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Sample records for north central sri

  1. Update on uncertain etiology of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka's north-central dry zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigasuriya, Kamani

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript updates a review previously published in a local journal in 2012, about a new form of chronic kidney disease that has emerged over the past two decades in the north-central dry zone of Sri Lanka, where the underlying causes remain undetermined. Disease burden is higher in this area, particularly North Central Province, and affects a rural and disadvantaged population involved in rice-paddy farming. Over the last decade several studies have been carried out to estimate prevalence and identify determinants of this chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. Summarize the available evidence on prevalence, clinical profile and risk factors of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in the north-central region of Sri Lanka. PubMed search located 16 manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals. Three peer-reviewed abstracts of presentations at national scientific conferences were also included in the review. Disease prevalence was 5.1%-16.9% with more severe disease seen in men than in women. Patients with mild to moderate stages of disease were asymptomatic or had nonspecific symptoms; urinary sediments were bland; 24-hour urine protein excretion was urine, and mycotoxins detected in foods were below maximum statutory limits. Calcium-bicarbonate-type water with high levels of fluoride was predominant in endemic regions. Significantly high levels of cadmium in urine of cases compared to controls, as well as the disease's dose-related response to these levels, has drawn attention to this element as a possible contributing factor. Familial clustering of patients is suggestive of a polygenic inheritance pattern comparable to that associated with diseases of multifactorial etiology. Available data suggest that chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology is an environmentally acquired disease, but to date no definitive causal factor has been identified. Geographic distribution and research findings suggest a multifactorial etiology.

  2. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank...

  3. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank....... A clear progression in breeding habitat use from stream bed to tank bed and drainage area pools was seen in An. culicifacies during the premonsoon period. Environmental management measures to reduce or modify these habitats could potentially decrease malaria. transmission....

  4. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  5. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. J De Silva and D U J Sonnadara∗. Department of Physics, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka. ∗Corresponding author. e-mail: upul@phys.cmb.ac.lk. In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is ...

  6. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 1. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. J De Silva D U J ... No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean ...

  7. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869–2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed ...

  8. A new species of Rhinophis Hemprich, 1820 (Serpentes: Uropeltidae) from the central hills of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Rajeev, M D Gehan; Gower, David J

    2017-05-08

    A new species of uropeltid snake, Rhinophis roshanpererai sp. nov., is described based on three specimens from Badulla District, Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the number of dorsal scale rows and ventral scales, a colour pattern that lacks pale stripes, and by having a very small tail shield with four or three prominent spines. Based on lack of records from similar habitats and elevations elsewhere in Sri Lanka, the new species likely has a very small range in the central highlands. The description of the new species brings the total nominal species of Rhinophis to 20, with four of the 16 Sri Lankan species having been described since 2009.

  9. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  10. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2∘C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  11. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  12. Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya (Mammalia: Felidae in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kittle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Sri Lankan Leopard Panthera pardus kotiya occupies the island’s highly fragmented central hills where data on its feeding ecology and habitat use is largely absent. This study’s objective was to investigate diet and resource selection of leopards here with a focus on the extent of potential interactions with humans in this heavily populated, largely unprotected landscape. Fecal sample analysis was undertaken to investigate diet and sign index counts and selectivity index analysis to determine habitat and landscape features important to fine scale leopard utilization. Results indicated that leopards in the central hills hunt a wide range of prey (at least 10 genera, including larger species where available (e.g., Sambar Rusa unicolor and smaller, more specialized prey (e.g., Porcupine Hystrix indica where necessary. No domestic species were recorded in scat analysis (N=35 despite the availability of dogs Canis familiaris, suggesting such predation may be atypical in Sri Lanka. Leopards use a range of landscapes within the region including established and regenerating forests, plantation lands (e.g., pine, eucalyptus, tea, and areas in close proximity to human settlement. At a fine scale, areas of dense undergrowth including tall grasslands were preferred to more open forest, as well as to Pine Pinus caribaea monocultures. Avoidance of humans may be influencing these patterns. This study has important implications as researchers and managers necessarily expand beyond focusing on protected areas toward integrated, landscape-level conservation strategies.

  13. Prescribed burning in the North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  14. Clinico-epidemiology of arthropod stings and bites in primary hospitals of North Western province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Shahmy, Seyed; Rathnayake, Shantha S; Dawson, Andrew H

