of GW level and quality have been observed in the downstream area of the dam (area-A), while the GW in the other area (area-B) still has high salinity. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effects of the reservoir water on the GW quality. In June 2013, water quality survey and sampling were carried out at 60 wells (GW), a dam reservoir, river and the sea. Major ions, boron, bromide, and oxygen-18 and deuterium in collected samples were analyzed. From the results, in the area-B, the GWT was lower than the sea level and the high salinity were observed. The Br- concentration of the GW was correlated with the Cl- concentration, and the values of B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were similar to the seawater. Since the GWT depression allowed the seawater to intrude into the aquifer, the GW salinization occurred in this area. On the other hand, in the area-A, GWT was higher than the seawater level, and the Na+ and Cl- concentrations were lower than the area-B. Especially, in the irrigated areas by using the reservoir water, the isotopic values, B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- of the GW were relatively higher than the others. The reservoir water has high isotopic values due to evaporation effect, and the B/Cl- and Br-/Cl- values become higher due to organic matters in sediment of the reservoir or soil in the filtration process. Thus, in addition to the direct infiltration from the reservoir into the aquifer, irrigation using a reservoir water probably has a positive impact on the GW quality in this area.

  6. Comparing aboveground biomass predictions for an uneven-aged pine-dominated stand using local, regional, and national models

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Bragg; K.M. McElligott

    2013-01-01

    Sequestration by Arkansas forests removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, storing this carbon in biomass that fills a number of critical ecological and socioeconomic functions. We need a better understanding of the contribution of forests to the carbon cycle, including the accurate quantification of tree biomass. Models have long been developed to predict...

  7. Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der J.W.H.; Zwart, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.

  8. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  9. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  10. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  11. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  12. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  13. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  14. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  15. Biomass burning in Indo-China peninsula and its impacts on regional air quality and global climate change-a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Linthoingambi Devi, Ningombam; Li, Jun; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Zhang, Gan; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2017-01-01

    Although, many biomass burning (BB) emissions products (particulate matter and trace gases) are believed to be trans-boundary pollutants that originates from India and China (the two most populous countries in Asia), the information about BB emission and related contents is limited for Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) region. This motivated us to review this region pertaining to BB emission. The main objective of the review is to document the current status of BB emission in ICP region. In order to highlight the impact of BB on regional air quality and global climate change, the role of BB emission in ICP region is also discussed. Based on the available literature and modeling simulations studies, it is evidenced that ICP is one of the hotspot regional source for aerosols in terms of BB emissions. In addition, regional emissions through BB have significant implications for regional air quality especially in the neighboring countries such as China, Taiwan and India. Our assessment highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data and research studies addressing BB related issues in context of environmental and human health. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience and further research into these issues is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies. - Highlights: • Forest burning is the main sources of BB emissions in the ICP region. • ICP is one of the hotspot regional source for aerosols in terms of BB emissions. • BB emission in ICP significantly affects regional air quality and global climate. - Indo-China Peninsula is one of the hotspot sources of aerosols in terms of biomass burning emissions that significantly influence regional air quality and global climate change.

  16. Satellite Based Analysis of Wood Biomass and Fuelwood Sustainability in Senegal: Developing Approaches for Long-Term Monitoring in the SERVIR-West Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, N. P.; Anchang, J.; Dieye, A. M.; Yero, K.; Tredennick, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Rural populations in most of Africa are highly dependent on woody biomass (wood or charcoal) for cooking and heating. Many rural families gather wood locally, while urban populations often rely on small-scale commercial charcoal producers, who make charcoal in rural areas for transport to urban centers. Given that cooking is essential for conversion of inedible protein and carbohydrate substrates into edible food, fuelwood is an essential part of the food security puzzle for most African families. The SERVIR program is a partnership between USAID, NASA and regional institutions designed to enhance access to, and application of, earth observation data for economic development and natural resource management in less developed countries. In this paper, we report on a SERVIR West Africa collaboration to develop above-ground wood biomass estimates using moderate resolution ( 20 m) data from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 satellites, incorporating field data for calibration and validation, and using data retrieval and analysis workflows that can be replicated by SERVIR partners across the region. Using the country of Senegal as a test case, we analyze the spatial distribution of biomass stocks in relation to fuelwood demand to assess supply-demand patterns across scales from local (village), to district, regional and national scales.

  17. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  18. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  19. Flooded native pastures of the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso: biomass and primary productivity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Pozer

    Full Text Available The Pantanal comprises a number of landscape units, submitted to a flood pulse with variable intensity or regularity. One of these units, the flooded plains, is important in cattle raising. This study was carried out in the northern portion of the Pantanal and presents data related to the productive dynamics of the flooded native pastures both protected from and exposed to cattle. The greatest total biomass values were for the protected pasture due to accumulated dead biomass. Net primary production presented smaller values at the flood-season start and increasing gradually beginning in the subsequent rainy season. However, consumption by cattle was also more intense during the months of greater precipitation. The effect of cattle in pastures is of fundamental importance to management since it prevents the dead biomass excess that increases fire risks.

  20. Spatial and seasonal variability of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production in the frontal region of the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. VADRUCCI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and seasonal patterns of variation of fractionated phytoplankton biomass and primary production and their relationships with nutrient concentrations were analyzed along an inshore - offshore gradient and in relation to the presence of a frontal system in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Sampling was carried out in winter and summer during four oceanographic cruises (June 1996 and 1997, February 1997 and 1998 as part of the PRISMA II project. Water samples for determining nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass (as Chla and primary production (as 14 C assimilation were collected at five optical depths. Sampling stations were located along 2 or 4 parallel transects arranged perpendicularly to the shoreline and the frontal system. The transects were located at such a distance from the coast that the frontal system crossed them at their halfway point. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (TDP were 12.41 ± 3 .95 mM and 0.146 ± 0 .070 mM, respectively. The values in the two seasonal periods were similar, decreasing along the inshore-offshore gradient. Values for phytoplankton biomass and primary productionwere higher in the winter than the summer cruises, and decreased, in both seasonal periods, along the inshore / offshore gradient. Moreover, in both seasonal periods, picophytoplankton dominated both biomass and productivity, (56% and 44%, respectively at stations beyond the frontal system, while microphytoplankton was more important at stations inside it (44% and 44%, respectively. Total phytoplankton biomass and primary production were directly related to nutrient concentrations. Regarding size classes, significant patterns of variation with nutrients were observed particularly for biomass. The results indicate that the size structure and function of phytoplankton guilds seem to be mediated by nutrient inflow, as well as by competitive interaction among size fractions.

  1. Access to and use of health services as factors associated with neonatal mortality in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Batista

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with neonatal mortality related to health services accessibility and use. Methods: Case–control study of live births in 2008 in small- and medium-sized municipalities in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil. A probabilistic sample stratified by region, population size, and information adequacy was generated for the choice of municipalities. Of these, all municipalities with 20,000 inhabitants or less were included in the study (36 municipalities, whereas the remainder were selected according to the probability method proportional to population size, totaling 20 cities with 20,001–50,000 inhabitants and 19 municipalities with 50,001–200,000 inhabitants. All deaths of live births in these cities were included. Controls were randomly sampled, considered as four times the number of cases. The sample size comprised 412 cases and 1772 controls. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: The risk factors for neonatal death were socioeconomic class D and E (OR = 1.28, history of child death (OR = 1.74, high-risk pregnancy (OR = 4.03, peregrination in antepartum (OR = 1.46, lack of prenatal care (OR = 2.81, absence of professional for the monitoring of labor (OR = 3.34, excessive time waiting for delivery (OR = 1.97, borderline preterm birth (OR = 4.09 and malformation (OR = 13.66. Conclusion: These results suggest multiple causes of neonatal mortality, as well as the need to improve access to good quality maternal-child health care services in the assessed places of study. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal referentes ao acesso e à utilização dos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle de nascidos vivos em 2008 nos municípios de pequeno e médio porte nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Vale do Jequitinhonha do Brasil. Uma amostra probabilística e estratificada por regi

  2. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at a regional background site in North China using PMF linked with radiocarbon analysis: insight into the contribution of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Source apportionment of fine particles (PM2.5 at a background site in North China in the winter of 2014 was done using statistical analysis, radiocarbon (14C measurement and positive matrix factorization (PMF modeling. Results showed that the concentration of PM2.5 was 77.6 ± 59.3 µg m−3, of which sulfate (SO42− concentration was the highest, followed by nitrate (NO3−, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC and ammonium (NH4+. As demonstrated by backward trajectory, more than half of the air masses during the sampling period were from the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH region, followed by Mongolia and the Shandong Peninsula. Cluster analysis of chemical species suggested an obvious signal of biomass burning in the PM2.5 from the Shandong Peninsula, while the PM2.5 from the BTH region showed a vehicle emission pattern. This finding was further confirmed by the 14C measurement of OC and EC in two merged samples. The 14C result indicated that biogenic and biomass burning emission contributed 59 ± 4 and 52 ± 2 % to OC and EC concentrations, respectively, when air masses originated from the Shandong Peninsula, while the contributions fell to 46 ± 4 and 38 ± 1 %, respectively, when the prevailing wind changed and came from the BTH region. The minimum deviation between source apportionment results from PMF and 14C measurement was adopted as the optimal choice of the model exercises. Here, two minor overestimates with the same range (3 % implied that the PMF result provided a reasonable source apportionment of the regional PM2.5 in this study. Based on the PMF modeling, eight sources were identified; of these, coal combustion, biomass burning and vehicle emission were the main contributors of PM2.5, accounting for 29.6, 19.3 and 15.9 %, respectively. Compared with overall source apportionment, the contributions of vehicle emission, mineral dust, coal combustion and biomass burning increased when air masses

  3. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  4. Maritimes and northeast pipeline update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts made by Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines to bring the benefits of natural gas to the Maritime's economy was discussed. Some background on the developments that have brought the company to where they are today and an update on all their activities were presented. These activities and operations are expected to impact and affect the region's economy in a positive way. Particular attention was paid to the company's policy on laterals and the positive effects of that policy on the development of natural gas service and future natural gas distribution business in the Maritimes

  5. Mapping Forest Biomass Using Remote Sensing and National Forest Inventory in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Du

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial pattern of large-scale forest biomass can provide a general picture of the carbon stocks within a region and is of great scientific and political importance. The combination of the advantages of remote sensing data and field survey data can reduce uncertainty as well as demonstrate the spatial distribution of forest biomass. In this study, the seventh national forest inventory statistics (for the period 2004–2008 and the spatially explicit MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12C1 were used together to quantitatively estimate the spatially-explicit distribution of forest biomass in China (with a resolution of 0.05°, ~5600 m. Our study demonstrated that the calibrated forest cover proportion maps allow proportionate downscaling of regional forest biomass statistics to forest cover pixels to produce a relatively fine-resolution biomass map. The total stock of forest biomass in China was 11.9 Pg with an average of 76.3 Mg ha−1 during the study period; the high values were located in mountain ranges in northeast, southwest and southeast China and were strongly correlated with forest age and forest density.

