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Sample records for north yorkshire uk

  1. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  2. Time-lapse Seismic Refraction Monitoring of an Active Landslide in Lias Group Mudrocks, North Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Whiteley, J.; Chambers, J. E.; Inauen, C.; Swift, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical monitoring of the internal moisture content and processes of landslides is an increasingly common approach to the characterisation and assessment of the hydrogeological condition of rainfall-triggered landslides. Geoelectrical monitoring methods are sensitive to changes in the subsurface moisture conditions that cause the failure of unstable slopes, typically through the increase of pore water pressures and softening of materials within the landslide system. The application of seismic methods to the monitoring of landslides has not been as extensively applied as geoelectrical approaches, but the seismic method can determine elastic properties of landslide materials that can characterise and identify changes in the geomechanical condition of landslide systems that also lead to slope failure. We present the results of a seismic refraction monitoring campaign undertaken at the Hollin Hill Landslide Observatory in North Yorkshire, UK. This campaign has involved the repeat acquisition of surface acquired high resolution P- and S-wave seismic refraction data. The monitoring profile traverses a 142m long section from the crest to the toe of an active landslide comprising of mudstone and sandstone. Data were acquired at six to nine week intervals between October 2016 and October 2017. This repeat acquisition approach allowed for the imaging of seismically determined property changes of the landslide throughout the annual climatic cycle. Initial results showed that changes in the moisture dynamics of the landslide are reflected by changes in the seismic character of the inverted tomograms. Changes in the seismic properties are linked to the changes in the annual climatic cycle, particularly in relation to effective rainfall. The results indicate that the incorporation of seismic monitoring data into ongoing geoelectrical monitoring programmes can provide complementary geomechanical data to enhance our understanding of the internal condition of landslide systems

  3. Chernobyl caesium in Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, A.P.; Bailey, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In November 1987, there was great public concern in Yorkshire following the publication of newspaper articles on the levels of fallout in Yorkshire from the Chernobyl radiation cloud. In response to this, the NRPB set up a mobile whole body monitoring service at Ilkley for the public. Measurements of the body content of radiocaesium were made on 387 people from a wide geographical area around West and North Yorskhire and in all but three cases the result was less than the limit of detection. Members of the public were greatly reassured when given the opportunity to discuss their queries with NRPB staff. (U.K.)

  4. Ceremony and Carpentry? Neolithic Stone Axeheads in an East Yorkshire (UK Lowland Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Halkon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey and research undertaken of a 20x30km study area in the Foulness Valley, East Yorkshire, has resulted in the location of over 70 polished stone and flint axeheads. Examination of many of these tools suggests heavy use and reworking, yet a number, the most impressive in terms of workmanship and aesthetics, remain in pristine condition. This contribution discusses the significance of the distribution of these tools and considers possible explanations for their condition, in terms of what is known about the Neolithic landscape of this region. Recent palaeoenvironmental investigation shows that in the Neolithic the Foulness Valley was a mosaic of heavily wooded areas and wetland, dominated in the south by a tidal estuarine inlet of the River Humber, contrasting with the rolling chalk hills of the Yorkshire Wolds to the north and east. The inlet and its associated waterways may have provided a means of communication and exchange for some of the axeheads.

  5. The fissured East Yorkshire Chalk, UK - a 'sustainable' aquifer under stress ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, T.; Younger, P. L.; Chadha, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    The fissured Chalk is an important regional aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK, with a large potential for water supply to the Humberside region and especially the City of Hull. It has been exploited since the end of the 19th Century, but although there are more than a dozen long-established pumping wells in the Chalk these currently abstract only 7% of the total recharge the aquifer receives. The classical notion of ‘safe aquifer yield' equates the quantity of groundwater available for abstraction with the long-term natural recharge to the aquifer. An incautious hydrogeologist might be lead to conclude that this is a secure, under-developed resource. In this case study, the aquifer is shown to be already displaying early symptoms of hydrological stress (eg drought effects, overexploitation), and hydrogeochemical indicators point to further effects of anthropogenic pollution impacts in the unconfined aquifer and both recent and ancient saline intrusion in its semi-confined and confined zones. The hydrochemical evidence clearly reveals the importance both of recent aquifer management decisions and palaeohydrogeology in determining the distribution of water qualities within the aquifer. Waters encountered in the confined aquifer are identified as complex (and potentially dynamic) mixtures between recently recharged waters, modern seawater intrusion, and ancient seawater which entered the aquifer many millennia ago. Elliot, T. Younger, P.L. &Chadha, D.S. (1998) The future sustainability of groundwater resources in East Yorkshire - past and present perspectives. In H. Wheater and C. Kirby (Eds.) Hydrology in a Changing Environment, Vol. II, Proc. British Hydrological Society (BHS) International Conference, 6-10 July 1998, Exeter, UK. pp.21-31. Elliot, T., Chadha, D.S. &Younger, P.L. (2001) Water Quality Impacts and Palaeohydrogeology in the East Yorkshire Chalk Aquifer, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 34(4): 385-398. Younger, P.L., Teutsch

  6. Levels of advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor female sex workers in West Yorkshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Claire; Clarke, Janette

    2014-02-01

    To assess the proportion of independent indoor female sex workers (FSW) in West Yorkshire, UK who advertise unprotected sex, and to investigate any association with cost, location and provision of anal sex. Data on whether independent indoor FSW (defined as those not advertising via an escort agency or through a parlour) advertised unprotected sexual services, along with demographic data, were collected from 462 advertisement profiles of FSW in West Yorkshire from the website http://www.adultwork.com. Independent t test and χ(2) statistics were used to test the association between advertised unprotected vaginal and oral sex, and FSW age, cost of services, location and whether they advertised anal sex. Unprotected vaginal sex was advertised by 8% of FSW, and unprotected oral sex by 74% of FSW. FSW advertising unprotected vaginal sex were more likely to live in Wakefield and Bradford than in Leeds, had significantly lower hourly rates, and were more likely to advertise anal sex. Advertised condom use for vaginal and oral sex by independent indoor FSW in West Yorkshire was significantly lower than reported rates of protected sex found in previous studies based in London and the south of England. The advertisement of unprotected vaginal sex is associated with factors such as lower hourly rates and the advertisement of higher risk anal sex, which may signify greater economic need. FSW offering unprotected sex therefore represent an at-risk target group for health promotion.

  7. Planning Uncertainty: Creating an Artefact Density Index for North Yorkshire, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Boldrini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Portable antiquities (sometimes known as small finds or chance finds are often recorded within most Historic Environment Records to a spurious level of precision. For example, finds located only within a parish, or general area, are often mapped within GIS systems to exact points. Similarly, finds known only to the nearest kilometre square are usually mapped in the bottom left-hand corner of the square in GIS. While such mappings can be taken into account to some extent when trying to assess the archaeological potential of an area, the degree to which the records may give distorted views of the archaeological potential of an area may not be fully appreciated. This may mean that the full archaeological impacts of development may not be taken into account during development control decision making. This article looks at an alternative method for mapping such finds in order to produce an Artefact Density Index for areas, which more usefully reflects the pattern of activities across the landscape. The Artefact Density Index (ADI was divided to reflect broad archaeological periods (e.g. Roman, medieval etc., as well as broad artefact types (e.g. weapons, tools etc.. The ADI was based on combining weighted values for finds types, with the weight reflecting the precision of the location of the finds (i.e. finds recorded only at parish level will be given less weight than those recorded more precisely. An ADI was developed for a sub-area of the North Yorkshire County Council HER area, and also incorporated data from the Portable Antiquities scheme as a case study for the project.

  8. Streptococcus milleri group bacteraemia in North Yorkshire, England (1989-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, Nigel C; Barnham, Michael R D; Dove, Marion

    2004-05-01

    Though carriage and local infection with organisms of the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) are regular in clinical practice, bacteraemia is infrequent in man. The objective of the present study was to give an account of our experience with the SMG bacteraemia over a period of 12 yr in North Yorkshire. The laboratory and clinical records of all clinically significant cases of SMG bacteraemia in our district general hospital catchment (combined population 260,000) were reviewed for the 12 yr period from 1989 to 2000. Viable isolates were recovered, species identified, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined. Twenty nine episodes of infection gave an annual incidence of 0.93 cases per 100,000 population. Infections included abscess, pneumonia, septic arthritis, genital and urinary tract infections, endocarditis and diffuse septicaemia. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 90 yr but most patients were elderly, 82 per cent had evident predisposing conditions and mortality rate was 10 per cent. Species determination of the 22 isolates showed S. anginosus (64%), S. constellatus (27%) and S. intermedius (9%). Nearly all isolates were non-haemolytic and Lancefield grouping showed carriage of the F antigen (in 41%), C (14%) and no detected group (45%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. Bacteraemia with SMG organisms was infrequent, often opportunistic and featured a low overall mortality rate. Intra-abdominal sepsis was the local feature in 16 (55%) of the patients and 9 (31%) of the total patient group showed abscess or empyema. There was a low rate of antibiotic resistance in these organisms from bloodstream infection.

  9. Spatial and temporal variability in the concentration and speciation of metals in suspended sediment transported by the River Aire, Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie; Walling, Desmond E.; Owens, Philip N.; Leeks, Graham J. L.

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of the important role of fine sediment in the transport and storage of metals in fluvial systems. However, there has been little research on the behaviour of contaminated sediment in industrial rivers in the UK. This paper examines spatial and temporal variations in the concentration and speciation of lead, copper and chromium associated with suspended sediment in the River Aire in Yorkshire, UK. An increase in the total concentration of all three metals in sediment was identified in the lower reaches, which reflected inputs of road dust, sewage and industrial effluents. Spatial variations in the chemical speciation of the metals were also identified. The iron-manganese oxides and organic fractions were the most significant for the adsorption of metals by sediment. Both the concentrations and speciation of sediment-associated metals exhibited substantial temporal variation. Such variation reflected the accumulation of metals and organic matter on the river-bed during low flows, the subsequent remobilization of the sediment at high flows and the additional supply of sediment from uncontaminated and contaminated sources, including pulse inputs of road dust, sewage and industrial effluent. The findings presented have important implications for the development of effective catchment management strategies for the control of point- and diffuse-source pollution.

  10. Informing innovative peatland conservation in light of palaeoecological evidence for the demise of Sphagnum imbricatum: the case of Oxenhope Moor, Yorkshire, UK

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    J. McCarroll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Actively growing mires have high conservation value and the potential to sequester carbon. However, drainage, burning, overgrazing and atmospheric pollution have led to depauperation of native flora and loss of peat at many peatland sites. In order to counteract such degradation, palaeoecological techniques can be applied and the data then used to inform nature conservation practice. The present study exemplifies this approach and was conducted on degraded blanket mire in Yorkshire, UK, in collaboration with a field-based moorland restoration agency. High-resolution, multiproxy palaeoecological analyses on a peat core from Oxenhope Moor were used to reconstruct Holocene vegetation changes spanning approximately the last 7000 years. Humification, pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal analyses show distinct changes in species composition and indicate their potential causes. Human-induced changes identified at 2100 cal. BP are most likely to reflect deliberate clearance by fire. Sphagnum imbricatum disappears and is subsequently replaced by S. papillosum at ca. 1000 cal. BP, possibly due to drier conditions and competition between the two species. Increased human activity is identified since the Industrial Revolution where monocots and Eriophorum vaginatum increase, interpreted as a result of managed burning. It is intended that the long-term ecological history of the site, derived using palaeoecological techniques, will be used to inform conservation practice and can help set feasible targets for restoration and conservation. Specifically, encouraging a species mix that has pre-19th century longevity is suggested, including the specific recommendation that translocation of S. imbricatum be explored experimentally at this site, with a view to ascertaining likely success elsewhere.

  11. Hétérogenéité quantitative et qualitative de la matière organique dans les argiles du Kimmeridgien du val de Pickering (Yorkshire, UK. Cadre sédimentologique et stratigraphique Quantitative and Qualitative Heterogeneity of the Organic Matter Within the Kimmeridge Clay of the Vale of Pickering (Yorkshire, Uk. Sedimentological and Stratigraphical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penn I. E.

    2006-11-01

    l'étude qualitative des résidus stables (analyses élémentaires : H/C-O/C ou de la roche brute (index d'hydrogène/index d'oxygène, IH/10. La matière organique associée aux niveaux de haut de séquence sont très proches de la lignée Il alors que les bas de séquences voient leur rapport atomique H/C décroître en même temps que le rapport atomique O/C augmenter. L'étude des extraits suggère au contraire qu'il existe une unité dans l'origine du matériel organique tout au long de la sédimentation quels que soient les termes de la cyclicité et le niveau lithologique. Les différences observées au niveau des résidus stables reflèteraient par conséquent une différence dans les états de préservation d'une même matière organique (coccolithes, dinoflagellés avec des variations affectant tant la quantité ( % COT que la qualité (H/C-O/C, IH-10. L'hétérogénéité de la matière organique dans les cyclicités élémentaires peut être interprétée en terme de fluctuation du milieu : plus ou moins anaérobique, dont on enregistre les variations dans le temps et dans l'espace. Les très fortes concentrations de matière organique (20-40 % correspondant aux anomalies organiquesse superposent à ces fluctuations. Localisées à proximité des niveaux carbonatés (niveaux équivalents aux Rope Lake Head Stone Bandet White Stone Banddu Dorset, elles semblent conjuguer à la fois des phénomènes de préservation et de productivité comme le suggère l'abondance exceptionnelle des coccolithes. The lowland plain of the Vale of Pickering strikes at right-angles to the Yorkshire coast of north-eastern England and is floored by Upper Jurassic mudstones, flanked by uplands of older Jurassic limestone to the north and Cretaceous Chalk to the south. Its fault-bounded southern margin marks the hinge zone between the mid-Mesozoic, stable Eastern England Shelf to the south, and the rapidly subsiding Cleveland Basin to the north. The latter is an onshore extension

  12. Fathers' views and experiences of their own mental health during pregnancy and the first postnatal year: a qualitative interview study of men participating in the UK Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Z; Galdas, P; Hinchliff, S; Littlewood, E; McMillan, D; McGowan, L; Gilbody, S

    2017-01-26

    The prevalence of fathers' depression and anxiety in the perinatal period (i.e. from conception to 1 year after birth) is approximately 5-10%, and 5-15%, respectively; their children face increased risk of adverse emotional and behavioural outcomes, independent of maternal mental health. Critically, fathers can be protective against the development of maternal perinatal mental health problems and their effects on child outcomes. Preventing and treating paternal mental health problems and promoting paternal psychological wellbeing may therefore benefit the family as a whole. This study examined fathers' views and direct experiences of paternal perinatal mental health. Men in the Born and Bred in Yorkshire (BaBY) epidemiological prospective cohort who met eligibility criteria (baby born Mental Health and Wellbeing [MHWB] questionnaires) were invited to participate. Those expressing interest (n = 42) were purposively sampled to ensure diversity of MHWB scores. In-depth interviews were conducted at 5-10 months postpartum with 19 men aged 25-44 years. The majority were first-time fathers and UK born; all lived with their partner. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: 'legitimacy of paternal stress and entitlement to health professionals' support', 'protecting the partnership', 'navigating fatherhood', and, 'diversity of men's support networks'. Men largely described their 'stress' with reference to exhaustion, poor concentration and irritability. Despite feeling excluded by maternity services, fathers questioned their entitlement to support, noting that services are pressured and 'should' be focused on mothers. Men emphasised the need to support their partner and protect their partnership as central to the successfully navigation of fatherhood; they used existing support networks where available but noted the paucity of tailored support for fathers. Fathers experience psychological distress in the perinatal period but question the

  13. Petrographical and Geochemical Study of a Kimmeridgian Organic Sequence (Yorkshire Area, Uk Étude pétrographique et géochimique d'une séquence organique du Kimmeridgien (région du Yorkshire, Angleterre

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    Belin S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A metric organic sequence from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Yorkshire (UK has been extensively studied with petrographical and geochemical techniques in the aim to define more precisely depositional and preservational conditions of the organic matter. The organic content is ranging from 3 to 9%. As a petrographical tool, the use of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron mode is emphasized, because it provides an image of all the constituents of the sediment. The sediment displays a very thin lamination, consists of clays, coccoliths (dispersed or as fecal pellets and algal organic matter. The presence of organic matter brings about diagenesis and induces carbonate dissolution, pyrite precipitation and silicification. The depositional environment was probably quiet with a fluctuating intensity of anoxia of the sea floor. The beginning of the sequence is characterized by higher sedimentation rate and primary productivity. La formation de Kimmeridge Clay, sédiment argileux comprenant des bancs carbonatés et des niveaux enrichis en matière organique, représente l'équivalent latéral des roches mères du pétrole de mer du Nord (Douglas et Williams, 1981 ; Ebukanson et Kinghorn, 1985; Williams, 1986. Les transgressions marines de la fin du Jurassique créent des petits bassins épicontinentaux séparés les uns des autres par des hauts-fonds et dont la colonne d'eau est stratifiée, ayant à la base un niveau stagnant et anoxique (Oschmann, 1988. Les échantillons étudiés proviennent d'un forage réalisé en 1987, dans le bassin de Cleveland (Yorkshire, par l'Institut Français du Pétrole. Une étude géochimique antérieure a mis en évidence des cyclicités de la teneur en carbone organique (Herbin et al. , 1991. Environ 200 cycles ont été identifiés et calés par rapport aux zones d'ammonites. Un cycle métrique a été choisi dans la zone à Eudoxus et échantillonné tous les 10cm, dans le but de mieux comprendre

  14. Power generation from landfill gas, Middleton Broom, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A power station is fuelled by gas from a landfill site at Middleton Broom, West Yorkshire in the North of England. The plant was commissioned in January 1993 and has a Declared Net Capacity of about 1.2 MW (enough power for about 700 homes). The electricity produced is exported to the National Grid. After various possible uses of the landfill gas were explored, it was decided that a power station fuelled by the gas was the most commercially viable prospect. Because of the proximity of housing to the landfill site, gas is pumped to the power station, located about 1,500 m from the landfill. (UK)

  15. Co-movements of Alaska North Slope and UK Brent crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, B.T.; Harter, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the inter-relationships of international crude oil markets, empirical analyses are used to investigate univariate and multivariate relationships between Alaska North Slope and UK Brent oil prices. Using monthly data from the period 1974-1996, the results show that both price series follow a random walk and that these oil markets share a long-run common trend. The empirical results suggest that the two markets are 'unified'. That is, they are competitive, and there is price convergence in the markets. (author)

  16. Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The central aims of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study (LYREPS) are to: identify renewable energy resources in the region and evaluate the opportunities for their deployment; promote a local-level development plan policy framework for the utilisation of renewable energy sources which is fully integrated with established land use and economic development strategies in the region. The availability of the following resources was investigated: landfill gas; municipal and industrial wastes; animal slurry; biomass; straw; active solar; passive solar design; photovoltaics; hydro; and wind. (author)

  17. Characteristics of Yorkshire swine natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, F.G.; Botticelli, G.; Confer, F.L.; Pinto, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Since natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance, they are important to consider in disease pathogenesis and resistance. We examined cell aspects responsible for NK cell mediated cytotoxicity in Yorkshire swine. Using cell separation procedures, peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined for reactivity to a panel of tumor targets, kinetics of lysis, morphology, surface receptor characteristics and response to immunoregulators. YAC-1 lymphoma and K-562 myeloid leukemia cells were sensitive to swine NK cells; whereas, several other tumor lines were not. In kinetic studies, swine NK cells were slower in initiation of the lytic process than cells responsible for NK activity in other species; small agranular lymphocytes are responsible for this activity in swine. These cells were examined for the presence of a surface marker, asialo GM1, which is common to NK cells in several other species. Swine NK cells respond to an interferon inducer, poly I:C, with enhanced NK activity. Cells in Yorkshire swine have characteristics which are unique but also have characteristics common to NK cells in other species

  18. Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

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    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are an established cause of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe. Following a confirmed case of HFRS in the UK, in an individual residing on a farm in North Yorkshire and the Humber, a tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England, and the subsequent isolation of a Seoul hantavirus from rats trapped on the patient’s farm, it was considered appropriate to further investigate the public health risk of this virus in the region. Of a total 119 individuals tested, nine (7.6% were seropositive for hantavirus antibodies. Seven of the seropositive samples showed a stronger reaction to Seoul and Hantaan compared to other clinically relevant hantaviruses. Observation of rodents during the day, in particular mice, was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity. In addition to one region known to be at risk following an acute case, five further potential risk areas have been identified. This study supports recently published evidence that hantaviruses are likely to be of public health interest in the region.

  19. GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins): A Marie Curie Initial Training Network between Norway, the UK & Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter Sejrup, Hans; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit

    2015-04-01

    GLANAM (Glaciated North Atlantic Margins) is an Initial Training Network (ITN) funded under the EU Marie Curie Programme. It comprises 10 research partners from Norway, UK and Denmark, including 7 University research teams, 1 industrial full partner and 2 industrial associate partners. The GLANAM network will employ and train 15 early career researchers (Fellows). The aim of GLANAM is to improve the career prospects and development of young researchers in both the public and private sector within the field of earth science, focusing on North Atlantic glaciated margins. The young scientists will perform multi-disciplinary research and receive training in geophysics, remote sensing, GIS, sedimentology, geomorphology, stratigraphy, geochemistry and numerical modeling through three interconnected work packages that collectively address knowledge gaps related to the large, glacial age, sedimentary depocentres on the North Atlantic margin. The 15 Fellows will work on projects that geographically extend from Ireland in the south to the High Arctic. Filling these gaps will not only result in major new insights regarding glacial age processes on continental margins in general, but will also provide paleoclimate information essential for understanding the role of marine-based ice sheets in the climate system and for the testing of climate models. GLANAM brings together leading European research groups working on glaciated margins in a coordinated and collaborative research and training project. Focusing on the North Atlantic margins, this coordinated approach will lead to a major advance in the understanding of glaciated margins more widely and will fundamentally strengthen European research and build capacity in this field.

  20. Referrals to the Marie Curie nursing service in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, B; Feather, J; Ward, C

    2000-01-01

    District and Marie Curie nurses participated in a small-scale study to describe referrals to a Marie Curie service in one English health district over a 3-month period. The number of new patients referred was small; they were geographically clustered and had widely differing life expectancies. Anecdotal reports of difficulties with the 'Nurselink' referral system were not confirmed, and in situations where the system was in operation, Marie Curie nurses were more likely to speak directly to the referring nurse. The most frequently cited reason for referral was general nursing needs; however, Marie Curie nurses felt that they were most often involved to provide family support. These findings suggest that there may not be a shared understanding of the Marie Curie nurse's role, and that equity in community palliative nursing care merits examination. Defining and publicizing the role of the Marie Curie nurse, providing guidance for referrals and prioritizing communication between professionals are proposed not only to enhance the service locally but to ensure that the service is available to all. This article illustrates the value of research to identify ways to improve service delivery.

  1. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  2. Categorising the Past: lessons from the archaeological resource assessment for Yorkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Roskams

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will consider the implications of the Yorkshire regional assessment for how we categorise, analyse and synthesise the past. It argues that we must transcend the existing frameworks, especially their chronological elements, if we are to fully engage with the evidence currently at our disposal, and do so in a way which takes account of all of its lacunae and limitations, yet details and potentials. This has implications not only for the UK, but for problems facing archaeologists across the world: how to organise, within a coherent framework, the rapidly accumulating masses of data generated by developer-led archaeology and its international equivalents in cultural resource management, and how to forge a stronger relationship between the academic and curatorial spheres of archaeological endeavour.

  3. RADON BASELINE MONITORING AROUND A POTENTIAL SHALE GAS DEVELOPMENT SITE IN YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraktchieva, Z; Wasikiewicz, J M; Howarth, C B; Bradley, E J

    2017-11-01

    The Vale of Pickering in Yorkshire, England has been identified as a potential area for shale gas extraction. Public Health England joined a collaboration led by the British Geological Survey for environmental baseline monitoring near the potential shale gas extraction site following a grant award from UK Government Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The analysis of results for the first 6 months of indoor monitoring indicated that the results followed a log-normal distribution. The numbers of homes found to be at or above the Action Level followed the numbers predicted by the radon potential maps. The results from the measurements of outdoor air in this study indicated that the radon concentrations are slightly higher than previously measured but close to the detection limit of the technique. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, A.

    1997-01-01

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell's oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs

  6. Geological evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the Hatton Basin (UK sector), north-east Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    McInroy, David; Hitchen, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The deep-water Hatton Basin (flanked by the Hatton and Rockall Highs) is located 600km west of Scotland (NE Atlantic Ocean) on the western margin of the Eurasian continental plate. Prior to Atlantic opening the area was adjacent to SE Greenland. The basin straddles the UK/Irish median line. Water depths increase southwards from 1000m to over 1300m. The basin has never been licensed for hydrocarbon exploration and is currently the subject of ownership negotiations related to the UN Conven...

  7. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Offshore UK geological formations have the capacity to store > 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation, if utilised for carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes. During CO2 storage or CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR), formation waters may be produced at the surface to be disposed of into the marine environment. Laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution. Of relevance to the UK context, eight of these elements are specifically identified as potentially hazardous to the marine environment: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Batch experiments using simple borosilicate flasks sat on heating mantles were used in this study to determine concentrations of these 8 elements which could be leached from selected North Sea sandstones with bubbled CO2 and saline solutions, at formation temperatures. These concentration data were compared with produced water data from current UK offshore hydrocarbon extraction activities. The comparison showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2. The origin of the increased trace element concentrations was investigated using sequential leaching experiments. A six step method of increasingly aggressive leaching was developed, based on modification of methods outlined by Tessier et al

  8. Rheological Study of Batter Dough for Yorkshire Pudding Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, M.; Gabriele, D.; Baldino, N.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Batter dough are widely used in manufacturing of baked goods having different texture characteristics. The analysis of "liquid-like" properties of these systems allows the control of product shape and consistency during production, because of the flow pattern definition. This work deals with "batter" for "Yorkshire Pudding" production, having a characteristic shape mainly due to the combination of shear flow and bubble expansion during baking. Some of mechanical properties can be controlled by varying the recipe as normally done during industrial production. Dynamic measurement and viscosity data at some characteristic temperatures are reported in the view of supporting the modeling of the shape variation under shear flow and bubble expansion.

  9. Application of magnetic techniques to lateral hydrocarbon migration - Lower Tertiary reservoir systems, UK North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, S. A.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Fraser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis experiments show that magnetic minerals can be produced inorganically during oil formation in the `oil-kitchen'. Here we try to identify a magnetic proxy that can be used to trace hydrocarbon migration pathways by determining the morphology, abundance, mineralogy and size of the magnetic minerals present in reservoirs. We address this by examining the Tay formation in the Western Central Graben in the North Sea. The Tertiary sandstones are undeformed and laterally continuous in the form of an east-west trending channel, facilitating long distance updip migration of oil and gas to the west. We have collected 179 samples from 20 oil-stained wells and 15 samples from three dry wells from the British Geological Survey Core Repository. Samples were selected based on geological observations (water-wet sandstone, oil-stained sandstone, siltstones and shale). The magnetic properties of the samples were determined using room-temperature measurements on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), low-temperature (0-300K) measurements on a Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS) and high-temperature (300-973K) measurements on a Kappabridge susceptibility meter. We identified magnetite, pyrrhotite, pyrite and siderite in the samples. An increasing presence of ferrimagnetic iron sulphides is noticed along the known hydrocarbon migration pathway. Our initial results suggest mineralogy coupled with changes in grain size are possible proxies for hydrocarbon migration.

  10. Use of programme budgeting and marginal analysis as a framework for resource reallocation in respiratory care in North Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J M; Brown, G; Thomas, K; Johnstone, F; Vandenblink, V; Pethers, B; Jones, A; Edwards, R T

    2016-09-01

    Since the global financial crisis, UK NHS spending has reduced considerably. Respiratory care is a large cost driver for Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, the largest health board in Wales. Under the remit of 'prudent healthcare' championed by the Welsh Health Minister, a Programme Budgeting Marginal Analysis (PBMA) of the North Wales respiratory care pathway was conducted. A PBMA panel of directors of medicines management, therapies finance, planning, public health and healthcare professionals used electronic voting to establish criteria for decision-making and vote on candidate interventions in which to disinvest and invest. A sum of £86.9 million was spent on respiratory care in 2012-13. Following extensive discussion of 13 proposed candidate interventions facilitated by a chairperson, 4 candidates received recommendations to disinvest, 7 to invest and 2 to maintain current activity. Marginal analysis prioritized mucolytics and high antibiotic prescribing as areas for disinvestment, and medicines waste management and pulmonary rehabilitation for investment. This exercise demonstrates the potential for health boards to use evidence-based approaches to reach potentially controversial disinvestment and investment decisions. Initial progress has begun with communication from the Medical Director in relation to the disinvestment in mucolytics prescribing and possible redirection of funding options being explored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. UK North Sea Strathspey Field development: How use of a satellite tie-back to a third party host created a ''win-win'' situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheifetz, S.A.; Hale, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Texaco operated Strathspey Field lies in the Northern Sector of the UK North Sea. Development options for the 150 million barrel oil equivalent field included use of a fixed platform, floating production system and sub-sea tieback to an existing platform. Decision Analysis was used to examine the risk profile of the different options. The choice of a subsea tieback to the Chevron operated Ninian Field (North ampersand South Platforms) created economic benefits for partners in both fields as compared to the use of a stand-alone development for Strathspey

  12. Quantifying UK emissions of carbon dioxide using an integrative measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzi, S.; Palmer, P.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme is to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from the UK. GAUGE builds on the tall tower network established by the UK Government to estimate fluxes from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The GAUGE measurement programme includes two additional tall tower sites (one in North Yorkshire and one downwind of London); regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues; instrumentation installed on a ferry that travels daily along the eastern coast of the UK from Scotland to Belgium; a research aircraft that has been deployed on a campaign basis; and a high-density network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector. We have also included satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) through ongoing activities within the UK National Centre for Earth Observation. In this presentation, we will present new CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  13. Authigenic albite formation due to water-rock interactions - Case study: Magnus oilfield (UK, Northern North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nana; Fu, Yunjiao; Schulz, Hans-Martin; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of this contribution to test whether organic-inorganic interactions could induce the formation of authigenic albite. This concept and related results are being compared with modelling scenarios which are purely based on inorganic geochemical reactions. In order to unravel the pathway of authigenic albite formation, this paper presents results of a multidisciplinary study from imaging, geochemistry, mineralogy, and hydrogeochemical modelling. The Jurassic reservoir sandstones of the Magnus oilfield (UK, North Sea) were chosen as a test site. Albite occurs with 4-18 wt.% in the Magnus sandstones and its contents vary with depth. However, albite contents increase with increasing K-feldspar contents and decreasing grain size. It occurs in three forms: (1) as lamellae in perthite, (2) as overgrowth on/in corroded feldspar, and, (3) as cloudy replacing albite patches in K-feldspar. The albite overgrowth has the highest chemical purity (100% albite) whilst albite lamellae and replacing albite patches are slightly less pure (containing 1-4% anorthite). Albite appears non-altered, and has a euhedral morphology and dull cathodoluminescence. It commonly co-occurs with corroded K-feldspar grains. The precipitation of diagenetic albite in the Magnus sandstones is attributed to deep burial 80 Ma ago and may have continued until today at temperatures between 90-120 °C. The results of hydrogeochemical modelling offer two possible pathways for the authigenic albite formation: (1) Dissolution of unstable minerals (such as kaolinite and chalcedony) coupled to reduction of ferric iron minerals by products generated during oil generation, migration and degradation; (2) Dissolution of non-end member feldspar, such as K-feldspar with 10% albite, coupled to illite formation can account for trace amounts of albite due to an elevated Na+/K+ activity ratio in the pore water.