  6. 76 FR 10852 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2011 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts, and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: As part of the process for the NMFS Northeast Regional Administrator approval of proposed sector...

  7. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  8. Biomass utilisation for combined heat and power generation: Status and perspectives for rural regions. Guelzow expert discussions; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung: Stand der Technik und Perspektiven fuer den laendlichen Raum. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Biomass has a high potential but biomass utilisation technologies have not yet reached sufficient maturity for a general breakthrough on the market. Political boundary conditions alone are not sufficient if technical conversion processes are neglected. For the time being, the potential of biomass can not be utilised.

  9. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  10. Biomass burning in Indo-China peninsula and its impacts on regional air quality and global climate change-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Linthoingambi Devi, Ningombam; Li, Jun; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Zhang, Gan; Watanabe, Hirozumi

    2017-08-01

    Although, many biomass burning (BB) emissions products (particulate matter and trace gases) are believed to be trans-boundary pollutants that originates from India and China (the two most populous countries in Asia), the information about BB emission and related contents is limited for Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) region. This motivated us to review this region pertaining to BB emission. The main objective of the review is to document the current status of BB emission in ICP region. In order to highlight the impact of BB on regional air quality and global climate change, the role of BB emission in ICP region is also discussed. Based on the available literature and modeling simulations studies, it is evidenced that ICP is one of the hotspot regional source for aerosols in terms of BB emissions. In addition, regional emissions through BB have significant implications for regional air quality especially in the neighboring countries such as China, Taiwan and India. Our assessment highlight that there is still a general lack of reliable data and research studies addressing BB related issues in context of environmental and human health. There is therefore a critical need to improve the current knowledge base, which should build upon the research experience and further research into these issues is considered vital to help inform future policies/control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Model elucidating the sources and formation mechanisms of severe haze pollution over Northeast mega-city cluster in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gbaguidi, Alex; Yan, Pingzhong; Zhang, Wending; Zhu, Lili; Yao, Xuefeng; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies on regional haze pollution over China come up in general with strong variability of main causes of heavy polluted episodes, in linkage with local specificities, sources and pollution characteristics. This paper therefore aims at elucidating the main specific sources and formation mechanisms of observed strong haze pollution episodes over 1-15 November 2015 in Northeast region considered as one of biggest megacity clusters in China. The Northeast China mega-city cluster, including Heilong Jiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, is adjacent to Russia in the north, Mongolian at the west, North Korea at east, and representing key geographical location in the regional and transnational air pollution issues in China due to the presence of heavy industries and intense economic activities. The present study, based on air quality monitoring, remote sensing satellite data and sensitivity experiments carried on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS), quantitatively assesses the impact of meteorological conditions and potential contributions from regional chemical transport, intensive energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning emissions to PM 2.5 concentration variation. The results indicate strong inversion occurrence at lower atmosphere with weak near-surface wind speed and high relative humidity, leading to PM 2.5 concentration increase of about 30-50%. Intensive energy combustion (plausibly for heating activities) and illegal emission also significantly enhance the overall PM 2.5 accumulation by 100-200 μg m -3 (60-70% increase), against 75-100 μg m -3 from the biomass burning under the northeast-southwest transport pathway, corresponding to a contribution of 10-20% to PM 2.5 concentration increase. Obviously, stagnant meteorological conditions, energy combustion, illegal emission and biomass burning are main drivers of strong haze formation and spatial distribution over Northeast China megacity cluster. In clear, much

  12. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: vpereira@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C., E-mail: ludka@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: julio@geologia.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio do Janeiro (CCMN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza. Dept. de Geologia

    2013-07-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  13. Results of a hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical study of a semi-arid karst aquifer in Tezbent plateau, Tebessa region, northeast of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfar, Dalila; Fehdi, Chemseddine; Baali, Fethi; Salameh, Elias

    2017-06-01

    The Hammamet Plain, situated in the northwest of the Tezbent mountain range, northeast of Algeria, drains carbonate aquifers through some important karst springs. The physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water samples were studied for 2 years to assess the origin of groundwater and determine the factors driving the geochemical composition. The ionic speciation and mineral dissolution/precipitation was calculated. Water wells, characterizing groundwater circulation at shallow depths, are moderate to high mineralized waters of Na-HCO3 type. In contrast to the shallow environment, the CO2-rich, deeper waters are of the Ca-HCO3-SO4 type and undergo significant changes in the baseline chemistry along flow lines with increasing residence time. The main factors controlling the groundwater composition and its seasonal variations are the geology, because of the presence of carbonate formations, the elevation and the rate of karst development. In both groups, the carbonate chemistry is diagnostic of the effect of karst development. The supersaturation with respect to calcite indicates CO2 degassing, occurring either inside the aquifer in open conduits, or at the outlet in reservoirs. The undersaturation with respect to calcite shows the existence of fast flow and short residence time conditions inside the aquifer. Interaction between groundwater and surrounding host rocks is believed to be the main process responsible for the observed chemical characteristics of groundwater in the study area.

  14. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir; Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb 2 O 5 /Ta 2 O 5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  15. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  16. Considerations about Santa Catalina Formation northeast of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keidel, J.

    1984-01-01

    A serial of land deposits placed in Santa Catharina south Brazil, and northeast of Uruguay. Most of them have been composed with a number of marine sediments, marshy region and swamp from upper paleozoic and low mesozoic.

  17. Seismicity Characterization and Velocity Structure of Northeast Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackey, Kevin G; Fujita, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    A seismicity catalog and associated list of phases for many events has been compiled for northeast Russia using published and unpublished data from the regional networks operating in eastern Russia...

  18. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  19. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m"− "2): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  1. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xiaohua, Long, E-mail: longxiaohua@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hongbo, Shao, E-mail: shaohongbochu@126.com [Institute of Agro-biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhaopu, Liu [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m{sup −} {sup 2}): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  2. Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.; Kaplan, E.

    1993-11-01

    Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93

  3. Evolution of Brasiliano-age granitoid types in a shear-zone environment, Umarizal-Caraubas region, Rio Grande do Norte, northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, A. C.; Dall'Agnol, R.; McReath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Teixeira, N.

    1995-01-01

    A sequence of Brasiliano-age granitoid types is exposed in a small area near the cities of Umarizal and Caraúbas in Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeast Brazil. Porphyritic K-alkali-calcic monzogranite is an important facies of the oldest Caraúbas intrusion (RbSr whole rock isochron age of ca. 630 Ma), which suffered solid-state deformation due to movements on a major NE-trending shear zone. The intrusion of the Prado and part of the Quixaba bodies was probably controlled by the shear zone. These two bodies include mafic/intermediate rocks, some of which contain two pyroxenes, and have hybrid, partly alkaline and partly shoshonitic geochemical characteristics. Rock types and ages are similar to those of some Pan-African occurrences in southwestern Nigeria. The Tourão body, intruded at ca. 590 Ma, presents preferred mineral orientations which are probably largely magmatic, since little evidence is found for widespread solid-state deformation. On the other hand, its intrusion may have been facilitated by the presence of the shear-zone faults. The rocks form a monomodal felsic K-alkali-calcic suite. With the exception of the Quixaba body, all these earlier granitoids are magmatic epidote- and magnetite-bearing porphyritic monzogranites with trace element geochemical characteristics of modern syn-collisional granites. The latest intrusion at ca. 545 Ma is mainly represented by potassic quartz syenites and related rocks, some of which contain fayalite or ferrohypersthene. These rocks possess neither well developed mineral orientations of magmatic origin nor signs of solid-state deformation. They are mineralogically similar to, but younger than some of the "bauchites" of central Nigeria. Geochemical signatures are comparable with those of modern within-plate granites. All granitoids present high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr)i ratios which range from 0.708 to 0.712, and increase with decreasing age. Such ratios are compatible with important or dominant crustal contributions. On the

  4. Complementary Feeding Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers Having Children 6–23 Months of Age, Lasta District, Amhara Region, Northeast Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menberu Molla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The first two years of life are a critical window of opportunity for ensuring optimal child growth and development. Nutritional deficiencies during this period can lead to impaired cognitive development, compromised educational achievement, and low economic productivity. Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices in children aged 0–23 months is therefore critical to improved nutrition, health, and development. Objective. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complementary feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers with children aged 6−23 months in Lasta District, Northeast Ethiopia, 2015. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 476 mothers who had children aged 6–23 months in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the required sample. A face-to-face interview was done to collect data using structured questionnaire. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis were done using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution and binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. Results. In this study only 56.5% of children aged 6–23 months received appropriate complementary feeding, considering timely introduction, minimum dietary diversity, and meal frequency. Exposure to public media [AOR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.44,4.35], occupation of mother [AOR = 9.50; 95% CI: 1.02,14.25], mothers decision making role on how to use family income [AOR = 5.54; 95% CI: 1.19,11.74], and use of postnatal care service [AOR = 5.98; 95% CI: 1.49,13.96] were found to be independent predictors of complementary feeding practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. About 43.5% of mothers were not feeding their children complementary food appropriately, which would have negative implication on the health of infants and young children. There was a statistically significant association of inappropriate complementary feeding practices

  5. [Monitoring temporal dynamics in leaf area index of the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in Maoershan region, Northeast China with tower-based radiation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Wang, Xing Chang

    2016-08-01

    Broadband vegetation indices (BVIs) derived from routine radiation measurements on eddy flux towers have the advantage of high temporal resolutions, and thus have the potential to obtain detailed information of dynamics in canopy leaf area index (LAI). Taking the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest around the Maoershan flux tower in Northeast China as a case, we investigated the controlling factors and smoothing method of four BVI time-series, i.e., broadband norma-lized difference vegetation index (NDVI B ), broadband enhanced vegetation index (EVI B ), the ratio of the near-infrared radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR NP ), and the ratio of the shortwave radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR SP ). We compared the seasonal courses of the BVIs with the LAI based on litterfall collection method. The values for each BVI were slightly different among the three calculation methods by Huemmrich, Wilson, and Jenkins, but showed similar seasonal patterns. The diurnal variations in BVIs were mainly influenced by the solar elevation and the angle between the solar elevation and slope, but the BVIs were relatively stable around 12:30. The noise of daily BVI time-series could be effectively smoothed by a threshold of clearness index (K). The seasonal courses of BVIs for each time of day around the noon had similar patterns, but their thresholds of K and the percen-tages of remaining data were different. Therefore, the daily values of BVIs might be optimized based on the smoothing and the proportion of remaining data. The NDVI B was closely correlated linearly with the LAI derived from the litterfall collection method, while the EVI B , SR NP , and SR SP had a logarithmic relationship with the LAI. The NDVI B had the advantage in tracking the seasonal dyna-mics in LAI and extrapolating LAI to a broader scale. Given that most eddy flux towers had equipped with energy balance measurements, a