  14. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte

    assume that Belgium can achieve to involve Luxembourg into the project viastatistical transfers, corresponding to 10% of the project.Because of the first mover character of such a joint project in the North Sea, with offshore electricityproduction connected to several countries, we discuss in detail...... as compared to own development at the same site. The UK will gain anoption on additional offshore wind resources that may be at competitive prices. Luxembourg mighthave a benefit from using a concrete joint project for the import of RES benefits, as they are moretangible than for e.g. technology...

  15. Burdale: An Anglian Settlement in the Yorkshire Wolds (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian D. Richards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burdale digital archive (Richards and Roskams 2013 comprises a broad range of primary and secondary data derived from fieldwork and post-excavation analysis. It complements the summary report published as Richards and Roskams (2012. Full stratigraphic reports are downloadable for each season of excavation and can be related to the sequence of CAD plans also available. These can, in turn, be set within the wider site map derived from aerial photography and geophysical survey. Final reports are available for the pottery, spindlewhorls, and worked bone and antler (Ashby 2013. Other finds are simply listed in the finds databases, split by excavation year, with some preliminary notes on the ironwork included in the investigative conservation reports. The non-ferrous finds assemblage was largely missing, apart from a small number of topsoil finds recovered during metal detector surveys. Given the alleged wealth of the site, and the interest in it from 'nighthawks' we have to assume that unfortunately, most of the coinage and copper alloy metalwork has been collected from the ploughsoil over many years and is in private hands or has been sold for profit. In common with other Yorkshire sites Burdale produced very little early medieval pottery but this is likely to be a real absence rather than a product of recovery bias. The animal bone assemblage (Richardson 2010 is one of the most important elements of the archive. Over 300 images are also presented, split by year of excavation. The file downloads are organised in 3 groups: those relating to the whole project and those specifically related to excavations in 2006 (BUR06 or 2007 (BUR07. Referee statement by Gabor Thomas

  16. Salt-influenced structures in the mesozoic-tertiary cover of the southern North Sea, U.K.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, S. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    A structural model encompassing the southern North Sea Basin west of the Central Graben has been developed that combines gravity gliding of the postsalt cover with basement tectonics. The basin differs from many salt basins in that it forms a closed system. Section construction and balancing through the cover of the North Sea need to take into account thin-skinned and thick-skinned extensions and contractions. The North Sea salt formed in Permian time in two large oval basins separated by the Mid North Sea High. The shape of these basins reflects variable patterns of thermal subsidence. Subsequent salt tectonics was governed by local graben structures and by regional uplift and subsidence. Rifting initiated during the Triassic and allowed reactive and locally passive diapirs to develop in the post-salt cover. In the southern North Sea, the Dowsing graben system in the cover is offset from the Dowsing fault zone below the salt. This offset in extensional structures probably relates to the salt thickness and to the position of the surface hinge line that controlled the onset of gravity gliding in the postsalt section. Gravity gliding of the cover into the Triassic-Jurassic Sole Pit trough and away from zones of rift flank uplift was associated with Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous extension in the Central North Sea; gliding caused asymmetric compressional pillows to develop downslope. Gravity spreading of the cover during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary was associated with tilting during thermal subsidence of the southern North Sea Basin, enhanced by pulses of tectonic inversion in the southern North Sea basement. The resultant glide tectonics formed new small grabens upslope and compressional pillows downslope. Where the compressional pillows were eroded sufficiently or faulted later, the salt broke through the thinned cover to produce new active and then passive diapirs, which drained the pillows to produce new rim synclines.

  17. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Breakfast Clubs According to Parents, Children, and School Staff in the North East of England, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK-based studies highlighting the views of parents, children, and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children, and 17 school staff were recruited from four primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semistructured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan, and areas for further investigation are proposed. PMID:26097840

  18. The Process of Choosing a Management Career: Evaluation of Gender and Contextual Dynamics in a Comparative Study of Six Countries--Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, UK and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanova, Cem; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Inal, Gozde

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to identify the reasons MBA students have for their career choices, and to explore the contextual and gender-related aspects of career choice and development, based on a comparative study carried out with participants in six countries, i.e. Hungary, Israel, North Cyprus, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The paper…

  19. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  20. Comparison of accelerator and radiometric radiocarbon measurements obtained from Late Devensian Lateglacial lake sediments from Llyn Gwernan, North Wales, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, J.J.; Lowe, S.; Fowler, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry measurements of the radiocarbon activity of various chemical fractions prepared from Late Devensian Lateglacial lake sediments from the site of Llyn Gwernan, near Cader Idris. North Wales are presented and assessed. These are compared with radiocarbon measurements obtained by radiometric (decay) counting which were reported earlier from the same site and are considered in the light of pollen-stratigraphic information. The potensial advantages of accelerator radiocarbon measurements to the assessment of the chronology and correlation of Lateglacial lake sediments are evaluated

  1. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallack, H.W.

    1992-06-01

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m -2 day -1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m -2 day -1 ) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Skin permeability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac epolamine administered by dermal patch in Yorkshire-Landrace pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tse S; Powell KD; MacLennan SJ; Moorman AR; Paterson C; Bell RR

    2012-01-01

    Susanna Tse,1 Kendall D Powell,2 Stephen MacLennan,3 Allan R Moorman,4 Craig Paterson,5 Rosonald R Bell11Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Tandem Labs, Durham, NC, USA; 3BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc, Durham, NC, USA; 4Alta Vetta Pharmaceutical Consulting LLC, Durham, NC, USA; 5Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc, Raleigh, NC, USAPurpose: This study compared the pharmacokinetic profile, and systemic and local absorption of diclofenac, following dermal patch application and oral administration in Yorkshire- ...

  3. A model of acute renal allograft rejection in outbred Yorkshire piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Randi; Wang, Youli; Fang, Xuexiu; Winn, Matt; Ghaffari, Arina; Ho, Chak-Sum; Helman, Sandra; Jajosky, Ryan; Kleven, Daniel; Stanley Nahman, N; Merchen, Todd D

    2017-06-01

    Pigs represent a desirable animal model for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation with inbred Yucatan miniature swine (YMS) the most commonly studied strain due to well defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genotypes. However, limitations to YMS may include cost and availability. Outbred Yorkshire pigs are widely available and significantly cheaper than YMS. Recent advances in SLA genotyping have allowed its application to outbred strains. On this basis, we theorized that Yorkshire pigs would be a viable alternative to YMS for the study of rejection in kidney transplantation. To address this question, we performed auto (Auto) and allotransplants (Allo) in 24 Yorkshire pigs, and assessed SLA genotypes and acute rejection after 72h. At sacrifice, and when compared to autotransplants, allotransplants had significant elevations in serum creatinine (8.4±1.3 vs 2.8±2.0mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively) and BUN (61±9 vs 19.2±15mg/dL for Allo vs autotransplants, respectively). Warm ischemia times between the two groups did not differ (24±2.3 vs 26.4±1.4min for Auto vs Allo, respectively). There were 16 distinct SLA haplotypes identified from pigs undergoing allotransplantion, no matched donor-recipient pairs, and all allografts demonstrated rejection. Type IIA cellular rejection (Banff) was the most common. One allograft demonstrated hyperacute rejection due a blood group incompatibility. Histologically, the expression of regulatory Tcells and dendritic cells was increased in allografts. These data suggest that Yorkshire pigs may be a useful model for the study of acute rejection in experimental kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  5. Risk Assessment-Led Characterisation of the SiteChar UK North Sea Site for the Geological Storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhurst Maxine

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment-led characterisation of a site for the geological storage of CO2 in the UK northern North Sea was performed for the EU SiteChar research project as one of a portfolio of sites. Implementation and testing of the SiteChar project site characterisation workflow has produced a ‘dry-run’ storage permit application that is compliant with regulatory requirements. A site suitable for commercial-scale storage was characterised, compatible with current and future industrial carbon dioxide (CO2 sources in the northern UK. Pre-characterisation of the site, based on existing information acquired during hydrocarbon exploration and production, has been achieved from publicly available data. The project concept is to store captured CO2 at a rate of 5 Mt per year for 20 years in the Blake Oil Field and surrounding Captain Sandstone saline aquifer. This commercial-scale storage of 100 Mt CO2 can be achieved through a storage scenario combining injection of CO2 into the oil field and concurrent water production down-dip of the field. There would be no encroachment of supercritical phase CO2 for more than two kilometres beyond the field boundary and no adverse influence on operating hydrocarbon fields provided there is pressure management. Components of a storage permit application for the site are presented, developed as far as possible within a research project. Characterisation and technical investigations were guided by an initial assessment of perceived risks to the prospective site and a need to provide the information required for the storage permit application. The emphasis throughout was to reduce risks and uncertainty on the subsurface containment of stored CO2, particularly with respect to site technical performance, monitoring and regulatory issues, and effects on other resources. The results of selected risk assessment-led site characterisation investigations and the subsequent risk reassessments are described together with their

  6. Hydrogeochemical modelling of fluid–rock interactions triggered by seawater injection into oil reservoirs: Case study Miller field (UK North Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yunjiao; Berk, Wolfgang van; Schulz, Hans-Martin

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical model is presented and applied to quantitatively elucidate interdependent reactions among minerals and formation water–seawater mixtures at elevated levels of CO 2 partial pressure. These hydrogeochemical reactions (including scale formation) occur within reservoir aquifers and wells and are driven by seawater injection. The model relies on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics and reproduces the compositional development of the produced water (formation water–seawater mixtures) of the Miller field, UK North Sea. This composition of the produced water deviates from its calculated composition, which could result solely from mixing of both the end members (formation water and seawater). This indicates the effect of hydrogeochemical reactions leading to the formation and/or the dissolution of mineral phases. A fairly good match between the modelled and measured chemical composition of produced water indicates that hydrogeochemical interactions achieve near-equilibrium conditions within the residence time of formation water–seawater mixtures at reservoir conditions. Hence the model enables identification of minerals (including scale minerals), to quantitatively reproduce and to predict their dissolution and/or formation. The modelling results indicate that admixing of seawater into formation water triggers the precipitation of Sr–Barite solid solution, CaSO 4 phases and dolomite. In contrast, calcite and microcrystalline quartz are dissolved along the seawater flow path from the injection well towards the production well. Depending on the fraction of seawater admixed, interdependent reactions induce profound modifications to the aquifer mineral phase assemblage. At low levels of seawater admixture, Ba–Sr sulfate solid solution is precipitated and coupled to concurrent dissolution of calcite and microcrystalline quartz. Massive dissolution of calcite and the formation of CaSO 4 phases and dolomite are triggered by intense seawater admixture

  7. Comparison of Faecal Microbial Community of Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the faecal microbial composition among Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows and to explore the possible link of the pig breed with the gut microbial community. Among the sows, the Meishan, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire sows were from the same breeding farm with the same feed. Fresh faeces were collected from three sows of each purebred breed for microbiota analysis and volatile fatty acid (VFA determination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis revealed that samples from Bama, Erhualian, and Xiaomeishan sows, which from different farms, were generally grouped in one cluster, with similarity higher than 67.2%, and those from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows were grouped in another cluster. Principal component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from the foreign breeds and the samples from the Chinese indigenous breeds were scattered in two different groups, irrespective of the farm origin. Faecal VFA concentrations were significantly affected by the pig breed. The proportion of acetate was higher in the Bama sows than in the other breeds. The real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the Bama sows compared to Xiaomeishan and Duroc sows. Both Meishan and Erhualian sows had higher numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and sulphate-reducing bacteria as compared to Duroc sows. The results suggest that the pig breed affects the composition of gut microbiota. The microbial composition is different with different breeds, especially between overseas breeds (lean type and Chinese breeds (relatively obese type.

  8. Differential gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes between Tibet pig and Yorkshire in high and low altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, D M; Zhang, B; Wang, Z X; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2015-04-13

    Epigenetic modifying enzymes play important roles in the adaptation to hypoxia, although no studies have examined their expression levels in Tibet pigs. The lung is an important functional organ in hypoxia adaptation. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression level of 5 enzymes in the lung of Tibet pigs using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic performance of hypoxia adaptation. We selected four groups of pig as the study object, which were Tibet pig in highland (TH), Yorkshire in highland (YH), Tibet pig in lowland (TL), Yorkshire in lowland (YL). Expression of Dnmt1 in Tibet pig was higher than that in Yorkshire (P Tibet pig than that in Yorkshire (P Tibet pig than in Yorkshire (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the expression levels of the 5 epigenetic modifying genes were higher in group TH than in group YH. Under conditions of oxygen deficiency, breed was the most important factor affecting DNA methylation and gene expression.

  9. Meat quality characteristics of DurocxYorkshire, DurocxYorkshirexwild boar and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, pH value, fatty acids profile, cholesterol content, color and sensory analysis of pork meat from Duroc x Yorkshire (D x Y, Duroc x Yorkshire x wild boar (D x Y x WB crossbreeds and wild boars (WB was investigated. Samples for all tests were taken from m. longissimus dorsi. Chemical composition and pH value were tested by ISO methods. Fatty acid and cholesterol determination was performed by gas chromatography technique with external standard method. Color was determined instrumentally using the thristimulus colourimeter. The overall sensoric quality (appearance, texture and smell of samples of raw meat was evaluated. In evaluation of results the scoring system was used. In chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash and pH values statistically significant difference was noted (p<0,05 between each of the examined groups. Also, among all the examined groups statistically significant difference (p<0,05 was found for fatty acids and cholesterol content. Measurment of the color of meat from all three groups showed that the L*, a * b *, Chroma and Hue angle were also statistically significantly different (p<0,01.

  10. The fecal microbiota composition of boar Duroc, Yorkshire, Landrace and Hampshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingping Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of host genetics on gut microbial diversity, we performed a structural survey of the fecal microbiota of four purebred boar pig lines: Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, and Yorkshire. Methods The V3–V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced. Results A total of 783 operational taxonomic units were shared by all breeds, whereas others were breed-specific. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominated the majority of the fecal microbiota; Clostridia, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the major classes. Nine predominant genera were observed in all breeds and eight of them can produce short-chain fatty acids. Some bacteria can secrete cellulase to aid fiber digestion by the host. Butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acid levels were highest in Landrace pigs, whereas acetic and propionic acid were highest in the Hampshire breed. Heatmap was used to revealed breed-specific bacteria. Principal coordinate analysis of fecal bacteria revealed that the Landrace and Yorkshire breeds had high similarity and were clearly separated from the Duroc and Hampshire breeds. Conclusion Overall, this study is the first time to compare the fecal microbiomes of four breeds of boar pig by high-throughput sequencing and to use Spearman’s rank correlation to analyze competition and cooperation among the core bacteria.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the ventricles in the Yorkshire Terrier and the German Shepherd dog using low-field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Ratsch, B; Kneissl, S; Gabler, C

    2001-01-01

    MR images provide for the exact assessment of the brain, including ventricular size. Still inter- and intrabreed comparison of ventricle size is difficult due to the varying anatomies in dogs. To compare the ventricle area of different sized breeds, 25 dogs (13 Yorkshire Terriers and 12 German Shepard dogs) were reviewed, retrospectively. Hemisphere and ventricle of each side were outlined manually three times. All measurements were averaged and their percentage (ventricle area by hemisphere area) was defined as the relative ventricle area. This value in Yorkshire Terriers (5.3) was significantly higher compared to German Shepard dogs (1.7). However, on the basis of the neurologically symptomatic sample (7 Yorkshire Terriers) in this study, threshold values of normal and abnormal relative ventricle areas could not be detected.

  12. Chance UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Gracia

    2003-01-01

    Chance UK is a unique charity in the UK that specialises in mentoring programmes for primary schoolchildren with behavioural problems. It was founded in 1995 by a policeman, Chief Superintendent Paul Mathias, who believed that by stepping in early, young children with behavioural difficulties could be given the chance to develop the necessary…

  13. Intussuscepção uterina em uma cadela Yorkshire Terrier

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Filho, S.T.L.; Carus, D.S.; Dalmolin, F.; Anjos, B.L.; Segatto, T.; Krabbe, A.; Oliveira, M.T.; Pippi, N.L.; Brun, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    A intussuscepção uterina é condição rara em pequenos animais. No presente relato descreve-se um caso de intussuscepção uterina em um canino, fêmea Yorkshire Terrier no pós-parto imediato, diagnosticada por meio de laparotomia exploratória e pela avaliação anatomopatológica. Realizou-se a ovariossalpingo-histerectomia (OSH) como tratamento definitivo para a alteração. Conclui-se, portanto, que a intussuscepção uterina pode ocorrer em cadelas, de forma espontânea no pós-parto imediato. Uteri...

  14. Skin permeability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac epolamine administered by dermal patch in Yorkshire-Landrace pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanna Tse,1 Kendall D Powell,2 Stephen MacLennan,3 Allan R Moorman,4 Craig Paterson,5 Rosonald R Bell11Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA; 2Tandem Labs, Durham, NC, USA; 3BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Inc, Durham, NC, USA; 4Alta Vetta Pharmaceutical Consulting LLC, Durham, NC, USA; 5Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc, Raleigh, NC, USAPurpose: This study compared the pharmacokinetic profile, and systemic and local absorption of diclofenac, following dermal patch application and oral administration in Yorkshire- Landrace pigs.Patients and methods: Twelve anesthetized, female, Yorkshire-Landrace pigs were randomized to receive either the dermal patch (FLECTOR® patch, 10 × 14 cm; Alpharma Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc, New York, NY or 50 mg oral diclofenac (Voltaren®; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ. Tissue (skin area of 2 × 2 cm and underlying muscles approximately 2–3 cm in depth and blood (10 mL samples were collected at timed intervals up to 11.5 hours after initial patch application or oral administration. The concentrations of diclofenac in plasma, skin, and muscle samples were analyzed using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric methods.Results: Peak systemic exposure of diclofenac was very low by dermal application compared with oral administration (maximum concentration [Cmax] values of 3.5 vs 9640 ng/mL, respectively. Absorption of diclofenac into underlying muscles beneath the dermal patch was sustained, and followed apparently zero-order kinetics, with the skin serving as a depot with elevated concentrations of diclofenac. Concentrations of diclofenac in muscles beneath the patch application site were similar to corresponding tissues after oral administration (Cmax values of 879 and 1160 ng/mL, respectively. In contrast to the wide tissue distribution of diclofenac after oral administration, dermal patch application resulted in high concentrations of diclofenac only on the treated skin and immediate

  15. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire pigs on day 12 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ting; Zhu, Meng-jin; Schroyen, Martine; Qu, Long; Nettleton, Dan; Kuhar, Dan; Lunney, Joan K; Ross, Jason W; Zhao, Shu-hong; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2014-02-24

    Litter size in pigs is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. The peri-implantation window in pigs is characterized by the coordinated interactions between the maternal uterine endometrium and the rapidly elongating conceptuses and represents a period of time during which a large percentage of the developing conceptuses are lost. However, the gene expression and regulatory networks in the endometrium contributing to the establishment of the maternal: placental interface remain poorly understood. We characterized the endometrial gene expression profile during the peri-implantation stage of development by comparing two breeds that demonstrate very different reproductive efficiencies. We employed the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip® to assay the transcriptomic profiles of genes expressed in the uterine endometrium obtained from Meishan and Yorkshire gilts (n = 4 for each breed) on day 12 of gestation (M12 and Y12, respectively). Total of 17,076 probesets were identified as "present" in at least two arrays. A mixed model-based statistical analysis predicted a total of 2,656 (q establishment in the pig. The results identified endometrial gene expression profiles of two breeds differing in litter size and identified candidate genes that are related to known physiological pathways related to reproductive prolificacy. These findings provide a deeper understanding of molecular pathways differing between two breeds at the critical peri-implantation stage of pregnancy, which can be utilized to better understand the events contributing to pregnancy establishment in the pig.

  16. Genetic correlations between male reproductive traits and growth traits in growth performance tested Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breed boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Luan; Lai, Yung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Che; Sasaki, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    Male-related traits at 180-225 days of age for 6464 grow-finish performance tested boars were measured from 2000 to 2016. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations among average daily gain, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, teat counts, mounting libido, leg locomotion, penile length, sperm motility, sperm concentration and total sperm counts were estimated by VCE software using a multiple traits animal model in each breed. Growth-tested boars had heritability estimates of male reproductive traits in 0.34-0.56 of teat counts, 0.12-0.20 of libido, 0.08-0.12 of locomotion, 0.17-0.58 of penile length, 0.04-0.21 of sperm motility and concentration, 0.17-0.30 of total sperm counts. Total sperm counts were genetically positively correlated with penile length in all breeds. Boars with higher total sperm counts had genetically better libido and locomotion. Genetic correlation between feed efficiency and sperm motility and feed efficiency and sperm concentration were positive in Duroc and negative in Landrace and Yorkshire. Sperm motility and concentration were genetically negatively correlated with average daily gain in Yorkshire. Male reproductive traits of imported breeds could be improved with care in the change of growth traits, especially in Yorkshire. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Radiotherapy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, S.

    1993-01-01

    What is wrong with radiation treatment in the UK? Is it bad practice or merely bad publicity? Between 1982 and 1991, 1,000 patients receiving isocentric radiation therapy at the North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary received a substantial underdose of radiation; the clinical report on this incident was published last week. The operator had been using a correction factor for tumor-to-skin distance, unaware that this factor had already been applied by the computer system. Although the report pointed out that it is not surprising that the clinicians were not alerted to the undertreatment, is also noted that there were no resources at the hospital to audit the outcome of radiotherapy

  18. Glacial Chronology over the Past 450 kyr Around the Margins of the Southern North Sea (UK and Netherlands) From Quartz Luminescence Dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawley, S.M.; Rose, J.; Bailey, R.M.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; van Dijk, T.A.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Busschers, F.; Davies, B.; Roberts, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial glacigenic deposits containing evidence for the repeated growth of former ice sheets are distributed widely in North America and continental Europe. The chronology of the younger component of these deposits during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is relatively well established, but

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    Full Text Available Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity. We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for

  1. Outbreak of syphilis in men who have sex with men living in rural North Wales (UK) associated with the use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel Rh; Williams, Christopher J; Andrady, Ushan; Anderson, Valerie; Humphreys, Sioned; Midgley, Claire M; Fina, Laia; Craine, Noel; Porter-Jones, Gary; Wilde, Alison; Whiteside, Chris

    2016-08-01

    To describe an outbreak of infectious syphilis in rural North Wales and the control measures implemented. Following reports of an increase of syphilis in North Wales, a multidisciplinary Outbreak Control Team (OCT) was established. A multilevel prevention and control response was initiated, including: active case surveillance, partner notification and treatment, sexual network analysis, awareness raising with professionals and affected communities, point-of-care syphilis testing at a sauna and a health promotion campaign targeting users of men who have sex with men (MSM) social network mobile phone applications (apps). Four cases of infectious syphilis were diagnosed in clinics in North Wales per 100 000 population in 2013 compared with a mean of one case per 100 000 in the preceding decade. Diagnosed cases peaked in January 2014, declining in the first half of 2014. Initial cases were clustered in the westerly rural counties of North Wales and were predominantly white men, self-reporting as MSM (median age: 34 years, range: 17-61). Point-of-care testing at a sauna did not identity further new infections, suggesting that the cluster was relatively focused and had probably been detected early. The use of apps to find sexual partners was a feature of the network affected. A health promotion campaign, initiated by the OCT, targeting men using MSM apps reached 92% of the 755 men messaged. The outbreak was successfully controlled. However, it is difficult to determine which of the interventions implemented were most effective. Future outbreaks should be used as an opportunity to evaluate interventions using apps. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Leadership skills teaching in Yorkshire & the Humber - a survey: uncovering, sharing, developing, embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Iolanthe; Gill, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Medical leadership is a hot topic, but it is not known yet how to teach this most effectively. A working party of educators in Yorkshire and the Humber (Y&H) studied the leadership domains, as set out in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework and from this distilled a set of 'trainable' leadership skills, which were felt to be important to teach during general practitioner (GP) training. A questionnaire was sent out to a large GP educational community (educators and trainees) within Y&H to establish the following: (i) whether the distilled skills were thought to have face validity when applied to the concept of leadership, (ii) what was the relative importance of these skills in relation to each other and (iii) the degree to which these skills were already being taught in practice placements and at General Practice Specialty Training Programme (GPSTP) teaching sessions.Educators reported more teaching and training occurring than trainees reported receiving, and the relative importance of the skills sets were different between educators and trainees. It was evident that leadership skills are currently being taught, but that making training explicitly 'leadership', and raising the importance of leadership skills in GP, may address some of these imbalances. Educators requested guidance on how to teach these skills effectively and commented that many existing opportunities for leadership teaching and training are not well recognised or used. Routinely and regularly offering the chance for trainees at all levels to be exposed to leadership skills by role modelling, making use of everyday opportunities in practice to teach and encouraging trainee involvement in projects and opportunities to practice new skills can facilitate the acquisition and celebration of mastery of generic leadership skills.

  3. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Griebel

    Full Text Available Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion.

  4. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  5. Across rather than between river genetic structure in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in north-east Scotland, UK: potential causes and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwelier, E; Stewart, D C; Millar, C P; Gilbey, J; Middlemas, S J

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the genetic structuring, based on c. 4300 single nucleotide polymorphic markers, of juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar sampled from 11 rivers in north-east Scotland, which form part of a radial drainage system. Within this area, sites in the upper mountainous and lower coastal sections of the different rivers were more closely related than sites from the upper and lower sections of the same river. Differentiation between fish from upper and lower sections was related to both distance from the sea and elevation, which were themselves correlated. The occurrence of such cross-river genetic grouping appears to be the result of both similar selective pressures resulting in homologous adaptive differences within each river and also recent common ancestry between rivers. Examination of historical tagging information showed high rates (27·4%) of between-river straying in this region that may help to maintain the across rather than between-river structure. The existence of cross-river groupings highlights the complex structuring of S. salar populations and may confound genetic identification of single-river stocks. Furthermore, the results presented show that cross-river structuring should also be an important consideration in managing S. salar stocks. © 2018 Crown Copyright. Journal of Fish Biology © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Sensory and consumer evaluation of pork loins from crossbreeds between Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, Iberian and Mangalitza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida Krestine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Iberian (I) and Mangalitza (M) boars were crossed with Duroc (D) and Landrace/Yorkshire (LY) sows and compared with the traditional crossbreed DLY. The sensory attributes were analysed, and consumers evaluated the fried loins. Gas chromatography (GC) aroma analysis was performed on the fried meat...... composition and sensory attributes. In conclusion, by crossing the alternative breeds Iberian and Mangalitza with traditional Danish pig breeds it is possible to produce pork with attractive sensory attributes.......Iberian (I) and Mangalitza (M) boars were crossed with Duroc (D) and Landrace/Yorkshire (LY) sows and compared with the traditional crossbreed DLY. The sensory attributes were analysed, and consumers evaluated the fried loins. Gas chromatography (GC) aroma analysis was performed on the fried meat......, and fatty acid composition was determined on the loin and the subcutaneous fat, respectively. No marked differences were found in odour, appearance or flavour/taste between the alternative crossbreeds and DLY; however, the alternative crossbreeds had improved textural properties. Consumer evaluation...

  7. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8 month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  8. Children and young people with diabetes in Yorkshire: a population-based clinical audit of patient data 2005/2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, P A; Feltbower, R G; Stephenson, C R; Reynolds, C

    2008-11-01

    To provide a population-based clinical audit of children and young people with diabetes, reporting outcomes, including glycaemic control, for named individual units. Clinical audit data on care processes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) were collected for 1742 children and young people treated in 16 paediatric units in Yorkshire, from January 2005 to March 2006. The Yorkshire Register of Diabetes in Children and Young People provided information technology support and validation that enhanced data quality. Multi-level linear regression modelling investigated factors affecting glycaemic control. An HbA(1c) measure was recorded for 91.6% of patients. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence-recommended target level for HbA(1c) of audit of children with diabetes is the product of an effective collaboration between those who deliver care and health services researchers. High levels of recording the key care process measuring diabetes control, compared with national figures, suggests collaboration has translated into improved services. The interesting association between poor diabetes control and higher deprivation is noteworthy and requires further investigation. Future audits require recording of clinical management and clinic structures, in addition to resources to record, assemble and analyse data.

  9. The North Wyke Farm Platform, a UK national capability for research into sustainability of temperate agricultural grassland management: progress and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Dungait, Jennifer; Griffith, Bruce; Shepherd, Anita; Sint, Hadewij; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Goulding, Keith; Lee, Michael; Orr, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) at Rothamsted Research in the South-West of England, is a large, farm-scale experiment for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences; with the aim of addressing agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. The 63 ha NWFP site, captures the spatial and/or temporal data necessary to develop a better understanding of the dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms that can be used to model how agricultural grassland systems respond to different management inputs. Here, via beef and sheep production, the underlying principle is to manage each of three farmlets (each consisting of five man-made, hydrologically-isolated sub-catchments) in three contrasting ways: (i) improvement through use of mineral fertilizers; (ii) improvement through use of legumes; and (iii) improvement through innovation. The connectivity between the timing and intensity of the different management operations, together with the transport of nutrients and potential pollutants from the NWFP is evaluated using various data collection and data modelling exercises. The primary data collection strategy involves the use of a ground-based, wireless sensor network, where in each of the fifteen sub-catchments, water characteristics such as flow, turbidity and chemistry are measured at a flume laboratory that captures the sub-catchment's water drainage (via a system of directed French drains). This sensor network also captures: precipitation, soil moisture and soil temperature data for each sub-catchment; greenhouse gas data across key subsets of the fifteen sub-catchments; and meteorological data (other than precipitation) at a single site only (representative of the NWFP site, as a whole). Such high temporal resolution data sets (but with limited spatial resolution) are coupled with a secondary data collection strategy, for high spatial resolution data sets (but with limited temporal

  10. Directional preference of European lobster (Homarus gammarus movements on the Yorkshire Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Wood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recaptures of 838 tagged Homarus gammarus individuals identified a directional preference, with bearings from release to recapture concentrated along a North-West to South-East axis, aligning with the predominant current direction for the study site.

  11. Doença renal medular cística em uma cadela Yorkshire Terrier: relato de caso Cystic medullary renal disease in a Yorkshire Terrier bitch: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela da raça Yorkshire Terrier apresentou hematêmese, distensão abdominal, poliúria e polidipsia. Após o exame clínico do paciente, estabeleceu-se a suspeita clínica de nefropatia. Os resultados dos exames laboratoriais revelaram anemia normocítica normocrômica e concentrações séricas de uréia (306mg/dl e de creatinina (3,6mg/dl acima dos valores de referência. Ao ultra-som bidimensional observaram-se áreas císticas hipoecóicas e anecóicas, padrão renal hipercogênico e perda da relação corticomedular. À necropsia, a região medular apresentou grande quantidade de cistos pequenos em meio a tecido conjuntivo fibroso. A lesão tubulointersticial cortical foi a responsável pela insuficiência renal resultante. Firmou-se diagnóstico de nefrite tubulointersticial.A Yorkshire Terrier bitch presented hematemesis, abdominal distention, poliuria, and polidipsia. After clinical examination, it was established a clinical suspect of nephropathy. The complementary exams showed normochromic and normocytic anemia and serum concentrations of ureia (306mg/dl and creatinine (3.6mg/dl above the references values. At two-dimensional ultrasound hipoechoic and anechoic cystic areas were observed, as well as hiperechogenic renal pattern and corticomedullary ratio loss. At necropsy, the medullary region presented many small cysts in a fibrous connective tissue. Cortical tubulointesticial lesion was responsible to the resulting renal failure. It was established a tubulointersticial nephritis diagnosis.

  12. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  13. Surveying the Structures for Interagency Work in Education, Training & Guidance for Offenders and Ex-Offenders in the Yorkshire & Humberside Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Pauline

    A study examined the current policies, practices, and perceived unmet needs of selected organizations involved in employment, training, and education (ETE) for offenders and exoffenders in the Yorkshire and Humberside region of the United Kingdom. Representatives of 63 of the more than 100 probation services, further education (FE) colleges,…

  14. Barriers to education of overseas doctors in paediatrics: a qualitative study in South Yorkshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, J; Stark, P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors that may influence the progress of doctors who come from the Indian subcontinent to train in paediatrics in the UK. Methods Overseas doctors training in paediatrics in Rotherham, Sheffield and Doncaster participated in the study. Focus groups were used to collect data; two focus groups, each with 4–5 participants, were conducted at 6‐week intervals. Semistructured, one‐to‐one interviews were conducted to add more understanding and depth to issues highlighted in the focus groups. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped; the tapes were transcribed and data were analysed using the Grounded Theory; open codes were formed and concepts identified using microanalysis, and initial theories were built. Results Lack of information about the National Health Service (NHS)/Royal Colleges, inappropriate communication skills, difficulties in team working, difficulties in preparing for Royal College examinations, visa and job hunting, and social and cultural isolation were identified as major barriers. Problems arose not only from difficulties with language but also from use of local and colloquial words, different accents and difficulty in communicating sensitive issues. Lack of understanding of role in teams and difficulties in working in multiprofessional setting all contributed to the problems. Cultural differences inside and outside the workplace, and social isolation were also highlighted. Induction programmes, mentoring, awareness of the issues within the teams, and courses in communication specifically directed at overseas doctors were identified as means to overcome these barriers. Conclusions Several intercultural factors were identified that could act as barriers to the progress of overseas doctors training in paediatrics in the UK. Increased awareness of these factors within the teams would be the first step in resolving some of the issues. PMID:16935914

  15. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  16. Migration and adult education: social movement learning and resistance in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grayson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on data and evidence from a project of ‘activist research’ in migrant and refugee social movements in South Yorkshire U.K. The article argues that migrants’ social movements have been neglected as important in the development of popular adult education in the U.K. The history of migrants’ social movements from 1945 is sketched to demonstrate social movement influences on the content and ideological assumptions of state provision of adult education. The history also suggests a similar trajectory to ‘old’ contentious social movements like trades unions. The current research in migrants and asylum rights movements reported in the article suggests that migrants social movements are active and proficient in developing popular adult education initiatives including critical analysis of racist political and power discourses. The importance of these movements is demonstrated in a case study of a high profile campaign against the privatisation of asylum housing in Yorkshire by the world’s largest security company G4S.

  17. Morphology and morphometry of the foramen magnum in Toy Poodle and Yorkshire terrier dogs Morfologia e morfometria do forame magno em cães das raças Poodle Toy e Yorkshire terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Outi Baroni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The occipital dysplasia has been characterized by a dorsal enlargement of the foramen magnum which can vary in size and shape. Clinical signs may be present or not in animals with occipital dysplasia. The purpose of this study was to radiographically analyze the morphology and morphometry of the foramen magnum of thirty healthy dogs. This study chose to use fifteen Yorkshire terrier dogs and fifteen Toy Poodle dogs in order to characterize the radiographic aspects of the foramen magnum and contribute to the diagnosis and critical analysis of the occipital dysplasia importance. According to the foramen magnum morphology and tracings, it was possible to classify the radiographic aspects into different shapes varing from oval and quadrangular. Out of 26 (86.7% animals had a dorsal enlargement and 4 (13.3% showed normal foramen magnum. Animals without any clinical signs that are radiographically classified as dysplastic dogs may simply represent an anatomic variation of the foramen magnum.A displasia do occipital é o alargamento dorsal do forame magno, o qual pode variar a sua forma e tamanho e os animais com esta alteração morfológica podem ou não apresentar manifestações clínicas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar radiograficamente a morfologia e a morfometria do forame magno de 30 cães assintomáticos das raças Poodle toy e Yorkshire terrier, sendo 15 de cada, a fim de se caracterizar os aspectos radiográficos do forame magno e contribuir para o diagnóstico e análise crítica da relevância da displasia do occipital. O forame magno apresentou aspectos que variaram de oval a quadrangular. A presença do alargamento dorsal ocorreu em 26 (86,7% animais e a ausência em apenas quatro (13,3%. Animais sem manifestações clínicas, que apresentam graus variados de alargamento dorsal e são classificados radiograficamente como displásicos, podem apenas representar variações anatômicas do forame magno.

  18. THE EFFICACY OF MOTORCYCLE TRAINING TO REDUCE SELF-REPORTED NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE (CASE STUDY IN UK AND INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winna Justiana Sirait

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users because of their particular combination of physical vulnerability. Motorcyclists’ training and licensing system have already implemented in so many countries in the world particularly developed countries. In the other hand, there are countries, particularly developing countries, where motorcyclists are less regulated in term of licensing, enforcement, and insurance. Therefore the objective of this research are to analyses the behavior and attitude of motorcyclists in Yorkshire and Humber Region (UK and Jakarta (Indonesia, and to analyses the efficacy of motorcycle training in UK to influence the self-reported negative behavior and attitude of motorcyclists. Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ and Motorcyclists Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ are used to conduct this study. The Mann Whitney test is used to evaluate the significance different of the mean score, which obtained from the survey in each country (UK and Indonesia. Mean score computation showed that Yorkshire and Humber Region’s respondents have better mean score than Jakarta’s respondents. However Mann Whitney test showed that the mean score different is not significant for speed violation factor in MRBQ and drink driving and speeding factor in MAQ. Keywords: motorcyclist, motorcycle training, Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ, Motorcyclist Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ.

  19. Number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the number of ovulations in culled Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) crossbred gilts in the tropics associated with age, body weight and growth rate. The genital organs from 316 gilts were examined for gross abnormalities, and those with normal cyclic ovaries (n=155, 307 ± 4.1 days of age, 148 ± 1.6 kg body weight) were included in the analyses. Number of ovulations was defined by a count of the corpora lutea (CL) from both ovaries. On average, the number of ovulations in LY gilts was 15.9 ± 0.3 (range 4 to 27). The number of ovulations correlated with the body weight (r=0.31, Pgilts, but not with their age (P>0.05). Gilts with a body weight of 141 to 150 kg (17.0 CL, n=31) ovulated more than those with a body weight ≤130 kg (14.1 CL, P=0.014, n=23). In conclusion, both the body weight and growth rate of the gilts were significantly correlated with the number of ovulations. The maximum number of ovulations was found in gilts at a body weight of above 141 kg.

  20. Composition and cross-sectional area of muscle fibre types in relation to daily gain and lean and fat content of carcass in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle fibre-type properties of longissimus were compared between Landrace and Yorkshire breeds and between the sexes in an attempt to shed light on the relationship of these histochemical parameters to animal growth and carcass composition. Muscle fibres were classified into three groups, type I, type IIA and type IIB, using the myosin ATPase method. At a given live weight, the cross-sectional area of type I fibres (CSA I was smaller (p

  1. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  2. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  3. The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babol, J; Zamaratskaia, G; Juneja, R K; Lundström, K

    2004-06-01

    High skatole and to a lesser degree indole levels in some entire male pigs result in occurrence of off-flavor in meat, called boar taint. In this study, plasma samples from 117 Yorkshire, 134 Landrace, 184 Hampshire and 75 Duroc entire male pigs collected at different ages were analyzed for skatole and slightly fewer samples for indole concentrations. For each breed, a distinct age-related distribution of plasma skatole levels was observed. Skatole levels were increased at approximately 180-200 days of age, reaching very high levels is some individuals. Afterwards, the levels decreased; in Yorkshire and Landrace at approximately 240-260 and in Hampshire and Duroc at 310-360 days of age. The decrease of skatole levels was also observed in samples collected from 15 Landrace boars at two different ages: 16.8 μg/L (SD=17.36) vs. 5.9 μg/L (SD=3.48, p=0.016) in samples taken at the mean age of 210 and 314 days, respectively. Indole levels showed similar age- and breed-related variations to skatole. At the time of increased skatole concentrations (age from 180 to 360 days, depending on breed) 25.5% of Yorkshire, 31.6% of Landrace, 20.3% of Hampshire and 61.1% of Duroc entire male pigs had skatole levels above 12.6 μg/L of plasma, which corresponds to the threshold level of 0.20 μg/g of fat that is used for selecting tainted carcasses. The results indicate that increased levels of skatole in entire male pigs are related to puberty and taking skatole measurements at that age could be advantageous when considering genetic selection to reduce boar taint level in entire male pigs. Breed differences should be also taken into account.

  4. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  5. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  6. Ethnic variation in the prevalence of visual impairment in people attending diabetic retinopathy screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    Full Text Available To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom.The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London or August 2009 (West Yorkshire were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks ("Black/African/Caribbean/Black British" and South Asians ("Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent". We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9 (b visual impairment (<6/12 and (c severe visual impairment (<6/60, standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population.Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331 individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI 3.2% to 3.5% and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%. Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%. Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire.Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.

  7. Ethnic Variation in the Prevalence of Visual Impairment in People Attending Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gulliford, Martin C.; Dodhia, Hiten; Mann, Samantha; Nagi, Dinesh; Evans, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). Methods The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks (“Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”) and South Asians (“Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent”). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9) (b) visual impairment (<6/12) and (c) severe visual impairment (<6/60), standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. Results Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. Conclusions Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in

  8. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  9. Storing CO2 under the North Sea Basin - A key solution for combating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, T; Morris, B; Agerup, M; Svenningsen, S Oe; Kropelien, K F; Solheim, M; Northmore, B; Dixon, T; O'Carroll, K; Greaves, A; Golder, J; Selmer-Olsen, S; Sjoeveit, A; Kaarstad, O; Riley, N; Wright, I; Mansfield, C

    2007-06-01

    This report represents the first deliverable of the North Sea Basin Task Force, which Norway and the UK established in November 2005 to work together on issues surrounding the transport and storage of CO 2 beneath the North Sea. The North Sea represents the best geological opportunity for storing our CO 2 emissions away from the atmosphere for both the UK and Norway

  10. Fossil resource trade balances. Emerging trends for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni; Jackson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which the UK can be classified as a net importer of fossil resources and a creator of pollution havens abroad between 1968 and 2000. Using input-output techniques and a derived Resource Flow Classification System, both the physical trade balance (PTB) and pollution trade balance (UTB) associated with fossil resource use are computed. The PTB shows that between 1968 and the early 1980's the UK is presented as a net importer of direct fossil resource flows. Between 1984 and 2000, the UK is identified as a net exporter of direct fossil resources. These trends are primarily explained by the UK's discovery and commercial production of North Sea oil and gas fields in the late 1970s. On the other hand, the UTB shows that over the whole period the indirect used flows attributable to the UK's exports are higher than those attributable to its imports. These findings suggest that the UK did not create pollution havens abroad from the use of fossil resources between 1968 and 2000. However, it is noticeable in both cases that from 1995 the UK's position as a net exporter has been decreasing considerably. Maturing North Sea oil and gas fields set against increasing demands for fossil fuels and imported goods is signalling a return to the UK's pre-1984 dependence on direct imported fossil resources and the possible creation of pollution havens abroad. Knowledge of these trends contributes to the evidence base for the UK's changing import and export structure and the potential environmental repercussions at home and abroad. (author)

  11. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  12. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  13. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  14. Southern gas boom takes UK spotlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-11

    To encourage new offshore development needed to fill a gas supply gap that will emerge in the 1990s, British Gas Corp. is offering higher prices for gas produced by both foreign and United Kingdom-based companies in the UK sector of the North Sea. A rundown of recent exploration and development shows that in just 1 year, companies have proposed nine new development projects, primarily in fields previously considered unprofitable. Operators are also reappraising other finds from the 1970s and embarking on a sizable wildcat program.

  15. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  16. Ethnic variations in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in people with diabetes attending screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    Full Text Available To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR in people of various ethnic groups with diabetes in the United Kingdom (UK.The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London or August 2009 (West Yorkshire were included in the study. Data included age, sex, ethnic group, type of diabetes, presenting visual acuity and the results of grading of diabetic retinopathy. Prevalence estimates for the ethnic groups were age-standardised to the white European population for comparison purposes.Out of 57,144 people on the two diabetic registers, data were available on 50,285 individuals (88.0%, of these 3,323 had type 1 and 46,962 had type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of any DR was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI 37.4% to 38.5% in white Europeans compared to 52.4% (51.2% to 53.6% in African/Afro-Caribbeans and 42.3% (40.3% to 44.2% in South Asians. Similarly, sight threatening DR was also significantly more prevalent in Afro-Caribbeans (11.5%, 95% CI 10.7% to 12.3% and South Asians (10.3%, 9.0% to 11.5% compared to white Europeans (5.5%, 5.3% to 5.8%. Differences observed in Type 1 diabetes did not achieve conventional levels of statistical significance, but there were lower numbers for these analyses.Minority ethnic communities with type 2 diabetes in the UK are more prone to diabetic retinopathy, including sight-threatening retinopathy and maculopathy compared to white Europeans.

  17. Comparison of Growth Performance of Antibiotic-free Yorkshire Crossbreds Sired by Berkshire, Large Black, and Tamworth Breeds Raised in Hoop Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Whitley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare body weight, ADG, and feed:gain ratio of antibiotic-free pigs from Yorkshire dams and sired by Yorkshire (YY, Berkshire (BY, Large Black (LBY or Tamworth (TY boars. All the crossbred pigs in each of three trials were raised as one group from weaning to finishing in the same deep-bedded hoop, providing a comfortable environment for the animals which allowed rooting and other natural behaviors. Birth, weaning and litter weights were measured and recorded. From approximately 50 kg to market weight (125 kg, feed intake and body weights were recorded manually (body weight or using a FIRE (Feed Intake Recording Equipment, Osborne Industries Inc. Osborne, Kansas system with eight individual feeding stations. Feed intake data for 106 finishing pigs between 140 and 210 d of age and the resulting weights and feed conversion ratios were analyzed by breed type. Least square means for body weights (birth, weaning and to 240 d were estimated with Proc Mixed in SAS 9.2 for fixed effects such as crossbreed and days of age within the sire breed. The differences within fixed effects were compared using least significant differences with DIFF option. Individual birth weights and weaning weights were influenced by sire breed (p<0.05. For birth weight, BY pigs were the lightest, TY and YY pigs were the heaviest but similar to each other and LBY pigs were intermediate. For weaning weights, BY and LBY pigs were heavier than TY and YY pigs. However, litter birth and weaning weights were not influenced by sire breed, and average daily gain was also not significantly different among breed types. Tamworth sired pigs had lower overall body weight gain, and feed conversion was lower in TY and YY groups than BY and LBY groups (p<0.05, however, number of observations was somewhat limited for feed conversion and for Tamworth pigs. Overall, no convincing differences among breed types were noted for this study, but growth performance in

  18. North Sea trends typify industry's worldwide adjustment to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicandros, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    In response to rapid industry changes, oil companies are employing new practices and entering new relationships. In the U.K. North Sea's Britannia field, Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. and Chevron (U.K.) Ltd. share duties of field operator in the region's first such business arrangement. Here, the Neddrill 6 semisubmersible drills a Britannia appraisal well. This report tells how companies are using teamwork and other techniques to derive maximum value from their assets and technologies

  19. A Point of View on the UK Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoeur, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union at a crucial moment for the Energy Union, and in a period when the necessity of leading a coherent energy transition is strongly shared by EU countries. In the light of this conjunction of events, this study analyses the determining factors of the UK energy policy. The industrial revolution started in England, a country endowed with abundant coal supplies but also with robust policies and the right technical, economic and social conditions for making the most out of these natural resources. Likewise, the UK developed effective domestic and foreign policies in the first half of the 20. century and successfully managed the second industrial revolution, which was based on the use of oil and electricity. The UK energy system has gone through significant changes over the past forty years, with the gradual phase out of coal, the development of oil and gas production in the North Sea, the transformation of the electricity system, the re-building of a credible nuclear strategy and the rise of a low-carbon economy. These changes have been implemented at a reasonable cost, at least compared to the cost incurred by the other EU energy systems. The consistency and stability of the UK energy policies are striking, and one must admit that they are driven by a great sense of pragmatism. They are developed through trial and error and their results are openly debated and confronted to the three objectives of having secure, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. There is no doubt about who is the main beneficiary from these policies: it should always be the UK national community. Its interests are well-defended, government after government, and this national focus is probably the main reason why the UK energy policy appears to be very consistent. The EU has often tried to replicate the UK initiatives in the field of energy, but probably without taking proper account of the specificities of the UK context

  20. Yorkshire's influence on the understanding and treatment of mental diseases in Victorian Britain: The golden triad of York, Wakefield, and Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Henry R; Reynolds, Edward H

    2018-01-01

    In the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a more humane approach to the care of the insane in Britain was catalyzed in part by the illness of King George III. The Reform Movement envisaged "moral" treatment in asylums in pleasant rural environments, but these aspirations were overwhelmed by industrialization, urbanization, and the scale of the need, such that most asylums became gigantic institutions for chronic insanity. Three institutions in Yorkshire remained beacons of enlightenment in the general gloom of Victorian alienism: the Retreat in York founded and developed by the Quaker Tuke family; the West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield led by Sir James Crichton-Browne, which initiated research into brain and mental diseases; and the Leeds Medical School and Wakefield axis associated with Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt, which pioneered teaching of mental diseases and, later, the first Chair of Psychiatry. Three other Yorkshiremen who greatly influenced nineteenth-century "neuropsychiatry" in Britain and abroad were Thomas Laycock in York and Edinburgh, and Henry Maudsley and John Hughlings Jackson in London.

  1. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  2. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  3. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Williams, Julianne; Rayner, Mike; Townsend, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a significant burden to the UK. This review presents data from nationally representative datasets to provide up-to-date statistics on mortality, prevalence, treatment and costs. Data focus on CVD as a whole, coronary heart disease (International Classification of Diseases (ICD):I20–25) and cerebrovascular disease (ICD:I60–69); however, where available, other cardiovascular conditions are also presented. In 2012, CVD was the most common cause of death in the UK for women (28% of all female deaths), but not for men, where cancer is now the most common cause of death (32% of all male deaths). Mortality from CVD varies widely throughout the UK, with the highest age-standardised CVD death rates in Scotland (347/100 000) and the North of England (320/100 000 in the North West). Prevalence of coronary heart disease is also highest in the North of England (4.5% in the North East) and Scotland (4.3%). Overall, around three times as many men have had a myocardial infarction compared with women. Treatment for CVD is increasing over time, with prescriptions and operations for CVD having substantially increased over the last two decades. The National Health Service in England spent around £6.8 billion on CVD in 2012/2013, the majority of which came from spending on secondary care. Despite significant declines in mortality in the UK, CVD remains a considerable burden, both in terms of health and costs. Both primary and secondary prevention measures are necessary to reduce both the burden of CVD and inequalities in CVD mortality and prevalence. PMID:26041770

  4. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97 th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  5. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  6. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  7. UK Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the UK Met Office. Includes five Marine and one upper air manual, dated from 1953-1981.

  8. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  9. Feasibility test of a UK-scalable electronic system for regular collection of patient-reported outcome measures and linkage with clinical cancer registry data: The electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikova Galina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer survivors can face significant physical and psychosocial challenges; there is a need to identify and predict which survivors experience what sorts of difficulties. As highlighted in the UK National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, routine post-diagnostic collection of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs is required; to be most informative, PROMs must be linked and analysed with patients' diagnostic and treatment information. We have designed and built a potentially cost-efficient UK-scalable electronic system for collecting PROMs via the internet, at regular post-diagnostic time-points, for linking these data with patients' clinical data in cancer registries, and for electronically managing the associated patient monitoring and communications; the electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS system. This study aims to test the feasibility of the ePOCS system, by running it for 2 years in two Yorkshire NHS Trusts, and using the Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service. Methods/Design Non-metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patients (largest survivor groups, within 6 months post-diagnosis, will be recruited from hospitals in the Yorkshire Cancer Network. Participants will be asked to complete PROMS, assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life outcomes, at three time-points up to 15 months post-diagnosis, and subsequently to provide opinion on the ePOCS system via a feedback questionnaire. Feasibility will be examined primarily in terms of patient recruitment and retention rates, the representativeness of participating patients, the quantity and quality of collected PROMs data, patients' feedback, the success and reliability of the underpinning informatics, and the system running costs. If sufficient data are generated during system testing, these will be analysed to assess the health-related quality-of-life outcomes reported by patients, and to explore

  10. Feasibility test of a UK-scalable electronic system for regular collection of patient-reported outcome measures and linkage with clinical cancer registry data: the electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Jones, Helen; Forman, David; Newsham, Alex; Brown, Julia; Downing, Amy; Velikova, Galina; Wright, Penny

    2011-10-26

    Cancer survivors can face significant physical and psychosocial challenges; there is a need to identify and predict which survivors experience what sorts of difficulties. As highlighted in the UK National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, routine post-diagnostic collection of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) is required; to be most informative, PROMs must be linked and analysed with patients' diagnostic and treatment information. We have designed and built a potentially cost-efficient UK-scalable electronic system for collecting PROMs via the internet, at regular post-diagnostic time-points, for linking these data with patients' clinical data in cancer registries, and for electronically managing the associated patient monitoring and communications; the electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors (ePOCS) system. This study aims to test the feasibility of the ePOCS system, by running it for 2 years in two Yorkshire NHS Trusts, and using the Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service. Non-metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patients (largest survivor groups), within 6 months post-diagnosis, will be recruited from hospitals in the Yorkshire Cancer Network. Participants will be asked to complete PROMS, assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life outcomes, at three time-points up to 15 months post-diagnosis, and subsequently to provide opinion on the ePOCS system via a feedback questionnaire. Feasibility will be examined primarily in terms of patient recruitment and retention rates, the representativeness of participating patients, the quantity and quality of collected PROMs data, patients' feedback, the success and reliability of the underpinning informatics, and the system running costs. If sufficient data are generated during system testing, these will be analysed to assess the health-related quality-of-life outcomes reported by patients, and to explore if and how they relate to disease, treatment and

  11. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfast food outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. B. Ngoc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR or brewer’s grain (BG as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF. A low-fibre diet (LF, containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM, was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05 and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05 and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05, and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05. LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05 and pH lowest (p<0.05 in MC pigs.

  13. Analysis of Depth of Ablation,Thermal Damage, Wound Healing, and Wound Contraction With Erbium YAG Laser in a Yorkshire Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Salman M S; Ross, E Victor; Smith, Wiley J; DeRienzo, Damian P

    2015-11-01

    The erbium YAG laser is commonly used for skin resurfacing. It is known that varying the pulse duration can influence residual thermal damage and wound healing. Our study used a porcine model to evaluate a broad range of settings in a comparison of depth of ablation, depth of residual thermal damage (RTD), and wound contraction employing both a full coverage and fractional hand piece with an erbium YAG laser. The laser delivered an ablative pulse followed by a heating pulse of variable duration using either the full coverage or fractional hand piece. Pulse durations for specific coagulation depths were selected based on existing heat transfer models. The bilateral flanks of a single Yorkshire pig were irradiated. There were 14 treatment groups. 3 sites were treated per group for a total of 42 sites. Two of the 3 sites were for observational assessments and the 3rd site served as a reservoir for biopsies. Biopsy specimens were collected on days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Bleeding, erythema, wound healing, and wound contraction (in the fractional hand piece groups) were assessed. Wound healing is faster for fractional laser skin resurfacing compared with traditional contiguous resurfacing as demonstrated by textural changes and degree of erythema. The laser operator can be confident that the depth of ablation displayed on this system accurately reflects what is occurring in vivo for both confluent and fractional modes. Likewise, the measured degree of coagulation was consistent with panel display settings for the confluent mode. However, the degree of coagulation, as measured by the thickness of residual thermal damage, did not vary significantly between the fractional groups. In other words, the pulse duration of the second (heating) pulse did not impact the degree of coagulation in the fractional mode. There was a 2.3% wound contraction between some groups and a 6.5% wound contraction between other groups. A two way analysis of variance found a statistically

  14. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  15. The pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the North Sea and its rivers; the uses of the North Sea (shipping; exploitation of oil and gas; fishing; recreation; land reclamation; industrial islands; waste dumping); the nature of the dumping problem (nuclear waste; organic chemicals; inorganic chemicals; oil; sewage; rubble and dredged spoils; ash); pollution legislation; Greenpeace activities in the North Sea (the nuclear campaigns (Windscale; Cap de la Hague; Atlantic waste dumping); the chemical campaigns); what is needed in the future; references; the Oslo Convention. (U.K.)

  16. The Global Economic Cost of Osteoarthritis: How the UK Compares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine all relevant literature on the economic costs of osteoarthritis in the UK, and to compare such costs globally. Methods. A search of MEDLINE was performed. The search was expanded beyond peer-reviewed journals into publications by the department of health, national orthopaedic associations, national authorities and registries, and arthritis charities. Results. No UK studies were identified in the literature search. 3 European, 6 North American, and 2 Asian studies were reviewed. Significant variation in direct and indirect costs were seen in these studies. Costs for topical and oral NSAIDs were estimated to be £19.2 million and £25.65 million, respectively. Cost of hip and knee replacements was estimated to exceed £850 million, arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis was estimated to be £1.34 million. Indirect costs from OA caused a loss of economic production over £3.2 billion, £43 million was spent on community services and £215 million on social services for osteoarthritis. Conclusions. While estimates of economic costs can be made using information from non-published data, there remains a lack of original research looking at the direct or indirect costs of osteoarthritis in the UK. Differing methodology in calculating costs from overseas studies makes direct comparison with the UK difficult.

  17. Regional inequality in radiology research output in the UK: a 5-year bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, P; Johnson, C A; Rehman, J M; Toms, A P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the patterns of peer-reviewed general radiology publication rates with reference to deaneries in the UK. This was a retrospective bibliometric analysis of publications in the six highest cited general radiology journals. Publications were identified using a manual search in PubMed between 2005 and 2009. Publications originating from UK radiology departments were identified and subcategorised into primary institution of origin, deanery and publication type. The total number of radiology trainees in each deanery was obtained from the General Medical Council. 913 publications were included in the study. Original papers constituted 48.7% (n=445), review articles 30.3% (n=277) and case reports 17.4% (n=159). The median number of publications in each deanery was 27 [interquartile range (IQR) 11-60], and the median number of publications per trainee was 0.49 (IQR 0.31-0.88). The largest proportion of publications came from the London deanery (n=354, 38.8%), followed by Eastern 86 (9.4%), Oxford and Yorkshire 70 (7.7% each). Relative to the number of trainees within each deanery, Oxford had the highest number of publications per trainee (1.78), followed by East Midlands (1.5), London (1.25) and Eastern (0.99). There was a significantly higher publication rate for those deaneries with academic radiologists (paccounting for differences in the number of trainees. This probably means that opportunities for training in research are similarly non-uniform.