  6. An alternative approach for estimating above ground biomass using Resourcesat-2 satellite data and artificial neural network in Bundelkhand region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Dibyendu; Singh, J P; Deb, Shovik; Datta, Debajit; Ghosh, Arunava; Chaurasia, R S

    2017-10-20

    Determination of above ground biomass (AGB) of any forest is a longstanding scientific endeavor, which helps to estimate net primary productivity, carbon stock and other biophysical parameters of that forest. With advancement of geospatial technology in last few decades, AGB estimation now can be done using space-borne and airborne remotely sensed data. It is a well-established, time saving and cost effective technique with high precision and is frequently applied by the scientific community. It involves development of allometric equations based on correlations of ground-based forest biomass measurements with vegetation indices derived from remotely sensed data. However, selection of the best-fit and explanatory models of biomass estimation often becomes a difficult proposition with respect to the image data resolution (spatial and spectral) as well as the sensor platform position in space. Using Resourcesat-2 satellite data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), this pilot scale study compared traditional linear and nonlinear models with an artificial intelligence-based non-parametric technique, i.e. artificial neural network (ANN) for formulation of the best-fit model to determine AGB of forest of the Bundelkhand region of India. The results confirmed the superiority of ANN over other models in terms of several statistical significance and reliability assessment measures. Accordingly, this study proposed the use of ANN instead of traditional models for determination of AGB and other bio-physical parameters of any dry deciduous forest of tropical sub-humid or semi-arid area. In addition, large numbers of sampling sites with different quadrant sizes for trees, shrubs, and herbs as well as application of LiDAR data as predictor variable were recommended for very high precision modelling in ANN for a large scale study.

  7. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  8. Using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS)-based analysis in the development of regional risk adjustment tools to trend quality in a voluntary trauma system: the experience of the Trauma Foundation of Northeast Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C; Barnoski, A; Tinnell, C; Fallon, W

    2000-04-01

    Presently, no trauma system exists in Ohio. Since 1993, all hospitals in Cuyahoga County (CUY), northeast Ohio (n = 22) provide data to a trauma registry. In return, each received hospital-specific data, comparison data by trauma care level and a county-wide aggregate summary. This report describes the results of this approach in our region. All cases were entered by paper abstract or electronic download. Interrater reliability audits and z score analysis was performed by using the Major Trauma Outcome Study and the CUY 1994 baseline groups. Risk adjustment of mortality data was performed using statistical modeling and logistic regression (Trauma and Injury Severity Score, Major Trauma Outcome Study, CUY). Trauma severity measures were defined. In 1995, 3,375 patients were entered. Two hundred ninety-one died (8.6%). Severity measures differed by level of trauma care, indicating differences in case mix. Probability of survival was lowest in the Level I centers, highest in the acute care hospitals. Outcomes z scores demonstrated survival differences for all levels. In a functioning trauma system, the most severely injured patients should be cared for at the trauma centers. A low volume at acute care hospitals is desirable. By using Trauma and Injury Severity Score with community-specific constants, NE Ohio is accomplishing these goals. The Level I performance data are an interesting finding compared with the data from the Level II centers in the region

  9. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  10. Cost/benefit analysis of biomass energy supply options for rural smallholders in the semi-arid eastern part of Shinyanga Region in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskerke, W.T.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rubanza, C.D.K. [Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)/National Forest Resource Management and Agroforestry Centre (NACRAF), P.O. Box 1257, Shinyanga (Tanzania); Malimbwi, R.E. [Faculty of Forestry and Natural Resources, Sokoine University, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    2010-01-15

    This study analyzes the economic feasibility of sustainable smallholder bio-energy production under semi-arid conditions. The eastern part of Shinyanga region in Tanzania was chosen as a case study area. Three different sustainable biomass energy supply systems were compared by means of cost/benefit analysis: a small-scale forestation project for carbon sequestration, a short rotation woodlot and a Jatropha plantation, thereby using the produced Jatropha oil as a substitute for fuelwood or diesel. Rotational woodlots are most profitable with a Net Present Value of up to US${sub 2007} 1165/ha, a return on labour of up to US${sub 2007} 6.69/man-day and a fuelwood production cost of US${sub 2007} 0.53/GJ, compared to a local market price of US${sub 2007} 1.95/GJ. With a production cost of US${sub 2007} 19.60/GJ, Jatropha oil is too expensive to be used as an alternative for fuelwood. Instead it can be utilized economically as a diesel substitute, at an observed diesel cost of US${sub 2007} 1.49/l. The mean annual biomass increment (MAI) in semi-arid East Shinyanga is too low to collect sufficient benefits from trading forestation carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to cover the costs of forestation and forest management. (author)

  11. Beyond fuelwood savings. Valuing the economic benefits of introducing improved biomass cookstoves in the Purepecha region of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Schilmann, Astrid; Berrueta, Victor M.; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Edwards, Rufus D.; Johnson, Michael; Guevara-Sangines, Alejandro; Armendariz, Cynthia; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Half of the world population relies on biomass for cooking, with very significant health as well as climate change impacts. Improved cookstoves have been disseminated as an alternative to reduce these impacts. However, few detailed studies about the economic benefits of improved cookstoves (ICS) interventions, including environmental and health co-benefits, exist to date. In this paper we perform a comprehensive economic evaluation of a dissemination program of ICS in rural Mexico. The resulting cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Patsari improved cookstove is presented, utilizing estimation of direct costs and benefits, including fuelwood savings, income generation, health impacts, environmental conservation, and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis is based on comprehensive data obtained through monitoring studies carried out in the Study Area from 2003 to the present. Results show that Patsari cookstoves represent a viable economic option for improving living conditions of the poorest inhabitants of rural Mexico, with benefit/cost ratios estimated between 11.4:1 and 9:1. The largest contributors to economic benefits stemmed from fuelwood savings and reductions in health impacts, which constituted 53% and 28% of the overall benefit, respectively. (author)

  12. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River. A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena. (author)

  13. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River: A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto, E-mail: abacellar@ufam.edu.b [Center of Amazonic Energy Development, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordao Ramos, 3000, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha, Brigida R.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Universidade Federal do Para, Rua Augusto Correa 1, Guama, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena.

  14. Wood-fuel biomass from the Madeira River: A sustainable option for electricity production in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Rocha, Brigida R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The universal provision of electricity remains far from achieved in the Brazilian Amazon, given the geographical obstacles, the dispersion of its inhabitants, the indistinctness of appropriate technologies, and the economic obstacles. Governmental action was taken in 2003 with the creation of the Light for All Program (PLpT), with the goal of bringing electricity to all rural consumers by 2010. In addition, the National Electric Power Agency, ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica), which is responsible in Brazil for the electrical sector regulation, has issued a determination of compulsory access to electricity by 2015. This study describes research conducted on the Madeira River, in the Brazilian Amazon, where the electric needs of the communities and small towns along the river can be satisfied through the gasification system, using as a renewable feedstock the wood-fuel biomass deposited on the riverbed, derived from natural processes, which the Ministry of Transport is already legally obligated to remove in order to provide safe navigation along the river. The study concludes by comparing the competitiveness of this system to diesel thermoelectric plants, along with its advantages in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Our results should help future studies in others areas with similar phenomena.

  15. Assessing the potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) for the northeast power system of Brazil using a detailed power system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, Tobias; Soria, Rafael; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto; Lucena, Andre F.P.

    2017-01-01

    One of the technologies that stand out as an alternative to provide additional flexibility to power systems with large penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE), especially for regions with high direct normal irradiation (DNI), is concentrated solar power (CSP) plants coupled to thermal energy storage (TES) and back-up (BUS) systems. Brazil can develop this technology domestically, especially in its Northeast region, where most of VRE capacity is being deployed and where lies most of the CSP potential of the country. This work applies the Capacity Expansion Model REMix-CEM, which allows considering dispatch constraints of thermal power plants in long-term capacity expansion optimization. REMix-CEM calculates the optimal CSP plant configuration and its dispatch strategy from a central planning perspective. Results showed that the hybridization of CSP plants with jurema-preta biomass (CSP-BIO) becomes a least-cost option for Brazil by 2040. CSP-BIO contributes to the Northeast power system by regularizing the energy imbalance that results from the large-scale VRE expansion along with conventional inflexible power plants. CSP-BIO plants are able to increase frequency response and operational reserve services and can provide the required additional flexibility that the Northeast power system of Brazil will require into the future. - Highlights: • Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants provide flexibility to power systems. • CSP configuration is optimized endogenously during capacity expansion optimization. • CSP hybridized with biomass supports grid-integration of variable renewable energy. • CSP become the least-cost option for the Northeast power system of Brazil by 2040.

  16. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  17. Spatio-temporal analysis of the biophysical and ecological conditions of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in the northeast region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Badel-Mogollón

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Surface temperature and soil coverage were the variables that better explained the life cycle of T. dimidiata in the area. High relative humidity promoted the seek of shelters and an increase of the geographic distribution in the annual and biannual peaks of regional rainfall. The ecologic and anthropic conditions suggest that T. dimidiata is a highly resilient species.

  18. Northeast International Committee on Energy. Comite international du nord-est sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The annual Conference of the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers was established in 1973 to deal with such common questions as energy, agriculture, transportation, tourism, economic development, and the environment. As a result of this conference, the Northeast International Committee on Energy was established in 1978. This annual report gives a summary of the year's activities, which included an international roundtable on energy choices and the environment, energy education, and a compendium of biomass facilities. New activities to be undertaken in the coming year include the convening of an international roundtable on energy in the spring of 1990 in Halifax, Nova Scotia; a review of recycling efforts in the region; and a review of regulatory procedures at the national, state and provincial levels for across-the-border energy transactions.

  19. Northeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2011) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda A.; Royle, Andy; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Villena Carpio, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data from 11 northeastern states using an 11 years of data. NAAMP is a long-term monitoring program where observers collect data at assigned random roadside routes using a calling survey technique. We assessed occupancy trends for 17 species. Eight species had statistically significant regional trends, of these seven were negative (Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris brachyphona, Pseudacris feriarum-kalmi complex, Lithobates palustris, Lithobates pipiens, and Lithobates sphenocephalus) and one was positive (Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis complex). We also assessed state level trends for 101 species/state combinations, of these 29 showed a significant decline and nine showed a significant increase in occupancy.

  20. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  1. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  2. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  3. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  4. Multilateral cooperation for power interconnection in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudinova Lyudmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered is experience of electric power integration in different parts of the world with emphasis on bilateral/multilateral interstate structures intended for promotion and development of interstate power grids. Analysed are Northeast Asian intergovernmental structures providing bilateral energy and power cooperation between Russia and other countries of the region. Multilateral cooperation in the field is just emerging, but should play a key role in promotion and development of Northeast Asian power grid.