  18. Diabetes services in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, I. G.; Swift, P. G F; Skinner, T. C.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the current level of diabetes services and to compare the results with previous national surveys. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all paediatricians in the UK identified as providing care for children with diabetes aged under 16 years. Information was sought on staffing,...

  19. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  20. The UK free paper battlefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.

    2009-01-01

    Launched in 1999 to keep the Swedes out, Metro has since spread across the UK. Its success has led to the mixed free/paid model adopted by some papers, to other publishers piling in to get a slice of the freesheet action and to the current melee in London. How will it all end? Piet Bakker looks back

  1. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  2. Assessing the Effectiveness of Relocation Support. Some Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Adrian R.; Saunders, Mark N. K.

    1998-01-01

    Review of research on employee relocation in the United Kingdom and North America identified barriers to relocation and types of personal and financial support provided by organizations. Force-field analysis assessed the relationship between barriers and organizational interventions, particularly in UK local government agencies. (SK)

  3. The UK National Arts Education Archive: Ideas and Imaginings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeff; Bailey, Rowan; Walton, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The National Arts Education Archive (NAEA) is housed and maintained by the Yorkshire Sculpture Park (YSP), and managed by YSP coordinators and educators with a well-established volunteer programme. This year, 2017, as part of the celebrations of the YSP's 40th anniversary, the Archive will hold its own exhibition entitled "Treasures…

  4. Radioactive inputs to the North Sea and the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (radioactivity; radioisotopes; discharges from nuclear establishments); data sources (statutory requirements); sources of liquid radioactive waste (figure showing location of principal sources of radioactive discharges; tables listing principal discharges by activity and by nature of radioisotope); Central Electricity Generating Board nuclear power stations; research and industrial establishments; Ministy of Defence establishments; other UK inputs of radioactive waste; total inputs to the North Sea and the Channel (direct inputs; river inputs; adjacent sea areas); conclusions. (U.K.)

  5. Pneumococcal resistance in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E; Murphy, P G

    1997-12-01

    The first case reports of infection with penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP, MIC > 0.1 mg/L) and multidrug-resistant pneumococci were made in Australia in 1967 and South Africa in 1977, respectively. Since this time these organisms have spread to become a worldwide problem. In Europe PRP prevalence rates of up to 40% have been reported from Spain and 58% from Hungary, although there has been considerable national, regional and local variation in these figures. Until recently the UK was considered to have low prevalence of PRP. As recently as 1990, 100% of 7255 strains of pneumococci from 61 centres across the UK were found to be penicillin sensitive. However, there have now been several reports of significant and rising levels of resistance nationwide. Erythromycin resistance has also risen from 2.8% to 8.6% between 1990 and 1995 in England and Wales. At the Northern Ireland Public Health Laboratory (NIPHL) 3171 strains of pneumococci were examined using the oxacillin screening test between 1988 and 1995, during which time the annual rate of penicillin resistance was found to increase from 1 mg/L) increased from 0% to 36% and levels of PRP cross-resistance to cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin were 89% and 78%, respectively, which are amongst the highest in the UK. Similar rates of penicillin resistance have now been reported from several geographically disparate regions in the UK including Liverpool, Manchester and London. The number of laboratories in England and Wales reporting the isolation of PRPs to the Central Public Health Laboratory increased from 23 (3%) in 1987 to 72 (21%) in 1991 and a recent study from this reference laboratory showed that the prevalence of pneumococcal resistance to penicillin had increased 2.5-fold between 1990 and 1995. Clearly both PRP and multidrug-resistant pneumococci are increasing in prevalence in the UK, and this increase is likely to continue. A recent model of the evolution of national PRP prevalence rates describes a slow

  6. Infectivity and sporulation potential of Phytophthora kernoviae to select North American native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. J. Fichtner; D. M. Rizzo; S. A. Kirk; J. F. Webber

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora kernoviae exhibits comparable epidemiology to Phytophthora ramorum in invaded UK woodlands. Because both pathogens have an overlapping geographic range in the UK and often concurrently invade the same site, it is speculated that P. kernoviae may also invade North American (NA) forests...

  7. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  8. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  9. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  10. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  11. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  12. Long-range forecasts of UK winter hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C.; Brookshaw, A.; Scaife, A. A.; Bell, V. A.; Mackay, J. D.; Jackson, C. R.; Hannaford, J.; Davies, H. N.; Arribas, A.; Stanley, S.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal river flow forecasts are beneficial for planning agricultural activities, river navigation, and for management of reservoirs for public water supply and hydropower generation. In the United Kingdom (UK), skilful seasonal river flow predictions have previously been limited to catchments in lowland (southern and eastern) regions. Here we show that skilful long-range forecasts of winter flows can now be achieved across the whole of the UK. This is due to a remarkable geographical complementarity between the regional geological and meteorological sources of predictability for river flows. Forecast skill derives from the hydrogeological memory of antecedent conditions in southern and eastern parts of the UK and from meteorological predictability in northern and western areas. Specifically, it is the predictions of the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic that provides the skill at the seasonal timescale. In addition, significant levels of skill in predicting the frequency of winter high flow events is demonstrated, which has the potential to allow flood adaptation measures to be put in place.

  13. INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS CONTRIBUTION TO BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE UK HEIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Uyi OMORUYI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International students’ contribution to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs tends to be considered from different aspects. There is an inadequate substantiation base that would allow academics, researchers and other stakeholders understand the importance of overseas students in the UK Business Schools. This paper investigates the contribution of international students to Business School in the UK HEIs. The research was exploratory and part of a bigger project on how and why Business Schools in the UK use Relationship Marketing to retain international students. It employed semi-structured interviews with 18 members of staff from four Business Schools in the North of England. Findings indicate that international students’ definition tends to differ amongst staff members within the Business Schools. Business Schools’ management perceive overseas students as an integral part of their institutions, especially as their overall contributions cannot be over-emphasised. The sample size and use of semi-structured interviews, as a single data gathering strategy, does not allow broad generalisation of findings. The obtained evidence can still be used as a platform for further research in this area.

  14. A tax reprieve for the North Sea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.

    1998-01-01

    The United Kingdom government has for the time being put to one side its intended review of the fiscal regime in the North Sea. Consistently low oil prices over the last year and the consequent effect on production have given rise to this decision. The ongoing debate on oil taxation in the UK over the past 18 months since the advent of a new government is examined. It has its roots in the last major changes to the oil tax regime which were made in 1993. It has been made clear by the government that the taxation review has not been abandoned and could come to the fore again should there be a substantial increase in oil and gas prices or if companies sought premature decommissioning of North Sea fields. (UK)

  15. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  16. History magazines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  17. Oceanographic profile Temperature, Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the CHALLENGER (UK cruises 1962 to present) and other platforms in the Coastal N Atlantic, North Atlantic and other locations from 24 December 1988 to 16 August 2000 (NODC Accession 0000419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected in the coastal North Atlantic and other locations from the Challenger and other platforms from 24 December 1988 to 16...

  18. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  19. Independent companies in the North Sea - exploration and operations opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, C.

    1992-01-01

    The North Sea was the launching pad for many independent oil companies, particularly through exploration success in the UK and the Netherlands. Norway has an excellent history of oil exploration but, for the independents, the onerous tax regime, long lead times, and terms of trade are simply not conducive to the higher rate of return demanded by shareholders of independent E and P companies in exchange for shouldering the heavy burden of risk. The UK in particular has pursued imaginative licensing, tax and legislative policies which have allowed the independents an opportunity to participate and grow. The attraction of the UK is clearly reflected by the constant arrival of new entrants, even at this stage of maturity. This was demonstrated in the recent round of license awards. Such has been the success of the independents in the UK that, beginning with virtually nothing, they now hold a net 28% of the UK North Sea acreage, and a net 25% of its oil reserves. Equally, the independents play an important role in ensuring the comprehensive exploration of the offshore areas. Because of size and significance, a prime objective of the independents will remain the early evaluation, through drilling, and development of offshore interests to generate a financial return. This paper addresses the question of how independent companies can expand in the North Sea when the size and quality of new range acreage available through new license awards is reducing. (author)

  20. Geothermal resources of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that geothermal energy applications and research are being actively pursued in the United Kingdom despite the relatively normal heat flow regime. The cumulative expenditure on geothermal activity from 1975 to 1989 has been approximately Brit-pounds 46 million of 32% of the Renewable Energy Research Budget to date. The first practical application is a 2 MWt scheme at Southampton as part of a district heating scheme. Commercial operation started in February 1988 and further expansion is planned. The UK's enthusiasm for Hot Dry Rock has dimmed slightly as the entire program is reappraised and the long heralded deep exploration hole has yet to materialize. Future activity looks likely to focus on geothermal opportunities that have multiple uses or applications for the fluids in small scale schemes and Hot Dry Rock research will probably be linked to a pan-European program based in France

  1. Nuclear physics in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear physics is the study of the heavy but tiny nucleus that lies at the centre of all atoms and makes up 99.9 per cent by weight of everything we see. There are many applications of nuclear physics including direct contributions to medicine and industry, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as diagnostic tracers, or of beams of nuclei for tailoring the properties of semiconductors. More indirectly, ideas and concepts of nuclear physics have influence in many corners of modern science and technology. Physicists in the UK have a long tradition in nuclear physics, and have developed a world-wide reputation for the excellence of their work. This booklet explains more about this rich field of study, its applications, its role in training, and its future directions. (author)

  2. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  3. UK creates new funding super-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The UK government has passed its higher-education and research bill, which includes the creation of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) - a new umbrella organization that will oversee the country’s seven research councils such as the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  4. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  5. Big hole opens up in UK funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, E

    2002-01-01

    Particle physics research in the UK is likely to receive around 12% less funding than expected over the next three years. The UK will have to scale down its involvement in international collaborations and may have to pull out of some altogether (1 page).

  6. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    to determine the employment relations. Quite the opposite to the UK, where trade unions are weak and where collective bargaining is far less widespread. Further analyses show that MNCs originating from liberal market economies (especially the US) acts differently in the two countries; in the UK they tend...

  7. Productivity and Trade Orientation in UK Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.; Walsh, P.

    2009-01-01

    We show that improvements in aggregate productivity in UK manufacturing during the first years after the implementation of the Euro, by the UK's main trading partners in Europe, are determined by both market share reallocation and within-company productivity growth. Furthermore, we outline a

  8. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  9. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  10. Observations on the Re-Emergence of a Binary System in UK Universities for Economics Degree Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Steve; Reeves, Alan; Johnston, James

    2014-01-01

    An audit of economics provision shows that over the past decade economics has disappeared from large parts of the UK's higher education landscape, especially the post-1992 universities. In the north of Britain the binary system has effectively re-emerged leaving many potential students unable to study key subjects such as economics. Post-1992…

  11. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Arhinful, Daniel K.; Pitchforth, Emma; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allotey, Pascale; Agyemang, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north-south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to

  12. Investigating the Cross-Cultural Validity of "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Finnish and UK Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Charman, Tony; Puura, Kaija; Skuse, David

    2014-01-01

    The recent "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5") reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond…

  13. 'Greenfields' and 'Brownfields': automotive industrial development in the UK and in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vale

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial policy in the UK and in Portugal, as in most EU countries, seeks to attract new investment capacity, to create jobs and to promote the impact of the so-called "demonstration efect" of "greenfield" development strategies pursued in the new plants of inward investors on existing or "brownfield" plants. This industrial policy focus is particularly evident in the automobile industry.This paper compares the industrial policy oriented towards the automobile industry in the UK and in Portugal. Two recent "greenfield" investments are analised: Nissan in the North-East region (UK and Ford/VW in the Setúbal Peninsula (Portugal, as well as three "brownfield" plants: Ford Halewood and GM Vauxhall Ellesmere Port in the North-West region (UK and Renault in Setúbal (Portugal. The first part starts with a discussion of industrial policy in the automobile sector, the role of "greenfield" development strategies and the "demonstration effect" on "brownfield" plants. Then, the limits of new inward investment are pointed out, basically their problems and restrictions. Afterwards, the structural barriers to the "demonstration effect" within "brownfield" plants are outlined and some possabilities for alternative "brownfield" development strategies are presented.

  14. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-01-01

    Objective The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. Methods During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Results Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2–95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. Conclusion This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale. PMID:22011830

  15. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-11-01

    The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2-95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale.

  16. Solar Farm Development in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Hillier, David; Comfort, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – Solar energy is the most abundant of all renewable energy sources and the development pressures for solar farms have grown rapidly in the last five years within the UK. With this in mind the purpose of this paper is to offer a general review of solar farm development in the UK.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud – The paper begins with a description of the characteristics of solar farms, outlines the solar farm market in the UK and discusses the planning policies and issues as...

  17. Effect of replacing soybean protein with protein from ensiled stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. var. guianensis) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Neil, Maria; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined the impact of replacing crude protein (CP) from soybean with CP from ensiled stylo (ES) on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) native Lao pigs. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the diet treatments according to a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial (three ES levels × two breeds) arrangement, with four pigs per diet treatment. Pigs were kept in individual pens and fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 98 days. The control diet was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two experimental diets, CP from soybean was replaced at 25 % (ES25) and 50 % (ES50) by CP from ES. Calculated metabolisable energy intake decreased with ES50 diet, while dry matter intake (DMI) and CP intake (CPI) were the highest in ES25 diet (P  0.05). In conclusion, ES can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  18. UK Biobank's cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Steffen E; Matthews, Paul M; Francis, Jane M; Robson, Matthew D; Zemrak, Filip; Boubertakh, Redha; Young, Alistair A; Hudson, Sarah; Weale, Peter; Garratt, Steve; Collins, Rory; Piechnik, Stefan; Neubauer, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    UK Biobank's ambitious aim is to perform cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 100,000 people previously recruited into this prospective cohort study of half a million 40-69 year-olds. We describe the CMR protocol applied in UK Biobank's pilot phase, which will be extended into the main phase with three centres using the same equipment and protocols. The CMR protocol includes white blood CMR (sagittal anatomy, coronary and transverse anatomy), cine CMR (long axis cines, short axis cines of the ventricles, coronal LVOT cine), strain CMR (tagging), flow CMR (aortic valve flow) and parametric CMR (native T1 map). This report will serve as a reference to researchers intending to use the UK Biobank resource or to replicate the UK Biobank cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol in different settings.

  19. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Document Server

    Brumfiel, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  20. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  1. Seeking asylum in the UK: lesbian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bennett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of the UK asylum process can be confusing,disempowering and traumatic for lesbian asylum seekers. Recentresearch examines the impacts of this process on their experiences,their identity and their well-being.

  2. Sustainability and the UK Waste Management Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jones; Daphne Comfort

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an exploratory review of the approaches to sustainability within the UK’s waste management industry. The paper begins with brief outlines of the waste management industry in the UK and the growing interest in corporate sustainability. This is followed by a review of the most recent sustainability reports published by the leading waste management companies operating within the UK and the paper concludes by offering some reflections on current approaches to sus...

  3. Determinants of Capital Structure of UK Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the determinants of capital structure of the UK companies and to provide some up-to-date empirical evidence for previous literatures. The sample of this study involves all non-financial companies listed on the FTSE350 Index during the time period from 2003 to 2012. The analysis of variance and panel data regression models are performed to test what factors may affect the UK companies’ financing decisions. In each model, three different measures of financial leverage...

  4. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request list was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  5. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  6. Global liquidity, money growth and UK inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ellington; Costas Milas

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the inflationary impact of domestic and global liquidity conditions on UK inflation through the lens of monetary aggregates. To do so, we rely on standard linear models as well as non-linear models that allow for regime switching behaviour in terms of a contained regime (when domestic money growth is relatively concealed) versus an uncontained regime (when domestic money growth is unusually unconcealed). We find that global liquidity yields inflationary pressures in the UK...

  7. Benchmarking ensemble streamflow prediction skill in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Prudhomme, Christel; Parry, Simon; Smith, Katie; Tanguy, Maliko

    2018-03-01

    ; correlation between catchment base flow index (BFI) and ESP skill was very strong (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.90 at 1-month lead time). This was in contrast to the more highly responsive catchments in the north and west which were generally not skilful at seasonal lead times. Overall, this work provides scientific justification for when and where use of such a relatively simple forecasting approach is appropriate in the UK. This study, furthermore, creates a low cost benchmark against which potential skill improvements from more sophisticated hydro-meteorological ensemble prediction systems can be judged.

  8. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  9. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  10. Sushi barcoding in the UK: another kettle of fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Vandamme

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the spread of sushi restaurants in the European Union and United States is a relatively new phenomenon, they have rapidly become among the most popular food services globally. Recent studies indicate that they can be associated with very high levels (>70% of fish species substitution. Based on indications that the European seafood retail sector may currently be under better control than its North American counterpart, here we investigated levels of seafood labelling accuracy in sushi bars and restaurants across England. We used the COI barcoding gene to screen samples of tuna, eel, and a variety of other products characterised by less visually distinctive ‘white flesh’. Moderate levels of substitution were found (10%, significantly lower than observed in North America, which lends support to the argument that public awareness, policy and governance of seafood labels is more effective in the European Union. Nevertheless, the results highlight that current labelling practice in UK restaurants lags behind the level of detail implemented in the retail sector, which hinders consumer choice, with potentially damaging economic, health and environmental consequences. Specifically, critically endangered species of tuna and eel continue to be sold without adequate information to consumers.

  11. Sushi barcoding in the UK: another kettle of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Sara G; Griffiths, Andrew M; Taylor, Sasha-Ann; Di Muri, Cristina; Hankard, Elizabeth A; Towne, Jessica A; Watson, Mhairi; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Although the spread of sushi restaurants in the European Union and United States is a relatively new phenomenon, they have rapidly become among the most popular food services globally. Recent studies indicate that they can be associated with very high levels (>70%) of fish species substitution. Based on indications that the European seafood retail sector may currently be under better control than its North American counterpart, here we investigated levels of seafood labelling accuracy in sushi bars and restaurants across England. We used the COI barcoding gene to screen samples of tuna, eel, and a variety of other products characterised by less visually distinctive 'white flesh'. Moderate levels of substitution were found (10%), significantly lower than observed in North America, which lends support to the argument that public awareness, policy and governance of seafood labels is more effective in the European Union. Nevertheless, the results highlight that current labelling practice in UK restaurants lags behind the level of detail implemented in the retail sector, which hinders consumer choice, with potentially damaging economic, health and environmental consequences. Specifically, critically endangered species of tuna and eel continue to be sold without adequate information to consumers.

  12. Strategy for energy policy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, T.

    2012-01-01

    UK Energy Policy is leading the world in showing how governments can effectively respond to the now widely accepted challenges of security of supply, low-carbon generation and pragmatic implementation. Confidence in the UK as place to invest in new nuclear is very high-there are already 3 developers who have between them already invested over 1 billion, 5 sites are planned to be developed and between 10 and 12 new reactors are planned to be built. To be clear, this is by far the largest commitment to new nuclear in the Western World and swamps in other countries. This achievement is a combination of vision, continuity, political consensus and a group of ministers and officials who are clear in the goals for the long-term sustain ability of an energy policy that will dramatically affect the lives of many generations to come. Recognising the multi-generational obligations and consequences of government policy's key to ensuring that this investment continues, together with the maintenance of the trust that investors have developed in the management of energy policy by the UK government. There is no doubt in the commitment of the UK government to delivering the safe, secure and low-carbon energy future of the UK. The opportunities for businesses and high-quality job creation are undoubted-all that now has to happen is for developers, reactor vendors, construction companies and communities to show how they can together deliver the cheapest form of low-carbon base load to time and to cost and to the benefit of local communities and the UK economy. the world is watching for the UK to show how it can be done. (Author)

  13. Characterisation: Challenges and Opportunities - A UK Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emptage, Matthew; Loudon, David; Mcleod, Richard; Milburn, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation plays a very important role in the nuclear industry supporting: the development and implementation of decommissioning strategies/plans (and the optimisation of associated costs through reduction in technical risks); regulatory compliance demonstration; waste prevention/minimisation; evaluation and optimisation of worker radiation doses; and maintaining public confidence. Recognising these important drivers, the UK regulators are working with the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to undertake a review of characterisation practice in the UK nuclear (decommissioning) industry. The objective of the characterisation review is to understand the current characterisation challenges and to determine strategic and tactical opportunities (including sharing of standards and guidance, capabilities, learning from experience, good practice, research and development, training, quality assurance) to optimise characterisation practice. The work is being undertaken through review of nuclear operator's characterisation practice, with input from the NDA, the UK regulators, nuclear operators and representatives from the supply chain, and through consideration of good practice case studies. To support this, a catalogue of relevant national/international guidance documents is also be compiled. Finally a workshop with representatives from all parties has taken place to consider the findings and establish a common understanding of challenges and opportunities and to start to consider how they can be addressed. The review is establishing a collective (UK regulator's, NDA; nuclear operator's and supply chain) understanding of opportunities to improve characterisation practice in the UK. The characterisation review process is described and early results are presented and discussed. Subsequent work in 2016 will be required to prioritise the opportunities and to build a consensus to facilitate development and implementation of an improvement plan. The aim

  14. Understanding drought propagation in the UK in the context of climatology and catchment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lucy; Hannaford, Jamie; Bloomfield, John; Marchant, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Droughts are a complex natural phenomena that are challenging to plan and prepare for. The propagation of droughts through the hydrological cycle is one of many factors which contribute to this complexity, and a thorough understanding of drought propagation is crucial for informed drought management, particularly in terms of water resources management in both the short and long term. Previous studies have found that both climatological and catchment factors cause lags in drought propagation from meteorological to hydrological and hydrogeological droughts. There are strong gradients in both climatology and catchment properties across the UK. Catchments in the north and west of the UK are relatively impermeable, upland catchments with thin soils and receive the highest annual precipitation with relatively low mean annual temperatures. Conversely, in the south and east of the UK, characterised by higher mean temperatures and lower annual precipitation, catchments are underlain by a number of major aquifers (e.g. Chalk, limestone) and are typically associated with high baseflow rivers. Here we explore the effects of these gradients in climatology and catchments on the propagation of droughts. Using standardised drought indices (the Standardised Precipitation Index; the Standardised Streamflow Index; and the Standardised Groundwater Index) we analyse drought propagation characteristics for selected catchment-borehole pairs across the UK using reconstructed time series back to the 19th century. We investigate how the timing, nature and predictability of drought propagation changes across the UK, given gradients in climatology and catchment characteristics. We use probability of detection methods, usually used for forecast verification, to investigate how well precipitation and streamflow deficits predict deficits in streamflow and groundwater levels and how this varies across the UK.

  15. Avaliação radiográfica da silhueta cardíaca pelo método vertebral heart size em cães da raça Yorkshire Terrier clinicamente normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se valor médio do vertebral heart size (VHS em cães da raça Yorkshire Terrier. Foram selecionados 30 cães clinicamente normais, com média de peso de 2,42±0,64kg e idades entre um e seis anos. Os animais foram submetidos ao exame radiográfico do tórax nas projeções lateral direita, ventrodorsal e dorsoventral. Foram feitas mensurações para avaliação cardíaca e da profundidade e largura torácicas. O valor médio de VHS foi de 9,9±0,6 vértebras na projeção lateral, 10,1±0,6 vértebras na projeção ventrodorsal e 10,0±0,6 vértebras na projeção dorsoventral. Não houve diferença entre esses valores. Cinco animais (16,7% apresentaram VHS acima de 10,5 vértebras, valor sugerido como limite superior para a maioria das raças, em projeção lateral. Os valores de VHS correlacionaram-se com peso corporal nas projeções lateral e ventrodorsal. A razão profundidade:largura torácica apresentou valor médio de 0,75±0,06. Não foi observada correlação entre a qualidade do tórax e o VHS.

  16. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  17. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  18. Community involvement: stake holder learning in the UK and in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.

    2003-01-01

    Copeland District in west Cumbria in the North-West Region of England, is 'home' to the major UK (Sellafield) reprocessing plants (including THORP). The Sellafield site includes major stores for Intermediate (ILW) and High Level Waste (HLW), while the nearby Drigg national site provides a facility for the managed surface disposal of Low Level Waste (LLW). Together these facilities dominate the local economy, proving some 10 000 jobs and making a key contribution to the local economy. In the 1990's the area was also highlighted as the potential location for a national ILW deep waste repository. This paper offers a reflection from a UK community perspective on the deliberations of the FSC Canadian Workshop. It provides, as background, an initial introductory account of: the development of radioactive waste and liabilities management policy in the UK, the significance of the failure of the Nirex RCF proposals, the success of new dialogue approaches, and the new wide ranging UK radioactive waste management consultation process. It then compares the economic and social issues arising at Sellafield with issues identified in the Canadian programmes and experiences as presented at the Workshop. (author)

  19. Investigating the potential of overheating in UK dwellings as a consequence of extant climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, A.D.; Jenkins, D.P.; Kane, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic simulation is used with defined domestic building variants to investigate internal temperatures of UK dwellings. Factors such as a warming climate and varying internal heat gains are estimated to examine whether UK domestic buildings are likely to be prone to overheating in the future, and therefore require mechanical air conditioning. The study suggests that the ability, or inability, of the occupant to adapt to bedroom temperature is paramount in the understanding of the conditions for overheating. While this is difficult to quantify (and a range of comfort temperatures are proposed), the effect of changing the building construction and geographical location can result in significantly different thermal conditions. As might be expected, the problem appears most noticeable for buildings in the south of the UK and with lightweight constructions. Even with a window-opening schedule applied to such a scenario, the average internal temperature is simulated as being over 28 o C for almost 12% of the year. A different metric, defined as 'cooling nights', suggests that there might be a cooling problem in bedroom areas for approximately a third of the year. In the North of the UK, and also for solid wall dwellings, this problem diminishes significantly.

  20. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  1. The UK gas industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The progress of the gas industry in the United Kingdom (UK) for the year 1992 is reviewed, by the chairman of British Gas plc. Four areas of change are identified and discussed. Recent Government legislation and changes in regulations have led to improvements in efficiency and the growth of competition in the provision of gas supplies. British Gas's share of the UK market has fallen with the arrival of many new gas marketers. The Monopolies and Mergers Commission Inquiry into British Gas, published in July, has wide ranging implications. Finally, with the many coal pit closures announced in October, and the subsequent Coal Review, the gas-fired generation market received a substantial boost. (UK)

  2. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  3. UK parents' attitudes towards meningococcal group B (MenB) vaccination: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Yarwood, Joanne; Saliba, Vanessa; Bedford, Helen

    2017-05-04

    (1) To explore existing knowledge of, and attitudes, to group B meningococcal disease and serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine among parents of young children. (2) To seek views on their information needs. Cross-sectional qualitative study using individual and group interviews conducted in February and March 2015, prior to the introduction of MenB vaccine (Bexsero) into the UK childhood immunisation schedule. Community centres, mother and toddler groups, parents' homes and workplaces in London and Yorkshire. 60 parents of children under 2 years of age recruited via mother and baby groups and via an advert posted to a midwife-led Facebook group. Although recognising the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, parents' knowledge of group B meningococcal disease and MenB vaccine was poor. While nervous about fever, most said they would take their child for MenB vaccination despite its link to fever. Most parents had liquid paracetamol at home. Many were willing to administer it after MenB vaccination as a preventive measure, although some had concerns. There were mixed views on the acceptability of four vaccinations at the 12-month booster visit; some preferred one visit, while others favoured spreading the vaccines over two visits. Parents were clear on the information they required before attending the immunisation appointment. The successful implementation of the MenB vaccination programme depends on its acceptance by parents. In view of parents' recognition of the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, and successful introduction of other vaccines to prevent bacterial meningitis and septicaemia, the MenB vaccination programme is likely to be successful. However, the need for additional injections, the likelihood of post-immunisation fever and its management are issues about which parents will need information and reassurance from healthcare professionals. Public Health England has developed written information for parents, informed by these findings.

  4. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  5. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  6. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  7. IMMIGRATION AND INTEGRATION POLICIES IN UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Voicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants received by the United Kingdom significantly increased during the past several years. Given the set of economic and social difficulties encountered, UK created for the first time a completely original system of Nationality Legislation and started to apply a severe policy of assimilation instead of integration. UK applied the Community Law concerning immigration, asylum and free movement of workers in its national interest, the whole European construction showing the “British specificities”. Even today, there are a lot of measures to be taken in order to come to a real integration policy of immigrants.

  8. 16th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gegov, Alexander; Jayne, Chrisina; Shen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The book is a timely report on advanced methods and applications of computational intelligence systems. It covers a long list of interconnected research areas, such as fuzzy systems, neural networks, evolutionary computation, evolving systems and machine learning. The individual chapters are based on peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 16th Annual UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, held on September 7-9, 2016, in Lancaster, UK. The book puts a special emphasis on novels methods and reports on their use in a wide range of applications areas, thus providing both academics and professionals with a comprehensive and timely overview of new trends in computational intelligence.

  9. Do high oil prices justify an increase in taxation in a mature oil province? The case of the UK continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhle, Carole

    2007-01-01

    In response to the structural shift in oil price coupled with greater import dependency, concerns about security of supply have once again emerged as a major policy issue. The UK, the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the European Union, became a net importer of natural gas in 2004, and according to Government estimates will become a net importer of oil by the end of the decade. A weakened North Sea performance means extra reliance, both for the UK and Europe as a whole, on global oil and gas network and imports. In 2002, the UK Government introduced a 10% supplementary charge and in 2005, doubled the charge to 20% in an attempt to capture more revenues from the oil industry as a result of the increase in the price of crude oil. However, higher tax rates do not necessarily generate higher fiscal revenue and in the long term may result in materially lower revenues if investment is discouraged as indeed occurred when the 2007 UK Annual Budget statement showed a shortfall in North Sea oil revenues below forecasts of pound 4 billion. It is therefore argued that the increase in the fiscal take came at the wrong time for the UK Continental Shelf and that the UK Government's concern should have been to encourage more oil production from its declining province, especially in the light of the rising concern surrounding the security of supply. (author)

  10. Perceptions of UK medical students on rural clinical placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaville, Jenny A; Wynn-Jones, John; Hays, Richard B; Coventry, Peter J; McKinley, Robert K; Randall-Smith, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Rural clinical placements are now commonly used to both promote awareness of rural health careers and expand clinical placement networks in Australia, North America and elsewhere. However in the United Kingdom (UK) there is no clear workforce or health education policy that encourages rural background student recruitment, rural clinical placements, rural oriented curricula or rural health education infrastructure, because deprivation and poor health status are regarded as urban phenomena. The question for one new medical school in regional/rural UK is: can increasing the utilisation of rural primary care practices both resolve teaching capacity constraints and offer students valuable learning opportunities about rural health? This article reports an exploration of students' views on the value of rural clinical placements in a new curriculum designed to address regional deprivation and workforce needs. Medical students in Year 1 and Year 3 of a regional medical school were invited to attend focus group discussions that explored their understanding of rural health and life and the attractions of and barriers to expanding rural clinical placements. The Year 1 students were in the new curriculum and therefore more likely to be allocated a rural clinical placement in their more senior years. The discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Themes that emerged were: what is rural? how different is rural from urban?; differences in rural and urban learning, logistic issues, and choosing a rural placement. Student perceptions in both groups were rather negative about rural placements. Rural practices were thought to provide a narrow range of patient contact and learning opportunities, and rural life was thought to be unattractive, especially out of formal placement hours. Even relatively small distances from friends and social outlets were regarded as barriers. Year 1 students were more positive about the possibility of a rural placement

  11. North Sea focus on radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.

    1990-01-01

    At the recent North Sea Conference in the Netherlands possible future strategies for managing radioactive waste (radwaste) proved to be a contentious issue. Several of its North Sea littoral neighbours sought a categorical assurance that the UK would forego the option of constructing a subterranean radwaste repository which though accessed from land, extends under the coastline, or a sub-seabed facility reached from an offshore structure. It was pointed out that the UK has no present plans for such a radwaste repository. However, sub-seabed designs as a possibility for future repositories were not ruled out. NIREX has decided to concentrate its exploration work at two sites -Sellafield and Dounreay. Both sites are coastal locations and the government is aware that detailed geological exploration may favour extension of a radwaste repository beyond the shoreline, even if initially developed entirely on land. The design of such a radioactive waste repository is outlined. The position of NIREX and the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee is discussed. (author)

  12. Improving Care for Bariatric Dental Patients in North Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, P

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the experiences of Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, North Wales, UK in improving facilities, access and quality of care for bariatric dental patients. It includes the multi-stakeholder audit of existing practice which informed those improvements. Public health competencies illustrated: needs assessment; development and implementation of oral health strategies; oral health improvement; development of clinical pathways; improving patient safety; clinical and public engagement; addressing inequalities. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  13. Leptospirosis and Weil's disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A E; Zochowski, W J; Dubrey, S W; Sivaprakasam, V

    2012-12-01

    The recent high-profile death of a British Olympic rower from leptospirosis has raised awareness to this uncommon but potentially fatal disease. The re-emergence of the disease abroad is well documented in the literature, but less is known about cases in the UK. The increase in participation in water sports, foreign travel and often a combination of the two, has increased the exposure of tourists subsequently returning to the UK from areas of high prevalence. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection. The bacteria are shed in the urine of animals to the environment from where humans are infected by incidental hosts. There is a wide spectrum of severity of symptoms, from a self-limiting febrile illness to fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, renal or liver failure. It is thought that cases remain unrecognized every year in the UK, largely due to the mild nature of symptoms and the wide differential for febrile illness and partly due to lack of awareness among clinicians. This review examines the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the UK, over the period 2006-10, the clinical features, diagnostic techniques and treatment.

  14. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee: progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    Studies of the basic nuclear data for commercial and industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC). Such data are defined on the basis of chemical methods of analysis, and include half-lives, decay parameters and fission yields. Work undertaken within this area is described in this document for information. (author)

  15. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  16. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  17. Developing Internationalisation Strategies, University of Winchester, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Richard Hugh; Spark, Alasdair; Carter, Joy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Internationalisation has been a theme in UK higher education for a decade or more. The review of this paper, a practice-based case study, is to find how Winchester formulated two successive internationalisation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The strategies were developed using a research-oriented method: grounded in the…

  18. Integration and dispersal in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griffiths

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that Refugee Community-based Organisations (RCOs play a key role in assisting refugee adaptation and integration in the UK. But what happens when the reception policy for asylum seekers and refugees is fundamentally changed?

  19. Akanidomo ibanga University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: Akanidomo Ibanga, Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. ... Issue of this nature have at one level increased the need for a clearer understanding of sexual activities and behaviours particularly as it relates to in- dividuals ...... hood sexual abuse and adult psychiatric.

  20. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  1. `Green heat` in a UK city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    This brief article describes the Sheffield `green heat` scheme which utilises heat from a local waste incinerator to operate an independent district heating scheme within Sheffield city centre. Standby and peak overload heat generation capacity is provided by four boiler plants ensuring integrity of supply. The benefits of the scheme and future developments are outlined. (UK)

  2. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  3. Universities UK: Manifesto for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that the UK faces today are global and they require world-class solutions. With continued support and investment from the Government, higher education will play a central role in meeting those challenges. Tomorrow's knowledge-based economy will demand a flexible, diverse and well educated workforce. Climate change and rapid…

  4. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...

  5. Solar wind modulation of UK lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Harrison, Giles; Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew; Barnard, Luke

    2013-04-01

    The response of lightning rates in the UK to arrival of high speed solar wind streams at Earth is investigated using a superposed epoch analysis. The fast solar wind streams' arrivals are determined from modulation of the solar wind Vy component, measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Lightning rate changes around these event times are then determined from the very low frequency Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system of the UK Met Office. Arrival of high speed streams at Earth is found to be preceded by a decrease in total solar irradiance and an increase in sunspot number and Mg II emissions. These are consistent with the high speed stream's source being co-located with an active region appearing on the Eastern solar limb and rotating at the 27 day rate of the Sun. Arrival of the high speed stream at Earth also coincides with a rapid decrease in cosmic ray flux and an increase in lightning rates over the UK, persisting for around 40 days. The lightning rate increase is corroborated by an increase in the total number of thunder days observed by UK Met stations, again for around 40 days after the arrival of a high speed solar wind stream. This increase in lightning may be beneficial to medium range forecasting of hazardous weather.

  6. Edward Elgar Publishing Cheltenham, UK 2016

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Review. This notable addition to the series Elgar Monographs in Constitutional and. Administrative Law is a thought-provoking contribution to the "legal versus political constitutionalism" debate. The author, a Hungarian scholar working in the UK, takes a sceptical view of constitutional judicial review. He.

  7. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  8. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  9. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  10. The new electric power market in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2000-01-01

    The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in UK are essentially based on bilateral contracts and a balancing mechanism. Under this new and very complex mechanism, the system operator will balance demand and supply, determine energy prices for out-of-balance positions and be subject to a global incentive scheme in order to perform efficiently its tasks [it

  11. UK strategy for nuclear industry LLW - 16393

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Matthew; Fisher, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the UK Government and devolved administrations (for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from here on referred to as 'Government') published their policy for the management of solid low level waste ('the Policy'). The Policy sets out a number of core principles for the management of low level waste (LLW) and charges the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority with developing a UK-wide strategy in the case of LLW from nuclear sites. The UK Nuclear Industry LLW Strategy has been developed within the framework of the principles set out in the policy. A key factor in the development of this strategy has been the strategic partnership the NDA shares with the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg (LLWR), who now have a role in developing strategy as well as delivering an optimised waste management service at the LLWR. The strategy aims to support continued hazard reduction and decommissioning by ensuring uninterrupted capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The continued availability of a disposal route for LLW is considered vital by both the nuclear industry and non-nuclear industry low level waste producers. Given that the UK will generate significantly more low level waste (∼ 3.1 million m 3 ) than there is capacity at the LLWR (∼0.75 million m 3 ), developing alternative effective ways to manage LLW is critical. The waste management hierarchy is central to the strategy, which includes strategic goals at all levels of the hierarchy to improve its application across the industry. (authors)

  12. Finding a VOICE for UK clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2012-06-01

    At a James Black Conference held in Oxford on 20-22 June 2011, a group of senior clinical pharmacologists and their junior colleagues, other medical specialists, and pharmacists discussed an agenda for UK clinical pharmacology for the next 5 years, addressing the following broad questions. How should UK clinical pharmacology be further developed and delivered as a discipline in universities, the NHS, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory authorities? How should teaching and training in UK clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed? What topics should be priorities for research in UK academic clinical pharmacology? How should clinical pharmacology contribute to UK drugs policy? How should pharmacology and clinical pharmacology be further integrated, to the benefit of both? Numerous recommendations emerged, under the collective acronym VOICE, standing for Visibility, Outreach, Integration, Coverage and Emissaries. VISIBILITY: The visibility of the discipline needs to be increased. This could be done, for example, by increased activities in acute general medicine/toxicology, through activities of Medicines and Therapeutics Committees, participation in grand rounds, teaching and training, and monitoring therapeutic interventions, and by offering bolt-on training for other specialists (for example, short courses, MSc courses, and training programmes). OUTREACH: Methods of increasing outreach include roadshows in schools/medical schools, national special study modules, public education, press coverage, and social marketing. INTEGRATION: Closer collaborations with pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists, other prescribers, and pharmaceutical companies (e.g. through joint training programmes) are desirable. COVERAGE: Attention to neglected areas, such as general practice, paediatrics, obstetrics, geriatrics, anaesthetics, cancer, and immunology. EMISSARIES: Trainees to spread the word. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

  13. Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

  14. New Dimensions for Manufacturing: A UK Strategy for Nanotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, John M

    2002-01-01

    ... R&D for nanotechnology. This report, of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications, examines the growth of nanotechnology, its potential implications for industry in the UK, and proposes the elements of a strategy...

  15. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Molen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland, in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands, as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  16. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Mooney, Karen; Kerrison, Philip; O'Connor, Nessa E.; Gorman, Emma; Timmermans, Klaas; Wright, Serena; Kelly, Maeve; Hughes, Adam D.; Capuzzo, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland) and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands), as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  17. UK-trained junior doctors' intentions to work in UK medicine: questionnaire surveys, three years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-12-01

    Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates' intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ' Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would 'definitely or probably' practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977-1986, 81% in 1996-2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977-1986, 8% in 1996-2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys.

  18. Trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the UK program for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was stopped with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, Ltd. (Nirex) to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterization Facility (RCF) at Sellafield, seen as the precursor of an underground repository for LLW/ILW. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the Developed Administrations published a white paper 'Managing Radioactive Waste Safety' Proposal for developing a policy for managing solid radioactive waste in the UK on 12 September 2001. The paper set out five-stage program of action for reaching decisions until 2007. It suggests their view can be sought via opinion polls, the Internet, workshops, citizens, juries, consensus conferences, stakeholder, local authority and community groups and research panels. With the exception of a disposal facility associated with the operation of the Dounreay site on the north coast of Scotland, essentially all LLW in the UK is disposed of at the Drigg site, near Sellafield. The site has been in operation since 1959. Until 1988, disposals were solely in trenches, cut into the glacial tills underlying the site. In 1988, an engineered concrete vault was brought into operation and is currently in use. Drigg only has a finite capacity in the currently area and may be full by about 2050, hence new arrangements will have to examine. This report describes the trends of radioactive waste management policy and disposal of LLW/ILW in the UK. These include: NDA(Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) organization plan, Feb. 2003; Encapsulation of LLW/ILW and safe store for ILW; Summary of LLW repository at the Drigg site; Nirex concept for underground storage/disposal of LLW/ILW. This information and new approach of the safe management of radioactive waste in the UK will prove helpful to the planning for future management and disposal of LLW in Japan. (author)

  19. The future of learning disabilities nursing in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Anthony

    2014-07-02

    This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.

  20. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK be...

  1. Real-time geomagnetic data from a Raspberry Pi magnetometer network in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Beggan, Ciaran

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, BGS and the University of Lancaster won an STFC Public Engagement grant to build and deploy 10 Raspberry Pi magnetometers to secondary schools across the UK. The system uses a Raspberry Pi computer as a logging and data transfer device, connected to a set of three orthogonal miniature fluxgate magnetometers. The system has a nominal sensitivity of around 1 nanoTesla (nT), in each component direction (North, East and Down). This is around twenty times less sensitive than a current sci...

  2. The CRINE initiative -- Cultural change in the U.K. oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, P.

    1995-01-01

    The CRINE initiative could not succeed without two fundamental changes being accepted by everyone involved in the operation of the United Kingdom Continental Shelf North Sea enterprise. CRINE, an acronym for Cost Reduction Initiative for the New Era, is an industry-wide program now under way in the UK whose main objective is to achieve thirty percent or more savings in capital costs and to half operating costs over the next few years. Perhaps the most difficult change to comprehend, let alone accept, is that of attitude. Changing the culture of a traditional industry is one of the most exciting challenges emerging from the CRINE initiative

  3. The North Sea field development guide. V.1: Northern North Sea. V.2: Southern North Sea. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The 1997/8, sixth edition is the first to be divided into two volumes. Volume 1 covers the central and northern North Sea areas; volume 2 contains the southern North Sea as well as the Irish and German sectors. The pages are numbered consecutively over the two volumes, with page numbers greater than 702 contained in the second volume. There are three index sections. Main index. Arranged by national sector (UK, Norway etc.) Within each sector the entries are alphabetical by operator name. This index contains page numbers for the book entries: the other two index sections should be used with the main index to find the exact location of an entry; Index by field. If the reader knows a field name (e.g. Kittiwake) but not the operator or the national sector, this index will reference them; Index by installation. Each installation (''Fulmar SALM'', ''Togi'') is named, giving the operator, field and national sector where it is located. This index is also useful for locating particular kinds of installations, such as subsea completions; The book is intended to provide a factual overview of field development activity in the North Sea (a term loosely used to include the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea). The aim is therefore to provide some background, specifications and history on every offshore installation in that area. Speculative or evaluative commentary is avoided where possible. No attempt has been made to forecast the form or probability of future developments, except in those few instances where announcements have been made by the oil company itself, and these are, clearly indicated. (UK)

  4. Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan K; Toleman, Mark A; Walsh, Timothy R; Bagaria, Jay; Butt, Fafhana; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar; Chaudhary, Uma; Doumith, Michel; Giske, Christian G; Irfan, Seema; Krishnan, Padma; Kumar, Anil V; Maharjan, Sunil; Mushtaq, Shazad; Noorie, Tabassum; Paterson, David L; Pearson, Andrew; Perry, Claire; Pike, Rachel; Rao, Bhargavi; Ray, Ujjwayini; Sarma, Jayanta B; Sharma, Madhu; Sheridan, Elizabeth; Thirunarayan, Mandayam A; Turton, Jane; Upadhyay, Supriya; Warner, Marina; Welfare, William; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2010-09-01

    Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK. Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major centres in India--Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)--and those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem resistance gene bla(NDM-1) was established by PCR. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan. We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan. NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries. The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  6. Greenhouse gases disclosure by listed UK companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present the issue of voluntary and mandatory disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions in UK companies’ reports and factors influencing it. In order to do it, CDP, CDSB, FRC and DEFRA guidelines are analysed. The article also investigates greenhouse gases disclosures by companies included in the FTSE4Good UK 50 index and factors affecting the amount of the disclosures. The research meth-ods used in the article are content analysis and multiple regression. The results of the research show thatthe vast majority of companies disclose information on the direct and indirect emissions resulting from the purchase of energy (scope 1 and 2 as well as different intensity indicators. Factors influencing signif-icantly the amount of disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions are emissions intensity and company size.

  7. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.

  8. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  9. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  10. Gender and Employment Insecurity in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Purcell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to explore how far employment insecurity is gendered in the UK, focusing on recent trends in temporary employment, covering fixed term, seasonal, agency, casual and other temporary work. The first section of this paper considers the pressures and resistances that have cumulatively led to women’s current participation in paid work. This is followed by an examination of recent trends in UK employment patterns, with particular reference to differences within the female population of working age and the incidence and distribution of part-time employment. Recent trends and gender differences in temporary employment are then considered against this broader background. Finally, this evidence is considered in relation to arguments that atypical employment provides opportunities for women’s increased labour force participation and the practical reconciliation of employment and family roles and relationships.

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  12. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology....... Findings – Results based on a sample of recent input/output data indicated that the efficiency of UK airlines has continuously declined since 2004 to reach a value of 73.39 per cent in 2007. Factors which were found to be significantly and positively related to technical efficiency variations include...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...

  13. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  14. The UK's National Electronic Site Licencing Initiative.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Hazel

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the UK created the National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI) to increase and improve access to electronic journals and to negotiate license agreements on behalf of academic libraries. The use of a model license agreement and the success of site licensing is discussed. Highlights from an interim evaluation by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) are noted and key issues and questions arising from the evaluation are identified

  15. The UK nuclear programme: The Sizewell experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the Sizewell 'B' PWR programme and the effect on it of the proposed privatisation of U.K electricity generation is reviewed. Departures from and additions to the Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS) reference plant design are given. These include Reactor Coolant System overpressure protection and the addition of an Emergency Charging System and an Emergency Boration System. Improvements in monitoring Reactor Coolant System water level during refuelling and maintenance shutdown operations are presented. (author)

  16. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  17. UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Les Levidow; Susan Carr

    1996-01-01

    UK biotechnology regulation has developed ‘precautionary controls’ for GMO releases. Stringent legislation was drafted and eventually implemented by the Department of Environment (DoE). In parallel, the DoE established a broadly-based advisory committee, which included ecologists and an implicit public-interest representation. The committee was assigned the task to advise on the release of all “novel organisms” — a term which implies an analogy between GMOs and non-indigenous organisms. Copyr...

  18. Viewpoint: UK coal wins, Britain loses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, B. [Prospex Research Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-12

    The UK government is to subsidise the coal industry to the tune of 100 million pounds over two years. The author explains why this decision is muddle-headed and doomed to fail. The decision was coupled with an announcement to lift the blockage of natural gas-fired project development. Ben Tait argues that the Labour government is bowing to electoral strategies rather than technocrats businessmen or environmentalists.

  19. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  20. Competitive intelligence in UK firms: A typology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sheila; Pickton, David W.; Callow, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    There is a danger of allowing competitive analysis to receive less than adequate attention in the marketing planning process as it is subordinated to a customer driven focus. Clearly important though customers are, they should not dominate marketing strategy and planning to the exclusion of other influential groups, one of these being competitors. With this in mind, a pilot research project was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how UK companies conduct competitive intelligence. ...

  1. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). ...

  2. The politicisation of UK immigration policy

    OpenAIRE

    Onslow-Cole, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Article by Julia Onslow-Cole (A senior partner and head of CMS Cameron McKenna's global immigration business practice) examining the development of UK business immigration law from 2003-4. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  3. U.K. nuclear data progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Cookson, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    The report summarises nuclear data research in the United Kingdom between January and December 1984. The nuclear data presented includes contributions from government research laboratories and Universities, as well as from various collaborations. The section on nuclear data forum includes three individual papers (being processed separately), these are: the DIMPLE criticality experiments, the potential use of criticality benchmark experiments in nuclear data evaluation, and the use of benchmark experiments for the validation of nuclear data. (U.K.)

  4. Wind energy - current status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty two windfarms are operational or are under construction in the U.K. They have a total installed capacity of approximately 140 MW and will generate about 360 GWh in a full year and provide the electricity needs of about 250 000 individuals and save the emission of about 400 000 tonnes of CO 2 each year. Developments so far have required an investment of about Pound 140 million provided mostly by banks and large corporate investors. Financing these projects has broken new ground for renewable technologies and established a framework for the financing of windfarms built using future NFFO contracts. Obtaining planning consents for these windfarms has involved thirteen public inquiries, eight of which have been successful. Four of these remain unused and the result of another is awaited. Statutory and other bodies have responded to the rapid deployment of windfarms by issuing guidelines and these together with Public Inquiry documentation now provide invaluable guidance for the industry. The U.K. market is arguably the most 'open' in Europe and Danish Wind Turbine manufacturers have gained over 50 per cent of the total market. A Japanese manufacturer has gained 25 per cent whilst the major U.K. turbine supplier has gained 17 per cent market share. There are still over thirty manufacturers worldwide and signs that a combination of innovation and market pressures are continuing to reduce the costs of wind energy. (author)

  5. Uk Armed Forces unintentional firearm injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, T; Rushforth, G

    2009-03-01

    To report on the incidence of unintentional firearm discharge and injury across the UK Armed Forces and present several cases of this wounding phenomenon. Munitions Incidents and Defects (MID) Cell data on UK Military Negligent Discharges and unintentional firearm injuries from 01 Jan 03 to 31 Dec 07 was categorised according to cause of injury, wound, service affiliation, incident context and weapon type. The injuries of three patients are described. Over the 5 year period there were 1158 Unintentional firearm discharges, forty three (4%) of which resulted in injury. Fifty five military personnel sustained unintentional firearm injuries during the review period, more than half of which were gunshot wounds and this included one fatality. The Regular Army suffers an average of 7.7 unintentional firearm injuries per 100 000 Regular Army person years. Unintentional firearm injury is well recognised across the civilian and police sectors worldwide. Despite the recent tempo of high grade training and operations that currently engage UK Armed Forces this form of injury remains uncommon. We hope to facilitate discussion with the chain of command to manage the risk of these injuries.

  6. Tackling teenage pregnancy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, G

    1999-06-26

    The deleterious social and health outcomes of unplanned pregnancy have been recognized internationally for some time. In UK, birth rates among teenagers have not decreased; every year about 90,000 teenagers in England become pregnant. Of these, 7000 are under 16 years old. A report from UK government's Social Exclusion Unit sets out a comprehensive analysis of the problem and offers far-reaching recommendations on how the extent and consequences of the problem can be reduced. The recommendations cited take a determined multisectoral approach. As part of a national campaign, parents will be encouraged to talk with their children about sex, young men are motivated to be more responsible in their sexual behavior, and those who father children of teenage mothers are pursued vigorously to ensure the provision of continuing financial support. At the local level, local authorities and health authorities will have to develop a local strategy involving the wide range of groups that have an interest on the issue. Efforts must also be made to refute the idea that sex education lowers the age at first intercourse. In addition, it is suggested that the sexual health in UK adopt the integrated approach to produce an effective sexual health service.

  7. Energy, the UK and the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis of effort in European energy policy should be placed on external relations rather than internal regulation. The divergence of the interests of the United States and Europe in energy policy will no longer allow Europe to depend on US initiative. The temporary relaxation of world oil markets has engendered unrealistic complacency. The European Community must develop its important role as a means whereby the member states can formulate common initiatives to press within international institutions. Strong presentation of interests externally has to be complemented by internal adaptation. The Community has at the moment few means of influencing the form and nature of energy investment. This paper proposes a fund of the order of Pound1 bn per annum to be used for the promotion of projects whose intrinsic benefits are not fully translated into commercial advantage and which need political stimulus. Such a Fund might be, but need not necessarily be, financed by a small levy on imported oil. The UK should present more aggressively the considerable benefits which accrue to the Community from UK resources. There is perhaps an opportunity to take a more extrovert view of the relationship between the UK and the continental gas transport systems. (author)

  8. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  9. PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE NORTH-SEA AND ITS DYNAMICS - A REVIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REID, PC; LANCELOT, C; GIESKES, WWC; HAGMEIER, E; WEICHART, G

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton is the major contributor to algal biomass and primary production of the North Sea, although crops of macroalgae can locally be up to 2000 g C.m-2 along the coast of the U.K. and Norway, and microphytobenthos dominates production in the shallow tidal flat areas bordering the coasts of

  10. IEA PVPS Task 1 - UK Expert. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper relates to work carried out under contract to the UK Renewable Energy Programme, and describes the terms of reference of the UK representation in the IEA PVPS Task 1 which provides a forum for exchange of information on photovoltaic (PV) technology between 21 participating countries. The main benefit derived by the UK is access to international expertise in PV technology. Using information obtained from participation in Task 1, the UK produces a National Survey Report which reports on developments in PV technology in the UK over the previous 12 months. The report covers installed capacity, prices, budgets and costs: it is freely available on the UK PVPS website. The newsletter PV Power, is prepared and distributed biannually - 18 issues have been published by mid-2003. IT Power is currently the UK representative on the IEA PVPS Task 1.

  11. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  12. The proposed structure of the UK's nuclear industry: the 'creation' of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear generation has been contributing to the UK electricity market for over thirty years. For most of this period the generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity was in the hands of the state. The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was responsible for generation and transmission in England and Wales, supported by local ''Area Boards'' who were responsible for distribution and supply. The Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) and the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board were responsible for all four functions in Scotland. Over the period the number of nuclear stations has increased. Magnox stations and the more modern Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) were commissioned by the CEGB and SSEB. State ownership continued until the Regional Electricity Companies (1990) and the non-nuclear generators (1991) were privatised. The nuclear generators were retained in the public sector under two newly created companies; Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Ltd. The UK's first PWR has since been commissioned by Nuclear Electric. Three of the early Magnox reactors are being decommissioned, two by Nuclear Electric and one by Scottish Nuclear. The UK Government has reviewed the recent performance of the nuclear generators and is proposing privatisation of the AGR and PWR stations under a new holding company ''British Energy'' in 1996. (author)

  13. Larval growth and drift pattern and the separation of herring spawning groups in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Christensen, Villy

    1990-01-01

    Yorkshire is evident from distributions of newly hatched herring larvae. The dramatic changes in relative importance of spawning grounds are traced in the data on both late larvae (6 months old) and juveniles (18 months old). The onset of extended spawning off Buchan and off Yorkshire was followed...... by increase in distinct groups of late larvae of large mean length, and by enlargement of a group of medium-sized juveniles. It is hypothesized that the identified groups are interconnected. Thus, larvae spawned off Buchan and off Yorkshire are found to have growth rates superior to those attained by larvae...

  14. Entrepreneurial Propensity in Pakistan and UK: A comparative study of Pakistani and UK Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research compares entrepreneurial inclination of Pakistani and UK primary level prospective teachers (B.Ed. students. Factor analysis revealed entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and self-efficacy as three common factors among both the data sets. Both the groups of respondents were also compared on five conceptual variables namely locus of control, self efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, instrumental readiness and subjective norms. The prospective teachers from UK were found to be significantly lower on instrumental readiness and entrepreneurial intentions than their Pakistani counterparts. There were some partial impacts of demographic variables on entrepreneurial propensity of both the groups of respondents. Some implications for planning and policy were outlined.

  15. UK community health visiting: challenges faced during lean implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr SM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan M Carr1,2, Pauline Pearson1, Lesley Young-Murphy3, Barbara Cleghorn41Centre for Community Health & Education Studies Research & Enterprise, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 2School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; 3NHS North of Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 4Newcastle PCT, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: This paper presents an overview of the challenges and potential of lean implementation for the health visiting service in England and examines the rhetoric and the reality of the situation. It is coauthored by academic researchers and senior service providers so as to embrace the multidimensional issues impacting on this subject. If lean thinking is to be implemented in relation to health visiting, it is important to understand how it is likely to be viewed by practitioners and line managers in settings where it is used. In order to contextualize the discussion, an introduction to the roles, systems, and structures of health visiting are provided. The literature on what lean implementation is, what it means, and in particular the application and potential of the approach to primary care and public health services is reviewed. The process and findings from a focus group convened within a large primary care organization in the National Health Service during their lean implementation is reported. The paper concludes that it is important for staff at all levels to see a clear link between strategic aims and objectives and the planning processes operated by providers and commissioners. It appears that the successful introduction of lean thinking should focus more on productive working and thereby reducing waste. This has the potential to refresh workforce models to ensure that health visiting and other practitioners liberate the use of their specialist knowledge and skills. In a context of enhanced partnership working, the stage is then set for providers to add value to the whole

  16. Analysis of energy embodied in the international trade of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the role embodied energy plays in international trade and its subsequent impact on energy security has grown. As a developed nation, the UK's economic structure has changed from that of a primary producer to that of a primary consumer. Although the UK's energy consumption appears to have peaked, it imports a lot of energy embodied in international trade alongside the more obvious direct energy imports. The UK has seen increasing dependency on imported fossil energy since the UK became a net energy importer in 2005. In this paper an energy input–output model is established to calculate not only the amount of fossil energy embodied in UK's imports and exports, but also the sector and country distributions of those embodied fossil energy. The research results suggest the following: UK's embodied fossil energy imports have exceeded embodied fossil energy exports every year since 1997, UK embodied energy imports through the so-called ‘Made in China’ phenomena are the largest accounting for 43% of total net fossil energy imports. If net embodied fossil energy imports are considered, the gap between energy consumption and production in UK is much larger than commonly perceived, with subsequent implications to the UK's energy security. - Highlights: ► Model is established to examine UK's energy imports embodied in trade. ► UK's embodied energy imports have exceeded its exports every year since 1997. ► UK's net embodied energy imports from China are the largest accounting for 43%. ► UK needs to reconsider its energy utilization and efficiency in the light of trade

  17. North Wales Group report on the effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    A report is presented by the North Wales Group concerning the sequence of events affecting North Wales and the identification of the residual problems following contamination from the Chernobyl accident. The first part of the report attempts to establish a time scale for radiation restrictions applicable in North Wales and the size of the areas which are involved. Part two deals with national arrangements to handle incidents like Chernobyl and examines the wider field of international arrangements. A review is given of events as seen by the affected community following the Chernobyl accident. (U.K.)

  18. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnley, E.