  5. Combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courault, D.; Hadria, R.; Ruget, F.; Olioso, A.; Duchemin, B.; Hagolle, O.; Dedieu, G.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose methods to improve crop and water management in Mediterranean regions. At landscape scale, there is a spatial variability of agricultural practices, particularly for grasslands irrigated by flooding. These grasslands are harvested three times per year and produce high quality hay, but their productions decreased significantly during the last few years because of the water scarcity. It is therefore important to assess the real water requirement for crops in order to predict productions in the case of agricultural practice modifications. Until now, the spatial variability of agricultural practices was obtained through surveys from farmers, but this method was tedious to describe an entire region. Thus, the specific aim of the study is to develop and assess a new method based on a crop model for estimating water balance and crop yield constrained by products derived from optical remote sensing data with high spatio-temporal resolution. A methodology, based on the combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images and the STICS crop model, was developed to estimate production, evapotranspiration and drainage of irrigated grasslands in "the Crau" region in the South Eastern France. Numerous surveys and ground measurements were performed during an experiment conducted in 2006. Simple algorithms were developed to retrieve the dynamic of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for each plot and the main agricultural practices such as mowing and irrigation dates. These variables computed from remote sensing were then used to parameterize STICS, applied at region scale to estimate the spatial variability of water budget associated with the biomass productions. Results are displayed at the farm scale. Satisfactory results were obtained when compared to ground measurements. The method for the extrapolation to other regions or crops is discussed as regard to data available.

  6. Combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images with a crop model for biomass and water monitoring of permanent grassland in Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Courault

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose methods to improve crop and water management in Mediterranean regions. At landscape scale, there is a spatial variability of agricultural practices, particularly for grasslands irrigated by flooding. These grasslands are harvested three times per year and produce high quality hay, but their productions decreased significantly during the last few years because of the water scarcity. It is therefore important to assess the real water requirement for crops in order to predict productions in the case of agricultural practice modifications. Until now, the spatial variability of agricultural practices was obtained through surveys from farmers, but this method was tedious to describe an entire region. Thus, the specific aim of the study is to develop and assess a new method based on a crop model for estimating water balance and crop yield constrained by products derived from optical remote sensing data with high spatio-temporal resolution.

    A methodology, based on the combined use of FORMOSAT-2 images and the STICS crop model, was developed to estimate production, evapotranspiration and drainage of irrigated grasslands in "the Crau" region in the South Eastern France. Numerous surveys and ground measurements were performed during an experiment conducted in 2006. Simple algorithms were developed to retrieve the dynamic of Leaf Area Index (LAI for each plot and the main agricultural practices such as mowing and irrigation dates. These variables computed from remote sensing were then used to parameterize STICS, applied at region scale to estimate the spatial variability of water budget associated with the biomass productions. Results are displayed at the farm scale. Satisfactory results were obtained when compared to ground measurements. The method for the extrapolation to other regions or crops is discussed as regard to data available.

  7. A utility perspective on the proposed Northeast interstate compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposed Northeast Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste appears to be stalled in its present form. The Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 encourages states to enter into regional waste compacts where practicable. The Northeast Region, which includes eleven states made up of the six New England states plus New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, is the largest proposed compact region from the standpoint of low-level radioactive waste volumes. There is also wide variation in volumes among the states. Four states in the region have ratified the Northeast Compact, but the remaining seven states, including the three largest generating states, have not ratified to date. The large states are pivotal in determining whether the compact will move forward. The prime concerns of these large volume generating states appear to be host state selection and responsibility issues, as well as some of the proposed powers and authority of the Regional Commission

  8. Impacts of synoptic condition and planetary boundary layer structure on the trans-boundary aerosol transport from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Zhao, Chun; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Gen; Wei, Wei; Ma, Yanjun

    2018-05-01

    The northeastern China frequently experiences severe aerosol pollution in winter under unfavorable meteorological conditions. How and to what extent the meteorological factors affect the air quality there are not yet clearly understood. Thus, this study investigated the impacts of synoptic patterns on the aerosol transport and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure in Shenyang from 1 to 3 December 2016, using surface observations, sounding measurements, satellite data, and three-dimensional simulations. Results showed that the aerosol pollution occurred in Shenyang was not only related to the local emissions, but also contributed by trans-boundary transport of aerosols from the Beiijng-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. In the presence of the westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds, the aerosols emitted from BTH could be brought to Shenyang. From December 2 to 3, the aerosols emitted from BTH accounted for ∼20% of near-surface PM2.5 in Shenyang. In addition, the large-scale synoptic forcings could affect the vertical mixing of pollutants through modulating the PBL structure in Shenyang. The westerly and southwesterly synoptic winds not only brought the aerosols but also the warmer air masses from the southwest regions to Shenyang. The strong warm advections above PBL could enhance the already existing thermal inversion layers capping over PBL in Shenyang, leading to the suppressions of PBL. Both the trans-boundary transport of aerosols and the suppressions of PBL caused by the large-scale synoptic forcings should be partly responsible for the poor air quality in Shenyang, in addition to the high pollutant emissions. The present study revealed the physical mechanisms underlying the aerosol pollution in Shenyang, which has important implications for better forecasting and controlling the aerosols pollution.

  9. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  11. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  12. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  13. Climatology and Meteorological Evolution of Major Wildfire Events over the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph B. Pollina; Brian A. Colle; Joseph J. Charney

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a spatial and temporal climatology of major wildfire events, defined as >100 acres burned (>40.47 ha, where 1 ha = 2.47 acre), in the northeast United States from 1999 to 2009 and the meteorological conditions associated with these events. The northeast United States is divided into two regions: region 1 is centered over the higher terrain of...

  14. The MOYA aircraft campaign: First measurements of methane, ethane and C-13 isotopes from West African biomass burning and other regional sources using the UK FAAM aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Lee, James; Hopkins, James; Young, Stuart; Bauguitte, Stéphane; Gallagher, Martin; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan

    2017-04-01

    Global methane concentrations continue to rise due to an imbalance between sources and sinks. There remains little consensus on the relative components of the manifold source types and their geographical origin. The Global Methane Budget and Yearly Assessments (MOYA) project is tasked with better characterising the global methane budget through an augmented global measurement and modelling programme. As part of MOYA, the UK's Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM), will fly four campaigns based out of West Africa and Ascension Island in the period 2017-2019, to focus on the important role of tropical sources. The first of these, to be conducted in late February 2017, will focus on the biomass burning season in West Africa. This paper will present the plan for future FAAM MOYA campaigns and report on our first aircraft data gathered in the West African region. The new addition of an interband cascade laser spectrometer to the FAAM aircraft, flown in this campaign for the first time, promises to provide the first real-time, continuous, and simultaneous, airborne measurements of methane, ethane and methane C-13 isotopologues. Together, these measurements, when interpreted in combination with other trace gases and aerosol measured on the aircraft, will serve as case studies to inform modelling of regional and global fluxes through their isotopic fingerprints.

  15. Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yi; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Largely used in several independent estimates of fire emissions, fire products based on MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites have a number of inherent limitations, including (a) inability to detect fires below clouds, (b) significant decrease of detection sensitivity at the edge of scan where pixel sizes are much larger than at nadir, and (c) gaps between adjacent swaths in tropical regions. To remedy these limitations, an empirical method is developed here and applied to correct fire emission estimates based on MODIS pixel level fire radiative power measurements and emission coefficients from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) biomass burning emission inventory. The analysis was performed for January 2010 over the northern sub-Saharan African region. Simulations from WRF-Chem model using original and adjusted emissions are compared with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from MODIS and AERONET as well as aerosol vertical profile from CALIOP data. The comparison confirmed an 30-50% improvement in the model simulation performance (in terms of correlation, bias, and spatial pattern of AOD with respect to observations) by the adjusted emissions that not only increases the original emission amount by a factor of two but also results in the spatially continuous estimates of instantaneous fire emissions at daily time scales. Such improvement cannot be achieved by simply scaling the original emission across the study domain. Even with this improvement, a factor of two underestimations still exists in the modeled AOD, which is within the current global fire emissions uncertainty envelope.

  16. [Influence of fire disturbance on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; He, Hong-shi; Wu, Zhi-wei; Liang, Yu; Huang, Chao; Luo, Xu; Xiao, Jiang-tao; Zhang, Qing-long

    2015-02-01

    Based on the field inventory data, the aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage under different fire severities was analyzed in Huzhong forest region of Great Xing' an Mountains. The results showed that the fire severity had a significant effect on aboveground deadwood debris carbon storage. The deadwood debris carbon storage was in the order of high-severity > low-severity > unburned in Larix gmelinii stands, and mixed conifer-broadleaf stands ( L. gmelinii and Betula platyphylla), and in the order of high severity > unburned > low-severity in B. platyphylla stands. Fire disturbance significantly changed the component percentage of the deadwood debris carbon storage. The component percentage of snags increased and litter decreased with the increasing fire severity. Logs and stumps did not change significantly with the increasing fire severity. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage in forests burned with low-severity fire was higher than that in unburned forests. The spatial variation of deadwood debris carbon storage with high-severity fires was lowest. This spatial variation needed to be accounted when calculating forest deadwood debris carbon storage.

  17. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  18. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  19. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for 60Co: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F.; Santos, Neide

    2014-01-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ( 60 Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to 60 Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses

  20. Holocene deltaic succession recording millennium-scale subsidence trend near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: An example from the Tsugaruishi plain, northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsushima, Y.; Toda, S.

    2017-12-01

    For clarification of megathrust earthquake cycle with recurrence interval of several hundreds to about a thousand years, crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103-104 years can be basic and important data. Well-dated Holocene sedimentary succession provides useful information for estimation of crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103 - 104 years. Here we collected three sediment cores, TGI1, TGI2, and TGI3, from the Tsugaruishi delta plain on the central Sanriku coast, which is near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and where discrepancies in crustal movement have been reported between uplift on a timescale of 105 years inferred from marine terrace versus subsidence on a timescale of 101-102 years from geodetic measurement. We recognized a Holocene deltaic succession in all three cores; basal gravel of alluvium, floodplain sand and mud, inner bay mud, prodelta delta front sand and mud, and fluvial sand and gravel, from lower to upper. In core TGI3, from the farthest inland site, the intertidal sediment facies, deposited from 7500 to 7000 cal BP, and the overlying 6-m-thick delta to floodplain facies, deposited from 7000 to 5000 cal BP, are both below the present sea level. Because a sea-level highstand due to hydroisostatic uplift around Japan occurred in the mid-Holocene, we inferred that the Tsugaruishi plain subsided during the Holocene, and the estimated subsidence rate, 1.1-1.9 mm/yr at maximum, is consistent with the recently reported subsidence rate along the southern Sanriku coast. The results of this study confirm that the central to southern Sanriku coast is subsiding, in contrast to an interpretation based on the study of marine terraces that this part of the coast is uplifting. The Holocene deltaic succession presented here will be useful for constructing an earthquake cycle model related to plate subduction.