    2009-01-01

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  20. Control of ionising radiation - a UK viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of radiological protection is to provide an appropriate standard of protection for mankind, both as individuals and collectively, without unduly limiting the beneficial practices giving rise to radiation exposure. Guidance on the fundamental principles for radiation protection is provided on a global scale by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Member states of the European Union, such as the UK, are bound by the Euratom Treaty that requires the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) to develop uniform standards for radiological protection. These standards are based on recommendations from ICRP and are laid down in Euratom Directives relating to the safety of workers and the public, and of patients undergoing medical exposures. Member states are required to introduce national legislation to comply with Directives. In addition to ICRP and CEC, other international bodies are involved in developing practical standards and guidelines for radiological protection. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides guidelines relating to the transport of radioactive material, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides information on the biological effects of radiation. In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was established in 1970 as a statutory advisory body. It has no regulatory functions. NRPB advises Government on the acceptability and applicability of international recommendations. Principles are then applied in the UK by Acts of Parliament and subsidiary instruments such as regulations, licences, authorizations and approvals. Various government departments are involved in policing the control of radiation according to their particular role, for example the Department of the Environment in relation to pollution, and the Department of Employment for the health and safety of workers. (author)

  1. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gordon H.; Reeves, Nigel; Nisbet, Amy C.; Garnett, Andrew; Williams, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  3. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Williams, J.; Buck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the U.K. since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium based fast reactor system and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high burn-up thermal reactor oxide fuel. In consequence, the U.K. has decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250 MW(E) Prototype Fast Reactor as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small scale fully active demonstration plant have been carried out over the past 5 years and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected U.K. fast reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast reactor and thermal reactor fuel reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small scale P.F.R. fuel reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy is discussed

  4. Well integrity failure in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  5. Micro-hydro power in the UK: The role of communities in an emerging energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, L.J.; Bulkeley, H.A.; Maynard, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research around micro-hydro power is focused on technical aspects with limited understanding of the social organisation and environmental implications. We examine the ways in which micro-hydro is engaged by people and organisations as a means of contributing to the UK's policy ambition for renewable energy. We bring to the fore the way in which expertise is used and contested. A web based review of micro-hydro schemes in the UK was undertaken and a detailed evaluation of two schemes in the North of England was conducted to determine how expertise and contestation figures in community schemes. Results demonstrate a rapid expansion of micro-hydro in the UK. Ownership/control is highly ‘community based’. Until now research around micro-hydro has been dominated by technical approaches with schemes defined in terms of hardware. We propose a third dimension to Walker and Cass's (2007) classification of renewable energy developments: the environmental dimension. We suggest this dimension of micro-hydro is critical, both in terms of the extent to which resources can be realised but also the ways in which it might attract controversy, in particular around how expertise is used and valued. - Highlights: • Analysis of micro-hydro schemes in the UK demonstrates a recent rapid expansion. • We propose a third dimension to renewable energy developments: the environmental dimension. • The environmental dimension of micro-hydro determines how resources are realised. • Environmental features underpin the controversy which can emerge around schemes. • The ownership of micro-hydro schemes is highly ‘community based’

  6. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  7. The effect of physician gender on length of patient consultations: observational findings from the UK hospital setting and synthesis with existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Laura; Bloor, Karen; Hewitt, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of physician gender on consultation length in UK hospital outpatient clinics and compare this, through meta-analysis, with previous studies outside the UK. Observational data on clinic times were analysed and findings were combined in a meta-analysis with existing studies investigating the effect of physician gender on consultation length. UK hospital practice. A total of 174 observations of outpatient consultations with 10 hospital specialists (consultants) from different specialties in two UK hospital trusts. Clinic times were recorded and analysis of consultation length was undertaken with physician gender as a covariate. Data were then synthesised through meta-analysis with 10 existing studies in this field. No statistically significant difference was found in the length of consultations for male and female doctors in these UK hospital settings. When pooled with existing studies, consultations with women doctors were found to be approximately two minutes longer than with men (p = 0.01). Findings from this analysis of clinic consultations in the UK National Health Service do not support previous studies, which were undertaken predominantly in North America and primary care settings. Overall, meta-analysis suggests doctors' gender may influence consultation length. Gender differences in communication should be considered in training clinicians and in overall clinical practice. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  8. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  9. An exploration of Branding approaches in UK Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chapleo, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory paper considers the current state of UK HE branding; in particular, conceptualisations and approaches. It is driven by calls in the literature for clearer understanding and application of branding in Higher Education (HE). Objectives of the research, drawn from literature, were to explore conceptualisations of branding in the UK HE sector, as well as current challenges to branding concepts/ practice in UK HE. The methodology was based upon depth interviews with fifteen opinio...

  10. Guide to UK renewable energy companies 2001. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable companies and equipment and service providers presents summaries of the different industry sectors covering wind power, photovoltaics, solar water heating, geothermal heat pump, hydroelectric power, marine current and wave technology, bioenergy, power generation from landfill gas, energy from waste, and cogeneration. A UK company classification listing and index is provided along with listing of UK organisations and companies and an index of advertisers

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Harris, D.W.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK. (author)

  12. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  13. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  14. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  15. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  16. Islamist groups in the UK and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.

  17. UK experience of planning the nuclear contribution to the UK power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, S.; Jenkin, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines U.K. experience in planning nuclear programmes. It examines the factors which have determined the size of such programmes together with those factors which have influenced their implementation. The paper also discusses the role which the utility has played in the deployment of nuclear power in the U.K. At present, nuclear energy can only be utilised on a large scale via the electricity route and the forecasting of electricity demand is therefore a key element in determining the size of the nuclear programme. Other important issues which affect the nuclear contribution are: national fuel policies, discontinuities in price and availability of imported fossil fuels, plant capital costs, fuel price relativities, plant siting, rate of introduction of new nuclear systems, manufacturer's capability, public attitudes towards nuclear power and financing. These issues are dealt with in some detail including their relative importance in the U.K. The paper also discusses the contribution of the various nuclear bodies in the U.K. in securing the implementation of the nuclear programmes. From the inception of nuclear power in the U.K., it has been recognised that a major utility has a central role to play not only in commercial operation but also in the procurement of plant and materials. As explained in the paper this ''informed buyer'' approach, which is being increasingly adopted by other major utilities, calls for an organisation and technical infrastructure far more complex than is the case for fossil plants. The requirements of safety, which is unambiguously the responsibility of the utility, and of high availability of plant operation demand a rigorous approach to design, quality assurance, project management, construction and operation. To this must be added sound research and development and staff training facilities. The paper explains how experience in these vital areas has been built up

  18. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  19. The UK gas market in transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, D.

    1997-01-01

    Virtually every aspect of the UK gas market is currently experiencing rapid change and major uncertainties. The fast-track to full competition in 1998 requires a new customer-handling infrastructure, new rules and new marketing strategies.The introduction of competition in the UK is proving more complex than most of its architects assumed. The UK provides considerable evidence not only on market design but also the management of the transitional process. The path from a state-owned monopoly through privatisation to competition is overviewed, and some of the lessons are considered which other countries (and the European Commission) contemplating reforms may glean from the UK experience. (R.P.)

  20. Energy UK 2011? Give us just a little more time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O`Callaghan, P.W. [Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    1995-04-01

    The article analyses the trends from `published proved` fossil reserves, consumption and lives, both in the UK and globally. Despite fears of global warming, and the 1988 Toronto Protocol, energy consumption rates globally have increased 25% over the past two decades. And although they fluctuate, UK rates have not declined significantly. In the absence of imports UK indigenous fossil fuels will be depleted in 2011. The UK has vast reserves of coal, shale oil and peat, but is currently unable to complete with cheap imported fuel. The authors urge continuous review of the economic, political and social factors. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Downthrown traps of the NW Witch Ground Graben, UK North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, A.D. (Texaco Ltd., London (GB))

    1989-10-01

    The structures drilled to-date in the NW Witch Ground Graben area have been assigned to two broad categories: upthrown traps with four-way dip closure or tilted fault blocks, generally located on the flanks of the graben; and downthrown traps with closure against a major fault, located downthrown on the main graben border-fault systems. Many of these are in fact combination traps, having upthrown fault-seal and/or stratigraphic elements. A study of trap settings has shown: the success rate for encountering hydrocarbons in upthrown traps and downthrown traps is very similar; the common belief that the footwall seal is the most critical element of a downthrown trap is questionable; modern seismic data reveals that a high proportion of unsuccessful exploratory wells were not located on a closed structure; there is a lesser chance of the reservoir being absent, or there being no migration route to the trap, in downthrown compared with upthrown structures; carboniferous sediments can be a footwall seal for a downthrown trap in one location, and a reservoir for hydrocarbons in another; the structural evolution of the Graben has been ideal for the development of downthrown traps. (author).

  2. Periglacial disruption and subsequent glacitectonic deformation of bedrock : an example from Anglesey, North Wales, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Emrys; Lee, Jonathan R.; Riding, James B.; Kendall, Rhian; Hughes, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The deformed metasedimentary bedrock and overlying diamictons in western Anglesey, NW Wales, record evidence of glacier-permafrost interactions during the Late Devensian (Weichselian). The locally highly brecciated New Harbour Group bedrock is directly overlain by a bedrock-rich diamicton which preserves evidence of having undergone both periglacial (brecciation, hydrofracturing) and glacitectonic deformation (thrusting, folding), and is therefore interpreted as periglacial head d...

  3. AeroSol Cloud Interactions in UK weather (ASCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, C.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Carslaw, K.; Mann, G.; Blyth, A. M.; Field, P.; Shipway, B.; Hill, A.; Salvi, M.; Wilkinson, J.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of aerosols with clouds is known to significantly affect cloud dynamics and the patterns and intensity of precipitation. However, aerosol-cloud interactions are very poorly handled in low resolution climate models and the processes are not included at all in operational NWP models (beyond set land-sea contrasts). The ASCI project explores the interactions between the atmospheric aerosol particles, the cloud microphysics and the weather-system dynamics over UK. To investigate the aerosol influences on the microphysics and dynamics fields, the Met Office Unified Model with a new multi-moment bulk microphysics scheme is coupled with the GLOMAP-mode aerosol representation. The new multi-moment bulk microphysics scheme considers 5 phases (cloud water, rain, ice, snow and graupel) and the aerosol mass inside the liquid or ice phase hydrometeors. The cloud and ice phases are represented according to two moments (number and mass) whereas the rain, snow and graupel are represented with an additional moment (reflectivity). The GLOMAP-mode scheme simulates in a sized resolved manner the gas phase chemistry and the aerosol processes (primary emissions, nucleation scavenging, coagulation, condensation, dry deposition, sedimentation etc). The scheme can represent seven modes in carrying aerosol component masses and number concentrations. Nevertheless, to couple the new microphysics and the aerosol schemes, the number of the aerosol modes is simplified and there was a special attention to the cloud/rain evaporation and aerosol nucleation processes. The simulation results are compared to observations from the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) field campaign, which took place in southern England in 2005. The initial case-study selected is characterised by moderately intense convective showers forming throughout the day in a north-westerly airstream below an upper-level PV anomaly. The model fields are compared with radar observations and other data.

  4. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  5. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  6. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  7. Psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy training in a UK deanery: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Amy Alice; Clark, Sarah Emily

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method To explore core psychiatry trainees' experiences of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) training by using interpretative phenomenological analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven core trainee psychiatrists in Yorkshire and the Humber Deanery. Results Four key themes emerged: (1) barriers to training; (2) guidance, with emphasis on the importance of supervision groups; (3) acquisition of new skills and confidence; (4) personal influence on the training experience. Clinical implications Many trainees in Yorkshire have a positive experience of CBT training; however, some also experience barriers to acquiring the relevant skills. Further research should build on the positive factors and barriers identified here, with a view to guiding improvements in training nationwide. PMID:28400968

  8. Towards a measurement-based national verification system for GHG emissions: UK emission estimates of CO2 from the GAUGE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzi, Siegfried; Palmer, Paul; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Stanley, Kieran; Stavert, Ann; Grant, Aoife; Helfter, Carole; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Allen, Grant; Pitt, Joseph; Le Breton, Michael; Bösch, Hartmut; Sembhi, Harjinder; Sonderfeld, Hannah; Parker, Robert; Bauguitte, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Robust quantification of emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is central to the success of ongoing international efforts to slow current emissions and mitigate future climate change. The Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project aims to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of country-scale emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using concentration measurements from a network of tall towers and mobile platforms (aircraft and ferry) distributed across the UK. The GAUGE measurement programme includes: (a) GHG measurements on a regular ferry route down the North Sea aimed at sampling UK outflow; (b) campaign deployment of the UK BAe-146 research aircraft to provide vertical profile measurements of GHG over and around the UK; (c) a high-density GHG measurement network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector; and (d) regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues used for GHG source attribution. We also use satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) to provide continental-scale constraints on GHG flux estimates. We present CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemistry and transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  9. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  10. Understanding the NAO from Iberian and UK paleoclimate records. The NAOSIPUK project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Slaymark, Charlotte; José Ramos-Román, Maria; Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the NAOSIPUK project was to understand the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the Holocene, because the NAO is one major climate mode influencing climate patterns across Europe, and therefore, economy and society (Hurrell, 1995). We analysed several sedimentary records in two regions with opposing NAO responses. Our sedimentary surface survey from numerous lakes and bogs, led to further investigation of four records in the southern Iberian Peninsula and three in the central/northern UK. Past environments of the different sites were analysed using pollen and charcoal analysis, organic and inorganic geochemistry analyses, and sedimentary and geophysical surveys were performed. This work compares general environmental trends in both regions as deduced from the organic matter from bulk sediment to get an idea of the organic matter source, as well as specific organic compounds extracted from the sediment, such as leaf waxes (n-alkanes), algae-related compounds (diols and alkenones), and bacteria-related compounds (hopanes), to specify the sources of the organic matter, environmental temperature ranges, as well as hydrological changes. Our preliminary results show that the palaeoenvironmental indices developed from n-alkanes agree with the variations deduced from the carbon and nitrogen atomic ratios, as well as the carbon isotopic composition from bulk sediments in southern Iberia records. Interestingly, these indices show that some locations display opposite trends from one another, and are used to distinguish regional versus local effects of climate change, human impacts, and aeolian dust inputs. During the late Holocene solar forcing and NAO fluctuations are the main drivers of the environmental evolution in most of the Iberian and UK sites. However, we do detect the influence of the NAO in the temperatures oscillations of the studied sites in southern Iberia. This influence is much more important in the north/central UK sites. The regional

  11. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  12. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  13. Nuclear safety in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear installations in the UK works through a licensing system. Licences are granted by the HSE (Health and Safety Executive), through HMNII (HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate). HMNII's approach to the assessment of installations follows a set of Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs). Originally two sets of SAPs were produced, one for nuclear power reactors and the other for chemical plants (reprocessing etc..). During the 1980's it was found possible to combine the principles for all types of installation into one document with the earlier total of about 700 principles being reduced to 333. The new SAPs published in 1992 include a refinement of the approach to licensing which comprises a standard set of conditions for each site. The conditions usually set some objective, either for a physical feature or for maintenance. This paper describes the mechanics of the licensing process, the Tolerability of Risk (TOR) principle, and the SAPs. (J.S.). 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Challenges for academic accreditation: the UK experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, Richard; Seddon, Deborah

    2010-08-01

    Several factors (government policy, demographic trends, employer pressure) are leading to new forms of degree programmes in UK universities. The government is strongly encouraging engagement between universities and employers. Work-based learning is increasingly found in first and second cycle programmes, along with modules designed by employers and increasing use of distance learning. Engineering faculties are playing a leading part in these developments, and the Engineering Council, the engineering professional bodies and some universities are collaborating to develop work-based learning programmes as a pathway to professional qualification. While potentially beneficial to the engineering profession, these developments pose a challenge to traditional approaches to programme accreditation. This paper explores how this system deals with these challenges and highlights the issues that will have to be addressed to ensure that the system can cope effectively with change, especially the development of individually tailored, work-based second cycle programmes, while maintaining appropriate standards and international confidence.

  15. Social sensing of floods in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Rudy; Boulton, Chris A; Shotton, Humphrey; Williams, Hywel T P

    2018-01-01

    "Social sensing" is a form of crowd-sourcing that involves systematic analysis of digital communications to detect real-world events. Here we consider the use of social sensing for observing natural hazards. In particular, we present a case study that uses data from a popular social media platform (Twitter) to detect and locate flood events in the UK. In order to improve data quality we apply a number of filters (timezone, simple text filters and a naive Bayes 'relevance' filter) to the data. We then use place names in the user profile and message text to infer the location of the tweets. These two steps remove most of the irrelevant tweets and yield orders of magnitude more located tweets than we have by relying on geo-tagged data. We demonstrate that high resolution social sensing of floods is feasible and we can produce high-quality historical and real-time maps of floods using Twitter.

  16. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  17. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  18. I-15 North Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  19. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  20. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  1. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  2. In the Service of Technocratic Managerialism? History in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Norton, Claire

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptualisation, organisation and philosophical orientation of academic history culture in UK higher education. It problematises the extent to which a dominant history culture in UK universities implies and uncritically reproduces normative understandings about the subject; about its epistemological standing,…

  3. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  4. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the time series data produced annually since 2001 under the title "Patterns of higher education institutions in the UK." It offers a unique overview of provision at publicly-funded higher education institutions in the UK. All charts and tables in the report are now also available to download from the Universities UK…

  5. Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an interim update to the Universities UK "Patterns" series, before the publication of the full "Patterns and Trends" publication in spring 2017. It includes updates of the main charts included in the 2015 publication, covering trends in student and staff numbers and finances of the UK higher education…

  6. UK Government: New postgraduate scheme - Dorothy Hodgkin awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The UK Prime Minister today announced a new GBP10m initiative, the Dorothy Hodgkin Postgraduate Awards, which will allow over 100 PhD students from India, China, Hong Kong, Russia and the developing world to study in top UK universities (1 page).

  7. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  8. New Migrants in the UK: Education, Training and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny; Goodson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This study of the education, training and employment of asylum seekers and refugees in the UK is based on the academic and policy literature and empirical data from five major studies. It sets out the political context to seeking asylum in the UK, explores current policy and practice regarding the education, training and employment of new migrants…

  9. UK Ownership and Control: A Transformational Analysis | Lotto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that, 42% of UK companies have multiple large shareholders and about 40% of the sample firms separate cash flow-rights from control-rights, confirming the presence of controlling block holders. This is contrary to the traditional understanding that UK ownership structure is dispersed. Therefore, this study ...

  10. The untimely death of the UK Donation Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2017-01-01

    This brief report describes the contribution of the UK Donation Ethics Committee to organ donation and transplantation in the UK, and explains why the committee has met an early demise. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  12. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  13. Studies on urokinase (UK) therapy of thromboembolic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Ryuji; Satake, Kisaburo; Hisamatsu, Tokugoro; Fukase, Masaichi

    1974-01-01

    In order to determine the urokinase (UK) concentration in blood, a radioimmunoassay method was developed, in which a radioactive material labeled with 125 I-Na was used. In this method, the movement of UK in blood and the relationship between the UK concentration and fibrinolytic activity were studied with the following results: 1) The concentration of UK in normal human blood was found to be 6.84 +- 2.53 PKU early in the morning with an apparent daily rythmic fluctuation in concentration. 2) With an intravenous drip of 20,000 to 30,000 PKU, the UK concentration increased 6 to 8 PKU/ml above the early morning value, then in one to two hours it returned to the previous value once again. In some of the cases, a slight, transient decrease occurred. 3) Following the UK drip, UK concentration in the blood and fibrinolytic activity varied in a parallel fashion. Plasminogen and antiplasmin levels were not altered by administration of only 20,000 to 30,000 PKU of UK. Fibrinogen was lowered, but the fluctuation was within the physiological range. (S. Oyama)

  14. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  15. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  16. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  17. Why Open Government Data? ?Lessons from data.gov.uk

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    The talk reviews the history of development of Open Government Data with particular reference to the UK effort and data.gov.uk - it discusses the motivations and reasons why Governments, communities and individuals support Open Data initiatives. It presents a range of challenges that this throws up from cultural to organisational, information assurance to revenue models.

  18. IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-18

    Oct 18, 2017 ... IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases and promoting ... Cancer Research UK's international tobacco control program seeks to accelerate the implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco ...

  19. Nuclear power and public acceptance in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; UK nuclear experience (experience of the Central Electricity Generating Board; impartial assessment); Sizewell inquiry (into proposal to construct a PWR based plant as Sizewell B; inquiry process; ground covered; economics and safety; project management); public acceptance (sociological studies); long-term programme. (U.K.)

  20. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  1. Conceptualising Student Voice in UK Higher Education: Four Theoretical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2017-01-01

    The "student voice" is highly profiled in UK higher education, yet highly under-theorised. Over the past 20 years UK universities have gone from a taxpayer-funded, free at the point of use model, to one supported through tuition fees via Government-backed loans. Subsequently, there is a growth of discourse about universities as…

  2. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picker, C.; Ainsworth, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The general position with regard to nuclear power and fast reactors in UK during 1995 is described. The status of fast reactor studies made in UK is outlined and a description and statement regarding the conclusions of the programme of studies associated with the closure of the Prototype Fast Reactor is included. (author)

  3. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  4. Has Economics become an Elite Subject for Elite UK Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James; Reeves, Alan; Talbot, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The decline in the number of UK universities offering undergraduate degree programmes in subjects such as sciences, mathematics, modern languages and humanities has been well documented and is now of real concern. It appears that economics may be going through a decline in new (post-1992) UK universities with many economics programmes having been…

  5. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  6. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future

  7. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  9. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  10. Regulation of nuclear power in the UK after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The essential philosophy underlying safe nuclear power in the UK is to establish a safe design and then monitor the manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance to ensure that the safe design intent is not violated either deliberately or unintentionally. In the UK any commercial nuclear installation must have a nuclear site licence. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is the agency responsible for granting licences and ensuring the safe design and operation of the installation by the licensee. The way in which the NII does this for the 27 licensed sites that it regulates in the UK is explained. This covers plant assessment and site inspection. Following the accident at Chernobyl the NII reviewed the way in which it regulates nuclear power in the UK. Some changes in specific areas were recommended but no changes in the general philosophy were considered necessary. (UK)

  11. Emerald oil field on production in North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Midland and Scottish Energy Ltd. (MSE) has placed Emerald oil field on stream in the U.K. North Sea with a floating production unit. Initial production, from two satellite wells, will be used to commission facilities. Three water injection wells have been unplugged and are ready for start-up. MSE will place a central cluster of wells-five producers and one water injector-on stream during the next few weeks. Production will build to an expected 25,000 b/d from 35 million bbl of reserves. Field development has undergone an unusually large number of setbacks and changes

  12. Globalisation of Researcher Mobility within the UK Higher Education: Explaining the Presence of Overseas Academics in the UK Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Nabil; Fenton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the power structure that lies within the UK elite universities dictates a division of labour through which the inflows of overseas academics into the UK academic labour markets are skewed towards these elite academic institutions where they are employed primarily in research-only posts. These posts, are less valued and…

  13. The management of change in BNFL's UK group with particular reference to the restructuring of the health and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwood, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    BNFL's UK group business involves reprocessing of uranium metal (Magnox) fuel, storage and dismantling of advanced gas rector (ceramic UO 2 ) fuel, waste treatment and storage, decommissioning and electricity generation. These activities are carried out at three sites in the North West corner of England and Southern Scotland: Sellafield - all activities, Chapelcross -electricity generation, Drigg - waste storage. Achieving fundamental change in a well established nuclear business which is highly regulated is possible and can bring large benefits. The keys to success are leadership and commitment from all senior managers, involvement of all stakeholders and communication. It is essential to involve the regulator as a stakeholder. (author)

  14. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  15. An international, case-based, distance-learning collaboration between the UK and Somaliland using a real-time clinical education website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Alexander E T; Baraco, Abdirazak; Cronin, Nathalie; Johnson, Oliver; Little, Simon; Nuur, Abdirahman; Tanasie, Dragos; Leather, Andy

    2010-01-01

    We established a medical education website to deliver real-time, clinical case-based education to sites in Somaliland from the UK. The website was based on a web 2.0 social networking concept in order to recreate, as nearly as possible, the clinical bedside teaching experience. A survey showed that medical students in Somaliland had sufficient computer access to exploit the website. Teaching began in December 2008 and the teaching programme has developed into a regular weekly teaching session involving up to seven different student groups in Somaliland at different locations. As well as north-south teaching, the website has been employed to support a study module in London. Small groups of UK-based medical students have been partnered with intern tutors in Somaliland. Forty UK students have taken part in this teaching, which is now in its second year. Feedback from those involved has demonstrated that a collaboration in which both north-south and south-north teaching occurs can strengthen partnerships in which both parties contribute and benefit.

  16. Selective non-operative management of penetrating liver injuries at a UK tertiary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGoey, P; Navarro, A; Beckingham, I J; Cameron, I C; Brooks, A J

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (SNOM) of penetrating abdominal injuries has increasingly been applied in North America in the last decade. However, there is less acceptance of SNOM among UK surgeons and there are limited data on UK practice. We aimed to review our management of penetrating liver injuries and, specifically, the application of SNOM. A retrospective review was performed of patients presenting with penetrating liver injuries between June 2005 and November 2013. Thirty-one patients sustained liver injuries due to penetrating trauma. The vast majority (97%) were due to stab wounds. The median injury severity score was 14 and a quarter of patients had concomitant thoracic injuries. Twelve patients (39%) underwent immediate surgery owing to haemodynamic instability, evisceration, retained weapon or diffuse peritonism. Nineteen patients were stable to undergo computed tomography (CT), ten of whom were selected subsequently for SNOM. SNOM was successful in eight cases. Both patients who failed SNOM had arterial phase contrast extravasation evident on their initial CT. Angioembolisation was not employed in either case. All major complications and the only death occurred in the operatively managed group. No significant complications of SNOM were identified and there were no transfusions in the non-operated group. Those undergoing operative management had longer lengths of stay than those undergoing SNOM (median stay 6.5 vs 3.0 days, p<0.05). SNOM is a safe strategy for patients with penetrating liver injuries in a UK setting. Patient selection is critical and CT is a vital triage tool. Arterial phase contrast extravasation may predict failure of SNOM and adjunctive angioembolisation should be considered for this group.

  17. Social Pedagogy in North America: historical background and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory. 

  18. A survey of atmospheric trace elements in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1976-08-01

    Concentrations of some 36 trace and major elements were measured in air particulate, rainwater and dry deposition samples collected each month at seven non-urban sites in the U.K. from January to December 1975. The samples were bulked for analysis each quarter year, and the majority were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main objectives were to provide information on concentrations of elements in air to compare with urban measurements, to study the longer term trends in atmospheric concentrations, and to record the deposition inventory to the ground. Continuity of data from the sampling station network has been maintained since January 1972, but at the Wraymires site in north-west England operations began one year earlier. (author)

  19. Electrical resistivity survey to search for a recent clandestine burial of a homicide victim, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R

    2010-10-10

    This case report details an electrical resistivity survey to assist the search for a suspected 1-year-old clandestine burial of a murder victim in North Wales in the UK. Conventional search techniques (victim recovery dogs and probing) proved unsuccessful, and with a significant survey area and a high clay content soil precluding GPR as a geophysical search method, a resistivity survey was instead trialled. Ten resistivity grids were collected and site detrended with user-specified, contoured anomalies being generated. The resulting anomalies were compared to anomalies derived from similar-aged, simulated clandestine burial surveys. Seven anomalies with comparative sizes and amplitudes (±3Ω) of the simulated burials were identified within the search area and prioritised for further investigation. The shallowly buried victim was subsequently recovered outside the survey area. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  1. Social Justice and Adaptation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Benzie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation strategies and policies are normally based on climate impact assessments that fail to take account of the social nature and distribution of vulnerability to climate change. This is largely a product of the dominant assessment techniques that are used to inform such strategies and the limits of existing evidence. In this paper I contribute to filling gaps in the current adaptation literature by exploring the social nature of vulnerability and the potential for socially just adaptation. It does so by reviewing studies from the UK, in particular those under the Joseph Rowntree Foundation's Climate Change and Social Justice programme. It finds that vulnerability to high temperatures and fluvial and coastal flooding, in terms of sensitivity, exposure, and the capacity to anticipate, respond, and recover, is concentrated in certain disadvantaged and socially marginalized groups, including those on low incomes. It also finds that both autonomous and planned adaptation may fail to protect the most vulnerable individuals and groups, and may even reinforce existing patterns of vulnerability in some cases, i.e., mal-adaptation, especially where they rely on unmediated market forces or where they fail to explicitly recognize aspects of social vulnerability in their design and implementation. I argue that social justice should be an explicit objective of adaptation strategy.

  2. Inequalities in the dental treatment provided to children: an example from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2002-10-01

    To identify the relationship between the socioeconomic status of frequently attending children and the dental care of their primary dentition provided by dentists working in the General Dental Service (GDS) of the UK National Health Service (NHS). The study design involved a retrospective investigation of the case notes of 658 children who were regularly attending patients of 50 General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) working in the North West of England. The socioeconomic status of each subject was measured using the Townsend score of their electoral ward of residence. Logistic regression models, taking into account the clustering of the subjects within dental practices, were fitted to identify whether or not socioeconomic status was significantly associated with the proportion of carious teeth that were restored, all dental extractions, dental extractions for pain or sepsis alone and courses of antibiotics prescribed after controlling other variables. A significant association between socioeconomic status and caries experience could not be found. There was also no association between socioeconomic status and the proportion of carious teeth filled or courses of antibiotics prescribed. Disadvantaged children were significantly more likely to have teeth extracted than their more affluent peers, but there was no association between deprivation and extractions for pain or sepsis alone. Children from deprived backgrounds who regularly attended this group of UK dentists were more likely to have extractions than their more affluent peers, irrespective of their caries experience.