  1. [CO2 flux characteristics and their influence on the carbon budget of a larch plantation in Maoershan region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ling; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Sun, Wei; Su, Dong-Xue; Zheng, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    From January to December 2008, the CO2 flux in a larch plantation (Larix gmeilinii) in Maoershan region of Shangzhi County, Heilongliang Province was measured by eddy covanance method, and the diurnal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate were measured in growth season (from May to October). There existed differences in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the plantation in different time periods under the effects of environmental factors. In the afternoon (12:00-24:00), the NEE changed more slowly with the variation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in the morning (0:00-12:00); and in the morning, tbe light use efficiency was 0.6284 mol x mol(-1), 14% more than that in afternoon. The NEE increased with increasing temperature, and the increment in the morning was 50% higher than that in the afternoon (air temperature > 15 degrees C). These differences in responding to environmental changes led to 88% NEE implemented in the morning, and only 12% NEE implemented in the afternoon. The annual gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in the morning took a percentage of 60%, and that in afternoon took 40%. These findings were supported by the observation at leaf level, i.e., on average of whole growth season, the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the morning was over 2-fold higher than that in afternoon. Generally, the annual NEE, ecosystem respiration (Re), and GEP of the plantation in 2008 were 263-264 g C x m(-2), 718-725 g C x m(-2), and 981-989 g C x m(-2), respectively.

  2. Geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic setting of Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault region, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi-Yun; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Ge, Mao-Hui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jia-Min

    2017-08-01

    We present new geochemical and geochronological data for volcanic and related rocks in the regions of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults, in order to constrain the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern segment of the Tan-Lu Fault. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that rhyolite and intermediate-mafic rocks along the southern part of the Jia-Yi Fault formed at 124 and 113 Ma, respectively, whereas the volcanic rocks along the northern parts of the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults formed at 100 Ma. The rhyolite has an A-type granitoid affinity, with high alkalis, low MgO, Ti, and P contents, high rare earth element (REE) contents and Ga/Al ratios, enrichments in large-ion lithophile (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high-field-strength element (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Y), and marked negative Eu anomalies. These features indicate that the rhyolites were derived from partial melting of crustal material in an extensional environment. The basaltic rocks are enriched in light REEs and LILEs (e.g., Rb, K, Th, and U), and depleted in heavy REEs, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P), and Sr. These geochemical characteristics indicate that these rocks are calc-alkaline basalts that formed in an intraplate extensional tectonic setting. The dacite is a medium- to high-K, calc-alkaline, I-type granite that was derived from a mixed source involving both crustal and mantle components in a magmatic arc. Therefore, the volcanic rocks along the Jia-Yi and Dun-Mi faults were formed in an extensional regime at 124-100 Ma (Early Cretaceous), and these faults were extensional strike-slip faults at this time.

  3. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  4. Acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months of the nomadic population in Hadaleala district, Afar region, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, Zemichael; Woldu, Wondwoson; Bitew, Bikes Destaw

    2018-02-07

    Acute malnutrition to be a major health burden in the world, particularly in the developing world. Acute malnutrition is associated with more than one third of the global disease burden for children. Malnourished children are physically, emotionally and intellectually less productive and suffer more from chronic illnesses and disabilities. The nature, magnitude and determinants of acute malnutrition are determined among the general populations; however, there is a lack of evidence in the nomadic communities. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude and factors associated with acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months in Hadaleala district, Afar Region. A total of 591 under-five children were included in this study, and subjects were recruited by the multistage cluster sampling technique. Data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and a simple anthropometric index so called mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with acute malnutrition on the basis of adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p malnutrition was 11.8% (95% CI = 9.3, 14.8%). The highest prevalence (50%) of acute malnutrition occurred among children aged between 12.0-23.0 months. Childhood acute malnutrition was associated with the presence of two (AOR = 2.49, p childhood diarrheal disease (AOR = 2.72, p malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months was was higher than the national prevalence. The number of children in each household, drinking water sources, latrine availability, hand washing practice before food preparation and child feeding, childhood diarrheal disease, and child vaccination were identified as factors affecting the childhood acute malnutrition in the nomadic community. Protecting drinking water sources from possible contaminants, improving hand washing practices, utilization of latrine, preventing diarrheal diseases

  5. Fatores associados com o comportamento sexual e reprodutivo entre adolescentes das regiões Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil Factors associated with sexual and reproductive behavior among adolescents from the Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iúri da Costa Leite

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são analisados os fatores associados com o comportamento sexual e reprodutivo das adolescentes das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil. A análise é implementada focando três dimensões deste processo: a iniciação sexual, o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais na primeira relação sexual e fecundidade. Modelos hierárquicos são implementados, pois adolescentes selecionadas de uma mesma comunidade devem ter comportamento sexual e reprodutivo mais semelhantes do que adolescentes selecionadas de áreas diferentes. O nível educacional da adolescente revelou-se o fator de risco mais importante nas três análises implementadas. Adolescentes com cinco ou mais anos de escolaridade são menos prováveis de ter a primeira relação sexual na adolescência; mais propensas a usar métodos anticoncepcionais nesta relação e apresentam menores riscos de ter filhos, quando comparadas com adolescentes com menos de cinco anos de escolaridade.This article calls attention to factors associated with sexual and reproductive behavior among adolescents from the Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. The analyses focus on three dimensions of this process: sexual initiation, use of contraceptives in the first sexual relationship, and fertility. Hierarchical models are implemented, because adolescents selected from the same community are more likely to have similar sexual and reproductive behavior than those from different communities. Level of schooling was the most important risk factor in the three analyses. Girls with 5 or more years of schooling were less likely to have their first sexual relationship during adolescence and more likely to use contraceptive methods in this relationship, besides demonstrating less risk of having children than their counterparts with less than 5 years of schooling.

  6. Biomass burning aerosol transport and vertical distribution over the South African-Atlantic region: Aerosol Transport Over SE Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sampa [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Harshvardhan, H. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Bian, Huisheng [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, UMBC, Baltimore Maryland USA; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Maryland USA; Curci, Gabriele [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila Italy; Center of Excellence in Telesensing of Environment and Model Prediction of Severe events, University of L' Aquila, L' Aquila Italy; Protonotariou, Anna P. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens Greece; Mielonen, Tero [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio Finland; Zhang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Wang, Hailong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Xiaohong [Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie Wyoming USA

    2017-06-21

    Aerosols from wild-land fires could significantly perturb the global radiation balance and induce the climate change. In this study, the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) with prescribed daily fire aerosol emissions is used to investigate the spatial and seasonal characteristics of radiative forcings of wildfire aerosols including black carbon (BC) and particulate organic matter (POM). The global annual mean direct radiative forcing (DRF) of all fire aerosols is 0.15 W m-2, mainly due to the absorption of fire BC (0.25 W m-2), while fire POM induces a weak negative forcing (-0.05 W m-2). Strong positive DRF is found in the Arctic and in the oceanic regions west of South Africa and South America as a result of amplified absorption of fire BC above low-level clouds, in general agreement with satellite observations. The global annual mean cloud radiative forcing due to all fire aerosols is -0.70 W m-2, resulting mainly from the fire POM indirect forcing (-0.59 W m-2). The large cloud liquid water path over land areas of the Arctic favors the strong fire aerosol indirect forcing (up to -15 W m-2) during the Arctic summer. Significant surface cooling, precipitation reduction and low-level cloud amount increase are also found in the Arctic summer as a result of the fire aerosol indirect effect. The global annual mean surface albedo forcing over land areas (0.03 W m-2) is mainly due to the fire BC-on-snow forcing (0.02 W m-2) with the maximum albedo forcing occurring in spring (0.12 W m-2) when snow starts to melt.

  7. Biomass for the non-food industry, produced by the Cooperative of Vomano (Abruzzo Region): effects on the environment, social and economic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Pero Bertini, G.V.; Vignoli, L.; Sabatino, A. di; Catucci, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cooperative of Vomano, which is taking part in the Integrated Biomass project, has studied the possibility of producing agricultural/forestry biomass destined for industrial conversion. The social and economic impacts of this production, and the positive results are examined. (Author)

  8. Regions of the bread wheat D genome associated with variation in key photosynthesis traits and shoot biomass under both well watered and water deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Svetlana; Permyakov, Alexey; Permyakova, Marina; Pshenichnikova, Tatyana; Verkhoturov, Vasiliy; Rudikovsky, Alexandr; Rudikovskaya, Elena; Shishparenok, Alexandr; Doroshkov, Alexey; Börner, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was taken to reveal the genetic basis in wheat of traits associated with photosynthesis during a period of exposure to water deficit stress. The performance, with respect to shoot biomass, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment content and the activity of various ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes and catalase, of a set of 80 wheat lines, each containing a single chromosomal segment introgressed from the bread wheat D genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii, was monitored in plants exposed to various water regimes. Four of the seven D genome chromosomes (1D, 2D, 5D, and 7D) carried clusters of both major (LOD >3.0) and minor (LOD between 2.0 and 3.0) QTL. A major QTL underlying the activity of glutathione reductase was located on chromosome 2D, and another, controlling the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, on chromosome 7D. A region of chromosome 2D defined by the microsatellite locus Xgwm539 and a second on chromosome 7D flanked by the marker loci Xgwm1242 and Xgwm44 harbored a number of QTL associated with the water deficit stress response.

  9. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  10. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  11. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  12. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  14. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  15. Fuel supply structure of wood-fired power plants in the Northeast: Loggers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler; Neil K. Huyler

    1989-01-01

    A study of loggers' perceptions of the impact of large biomass demand centers on the forest resource base in the Northeast indicated that most loggers strongly believe that the post-harvest stand has improved. However, the impact of whole-tree chipping on the forest resource base was not made clear from the loggers' survey.

  16. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  17. The nuclear problem in Northeast Asia and ways to resolve it: A North Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae Sang Hak

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War worldwide has added new momentum to the process of nuclear disarmament. However, vestiges of the Cold War have yet to be removed from Northeast Asia, where the nuclear threat has snowballed. This chapter examines potential nuclear dangers in Northeast Asia - a region which has the greatest concentration of nuclear weapons bases and nuclear weapons in the world

  18. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  19. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  20. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization Biomass Characterization NREL provides high-quality analytical characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products, a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion clear, amber liquid Standard Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedures We maintain a library of

  1. Future oil supply to the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronheim, H.

    1976-06-01

    The Northeast consumed some 4.6 million bbls/day of petroleum products in 1972. Nearly 63 percent of that supply was of foreign origin, making the Northeast the single largest oil-importing region in the nation. The remainder of its supply originated mainly in states on the Gulf of Mexico. The phasing out of coal as a major utility boiler fuel and curtailment of natural gas sales to the Northeast have led to the rapid increase in the use of petroleum products. Nationwide oil production reached a peak of 11.3 million bbls/day in 1970 and has been declining yearly ever since. The Northeast in particular has led the movement to foreign imports because of its coastal location, its distance from domestic sources, the competitive pricing of foreign oils, and because of environmental considerations. Under various assumptions of total U.S. reserves of oil (discovered and undiscovered) coupled to alternate schedules of national resource development, projections of crude oil production were made for the years 1985 and 2000. The projections indicate that even under optimistic conditions crude oil production will be declining in the post-1985 period, if not earlier. The scenarios consistently indicate that the Northeast's regional share will be heavily constrained by 1985, and rapidly declining thereafter. On the other hand, production of oil worldwide will concentrate further in the hands of the Arab OPEC nations who are likely to exercise growing control over pricing and the international supply of crude oil.