  3. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  4. Metal Recycling in the UK - a decade of developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In the last 10 years, metal recycling in the UK has developed from a rarely used technique to a cornerstone of the UK national LLW strategy. The paper will explore the drivers for developing the metal recycling supply chain, policy and legislative developments, key milestones, and consider issues with market development both in its initial slow phases and now in a rapidly developing mode. The paper will contrast some of the initial inertia and blockers in the UK with the now-proven benefits of the approach, including financial, environmental and ethical. (author)

  5. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  6. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  7. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  8. UK hazard assessment for a Laki-type volcanic eruption: modelling results for sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Vieno, Massimo; Schmidt, Anja; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Hort, Matthew; Loughlin, Sue

    2015-04-01

    In response to the recent introduction of large gas-rich volcanic eruptions to the UK National Risk Register a modelling project has been conducted to improve our understanding of potential impacts to the UK from such an eruption on Iceland. A precautionary reasonable worst case eruption scenario based on the 1783-4 Laki eruption has been modelled 80 times using two different atmospheric chemistry and transport models (NAME and EMEP4UK) over 10 years of meteorology. The results provide information on the range of concentrations of sulphur dioxide gas (SO2), sulphate aerosol (SO4) and some halogen species that might be experienced in the UK during such an eruption and the likelihood of key thresholds being exceeded and over what durations. Data for the surface and for a range of key flight levels have been produced. In this presentation we will evaluate the ambient mass concentrations of SO2 and SO4 that could be experienced during and following such an eruption, as well as the likelihood of key health concentration thresholds being exceeded, and the maximum duration that levels could persist for. The prevailing meteorological conditions are the key influence on which parts of the North Atlantic and European region are affected at any time. The results demonstrate that the UK is unlikely to be affected by week after week of significantly elevated concentrations; rather there will a number of short (hours to days) pollution episodes where concentrations would be elevated above Moderate and High air quality index levels at the surface. This pattern fits with the generally changeable nature of the weather in the UK. Consecutive exceedance durations are longer for sulphate aerosol than SO2, and can be particularly lengthy in the low air quality index levels (1-2 weeks), which may be of relevance to health impact assessments. This work represents a detailed initial study but has not explored the full range of such an eruption. Nonetheless, the results from this project

  9. Dissolved and acid available particulate beryllium in eastern UK surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Colin

    2003-10-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in surface waters are presented for major water quality surveys of eastern UK rivers, based on extensive work within a major environmental programme, the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS). Two measurements were made, one for dissolved Be (i.e. the fraction that can pass through 0.45-microm membrane filters) the other for acid available total Be (dissolved Be plus the fraction of particulate Be that can be leached by a 1% v/v concentrated nitric acid solution). Dissolved Be concentrations are generally less than 1 microg l(-1) with a mean of approximately 0.02 microg l(-1), but higher values occur across the eastern UK rivers between 16th October and 7th November 1995 under neutral to alkaline conditions where Be would not be expected to be mobile. The higher values vary from river to river and there is a marked increase from north to south with particularly high concentrations (up to 29 microg l(-1)) for the industrial and urban impacted rivers of the southern Humber basin. The results show a major increase in dissolved Be at a time of exceptional drought conditions and climate instability, which seems to be linked to industrial/urban catchment systems. The average dissolved Be flux is 0.22 gha(-1) year(-1) with a range in mean across the sites of 0.08-0.45 gha(-1) year(-1). Without the period of enhanced Be concentrations, the Be flux through the period would have been approximately 40% less. There is no clear distinction between the dissolved Be flux for the rural and urban/industrial catchment systems. Acid available particulate Be (AAPBe) concentrations are low across the eastern UK rivers, they range between 0 and 1.33 microg l(-1) with a mean of 0.02 microg l(-1) and the highest concentrations occur for the industrial/urban rivers (approximately twice the levels occurring within the rural rivers). The AAPBe concentrations are linearly correlated with the concentrations of suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon

  10. Western North America dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.

  11. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  12. North America [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; Fred Clark; Patrica Gerez-Fernandez; Frank Lake; Deborah McGregor; Charles M. Peters; Silvia Purata; Teresa Ryan; Alan Thomson; Alan E. Watson; Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The colonial history of North America presents a contrast between Mexico and the two predominantly English-speaking countries, the United States and Canada. In Mexico, indigenous and other local communities own considerable forested lands, a consequence of the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. In the United States, forest land is now primarily in...

  13. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  14. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...

  15. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  16. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  17. Alternatives to detention in the UK: from enforcement to engagement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Phelps

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The UK detains migrants on a large scale, and has had limited success in developing alternatives. The British experience highlights the need for a cultural shift towards engagement with migrants in place of reliance on enforcement.

  18. The development of Radiation Protection Training courses in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers use of modern training materials and aids in radiation protection training activities. The development in the UK of training courses to satisfy the training requirements for Radiation Protection Advisers is also discussed. (Author)

  19. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  20. Field measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of rapid stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.

    2012-04-01

    The use of a solar-powered, field time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The rapid deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone

  1. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  2. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  3. The UK system of recognising qualified experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.

    2002-01-01

    EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directives have long included requirements for the involvement of qualified experts, the definition of which has scarcely changed since at least 1976. The Directive requirement, in the definition of qualified expert,, for competent authorities to recognise the capacity to act as a qualified expert has been interpreted by Member States in widely differing ways, ranging from the minimalist or case by case to the highly detailed and prescriptive. In the United Kingdom (UK), the qualified expert for occupational radiation protection is the radiation protection adviser and the competent authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, which largely implemented the 1980 BSS Directive, required an employer to appoint one or more radiation protection advisers for the purpose of advising him as to the observance of these Regulations and other health and safety matters in connection with ionising radiation. The Regulations addressed the question of recognition by forbidding an employer to appoint a person as a radiation protection adviser unless: that person was suitably qualified and experienced; the employer had notified the Health and Safety Executive in writing of the intended appointment at least 28 days in advance, giving the name of the person and particulars of his qualifications and experience and the scope of the advice he would be required to give; and the employer had received from HSE an acknowledgement in writing of the notification. This system allowed HSE to follow up and query any apparently unsuitable potential appointments while applying a light overall administrative touch. The Approved Code of Practice supporting the Regulations included advice on the qualifications, experience and qualities that the employer should look for in a suitable radiation protection adviser

  4. Prescription errors in UK critical care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, S A; Booth, S A; Thompson, C M

    2004-12-01

    Drug prescription errors are a common cause of adverse incidents and may be largely preventable. The incidence of prescription errors in UK critical care units is unknown. The aim of this study was to collect data about prescription errors and so calculate the incidence and variation of errors nationally. Twenty-four critical care units took part in the study for a 4-week period. The total numbers of new and re-written prescriptions were recorded daily. Errors were classified according to the nature of the error. Over the 4-week period, 21,589 new prescriptions (or 15.3 new prescriptions per patient) were written. Eighty-five per cent (18,448 prescriptions) were error free, but 3141 (15%) prescriptions had one or more errors (2.2 erroneous prescriptions per patient, or 145.5 erroneous prescriptions per 1000 new prescriptions). The five most common incorrect prescriptions were for potassium chloride (10.2% errors), heparin (5.3%), magnesium sulphate (5.2%), paracetamol (3.2%) and propofol (3.1%). Most of the errors were minor or would have had no adverse effects but 618 (19.6%) errors were considered significant, serious or potentially life threatening. Four categories (not writing the order according to the British National Formulary recommendations, an ambiguous medication order, non-standard nomenclature and writing illegibly) accounted for 47.9% of all errors. Although prescription rates (and error rates) in critical care appear higher than elsewhere in hospital, the number of potentially serious errors is similar to other areas of high-risk practice.

  5. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparison in the UK has been carried out in limited studies since the 1960s. However the first national dosimetry intercomparison involving all radiotherapy centres was conducted in the late 1980s. This was based on visits to each centre, using ionisation chamber dosimetry. It audited megavoltage photon beam calibration and other single field parameters. It also measured doses in a three-field 'treatment' in a trapezoidal phantom constructed from epoxy-resin water-equivalent material and compared these to locally planned doses. This included off-axis points, oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, etc. The study found mean measured beam calibration doses close to stated values (ratio 1.003), with a standard deviation (sd) of the distribution of 1.5% and 97% of doses within the pro-set 3% tolerance. For the planned multi-field irradiations, mean dose ratios (measured/stated) were 1.01 (sd 3%, 90% of results within 5%). A number of discrepancies were identified, leading to improved practice. A follow up study (mid-1990s) for electron beam audit also repeated the megavoltage photon calibration audit. For photons, an improvement was noted (mean ratio 1.003, sd 1.0%, 100% within 3%), whilst for electron beams, the mean ratio of measured/stated dose was 0.994 (sd 1.8%, 94% within 3%, 99% within 5%). In parallel with - and growing out of - this, a national audit network began to develop in 1991/2. It utilised similar methodology to the intercomparison and a network approach to allow parallel developments of the scope of the system. The network has eight regional groups, each with up to 10 radiotherapy centres, serving average populations of 7-8 million. Each group organises audits of its own centres and has developed at its own pace. Most have piloted methodology, phantoms, etc. for new audits which can then be used by other groups. All 65 UK centres are included. The network is co-ordinated by an IPEM Steering Committee (current chair

  6. First emission estimates from the UK DECC network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aoife; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Derwent, Richard G.; Moncrieff, John B.; Oram, David E.; Sturges, William T.

    2013-04-01

    The UK DECC (Deriving Emissions linked to Climate Change) network monitors the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to assess the impact of international policies related to climate change. The effects of control measures on greenhouse gases introduced under the Kyoto Protocol are now being observed. Continued monitoring is required to assess the overall success of the Protocol. For over 25 years the UK Government has funded high-frequency measurements of greenhouse gases at Mace Head, a global background measurement station on the west coast of Ireland. These in-situ, high-frequency, high-precision measurements are used to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases across the UK using the inversion methodology InTEM (Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling). InTEM links the Met Office's atmospheric dispersion model, NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment), with the Mace Head observations and provides independent verification of bottom up (inventory) emission estimates. In 2011 the UK government (Department of Energy and Climate Change) funded the establishment and integration of three new tall tower measurements stations in the UK, to allow enhanced resolution emission estimates with decreased uncertainty to be produced using InTEM. The new network became operational in 2012. All three additional stations provide ultra high-frequency (1 sec) data of CO2 and CH4 using the Picarro© Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer and high frequency (10 min) measurements of N2O and SF6 from custom built sample modules with GC-ECD. We will present the new UK measurement network in detail along with the new inversion results highlighting the enhanced resolution in regional emission maps for the UK. These results are presented to the UK government annually and provide independent verification of the emission estimates of radiatively active trace gases. The results are compared to the bottom up inventory emission estimates as submitted to the UNFCCC.

  7. Universities give record level of support to the UK economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Universities in the UK are providing record levels of services to businesses, according to a recent survey by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The survey concludes that the income earned by universities and higher-education colleges in the UK is now worth a total of £2.812bn - an increase of 6.5% from the previous year.

  8. Outsourcing the law firm library: the UK experience

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Since 2009, a number of large and leading UK law firms have outsourced their in-house law library and research service to outsource service providers. Integreon, the leading provider of these services in the UK, commenced operations in Australia in 2011. Since that time, a number of other providers of outsourced law library and legal research services have attracted a number of top-tier Australian law firms as clients. These outsource providers are not currently providing law library and lega...

  9. Aluminium Roofing Products Ltd Marketing to the Public Sector, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Sadaf

    2009-01-01

    This management project was undertaken on behalf of Aluminium Roofing Products Ltd ™ (ARP), a young, entrepreneurial company associated predominantly with aluminium products. The project brief was initially untaken by Ian Dunbar - one of the marketing segmentation gurus in the UK. As a result of his investigation, the company aimed to target the public sector in the UK in order to increase their market share. The project was fairly broad and identified several areas of the public sector which...

  10. Potential for biogas on farms in the UK (1990 update)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous report, the potential for generating renewable energy as biogas on farms in the UK using a new generation of 'package plant' anaerobic digestion units was investigated. It was concluded that the digestion technology was rugged and reliable but rather expensive for general farm use. An update report is presented to determine whether anaerobic digester design concepts, increasing environmental constraints on farm waste disposal and the Electricity Industry's Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has modified these conclusions. (UK)

  11. Performance clustering and incentives in the UK pension fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    David Blake; Bruce N. Lehmann; Allan Timmermann

    2002-01-01

    Despite pension fund managers being largely unconstrained in their investment decisions, this paper reports evidence of clustering in the performance of a large cross-section of UK pension fund managers around the median fund manager. This finding is explained in terms of the predominance of a single investment style (balanced management), the fee structures and incentives operating in the UK pension fund industry to maximise relative rather than absolute performance, the high concentration i...

  12. The UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) for molecular genetic testing in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David J; Goodeve, Anne; Hill, Marian; Jennings, Ian; Kitchen, Steve; Walker, Isobel

    2006-11-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of families with haemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders is now a common laboratory investigation. In contrast to phenotypic testing in which strict quality control is adhered to, in haemophilia molecular genetic testing there has been a lack of any external quality assurance schemes. In 1998 the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) established a pilot quality assurance scheme for molecular genetic testing in haemophilia. Results from three initial surveys highlighted problems with the quality of samples when used to screen for the intron 22 inversion within the F8 gene. The scheme was re-launched in 2003, and since that time there have been five exercises involving whole blood or immortalised cell line DNA. The results together with an overall summary of the exercise are subsequently returned to participants. Exercises to date have focused exclusively on haemophilia A and QA, material has included screening for the intron 1 and intron 22 inversions as well as sequence analysis. A paper exercise circulated in 2003 highlighted problems with the format of reports and, following feedback to participants, only a single error has been made in the subsequent four exercises. Participating laboratories now receive QA material every six months. Immortalised cell line material was introduced in 2005 and was shown to perform well. This will allow expansion of the scheme and a reduction in the dependence on blood donation.

  13. A new Holocene record of geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Rachael S.; Xuan, Chuang; Kemp, Alan E. S.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Cotterill, Carol J.; Fielding, J. James; Pearce, Richard B.; Croudace, Ian W.

    2017-11-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records serve as valuable independent stratigraphic correlation and dating tools for marine and terrestrial sediment sequences, and enhance knowledge of geomagnetic field dynamics. We present a new radiocarbon-dated record (WINPSV-12K) of Holocene geomagnetic secular variation from Windermere, updating the existing 1981 UK master PSV curve. Our analyses used continuous U-channel samples taken from the center of four sediment cores retrieved from Windermere in 2012. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of each U-channel was measured before and after stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetization on a superconducting rock magnetometer at intervals of 0.5-cm or 1-cm. The NRM data reveal a stable and well-defined primary magnetization. Component declinations and inclinations estimated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of NRM data from the four Windermere cores correlate well on their independent radiocarbon age models. The four records were stacked using a sliding window bootstrap method, resulting in a composite Holocene PSV record (WINPSV-12K). On millennial timescales WINPSV-12K correlates well with other records from Western Europe and the northern North Atlantic to a resolution of ∼1 kyr, given age uncertainties and spatial variability between records. WINPSV-12K also compares well to the CALS10k.2 and pfm9k.1a model predictions for Windermere. Key regionally-significant PSV inclination features of WINPSV-12K which correlate with other North Atlantic records include peaks at 5-6, 8.5, and 10 cal ka BP, and a trough at 7 cal ka BP. Key PSV declination features include the eastward swing from 5.5-2.3 cal ka BP followed by a major westward excursion at 2.3 cal ka BP, peaks at 1.1 and 7 cal ka BP, and troughs at 5.4 and 8.2 cal ka BP, with the caveat that an estimated magnetic lock-in delay of at least 100-200 yr is present. PSV variations on 1-3 kyr timescales are interpreted to represent strengthening and weakening

  14. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-08-01

    Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plater, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

  16. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  17. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niksch, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    .... North Korea's actions follow the reported disclosure in October 2002 that North Korea is operating a secret nuclear program based on uranium enrichment and the decision by the Korean Peninsula Energy...

  18. Factors influencing the contamination of UK banknotes with drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebejer, Karl A; Lloyd, Gavin R; Brereton, Richard G; Carter, James F; Sleeman, Richard

    2007-09-13

    Bank of England banknotes sampled from different locations in the UK have been analysed for the presence of cocaine, diamorphine (DAM), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A database of the contamination detected is routinely used as a benchmark against which the contamination detected on seized banknotes can be compared. Evidence presented at court details how banknotes seized from a suspect may differ from banknotes in general circulation in terms of their contamination with controlled drugs. A question arising from such evidence is whether seized banknotes could have become contaminated through being in circulation in drug "hot spots". In order to address this issue, a Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to investigate the influence of source location and other factors on banknote contamination with drugs of abuse. Banknotes were drawn from banks in eight regions throughout the UK. Each location could be described by a unique combination of the factors under investigation, namely whether the location was rural or urban, in the North or South of the UK, and whether it was a port of entry. The socio-economic class and the proportion of drug offenders in the area and the denomination of the banknotes were also considered as potentially influential factors. Indices were calculated to describe the degree to which samples were contaminated with different drugs, and normal probability plots were used to identify the factors that could account for the contamination observed. Whilst some factors were more influential than others, it was shown that, at the 95% confidence level, none of the proposed factors were significant influences on the contamination. Cocaine contamination on banknotes has been shown to follow a log-normal distribution. It was, therefore, possible to calculate F- and t-statistics to compare the cocaine contamination on the entire sample set with that detected on a second sample set consisting of

  19. Specialty choice in UK junior doctors: Is psychiatry the least popular specialty for UK and international medical graduates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebmeier Klaus P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the UK and many other countries, many specialties have had longstanding problems with recruitment and have increasingly relied on international medical graduates to fill junior and senior posts. We aimed to determine what specialties were the most popular and desirable among candidates for training posts, and whether this differed by country of undergraduate training. Methods We conducted a database analysis of applications to Modernising Medical Careers for all training posts in England in 2008. Total number of applications (as an index of popularity and applications per vacancy (as an index of desirability were analysed for ten different specialties. We tested whether mean consultant incomes correlated with specialty choice. Results In, 2008, there were 80,949 applications for specialty training in England, of which 31,434 were UK graduates (39%. Among UK medical graduates, psychiatry was the sixth most popular specialty (999 applicants out of 10 specialty groups, while it was fourth for international graduates (5,953 applicants. Among UK graduates, surgery (9.4 applicants per vacancy and radiology (8.0 had the highest number of applicants per vacancy and paediatrics (1.2 and psychiatry (1.1 the lowest. Among international medical graduates, psychiatry had the fourth highest number of applicants per place (6.3. Specialty popularity for UK graduates was correlated with predicted income (p = 0.006. Conclusion Based on the number of applicants per place, there was some consistency in the most popular specialties for both UK and international medical graduates, but there were differences in the popularity of psychiatry. With anticipated decreases in the number of new international medical graduates training in the UK, university departments and professional associations may need to review strategies to attract more UK medical graduates into certain specialties, particularly psychiatry and paediatrics.

  20. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period April 1975 to March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayther, D.B.

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report describes the activities of the UK Nuclear Data Committee, lists the UK data in a CINDA type index, and reports briefly on each UK activity under the organization concerned (AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith, NPL, AWRE Aldermaston, University of Aston in Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of London Reactor Centre). (U.K.)

  1. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  2. Impact of wind generation on the operation and development of the UK electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Shakoor, Anser; Pudjianto, Danny; Black, Mary; Bopp, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although penetration of wind generation may displace a significant amount of energy produced by large conventional plant, there are issues associated with the extent to which wind generation will be able to replace the capacity and flexibility of conventional generating plant. This is important since wind power is variable, so it will be necessary to retain a significant proportion of conventional plant to ensure security of supply especially under conditions of high demand and low wind. Hence, the capacity value of wind generation will be limited as it will not be possible to displace conventional generation capacity on a ''megawatt for megawatt'' basis. Wind power is variable and not easy to predict, hence various forms of additional reserves will be needed to maintain the balance between supply and demand at all times. Additionally, if the majority of wind generation plant is located in Scotland and the North of England, reinforcement of the transmission network will be needed to accommodate the increases in the north-south flow of electricity. In this paper an assessment of the costs and benefits of wind generation on the UK electricity system is carried out, assuming different levels of wind power capacity. Overall, it is concluded that the system will be able to accommodate significant increases in wind power generation with relatively small increases in overall costs of supply, about 5% of the current domestic electricity price in case of 20% energy produced by wind power. (author)

  3. Study of tidal power projects in the UK, with the exception of the Severn barrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    Several estuaries in the UK could be equipped with barrages and tidal power plants and several projects were proposed and studied from the end of the 1960's and 1989, until the electric power industry was privatized. Five projects revealed to be more promising than others: the Conwy estuary in the north of Wales, for which the feasibility study concluded that there was no serious environmental constraints on the project; Duddon, a little bit more in the north, which appears to be not economically interesting; Loughor, in the south of Wales, a small size project for which no advanced ecological consequences studies were carried out; Mersey, near Liverpool, the most important project (700 MW) which stands a good chance of being realized; the Wyre estuary, between Duddon and Mersey, for which the cost seems to be prohibitive. The economical conditions which started in the 1980's are largely responsible for the stand-by of any of these projects. The tide power kWh production cost continues to be viewed as two times more expensive than it would be with a classical power plant. Of course, this cost takes into account the actions for environmental protection. (J.S.)

  4. Meanwhile, North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    The progress regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes in North Korea and the instability on the Korean Peninsula have taken a back seat in the international community's analysis and perhaps its concerns for more than a year. The last event to provoke a wave of protest and tangible renewed interest occurred on 12 February 2013 when Pyongyang carried out its third nuclear test with an estimated yield of 6 to 8 kilo-tonnes. The United Nations Security Council condemned the test on 7 March (Resolution 2094). With the exception of several recent Security Council declarations, it is clear that activity on the part of the international community has been sparse. The same can be said with regard to the European Union and the United States. This state of affairs is not surprising. The analysis takes note of it by ceasing, there or thereabouts, to produce new material. Firstly, the North Korean crisis is a long-term one and the diplomatic process that is meant to lead to its resolution has been interrupted; the Six-Party Talks have been at a standstill since the end of 2008. A agreement between the United States and North Korea, concluded on 29 February 2012 under which the North Korean regime accepted the principle of a moratorium on long-range missile tests, nuclear tests, and all activity at the Yongbyon nuclear complex lastly barely a few days. Many actors involved in the management of this crisis are suffering from a weariness whose acknowledgement is politically incorrect: with regard to Pyongyang's launch of missiles and rockets last spring, the U.S. admiral Samuel Locklear told the Associated Press in July 'you become somewhat numb, you start to say, well, it's not so much of a big deal'. Moreover, since 2013, the focus of international security with regard to WMD and beyond has also largely shifted from North-East Asia to the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Pell-mell, the worsening and broadening of the war in Syria, the

  5. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    to negotiate the program away for a guarantee of security and sovereignty; 3) North Korean leaders will hedge on giving up the nuclear program by...il exposed politically. Thus, he would likely settle for a hedging or a cheating strategy, which leaves room for ambiguity and, therefore, creates...21, 2003, the Cheongdan Basic Food Factory producing soy sauce and soybean paste, opened on May 31, 2003, the Taedonggang Beer Brewery opened on

  6. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  7. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  8. Seasonal UK hydrological forecasts using rainfall forecasts - what level of skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Davies, Helen; Kay, Alison; Scaife, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and Northern Europe, including the UK have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. The Hydrological Outlook UK (HOUK: www.hydoutuk.net) is the first operational hydrological forecast system for the UK that delivers monthly outlooks of the water situation for both river flow and groundwater levels. The output from the HOUK are publicly available and used each month by government agencies, practitioners and academics alongside other sources of information such as flood warnings and meteorological forecasts. The HOUK brings together information on current and forecast weather conditions, and river flows, and uses several modelling approaches to explore possible future hydrological conditions. One of the techniques combines ensembles of monthly-resolution seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by the Met Office GloSea5 forecast system with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of river flows up to a few months ahead. The approach combines a high resolution, spatially distributed hydrological initial condition (HIC) provided by a hydrological model (Grid-to-Grid) driven by weather observations up to the forecast time origin. Considerable efforts have been made to accommodate the temporal and spatial resolution of the GloSea5 rainfall forecasts (monthly time-step and national-scale) in a spatially distributed forecasting system, leading to the development of a monthly resolution water balance model (WBM) to forecast regional mean river flows for the next 1 and 3 months ahead. The work presented here provides the first assessment of the skill in the HOUK national-scale flow forecasts using an ensemble of rainfall forecasts (hindcasts) from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009). The skill in the combined modelling system has been assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using

  9. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reena Aggarwal,1,2 Tim Swanwick2 1Women's Health, Whittington Health, London, UK; 2Health Education England, North Central and East London, London, UK Abstract: Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an "operating core" of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing "leaders", to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a "heroic" individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are "leader-ful" and not just "well led" and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline. Keywords: National Health Service, junior doctors, quality improvement, management, health care

  10. UK National Data Guardian for Health and Care's Review of Data Security: Trust, better security and opt-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tom; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; De Lusignan, Simon; Lo Russo, Daniel; Kuziemsky, Craig; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-12-20

    Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case. UK are adopting guidelines, codes of conduct and regulatory instruments aimed to implement privacy principles into practical settings and enhance public trust. Accordingly, in 2015, the UK National Data Guardian (NDG) requested to conduct a further review of data protection, referred to as Caldicott 3.  The scope of this review is to strengthen data security standards and confidentiality. It also proposes a consent system based on an "opt-out" model rather than on "opt-in.Across Europe as well as internationally the privacy-health data sharing balance is not fixed.  In Europe enactment of the new EU Data Protection Regulation in 2016 constitute a major breakthrough, which is likely to have a profound effect on European countries and beyond.  In Australia and across North America different ways are being sought to balance out these twin requirements of a modern society - to preserve privacy alongside affording high quality health care for an ageing population.  Whilst in the UK privacy legal framework remains complex and fragmented into different layers of legislation, which may negatively impact on both the rights to privacy and health the UK is at the forefront in the uptake of international and EU privacy and data protection principles. And, if the privacy regime were reorganised in a more comprehensive manner, it could be used as a sound implementation model for other countries.

  11. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  12. Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; McCarthy, Rory; Gross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The UK power generation sector faces a major new round of investment: the coincidence of asset retiring and ambitious goals for decarbonisation is not unique, but is particularly acute in the UK. The UK government has put in place a raft of new policies that seek to promote new, low carbon investment and ensure security of supply. The traditional channel for financing the sector has been through large utility companies, but this now looks challenging for various reasons. The UK therefore offers an interesting case study on several counts; the scale of the challenge, effectiveness of new policies, and the availability of alternative finance. We find that the link between the finance sector and the electricity sector is not ‘broken’, but the flow of money to the sector is threatened by the current weakness of the utilities’ business model. This paper compares estimates of the scale of investment required in the UK with historical investment rates. It summarises contemporary finance industry views of conditions and trends, and potential policy interventions that might be needed to bridge the investment gap. The potential for channelling institutional investor funds directly into energy assets is reviewed. - Highlights: • Power investment need to scale up compared to historical trends, but is achievable. • Traditionally, low-cost finance has been through bonds and shares of large utilities. • Utilities are suffering high debt, reduced demand, and suppressed prices. • Policy interventions to scale-up investment are reviewed.

  13. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R.; Ilyin, I.

    2011-01-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg 0 per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: → Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. → The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. → UK soils currently contribute more Hg 0 to the atmosphere than human activities. → Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg 0 to the global circulation.

  14. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  15. Eye health and sight loss: the UK Vision Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The UK Vision Strategy is a Vision 2020 UK initiative, led by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB), to develop a unified plan for action on all issues relating to eye health and sight loss across the four countries of the UK. The Strategy was developed in response to a World Health Assembly resolution of 2003, which urged the development of national plans to tackle sight loss. Launched in April 2008, the UK Vision Strategy is a bold, ambitious plan to radically improve the eye health of the nation, eliminate avoidable sight loss, improve services to people, including children, with sight loss, and increase inclusion in society for blind and partially sighted people. Health and social care professionals joined the voluntary sector, Government representatives, service users and individuals with experience of sight loss to develop the Strategy. Local groups of health and social service professionals and service users are being formed across the UK to find ways to implement the Strategy. Any health professional with an interest in this work can contribute to their local group either through their professional representative on the group or directly.

  16. UK strategy for radioactive discharges 2001-2020. Consultation document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This consultation draft of a strategy for radioactive discharges describes how the United Kingdom (UK) will implement the agreements reached at the 1998 Ministerial meeting of the OSPAR Commission, with regard to radioactive substances. It also provides a policy base for future reviews of discharge authorisations by the regulatory bodies and for strategic planning by the nuclear operators. The strategy sets a framework for radioactive discharges from UK installations over the next twenty years. Its aims are: progressive and substantial reductions in radioactive discharges from the UK as a whole and from each of the main sectors responsible for such discharges; progressive reduction of human exposure to ionising radiation resulting from radioactive discharges, so that no member of the general public in the UK will be exposed to a dose of more than 0.02 mSv a year, as a result of authorised radioactive discharges made from 2020 onwards; progressive reductions in concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment resulting from radioactive discharges, such that by 2020 they add close to zero to historic levels. The scope of the UK strategy encompasses radioactive discharges from nuclear licensed sites, defence activities and other nuclear and non-nuclear sources of radioactive discharges. It covers both liquid and aerial discharges, although it is assumed that in general liquid discharges will have the largest and most measurable effects in the marine environment

  17. The Role of China in the UK Relative Imports from Three Selected Trading Regions: The Case of Textile Raw Material Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junqian

    2017-11-30

    The UK textile industry was very prosperous in the past but in the 1970s Britain started to import textile materials from abroad. Since 1990, half of its textile materials have been imported from the EEA (European Economic Area), ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and North America countries. Meanwhile, UK imports from China have increased dramatically. Through comparisons, this paper calculates the trade competitiveness index and relative competitive advantages of regions and investigates the impact of Chinese textiles on UK imports from three key free trade regions across the textile sectors in the period 1990-2016 on the basis of United Nation Comtrade Rev. 3. We find that China's textile prices, product techniques, political trade barriers and even tax system have made a varied impact on the UK's imports across related sectors in the context of green trade and the strengthening of barriers, which helps us recognize China's competitiveness in international trading and also provides advice on China's sustainable development of textile exports.

  18. An exploration and comparison of food and drink availability in homes in a sample of families of White and Pakistani origin within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Santorelli, Gillian; Hill, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the types and quantities of foods and drinks available in family homes supports the development of targeted intervention programmes for obesity prevention or management, or for overall diet improvement. In the UK, contemporary data on foods that are available within family homes are lacking. The present study aimed to explore home food and drink availability in UK homes. An exploratory study using researcher-conducted home food availability inventories, measuring all foods and drinks within the categories of fruits, vegetables, snack foods and beverages. Bradford, a town in the north of the UK. Opportunistic sample of mixed ethnicity families with infants approximately 18 months old from the Born in Bradford birth cohort. All homes had at least one type of fruit, vegetable and snack available. Fresh fruits commonly available were oranges, bananas, apples, satsumas and grapes. Commonly available fresh vegetables included potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes and carrots. The single greatest non-fresh fruit available in homes was raisins. Non-fresh vegetables contributing the most were frozen mixed vegetables, tinned tomatoes and tinned peas. Ethnic differences were found for the availability of fresh fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages, which were both found in higher amounts in Pakistani homes compared with White homes. These data contribute to international data on availability and provide an insight into food availability within family homes in the UK. They have also supported a needs assessment of the development of a culturally specific obesity prevention intervention in which fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages are targeted.

  19. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  20. Financing nuclear power in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) are responsible for bulk supplies of electricity to the 12 Area Boards responsible for retailing in England and Wales. As such, the Board are responsible for over 90% of total generation in the UK and are therefore the body principally concerned with the financing of nuclear power growth. The author first looks at the problem of financing nuclear power from the point of view of the CEGB. Thereafter the situation in the UK is dealt with more generally and in that section reference is also made to the total call on the UK's resources involved in financing energy growth in general and nuclear power in particular. (author)

  1. Evolving trauma and orthopedics training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  3. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  4. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  5. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Undergraduate teaching in UK general practice: a geographical snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Helen; Rees, Eliot; Gay, Simon P; McKinley, Robert K

    2014-06-01

    Learning in general practice is an essential component of undergraduate medical education; currently, on average, 13% of clinical placements in the UK are in general practice. However, whether general practice can sustainably deliver more undergraduate placements is uncertain. To identify the geographical distribution of undergraduate teaching practices and their distance from the host medical school. National survey of all medical schools in the UK. All 33 UK medical schools were invited to provide the postcodes of their undergraduate teaching practices. These were collated, de-duplicated, and mapped. The distance in kilometres and journey times by car and public transport between each medical school and its teaching practices was estimated using Transport Direct (www.transportdirect.info). The postcodes of every practice in the UK were obtained from the UK's health departments. All 33 UK medical schools responded; 4392 practices contributed to teaching, with a median (minimum-maximum) of 142 (17-385) practices per school. The median (minimum-maximum) distance between a school and a teaching practice was 28 km (0-1421 km), 41 (0:00-23:26) minutes' travel by car and 1 hour 12 (0:00-17:29) minutes' travel by public transport. All teaching practices were accessible by public transport in one school and 90-99% were in a further four schools; 24 schools had >20% of practices that were inaccessible by public transport. The 4392 undergraduate teaching general practices are widely distributed and potentially any practice, no matter how isolated, could contribute to undergraduate education. However, this is, at the price of a considerable travel burden. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  7. Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolston, John

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook. (author)

  8. The UK Bribery Act: Business Integrity and Whistleblowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, I

    2012-01-01

    This article’s main focus is the extent to which the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and the Guidance Document prepared by the Secretary of State, address- ing the procedures that commercial organizations can put into place to prevent bribery, include whistleblower protection. The article also exam- ines provisions for whistleblower protection in the four anti-corruption conventions that the U.K. has ratified in order to provide the context for a discussion of whistleblower protection in the Bribery Ac...

  9. The disposition of civil plutonium in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, M.J.; Barker, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper quantifies the likely future stockpile of UK separated plutonium, and reviews current UK policy. The current strategy of storing plutonium oxide powder is shown to be inconsistent with passivity and disposability objectives. Analysis also shows that there is little potential for use on a commercial basis of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel to reduce the stockpile. Four plutonium immobilisation options are defined, with particular reference to non-proliferation goals. The resource costs of implementing these options are quantified, together with the resource costs of a programme of Government-subsidized MOX use. Immobilisation may offer a more cost-effective solution than a MOX fuel route. (author)

  10. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. UK Natural Analogue Coordinating Group: fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. All of the analogue sites under investigation, both in the U.K. and overseas, are located where elevated uranium concentrations occur naturally. Coordination of the programme is achieved through the UK Natural Analogue Co-ordinating Group (NACG) which has met three times in this reporting period. The NACG is steered by the British Geological Survey. Its purpose is to ensure that the different research projects have an integrated function aimed at increasing our understanding of natural geochemical processes. Effort is also being expended in testing research models which may be used in such assessments. (author)

  12. Development of timber reciprocal frame structures in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    CHILTON, John

    2010-01-01

    p. 1877-1884 Although the structural principle of closed circuits of mutually supporting beams was known by Leonardo Da Vinci and has been used for hundreds, if not thousands of years (Popovic Larsen [8]), its rediscovery and renaming as the Reciprocal Frame, by the designer Graham Brown in 1987, has led to more structures of this type being built in the UK over the last 20 years. This paper briefly traces the development of reciprocal frames in the UK from Brown¿s first simple...

  13. The disposition of civil plutonium in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadnicki, M.J. [Independent Operational Research Consultant (United Kingdom); Barker, F. [Independent Nuclear Policy Analyst, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper quantifies the likely future stockpile of UK separated plutonium, and reviews current UK policy. The current strategy of storing plutonium oxide powder is shown to be inconsistent with passivity and disposability objectives. Analysis also shows that there is little potential for use on a commercial basis of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel to reduce the stockpile. Four plutonium immobilisation options are defined, with particular reference to non-proliferation goals. The resource costs of implementing these options are quantified, together with the resource costs of a programme of Government-subsidized MOX use. Immobilisation may offer a more cost-effective solution than a MOX fuel route. (author)

  14. The impact of Brexit on UK labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The recent vote by the UK electorate to leave the European Union (EU), known as Brexit, has potentially enormous implications for employment rights in the UK, most of which are now underpinned by EU law. At present the vote has no legal effect but if Brexit happens all these rights are legally vulnerable. The article examines how workers’ rights informed the debates surrounding Brexit, the history of the UK’s attitude to EU employment rights, and how the employment rights and remedies guarant...

  15. UK interpretation and implementation of the EEC Shellfish directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathern, Peter; Young, Stephen N.; Brown, Ian W.; Roberts, Dawn A.

    1987-01-01

    The EEC Shellfish Directive is a policy designed to protect and, where necessary, improve the quality of designated shellfish waters. Its implementation within the UK, however, has had no effect upon water quality for two reasons. First, the policy has important defects, having ambiguities concerning public health provisions and lacking designation criteria. Second, UK government has sought to achieve formal compliance, while at the same time ensuring that its full financial impact on public expenditure has been contained. Consequently, only those fisheries which already comply with water quality standards have been designated. Within Wales, one fishery has been designated, while other, commercially more important, but grossly contaminated shellfisheries have not.

  16. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  17. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  18. The UK Equity Bank - Towards income security in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, L.; Smith, D.

    2014-01-01

    A brief for ILC-UK on the role for an equity bank in providing secure income for retirement.\\ud \\ud With shrinking pension pots and longer life expectancy, retirement incomes look set to come under increasing pressure unless alternative sources of income become available.\\ud \\ud The UK Equity Bank would allow people to exchange a fixed proportion of the equity in their home for a lifetime income linked to inflation. Providing people with a secure income by unlocking the equity in housing asse...

  19. The North Field Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Qatar Europe LNG Company's activities include gas production, gathering, treatment, liquefaction, shipping and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by-products. The (LNG) project to be developed by the Company shall be initially capable of processing 1200 mmscfd of raw gas and associated quantities of condensate from the North Field. Hydrocarbons produced will be delivered to shore in the industrial area (Ras Laffan) via a sub sea pipeline system. Raw gas is used as a feedstock into the liquefaction plant which is initially capable of producing 6.1 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of (LNG). The initial quantity of (LNG) will be exported from (Ras Laffan) loading terminal to a receiving terminal located on the North East coast of Italy via a dedicated fleet of (LNG) carriers. The whole project (Upstream, Downstream and Shipping) shall be executed on an integrated scheme basis under the the direct control of the Qatar Europe LNG Company and in accordance with the overall Master Schedule in order to ensure a delivery of first shipment of (LNG) in the 2 nd half of 1997. 3 figs

  20. Not normally manned compression platforms for the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    Gas turbine driven gas compressors have been widely used on manned offshore facilities. Similarly unmanned gas turbine driven compressor stations have been in operation onshore with major gas transmission companies in Europe, North America and elsewhere. This paper summarizes a recent joint industry study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of Not Normally Manned (NNM) Offshore Compression Facilities in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability. Classification of not normally manned (or unmanned) offshore facilities in the UK North Sea is in accordance with HSE Operations Notice 8. ON8 specifies criteria for offshore visits, visit hours and number of personnel on board for the operation of NNM platforms. This paper describes a typical Southern North Sea gas platform being considered for NNM compressor application. The conclusions from the study was that NNM compression is technically feasible with the facilities being able to provide an availability in excess of 98%. Life cycle costs were of the order of 70% of manned facilities thus significantly improving field development economics

  1. On the Defence: UK cultural narratives of mistrust between energy users and providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Bailey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In general, households rely on energy providers to supply essential energy services such as gas and electricity. It seems reasonable to assume that it is mutually beneficial to have a customer and supplier relationship invested in trust. Key findings from the qualitative evaluation findings of a UK Comic Relief-funded energy services and managing money better programme, suggest that the programme’s effectiveness was strongly affected by negative narratives about energy suppliers. Such narratives, rooted in feelings of being labelled a ‘cheat’ or incapable of sorting their own affairs on one side and views of energy providers being exploitative and profit-hungry on the other, engendered a common, oppositional ‘united against them’ culture, built on reciprocal mistrust and disrespect. This analysis is not unique to our research, as nationally, at least and within the last decade, there has been a decline in public trust of energy providers, with a suggestion that profit has come before people. The 3-year evaluation carried out by Northumbria University, UK with the research led by a North East England registered credit union and social landlord, assessed the quality of life impacts of a face-to-face energy advice service. Expert Energy Advisors offered free home visits and gave people aged 50 and over the tools to reduce and manage energy usage, question energy companies about tariff terms and conditions and ensure maximum take up of benefit entitlements. Whilst findings point to positive health and social benefits, including reducing high anxiety about unmanageable bills, being able to question and challenge energy providers ‘high’ bills and tariffs and passing on such skills to others, there remained a ‘taken-for-granted’ mistrust of energy providers. We argue that for public good to come from public health research, we need to understand and appropriately address the roots of such cultural narratives.

  2. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Leach, Steve A

    2015-06-01

    During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. From a veterinary perspective, the emergence of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses show that northern Europe is equally susceptible to transmission of vector-borne disease. These changes are in part due to increased globalisation, with intercontinental air travel and global shipping transport creating new opportunities for invasive vectors and pathogens. However, changes in vector distributions are being driven by climatic changes and changes in land use, infrastructure, and the environment. In this Review, we summarise the risks posed by vector-borne diseases in the present and the future from a UK perspective, and assess the likely effects of climate change and, where appropriate, climate-change adaptation strategies on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lessons from the outbreaks of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya in the Caribbean emphasise the need to assess future vector-borne disease risks and prepare contingencies for future outbreaks. Ensuring that adaptation strategies for climate change do not inadvertently exacerbate risks should be a primary focus for decision makers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  4. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    , underpin this approach (Johnes & Butterfield, 2002). Ten regions have been defined across the UK using GIS manipulation of spatial data describing hydrogeology, runoff, topographical slope and soil parent material. The export coefficient model operates within this regional modelling framework, providing mapped, tabulated and statistical outputs at scales from 1km2 grid scale to river catchment, WFD river basin district, major coastal drainage units to the North Sea, North Atlantic and English Channel, to the international reporting units defined under OSPAR, the International Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. Here the geoclimatic modelling framework is presented together with modelled fluxes for N and P for each scale of reporting unit, together with scenario analysis applied at regional scale and mapped at national scale. The ways in which the results can be used to further explore the primary drivers for spatial variation and identify waterbodies at risk, especially in unmonitored and data-poor catchments are discussed, and the technical and computational support of a cloud-based infrastructure is evaluated as a mechanism to explore potential water quality impacts of future mitigation strategies applied at catchment to national scale.

  5. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  6. The Availability of Advanced Airway Equipment and Experience with Videolaryngoscopy in the UK: Two UK Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibreoptic intubation, high frequency jet ventilation, and videolaryngoscopy form part of the Royal College of Anaesthetists compulsory higher airway training module. Curriculum delivery requires equipment availability and competent trainers. We sought to establish (1 availability of advanced airway equipment in UK hospitals (Survey I and (2 if those interested in airway management (Difficult Airway Society (DAS members had access to videolaryngoscopes, their basic skill levels and teaching competence with these devices and if they believed that videolaryngoscopy was replacing conventional or fibreoptic laryngoscopy (Survey II. Data was obtained from 212 hospitals (73.1% and 554 DAS members (27.6%. Most hospitals (202, 99% owned a fiberscope, 119 (57.5% had a videolaryngoscope, yet only 62 (29.5% had high frequency jet ventilators. DAS members had variable access to videolaryngoscopes with Airtraq 319 (59.6% and Glidescope 176 (32.9% being the most common. More DAS members were happy to teach or use videolaryngoscopes in a difficult airway than those who had used them more than ten times. The majority rated Macintosh laryngoscopy as the most important airway skill. Members rated fibreoptic intubation and videolaryngoscopy skills equally. Our surveys demonstrate widespread availability of fibreoptic scopes, limited availability of videolaryngoscopes, and limited numbers of experienced videolaryngoscope tutors.

  7. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Celebrities and screening: a measurable impact on high-grade cervical neoplasia diagnosis from the ‘Jade Goody effect' in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, G M; Morris, B; Burnell, M; Parberry, A; Singh, N; Rosenthal, A N

    2013-01-01

    Background: The celebrity Jade Goody's cervical cancer diagnosis was associated with increased UK cervical screening attendance. We wanted to establish if there was an increase in high-grade (HG) cervical neoplasia diagnoses, and if so, what the characteristics of the women with HG disease were. Methods: We analysed prospective data on 3233 consecutive colposcopy referrals in North East London, UK, from 01 April 2005 to 30 June 2010. Characteristics and outcomes of pre- and post-Goody cohorts were compared. Results: Goody's diagnosis was associated with an increased incidence of colposcopy referrals in all subsequent annual quarters (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3–1.9, Pcelebrities' diagnoses might encourage screening in at-risk populations. PMID:23963142

  9. Business Population Estimates for the UK and Regions ‐ Introducing improved statistics on the UK enterprise population

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Shaw

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIn May 2011 the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills will publish Business Population Estimates for the UK and Regions 2010. This National Statistics release is a continuation of the series in Small and Medium Enterprise Statistics for the UK and Regions but uses a new methodology to improve the quality of estimates of the number of enterprises1. This article sets out the detail of three major methodological changes and other key changes, and explains how they impact on the e...

  10. Consumption Of Indigenous Fruits In Uluguru North And Ruvu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted between 1998 and 2000 to compare the number, types and consumption of indigenous fruit species by sex and age classes in the Uluguru North Forest Reserve (UNFR) and Ruvu North Forest Reserve (RNFR). Data were collected through household interviews and forest inventory. A total of 120 ...

  11. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  12. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  13. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  14. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue of underachievement amongst young people from Turkish speaking backgrounds in the UK, differ strikingly from the participants' perceptions of the .... How do people from Turkish Cypriot backgrounds interpret the purposes and ..... tinue their success in higher education” on the part of the stu- dents, and noted how ...

  15. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  16. The Textuality of Learning Contexts in UK Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchwell, Candice; Ivanic, Roz

    2007-01-01

    A significant aspect of learning contexts is the way in which semiotic artefacts mediate learning within them. This article reports on the "Literacies for Learning in Further Education" (LfLFE) project in the UK, which has researched the role of texts and associated communicative practices in constructing and mediating teaching and…

  17. Teacher Led School Improvement: Teacher Leadership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Harris, Alma

    2006-01-01

    Teacher leadership is increasingly being seen as a key vehicle for school improvement and renewal. However, research on this phenomenon is limited, especially outside of the US. This article presents findings from an empirical study of teacher leadership in the UK, aimed at exploring both the ways in which teacher leadership can influence school…

  18. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  19. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  20. Tuberculosis Microepidemics among Dispersed Migrants, Birmingham, UK, 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Catherine; Khanom, Shaina; Evans, Jason T.; Smith, E. Grace; Hawkey, Peter M.; Kunst, Heinke; Welch, Steven B.; Dedicoat, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if local transmission was responsible for rising tuberculosis incidence in a recently dispersed migrant community in Birmingham, UK, during 2004–2013, we conducted enhanced epidemiologic investigation of molecular clusters. This technique identified exact locations of social mixing and chains of apparent recent transmission, which can be helpful for directing resources. PMID:25695328

  1. International Higher Education and the Mobility of UK Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rachel; Waters, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    In the context of increasing academic interest in the internationalization of education and the international mobility of university students, this article draws on findings of a recent research project examining students from the UK as they seek higher education overseas before entering the labour market. The discussion is framed around four key…

  2. The Education of Asylum Seekers: Some UK Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reakes, Angharad

    2007-01-01

    The body of literature examining the educational needs of asylum-seeker children is limited. Extending the body of knowledge has become increasingly important because of the increasing number of asylum seekers in the UK, with significant implications for local education authorities and schools. The main focus of the research was the situation in…

  3. Participation in Lifelong Learning in Portugal and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Hilary; Ingham, Mike; Afonso, José Adelino

    2017-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a long-standing European Union priority, with an emphasis on the need for it to be pursued by all, but particularly those at the risk of exclusion. This study explores participation in Portugal and the UK, countries at opposite ends of the European adult learning spectrum with markedly different contexts. Analysis reveals that…

  4. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  5. University Students' Unions: Changing Functions, a UK and Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lu; Cole, Michael; Worthington, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider the functions of students' unions (SUs) through a UK case study. First, a functional classification of educational representation; wider representation; delivery of commercial services and faciliating a student community is outlined. Second, we specify a theoretical framework in terms of neo-liberalism and therapeutic…

  6. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  7. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  8. Copyright Infringement and Potential Technological Prevention Measures in UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark

    2004-01-01

    "Sony Music v. Easyinternetcafe" has introduced a new facet to the debate concerning the copyright legality of peer-to-peer file transfer. The judgment and subsequent settlement has highlighted that companies offering services that are used to infringe copyright may be held to account in the UK courts. Liability may extend from the…

  9. Supporting International Students in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ian

    2014-01-01

    International students make up an increasingly large proportion of the UK's student population. Whether studying at undergraduate, postgraduate taught or postgraduate research level, they require support just like home students. However, international students can often bring additional issues and complications for the staff who are supporting…

  10. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  11. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  12. Maturity and Interculturality: Chinese Students' Experiences in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Increasing global competition for students has witnessed an ever more rapid internationalisation of higher education. In the case of the UK, there has been a major influx of Chinese students to British universities since the launch of the British Government's long-term worldwide educational campaign in 1999. Drawing upon evidence from an extensive…

  13. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  14. PISA 2015: Findings and Some Implications for UK Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Millar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main findings for the countries of the UK from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2015, where science was the major focus. The nature of the tests, the key findings and how they might be interpreted are discussed--in…

  15. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  16. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  17. The Politics of Childhood and Asylum in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Clotilde

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the general treatment of asylum-seeking families with children in the UK, focusing on the government's practices and public reactions to these measures. It first describes both the exclusive asylum framework, based on institutionalised suspicion, welfare restrictions and detention, and the inclusive child policy framework,…

  18. Malaria in the UK: past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, T; Welsby, P

    2004-01-01

    There is strong evidence that malaria was once indigenous to the UK, that global warming is occurring, and that human activity is contributing to global warming. Global warming will have a variety of effects, one of which will probably be the return of indigenous malaria.

  19. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  20. Electronographic calibration of UK 1.2-m Schmidt plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Two electronographic sequences are given in the South Galactic Pole region down to msub(B) = approximately 23 +- 0.3 mag. These sequences are used to obtain a calibration for COSMOS measures of UK 1.2-m Schmidt plates and evaluate their photometric transfer properties. (author)

  1. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  2. Linguistics Undergraduate and Postgraduate Courses: Experience of Lancaster University (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komochkova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with peculiarities of undergraduate and postgraduate linguistic courses at Lancaster University. It has been stated that the latter is considered to be one of the best higher education institutions both in the UK and worldwide. Being a relatively new higher education institution (founded in 1964), it can already boast its…

  3. Research funding systems in Australia, New Zealand and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Ross, S

    2011-01-01

    . This article reports on a study involving interviews with 274 academics at universities in Australia (Melbourne), New Zealand (Auckland) and the UK (Birmingham). Perceptions of the three research funding systems demonstrated significant differences across universities, and some interesting gender and seniority...

  4. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  5. Changing Places: A Study of Chinese Students in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Maley, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the way tertiary level Chinese students in the UK adapt, in varying degrees, to their new learning and living environment. A questionnaire and interview study that includes both Chinese students and their British teachers attempts to ascertain key issues with a view to helping sojourning students adapt to their environment,…

  6. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…

  7. Paokil uks ja 13 noort hinge / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    12. mail esietendus Eesti Riiklikus Nukuteatris noortestuudio debüütlavastus "Kolmteist + uks" L. Knutzoni näidendi "Kõigepealt sa sünnid" põhjal, lavastaja R. Toots, muusikaline kujundaja J. Kreen, liikumine E. Ülevainult

  8. Understanding Attrition in UK Maritime Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekara, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The shipping industry worldwide is experiencing a shortage of trained and qualified officers to operate a rapidly expanding global merchant fleet. High cadet wastage in Maritime Education and Training (MET) institutions is an obstacle to skills replenishment in the UK. This paper examines the specificity of MET programmes with regard to the…

  9. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  10. Automated Mobility Transitions: Governing Processes in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Hopkins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary systems of mobility are undergoing a transition towards automation. In the UK, this transition is being led by (often new partnerships between incumbent manufacturers and new entrants, in collaboration with national governments, local/regional councils, and research institutions. This paper first offers a framework for analyzing the governance of the transition, adapting ideas from the Transition Management (TM perspective, and then applies the framework to ongoing automated vehicle transition dynamics in the UK. The empirical analysis suggests that the UK has adopted a reasonably comprehensive approach to the governing of automated vehicle innovation but that this approach cannot be characterized as sufficiently inclusive, democratic, diverse and open. The lack of inclusivity, democracy, diversity and openness is symptomatic of the post-political character of how the UK’s automated mobility transition is being governed. The paper ends with a call for a reconfiguration of the automated vehicle transition in the UK and beyond, so that much more space is created for dissent and for reflexive and comprehensive big picture thinking on (automated mobility futures.

  11. Lively Bureaucracy? The ESRC's Doctoral Training Centres and UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Ingrid; McAlpine, Lynn; Mills, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing relationships between the UK government, its research councils and universities, focusing on the governing, funding and organisation of doctoral training. We use the Doctoral Training Centres (DTCs) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as a prism through which to study the shifting nature of…

  12. Mapping Student-Led Peer Learning in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer-led academic learning has increased in importance, but there is little sense of how many institutions support it, how they understand its purposes or what peer-led learning best practice is. This report examines the provision of peer-led learning in the UK. It identifies challenges and opportunities, including international perspectives and…

  13. Norms and Values in UK Science Engagement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Holliman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rhetorical shift from "deficit" to "dialogue" and "engagement" in UK policy and institutional discourse about science communication. Past efforts to reduce public scientific literacy deficits have been overshadowed by calls for dialogue between scientists, science communicators and…

  14. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  15. ALT and e-Learning in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micha Wijngaarden; dr. Pierre Gorissen

    2002-01-01

    The Learning Technology Research Institute (LTRI) and the Association for Learning Technology (ALT) are two organisations within the UK that focus on ICT in the field of learning and teaching. Chapter of report on the Exchange Study Trip 2002, organised by SURF from the 21st till the 26th of April

  16. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  17. Essays examining aspects of the UK residential property market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics relating to aspects of the UK residential property market. The first essay examines the long run drivers of real residential house prices, and then seeks to develop a short run error correction model to examine the adjustment of real

  18. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  19. LGBT refugee protection in the UK: from discretion to belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The UK government used to have no specific guidance or trainingfor decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexualorientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial,civil society and political pressures that specific policy guidance wasspeedily issued and significant progress was seen.

  20. The Changing UK Careers Landscape: Tidal Waves, Turbulence and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK careers landscape in each of the four home nations is changing in response to neo-liberal policies. In this context, careers services are increasingly under pressure to demonstrate their added value, impact and returns on investment. As fiscal arrangements tighten and governments state their preferences and…

  1. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as the actual teaching and learning practices found there. This discrepancy is attributed to trends in current neo-liberal educational discourses and the discourses surrounding ethnicallyoriented educational provisions in the UK. Keywords: complementary schools, ethnic minority education, neoliberalism, Turkish schools ...

  2. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  3. Frameworks for Africa-UK Research Collaboration in the Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010, ISSN 1998-1279 i. The Nairobi Report: Frameworks for Africa-UK Research Collaboration in the Social ... publish or perish dictum sanctions the academic life of lecturers with many ending up in the academic wilderness ... dens in the backstreets of Nairobi have also been “upgraded” to university college status. While.

  4. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  5. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  6. The UK national response plan: An 'all-risk' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englefield, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The UK has been using and regulating radioactive materials for many years. The law, and the regulatory systems to implement it have developed over time, to meet the perceived need. More recently, the threat of inadvertent movements of, and illicit trafficking in radioactive materials has become apparent. This relatively new challenge cannot be met by a single U.K. law enforcement body. There will be Police and security services interest in any cases that arise of deliberate trafficking in fissile materials, and there will be statutory concerns for Customs and Excise. At the operational level, they do not have radioanalytical services and radiation protection support immediately available, as the frequency of occurrence of such incidents is extremely low. However, the typical case is an inadvertent movement. These usually involve orphaned sources, where none of the above law enforcement bodies have a statutory locus. In such cases, it is the UK environment agencies that take the lead (as regulators of radioactive substances), together with Health and Safety Executive as regulators of radiation safety. However they do not have all the statutory powers needed to intervene. This is in contrast to the position in some other countries. The UK paper at the International Conference of Regulators in Buenos Aires in December 2000 described the UK's co-ordination work to create synergies between law enforcement bodies and potentially affected industry groups. This was described as an 'All Risk Approach'. This is seen as the best way to manage an effective response to the challenge, given that the legislation cannot at present provide all the necessary powers. This new paper will describe the UK Response Plan and how it is designed to cover all risk: radiological and socio-economic. It will also describe how the Plan is being tested and validated as a project. The plan draws on UK Emergency Planning policy, as well as IAEA guidance on the Prevention, Detection and

  7. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. → We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. → There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. → Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. → Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  8. Exploring public perceptions of energy security risks in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demski, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Along with climate change and affordability, concerns about energy security are key drivers behind proposals for major energy system change in the UK and numerous other countries. Unlike climate change we know very little about how the public thinks and feels about this aspect of sustainability and energy policy. Beyond engaging critically with conceptual and theoretical discussions, empirical data from two surveys (Cardiff postal survey, N=520; online UK survey, N=499) using a ten item energy security scale are presented and discussed. Here we show that aspects of energy security are certainly of concern to the UK public, with particularly high concern around dependence on fossil fuels/imports and relatively lower expressed concern for actual disruption of energy supply. However public concerns around energy security are only emerging, and likely to change depending on the context in which it is discussed (e.g. in comparison to climate change). In addition, findings from public interviews are used to further contextualise the survey findings, showing unfamiliarity among the UK public with regards to the term “energy security”. We discuss implications, and further work that would be useful for understanding public perceptions in more depth. - highlights: • Exploring public views on energy security using a 10 item scale. • Concerns over energy security is relatively high but susceptible to framing. • Patterns of concern for different energy security aspects examined. • The term energy security is unfamiliar, only an emerging concern among UK publics. • Further discussion on the meanings and implications of these perceptions

  9. Trends in the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Wilkins, Elizabeth; Townsend, Nick

    2016-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the UK is declining; however, CVD burden comes not only from deaths, but also from those living with the disease. This review uses national datasets with multiple years of data to present secular trends in mortality, morbidity, and treatment for all CVD and specific subtypes within the UK. We produced all-ages and premature age-standardised mortality rates by gender, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population, using data from the national statistics agencies of the UK. We obtained data on hospital admissions from the National Health Service records, using the main diagnosis. Prevalence data come from the Quality and Outcome Framework and national surveys. Total CVD mortality declined by 68% between 1980 and 2013 in the UK. Similar decreases were seen for coronary heart disease and stroke. Coronary heart disease prevalence has remained constant at around 3% in England and 4% in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Hospital admissions for all CVD increased by over 46 000 between 2010/2011 and 2013/2014, with more than 36 500 of these increased admissions for men. Hospital admission trends vary by country and CVD condition. CVD prescriptions and operations have increased over the last decade. CVD mortality has declined notably for both men and women while hospital admissions have increased. CVD prevalence shows little evidence of change. This review highlights that improvements in the burden of CVD have not occurred equally between the four constituent countries of the UK, or between men and women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. June 22, 1941: Evaluation of Public Opinion US and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey O. Buranok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the U.S. and U.K public opinion about German attack on the USSR 22 June 1941. Considered the views of the American and British statesmen and politicians, the public mood, reflected in the press. Identify the main points of view on the outbreak of war with Germany against the Soviet Union. It is shown that in the presence of a variety of assessments prevailed ideas of solidarity with the Soviet Union and the need to support it. This work will allow for a " reflection" of the image of a belligerent Soviet Union, and to find the key moments falsifying the history of World War II in the U.S. and the UK. The events of the Great Patriotic War , which will be set out on the basis of US and UK archives, and t hen will be presented t o look at fighting in the USSR in the memoranda of public institutions of Great Britain and the United States, as well as their coverage in the Anglo-American media. In this case, due consideration will be given to the mechanisms of information influence that have been implemented in the U.S. Office of War Information and the British Ministry of Information. Selected key battles 1941 year in the USSR: a description of the fighting, then their score by British and U.S. military and political leadership, guidelines an d promotional materials departments of the UK and the U.S., the UK and the U.S. press.

  11. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  12. French Expansion in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  13. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  14. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  15. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  16. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  17. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  18. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  19. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  20. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...