  2. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  3. Trends in Sea Ice Cover, Sea Surface Temperature, and Chlorophyll Biomass Across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K. E.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Wood, C.; Panday, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    The northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR) are among the most productive marine ecosystems in the world and act as important carbon sinks, particularly during May and June when seasonal sea ice-associated phytoplankton blooms occur throughout the region. Recent dramatic shifts in seasonal sea ice cover across the PAR should have profound consequences for this seasonal phytoplankton production as well as the intimately linked higher trophic levels. In order to investigate ecosystem responses to these observed recent shifts in sea ice cover, the development of a prototype Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) is now underway in the PAR. The DBO is being developed as an internationally-coordinated change detection array that allows for consistent sampling and monitoring at five spatially explicit biologically productive locations across a latitudinal gradient: (1) DBO-SLP (south of St. Lawrence Island (SLI)), (2) DBO-NBS (north of SLI), (3) DBO-SCS (southern Chukchi Sea), (4) DBO-CCS (central Chukchi Sea), and (5) DBO-BCA (Barrow Canyon Arc). Standardized measurements at many of the DBO sites were made by multiple research cruises during the 2010 and 2011 pilot years, and will be expanded with the development of the DBO in coming years. In order to provide longer-term context for the changes occurring across the PAR, we utilize multi-sensor satellite data to investigate recent trends in sea ice cover, chlorophyll biomass, and sea surface temperatures for each of the five DBO sites, as well as a sixth long-term observational site in the Bering Strait. Satellite observations show that over the past three decades, trends in sea ice cover in the PAR have been heterogeneous, with significant declines in the Chukchi Sea, slight declines in the Bering Strait region, but increases in the northern Bering Sea south of SLI. Declines in the persistence of seasonal sea ice cover in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait region are due to both earlier sea

  4. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  5. Potential utilization of biomass in production of electricity, heat and transportation fuels including energy combines - Regional analyses and examples; Potentiell avsaettning av biomassa foer produktion av el, vaerme och drivmedel inklusive energikombinat - Regionala analyser och raekneexempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Karin; Boerjesson, Paal

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study is to analyse how the use of biomass may increase in the next 10-20 years in production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels in Sweden. In these analyses, the biomass is assumed to be used in a resource and cost efficient way. This means for example that the demand for heat determines the potential use of biomass in co-generation of heat and electricity and in energy combines, and that the markets for by-products determine the use of biomass in production of certain transportation fuels. The economic conditions are not analysed in this study. In the heat and electricity production sector, we make regional analyses of the potential use of biomass in production of small-scale heat, district heat, process heat in the forest industry and electricity produced in co-generation with heat in the district heating systems and forest industry. These analyses show that the use of biomass in heat and electricity production could increase from 87 TWh (the use in 2004/2005, excluding small-scale heat production with firewood) to between 113 TWh and 134 TWh, depending on the future expansion of the district heating systems. Geographically, the Stockholm province accounts for a large part of the potential increase owing to the great opportunities for increasing the use of biomass in production of district heat and CHP in this region. In the sector of transportation fuels we applied a partly different approach since we consider the market for biomass-based transportation fuels to be 'unconstrained' within the next 10-20 years. Factors that constrain the production of these fuels are instead the availability of biomass feedstock and the local conditions required for achieving effective production systems. Among the first generation biofuels this report focuses on RME and ethanol from cereals. We estimate that the domestic production of RME and ethanol could amount to up to 1.4 TWh/y and 0.7-3.8 TWh/y, respectively, where the higher figure

  6. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  7. Security and disarmament in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Joo Han

    1995-01-01

    The new international environment embodies several characteristics: multi-polarisation of the international order, political reconciliation and cooperation between nation-states; the rising importance of economic relations; the wider dissemination of liberal democracy and market economy; and increasing interdependence and globalization. The Northeast Asian region is also undergoing transformation. Despite repeated assurances to the contrary USA's ability and willingness to maintain a significant military in the region is often called into question. The danger of arms proliferation in the region calls for arms control and eventual elimination. Related to this Korea strongly supports efforts to stop nuclear proliferation beyond 1995 through the extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and supports the strengthening of the IAEA safeguards as the primary device to ensure the effectiveness of the Treaty. At the same time Korea urges the nuclear-weapon states not only to accelerate their efforts to reduce their nuclear arsenal but to realise a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

  8. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Assessing changes in the importance of tourism in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommy L. Brown

    1980-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that tourism is a vital component of the economy of counties and states in the Northeast, as well as in other regions of the US. Nearly all states claim tourism as one of their three largest industries. Yet data which accurately measure tourism and its economic impacts are woefully lacking.

  10. Quality control in radiotherapy: an assessment in the Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Melo, R.T.; Figueiredo, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of Fricke Xylenol Gel dosimeter (FXG) in Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, and an study with this type of dosimeter in some hospitals of the Brazilian Northeast. It is demonstrated the applicability of the dosimeter for X-ray equipment and the values of the doses show the reality of the doses used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Recolonization of experimentally defaunated tidepools by northeast Pacific intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Polivka; M.A. Chotkowski

    1998-01-01

    Site fidelity and maintenance of home ranges are common in fishes (e.g., Stephens et al., 1970; Robertson and Sheldon, 1979; Hixon, 1981), especially for intertidal species for which the ability to navigate to a safe region of an environment that periodically drains of water may be adaptive (e.g., Gibson 1967, 1969, 1982). For intertidal fishes in the northeast Pacific...

  12. Forest insect & disease conditions in the Northeast - 1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. Waters; Alma M. Waterman

    1957-01-01

    This annual report on forest pest conditions in the Northeast combines, for the first time, information about both the major forest insects and the major forest diseases in the region. It was prepared as an aid to those who have a concern for protecting our forests from insect and disease attacks.

  13. Getting 'Lean': hardwiring process excellence into Northeast Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tricia; Duthe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations are turning to the "Lean" Toyota Production System as a means to hardwire process excellence into their organizations. Northeast Health, an integrated delivery system in New York's capital region, introduced the Lean concept into its culture in 2004. After four years, the organization is beginning to see its staff hardwire Lean thinking into day-to-day behaviors. This paper focuses on the approach used by Northeast Health to introduce Lean concepts into its culture, challenges faced, lessons learned and the factors critical to success.

  14. Outcome of UNIDO symposium on biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the UNIDO symposium are presented. The symposium covered a variety of subjects, beginning with a comparison of biomass energy production and potential uses in different regions, specific country case studies about the present situation and trends in biomass energy utilisation. Technological aspects discussed included the production of biomass resources, their conversion into energy carriers and technology transfer to developing countries. An analysis of financial resources available and mechanisms for funding biomass projects were given. Environmental effects and some relatively successful biomass projects under development were described. (K.A.)

  15. Estimation of the aerosol optical thickness distribution in the Northeast Asian forest fire episode in May 2003: Possible missing emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Hee-Jin; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    During the study of the enhancement of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) which was derived by Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for an active forest fire episode in Northeast Asia for May 2003 (In et al., 2009), it was found that CMAQ underestimated and overestimated AOT sporadically compared to the multiple satellite observations. Based on the AERONET surface AOT observation result, the WMO Global Telecommunications System (GTS) SYNOP system smoke/fire reports, and surface aerosol concentration data in Korea, it was found that these errors were resulted from missing of biomass burning emissions and coarse aerosols originating from soil. An inconsistency between surface observed and CMAQ estimate AOT and MODIS hot spot detects was found, which suggests that accuracy of MODIS fire products needs to be assessed in East Russian, China, and Korea in order to utilize them for national scale fire management in the region. The implement of origin and transport process of wind blown dust in current CMAQ is necessary to extend CMAQ capability in Northeast Asia.

  16. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  17. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  18. Moringa oleifera: a promising agricultural crop and of social inclusion for Brazil and semi-arid regions for the production of energetic biomass (biodiesel and briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Francisco Sávio Gomes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes properties of biomasses of Moringa oleifera Lamarck for energetic applications of production of biodiesel and briquettes. The seeds collected of the mature pods were the initial biomasses used of this plant. The seeds were separated into husks and oilseed grains, from which the oils were extracted by mechanical pressing and by solvent extraction. The crude oil mixed (of pressing and by solvent was degummed, neutralized, washed, dried and characterized. The purified oil was converted into methyl biodiesel in homogeneous alkaline transesterification, which was purified and characterized. The residual peels and pies had their calorific powers measured and compared with classic agricultural residues: firewood, sugarcane bagasse and coconut husks. Moringa culture was compared to soybeans in agricultural and biodiesel production perspectives. The analytical results show that the biomasses of the moringa are favorable as renewable biofuels like biodiesel or briquettes due to the good calorific power and simple and accessible productive technology. The production of briquettes starting from the biomasses of the moringa would be recommended with the uses of the pod husks, seed peels and pies (cakes of extraction of the oil. The agricultural management and the simple productive technologies applied to the moringa are favorable for social inclusion by enabling family agriculture.

  19. Initial soil respiration response to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in aspen-dominated forests of the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Valerie J.; Bradford, John B.; Slesak, Robert A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary forest management practices are increasingly designed to optimize novel objectives, such as maximizing biomass feedstocks and/or maintaining ecological legacies, but many uncertainties exist regarding how these practices influence forest carbon (C) cycling. We examined the responses of soil respiration (Rs) to biomass harvesting and green-tree retention in an effort to empirically assess their impacts on C cycling. We measured Rs and soil microclimatic variables over four growing seasons following implementation of these management practices using a fully replicated, operational-scale experiment in aspen-dominated forests in northern Minnesota. Treatments included three levels of biomass removal within harvested areas: whole-tree harvest (no slash deliberately retained), 20% slash retained, and stem-only harvest (all slash retained), and two levels of green-tree retention: 0.1 ha aggregate or none. The relative amount of biomass removed had a negligible effect on Rs in harvested areas, but treatment effects were probably obscured by heterogeneous slash configurations and rapid post-harvest regeneration of aspen in all of the treatments. Discrete measurements of Rs and soil temperature within green-tree aggregates were not discernible from surrounding harvested areas or unharvested control stands until the fourth year following harvest, when Rs was higher in unharvested controls than in aggregates and harvested stands. Growing season estimates of Rs showed that unharvested control stands had higher Rs than both harvested stands and aggregates in the first and third years following harvest. Our results suggest that retention of larger forest aggregates may be necessary to maintain ecosystem-level responses similar to those in unharvested stands. Moreover, they highlight the innate complexity of operational-scale research and suggest that the initial impacts of biomass harvest on Rs may be indiscernible from traditional harvest in systems where incidental

  20. Northeast Asia - Cultural Influences on the United States National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Larry

    2004-01-01

    .... A decade ago this approach towards the states of the Northeast Asia region was highly effective as their economic or military dependency upon us or their fear of both usually forced them to respond...

  1. Changing Dynamics in Northeast Asia: Implications for the U.S. Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Its aim has been to clearly demonstrate United States commitment and resolve against another North Korean invasion thereby enabling the defense of the ROK and providing stability throughout the Northeast Asia Region...

  2. What Should Be the United States Policy towards Ballistic Missile Defense for Northeast Asia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, Roberto L

    2005-01-01

    .... The threat of ballistic missiles from Northeast Asia is especially high. China and North Korea are seen as the top threats in the region when it comes to the delivery of WMD through ballistic missiles...

  3. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P.; McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S.; Biberacher, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  4. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  5. A shift in the paradigm of energy cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asia countries facing new global and regional challenges: from predominant sale of energy resources to innovation and technology cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Sokolov, Alexander; Lagerev, Anatoly; Popov, Sergei; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Korneyev, Anatoly; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  6. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of benthic foraminifera in the Northeast Water Polynya, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Michael J.; Graf, Gerhard; Altenbach, Alexander V.

    1997-01-01

    Abundance, biofacies and ATP content of benthic foraminifera (>63 μm) were studied in the Northeast Water (NEW) Polynya (77-81°N, 5-17°W) over the ice-free summer, 1993, to investigate how a polynya system might influence the underlying benthic community. In the living assemblage, distinguished by Rose Bengal staining, over 60 taxa could be identified. The biofacies identified was similar to that of other Arctic shelf habitats. Foraminifera were counted in 3 size fractions (63-125 μm, 125-250 μm and >250 μm), with 65% of the foraminifera occurring in the smallest size fraction (63-125 μm). Total abundances (>63 μm) in the uppermost 1 cm averaged approximately 200 ind/10 cm 3 and declined down-core, as did the number of species. Abundances and species composition correlated positively with sediment chlorophyll and ATP content, with maxima occurring in the shallower northern regions of the polynya, suggesting a general dependence on food. Foraminera biomass was estimated to be 0.1-0.3 g C org/m 2. Abundances, biomass and ATP content were comparable to ice-free, deep-sea regions in the Norwegian Sea. Temporal changes observed over a 2 month period at one location were difficult to distinguish from spatial and analytical variability. Contrary to expectations, growth was unpronounced at the community and at a species level, implying either a delayed response of the benthic foraminiferal community to food inputs from the overlying water column or the presence of biological limitations other than food, such as predation.

  8. Theme E: Forest Biomass and Bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Stupak, Inge; Smith, C

    2014-01-01

    Several countries in the world have policies for increased use of biomass for energy and biomaterials. It is likely that such policies will lead to increased international demand for wood and increased pressure on the world’s forests. Concerns for forest sustainability have been expressed, especi...... challenges in the different regions for consideration by institutions developing energy biomass sourcing polices and biomass sustainability criteria in the public and private sector......., especially in the EU and its biomass importing countries. As countries and companies search worldwide for new biomass sourcing areas, there is a need to review and compare the biomass potentials in different regions and the associated forest sustainability challenges. We reviewed the literature to assess...

  9. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  11. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  12. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Iverson; S. Brown; A. Prasad; H. Mitasova; A. J. R. Gillespie; A. E. Lugo

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate total biomass and biomass density of the tropical forest in south and southeast Asia because available data from forest inventories were insufficient to extrapolate biomass-density estimates across the region.

  13. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yong-Sup

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempted to find out ways to facilitate bilateral and regional arms control regarding nuclear issues in Northeast Asia. This is done in order to reduce uncertainties regarding nuclear policy and capabilities of those countries, and thus to enhance transparency and confidence in the region. In order to bring them into the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation process in an effective way, we revisited the issues that contributed to the acceleration of the arms race. The review provided insights into the future course of China, the two Koreas and Japan regarding their nuclear policy and capabilities. The findings of this study indicate a general likelihood of resistance to outside request for arms control and disarmament in the countries in Northeast Asia. Besides their continuation with the conventional arms race, countries in Northeast Asia are reluctant to go ahead with the programmes to enhance transparency, build confidence in the region, and to forgo intentions to go nuclear. China is slowly but steadily increasing its nuclear arsenals. Its nuclear arms control policy is not well integrated with nuclear policy and strategy, and it is subject to the overarching goal of nuclear policy and strategy to advance China's status and national security interests in the international community. Thus, it will be very difficult for other countries to bring China to the arms control process for the time being. North Korea has intended to develop nuclear weapons in order to hedge against uncertainties. This poses a threat to the NPT regime and the peace and security of Northeast Asia. Clearly, North Korea has shown its reluctance to disclose the entirety of its nuclear programme under the IAEA inspections. Although South Korea has taken a bold initiative to forgo uranium enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, it has still not fully paid off. Japan adds the problem of plutonium surplus to the uncertain security environments surrounding Northeast Asia

  14. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  15. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant ( P  alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  16. Quaternion-Based Texture Analysis of Multiband Satellite Images: Application to the Estimation of Aboveground Biomass in the East Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiongo Kenfack, Cedrigue Boris; Monga, Olivier; Mpong, Serge Moto; Ndoundam, René

    2018-03-01

    Within the last decade, several approaches using quaternion numbers to handle and model multiband images in a holistic manner were introduced. The quaternion Fourier transform can be efficiently used to model texture in multidimensional data such as color images. For practical application, multispectral satellite data appear as a primary source for measuring past trends and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks. In this work, we propose a texture-color descriptor based on the quaternion Fourier transform to extract relevant information from multiband satellite images. We propose a new multiband image texture model extraction, called FOTO++, in order to address biomass estimation issues. The first stage consists in removing noise from the multispectral data while preserving the edges of canopies. Afterward, color texture descriptors are extracted thanks to a discrete form of the quaternion Fourier transform, and finally the support vector regression method is used to deduce biomass estimation from texture indices. Our texture features are modeled using a vector composed with the radial spectrum coming from the amplitude of the quaternion Fourier transform. We conduct several experiments in order to study the sensitivity of our model to acquisition parameters. We also assess its performance both on synthetic images and on real multispectral images of Cameroonian forest. The results show that our model is more robust to acquisition parameters than the classical Fourier Texture Ordination model (FOTO). Our scheme is also more accurate for aboveground biomass estimation. We stress that a similar methodology could be implemented using quaternion wavelets. These results highlight the potential of the quaternion-based approach to study multispectral satellite images.

  17. The current situation of SHPs (small-scale hydroelectric power plant) in the Southeast and Northeast regions of Brazil; O panorama atual das PCHs (pequenas centrais hidreletricas) na regiao sudeste e nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais; Stano Junior, Angelo [PCH Luiz Dias, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Campos, Bruno Thiago Lopes da Costa; Silva, Evilene Santos [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], Emails: tiago@unifei.edu.br, stano@unifei.edu.br, brunoloppez@unifei.edu.br, evilene@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    With the recent changes in the regulatory mark and also with the creation of the market of Brazilian energy, it reappears the Small Hydro Power Plant - SHP's economic strategic for the decentralizes generation to the attendance of small consuming centers. This article presents the current situation of SHP's in the Southeast and Northeast areas of the Country, besides treating in a wider context, of the need of investments in power generation starting from this renewable energy model for attendance of some communities of those areas that still lack of this benefit. The electrification process should not be seen only by the optics of the financial attractiveness, because an important part of rural homes still exists without light, but also as a social investment, capable to rescue citizenship to take education and respect to the rural communities of those areas. (author)

  18. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  19. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  20. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  1. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  2. Biomass Feedstocks | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks Our mission is to enable the coordinated development of biomass generic biomass thermochemical conversion process (over a screened-back map of the United States) showing U.S. Biomass Resources, represented by photos of timber, corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar. All

  3. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  4. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  5. Analysis of Energy Industry Upgrading in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Ji, Yu-liang; Guan, Bai-feng; Jing, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Promoting regional economic growth and realizing the transformation of the mode of economic growth are in industrial upgrading essence The product is a carrier that represents a series of links of production, management and marketing behind the enterprise, and is a comprehensive reflection of the knowledge and ability of a country or region. Based on the industrial spatial structure, this paper visualizes the industrial space in Northeast China from 2005 to 2015, analyzes the comparative advantages of the energy industry in Northeast China, and examines the status quo of the upgrade of the energy industry according to the industrial upgrading status. Based on the industrial spatial structure, Industry intensity in the industrial space, put forward the future direction of the energy industry upgrade and upgrade path.

  6. Biomass and territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leca, Christel; Regnier, Yannick; Couturier, Christian; Cousin, Stephane; Defaye, Serge; Jilek, Wolfgang; Merle, Sophie; Le Treis, Marc; Jacques, Dominique; Gauthier, Alice; Formerg, Thomas; Duffes, Thomas; Bellanger, Delphine; Nguyen, Elodie

    2012-01-01

    As the biomass sector is growing, several questions are raised regarding the durability of the use of wood as energy source: risk of forest over-exploitation, impact of particles on health, oversized projects without any relationship with local interests, controversy on carbon assessment, massive imports of pellets without real guarantee of durability. A first article addresses the role of French local communities, and identifies six main regions with different characteristics. The example of the Austrian region of Styria is discussed where the share of renewable energies has reached 26,5% (61% of biomass including paper mill wastes). Opportunities and limitations of the development of the agro-fuel sector are briefly discussed. The case of the city of Aubenas is commented (heat network supplied by wood). The issue of short circuit supply is discussed. Other articles outline how air quality is an asset for wood energy, discuss which kind of wood is adapted to an environment-friendly heating, the need to promote wood energy, the importance of the empowerment of local communities, the perspective of a new law on heat, the need to review mechanisms supporting cogeneration, and the role of the French rural network (Reseau Rural Francais) to support rural actors of the wood energy sector

  7. 77 FR 58439 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Northeast Corridor Between Washington, DC, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Regional and Intercity Household Travel Attitudes and Behavior. Type of Request: New information collection... ages of 18 and 74 who have Northeast intercity or regional travel experience during the 12 months prior... just those who experienced a qualifying intercity or regional travel trip to provide more detailed...

  8. Pricing and Policy Problems in the Northeast Fluid Milk Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This article documents the need for reform of milk pricing in the Northeast. The New York price gouging law can be recast as a fair share law. This new milk policy "kills two birds with one stone." It corrects regional inequities in raw milk pricing by reforming the pricing of milk at retail by limiting and redistributing excessive retail margins to farmers and consumers. The fair share policy relieves allocative price inefficiency, improves the performance of the federal milk market order po...

  9. The impact of biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass burning volatile organic compound emissions on regional and seasonal variations in secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jamie M.; Doherty, Ruth M.; O'Connor, Fiona M.; Mann, Graham W.

    2018-05-01

    The global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget is highly uncertain, with global annual SOA production rates, estimated from global models, ranging over an order of magnitude and simulated SOA concentrations underestimated compared to observations. In this study, we use a global composition-climate model (UKCA) with interactive chemistry and aerosol microphysics to provide an in-depth analysis of the impact of each VOC source on the global SOA budget and its seasonality. We further quantify the role of each source on SOA spatial distributions, and evaluate simulated seasonal SOA concentrations against a comprehensive set of observations. The annual global SOA production rates from monoterpene, isoprene, biomass burning, and anthropogenic precursor sources is 19.9, 19.6, 9.5, and 24.6 Tg (SOA) a-1, respectively. When all sources are included, the SOA production rate from all sources is 73.6 Tg (SOA) a-1, which lies within the range of estimates from previous modelling studies. SOA production rates and SOA burdens from biogenic and biomass burning SOA sources peak during Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer. In contrast, the anthropogenic SOA production rate is fairly constant all year round. However, the global anthropogenic SOA burden does have a seasonal cycle which is lowest during NH summer, which is probably due to enhanced wet removal. Inclusion of the new SOA sources also accelerates the ageing by condensation of primary organic aerosol (POA), making it more hydrophilic, leading to a reduction in the POA lifetime. With monoterpene as the only source of SOA, simulated SOA and total organic aerosol (OA) concentrations are underestimated by the model when compared to surface and aircraft measurements. Model agreement with observations improves with all new sources added, primarily due to the inclusion of the anthropogenic source of SOA, although a negative bias remains. A further sensitivity simulation was performed with an increased anthropogenic SOA reaction

  10. An empirical, integrated forest biomass monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Ohmann, Janet; Gregory, Matt; Roberts, Heather; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bell, David M.; Kane, Van; Hughes, M. Joseph; Cohen, Warren B.; Powell, Scott; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Hooper, Sam; Kane, Jonathan; Miller, David L.; Perkins, James; Braaten, Justin; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-02-01

    The fate of live forest biomass is largely controlled by growth and disturbance processes, both natural and anthropogenic. Thus, biomass monitoring strategies must characterize both the biomass of the forests at a given point in time and the dynamic processes that change it. Here, we describe and test an empirical monitoring system designed to meet those needs. Our system uses a mix of field data, statistical modeling, remotely-sensed time-series imagery, and small-footprint lidar data to build and evaluate maps of forest biomass. It ascribes biomass change to specific change agents, and attempts to capture the impact of uncertainty in methodology. We find that: • A common image framework for biomass estimation and for change detection allows for consistent comparison of both state and change processes controlling biomass dynamics. • Regional estimates of total biomass agree well with those from plot data alone. • The system tracks biomass densities up to 450-500 Mg ha-1 with little bias, but begins underestimating true biomass as densities increase further. • Scale considerations are important. Estimates at the 30 m grain size are noisy, but agreement at broad scales is good. Further investigation to determine the appropriate scales is underway. • Uncertainty from methodological choices is evident, but much smaller than uncertainty based on choice of allometric equation used to estimate biomass from tree data. • In this forest-dominated study area, growth and loss processes largely balance in most years, with loss processes dominated by human removal through harvest. In years with substantial fire activity, however, overall biomass loss greatly outpaces growth. Taken together, our methods represent a unique combination of elements foundational to an operational landscape-scale forest biomass monitoring program.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Sun, Keping; Park, Yung Chul; Feng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum , is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  12. Institutional Issues of International Power Grid Development in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Konstantin; Maksakova, Darya; Popov, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    With regard to the initiative of "International power interconnections in northeast Asia" here examines the challenges which may hinder the establishment of a common energy system in region. The analysis is based on the APERC methodology for international energy cooperation in the APEC region, and on historical approach to the development of pricing mechanisms and policy in the European common market of electricity trade and system services. Mechanisms for the prevention and overcoming of the revealed problems of regional cooperation in the power sector are proposed.

  13. Institutional Issues of International Power Grid Development in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneev Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the initiative of “International power interconnections in northeast Asia” here examines the challenges which may hinder the establishment of a common energy system in region. The analysis is based on the APERC methodology for international energy cooperation in the APEC region, and on historical approach to the development of pricing mechanisms and policy in the European common market of electricity trade and system services. Mechanisms for the prevention and overcoming of the revealed problems of regional cooperation in the power sector are proposed.

  14. Physical-biological coupling induced aggregation mechanism for the formation of high biomass red tides in low nutrient waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhigang; Yin, Kedong

    2014-01-01

    Port Shelter is a semi-enclosed bay in northeast Hong Kong where high biomass red tides are observed to occur frequently in narrow bands along the local bathymetric isobars. Previous study showed that nutrients in the Bay are not high enough to support high biomass red tides. The hypothesis is that physical aggregation and vertical migration of dinoflagellates appear to be the driving mechanism to promote the formation of red tides in this area. To test this hypothesis, we used a high-resolution estuarine circulation model to simulate the near-shore water dynamics based on in situ measured temperature/salinity profiles, winds and tidal constitutes taken from a well-validated regional tidal model. The model results demonstrated that water convergence occurs in a narrow band along the west shore of Port Shelter under a combined effect of stratified tidal current and easterly or northeasterly wind. Using particles as dinoflagellate cells and giving diel vertical migration, the model results showed that the particles aggregate along the convergent zone. By tracking particles in the model predicted current field, we estimated that the physical-biological coupled processes induced aggregation of the particles could cause 20-45 times enhanced cell density in the convergent zone. This indicated that a high cell density red tide under these processes could be initialized without very high nutrients concentrations. This may explain why Port Shelter, a nutrient-poor Bay, is the hot spot for high biomass red tides in Hong Kong in the past 25 years. Our study explains why red tide occurrences are episodic events and shows the importance of taking the physical-biological aggregation mechanism into consideration in the projection of red tides for coastal management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce

  16. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  17. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium of venture business fostering type--Creation of key industries (Development of technologies for manufacturing and utilizing various biological regulatory substances using Hokkaido-produced biomasses as materials); 1998 nendo Dosan biomass wo genryo to shita kakushu seitai chosetsu kino busshitsu no seisan riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The efforts aim to meet consumers' needs for products that will prevent lifestyle diseases or the like. For this purpose, substances answering the purpose are extracted from Hokkaido-produced agricultural and aquatic biomasses, and prepared for testing. Researches are conducted on how they behave in the enzyme, cell, and biological systems, and active substances are isolated and identified. In relation to the aquatic biomass, a technology is established of extracting and separating DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), taurine, etc., which are multivalent unsaturated fatty acids effective in preventing lifestyle diseases, from the unused parts of the squid. In relation to the agricultural biomass, antimicrobial active substances are extracted and separated from small fruit plants such as the chicory. Long-keeping foods are tentatively produced by the addition of dried powder of the chicory root tuber. In the elucidation of various biological regulatory substances contained in the Hokkaido-produced biomasses, they are tested for their abilities to resist microbes and active oxygen. Furthermore, verification tests are conducted by administering the substances to the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM). (NEDO)

  18. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  19. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  20. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  1. Modelling of groundwater flow and flow paths for a large regional domain in northeast Uppland. A three-dimensional, mathematical modelling of groundwater flows and flow paths on a super-regional scale, for different complexity levels of the flow domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Stigsson, Martin; Marsic, Niko; Gylling, Bjoern

    2003-12-01

    The general purpose of this study is to estimate the groundwater flow for a large regional domain by use of groundwater models; and to do that with such a resolution (degree of detail) that important local properties of the flow system studied is represented in the established models. Based on the results of the groundwater modelling, we have compared different theoretical locations of a repository for nuclear waste, considering length and breakthrough time (advective flow) for flow paths from such a repository. The area studied is located in Sweden, in the Northeast of the Uppland province. The area has a maximum horizontal extension of 90 km by 50 km, and the size of the area is approximately 2,000 km 2 . The study is based on a system analysis approach. The studied system is the groundwater flow in the rock mass of Northeast Uppland. To reach the objectives of the study, different mathematical models were devised of the studied domain; these models will, in an idealised and simplified way, reproduce the groundwater movements at the area studied. The formal models (the mathematical models) used for simulation of the groundwater flow are three dimensional mathematical descriptions of the studied hydraulic system. For establishment of the formal models we used two different numerical codes GEOAN, which is based on the finite difference method and NAMMU, which is based on the finite element method. Considering flow path lengths and breakthrough times from a theoretical repository, we have evaluated the following: Importance of the local and regional topography; Importance of cell size in the numerical model; Importance of depth of domain represented in the numerical model; Importance of regional fracture zones; Importance of local lakes; Importance of areas covered by a clay layer; Importance of a modified topography; Importance of the shore level progress. Importance of density dependent flow. The results of the study includes: Length and breakthrough time of flow

  2. Modelling of groundwater flow and flow paths for a large regional domain in northeast Uppland. A three-dimensional, mathematical modelling of groundwater flows and flow paths on a super-regional scale, for different complexity levels of the flow domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Stigsson, Martin [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Marsic, Niko; Gylling, Bjoern [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-12-01

    The general purpose of this study is to estimate the groundwater flow for a large regional domain by use of groundwater models; and to do that with such a resolution (degree of detail) that important local properties of the flow system studied is represented in the established models. Based on the results of the groundwater modelling, we have compared different theoretical locations of a repository for nuclear waste, considering length and breakthrough time (advective flow) for flow paths from such a repository. The area studied is located in Sweden, in the Northeast of the Uppland province. The area has a maximum horizontal extension of 90 km by 50 km, and the size of the area is approximately 2,000 km{sup 2}. The study is based on a system analysis approach. The studied system is the groundwater flow in the rock mass of Northeast Uppland. To reach the objectives of the study, different mathematical models were devised of the studied domain; these models will, in an idealised and simplified way, reproduce the groundwater movements at the area studied. The formal models (the mathematical models) used for simulation of the groundwater flow are three dimensional mathematical descriptions of the studied hydraulic system. For establishment of the formal models we used two different numerical codes GEOAN, which is based on the finite difference method and NAMMU, which is based on the finite element method. Considering flow path lengths and breakthrough times from a theoretical repository, we have evaluated the following: Importance of the local and