    2018-03-06

    Arthropod stinging and bites are common environmental hazards in Sri Lanka. However, their medical importance has not been fully evaluated yet. This study aims to study the burden, epidemiology, and outcome of stings and bites in primary hospitals in the Kurunegala district in North Western Province (NWP) of Sri Lanka. The study was conducted one year from 25th May 2013 to 25th May 2014. Details of all stings and bites admissions and their outcomes were retrospectively extracted from hospital records in all 44 primary hospitals in the district. There were 623 stings and bites with population incidence of 38/100,000 (95% CI 27-52). There were no deaths. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 19-53 years), and 351 (56%) were males. Most of stings and bites (75%) occurred in the daytime. Median time to hospital arrival was 55 minutes (IQR: 30 min to 2 h). The offending arthropods had been identified in 557 (89%) cases, of them, 357 (57%) were Hymenoptera (hornet and bees), 99 centipedes, 61 spiders and 40 scorpions. Local pain occurred in 346 (56%) cases - centipede 69 (70%), Scorpion 24 (60%), spider 36 (59%), Hymenoptera 187 (52%) and unidentified 30 (45%). Hymenoptera stings and spider bites occurred between 06 am to 12 noon, and scorpion stings and centipede bites mostly occurred between 06 pm to 12 midnight. Mild, moderate to severe anaphylaxis reactions occurred in 173 (28%) patients including 110 Hymenoptera stings - mild 39, moderate 62 and severe 9. From primary hospitals, 53(9%) cases had been transferred to tertiary care units for further management. Of them, 41 cases were Hymenoptera stings and 24 (58%) of them had mild, moderate to severe anaphylaxis. In the entire group, 27% severe cases received adrenaline. The primary hospitals in NW province of Sri Lanka manage large numbers of arthropod stings and bites. These include Hymenoptera (hornet and bee), centipedes, spiders, and scorpions. Pain, swellings and anaphylactic reactions were the most common adverse

  15. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from three distinct population groups in the Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanthi Weerasekera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR typing to understand how M. tuberculosis strains transmit among the study population. Methods: Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR were used to genotype M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from three distinct population groups in Sri Lanka. General population suspected of having tuberculosis attending the Chest Clinic, Kandy (n = 78, patients having tuberculosis in Bogambara prison, Kandy (n = 22 and estate workers having tuberculosis in the Central Province, Sri Lanka (n = 50, from January 2012 to April 2014 were included in the study. Results: Among 150 isolates, a total of 19 distinct families were observed including 6 major spoligotyping-based families; East-African-Indian (39.33%, Haarlem (20%, Beijing (8.6%, Central European family T (6.5%, European family X (5.2% and Central and Middle Eastern Asian (0.6%. Beijing strains were only identified among the general population. MANU strains were significant (36.36% among the prisoners who had clustered with the MANU strains of the general population indicating contact cases and a possible transmission index within a particular geographical area. Haarlem 3 (34% was the predominant strain among the estate workers. There was a close epidemiological relationship between the prisoners and the estate workers in the population. Conclusions: The first insight of 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing in conjunction with spoligotyping in a population in Sri Lanka demonstrated the feasibility and the applicability of these techniques to differentiate strains, their heterogeneity and the predominance of several worldwide distributed spoligotypes.

  16. Identification of forest cover changes by landsat MSS data and environmental effects of such changes in Central South Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, L. (Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Remote Sensing and Image Research Center); Tsuchiya, K. (Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering); Toyota, H. (Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-08-25

    Based on Landsat MSS data of 1977 and 1987 together with in situ surveys, landcover and landuse maps are made for central southern part of Sri Lanka then the change of landcover and deforestation on 10 years period is estimated. The change amounts to a 16% decrease in evergreen forests, a 39% increase in scrublands and a 63% decrease in open water areas. Data of 30 years monthly and annual mean precipitation and air temperature are collected from the surrounding observing stations. Analyses of these data indicate a complicated distribution pattern including a fairly large variability and little variability in case of precipitation, while in case of air temperature 5 years moving average of the annual air temperature indicates a steady increase. The composite analyses based on Landsat MSS data together with the local environmental data suggest that there is a connection between deforestation and micro level climatological and environmental changes. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in land precipitation is linked to the El-Nino/. Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode. Positive trends are found for annual precipitation in most parts of the world with some exceptions such as North Africa. An increase in rain intensi- ties has been reported for selected countries in the northern and southern hemispheres cover-.

  18. Geoenvironmental factors related to high incidence of human urinary calculi (kidney stones) in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickarama, Buddhika; Ralapanawa, Udaya; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2016-10-01

    An area with extremely high incidence of urinary calculi was investigated in the view of identifying the relationship between the disease prevalence and the drinking water geochemistry. The prevalence of the kidney stone disease in the selected Padiyapelella-Hanguranketa area in Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is significantly higher compared with neighboring regions. Drinking water samples were collected from water sources that used by clinically identified kidney stone patients and healthy people. A total of 83 samples were collected and analyzed for major anions and cations. The anions in the area varied in the order HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (-) and cations varied in the order Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Fe(2+). The dissolved silica that occurs as silicic acid (H4SiO4) in natural waters varied from 8.8 to 84 mg/L in prevalence samples, while it was between 9.7 and 65 mg/L for samples from non-prevalence locations. Hydrogeochemical data obtained from the two groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. It showed that pH, total hardness, Na(+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) had significant difference (p stone formation and drinking water geochemistry as evident by the high hardness/calcium contents in spring water used by patients.

  19. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  20. Political Economy of Epidemic Kidney Disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoka Bandarage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  1. Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Sri Lanka covers the following: geography; people; history and political conditions; governent; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Sri Lanka and the US. The population of Sri Lanka totaled 16.3 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. In 1984, the infant mortality rate was 31/1000 with life expectancy 68.9 years. Sri Lanka is a pear-shaped island in the Indian Ocean. It is southeast of India, from which it is separated at the closest point by only 29 kilometers. About 50% of the population live in the southwest quarter of the island, where agricultural conditions are most favorable. About 74% of the population are Sinhalese, and 18% are Tamil, people of South Indian origin. Minorities include the Muslims, 7% of the population; the Burghers, descendants of Dutch, Portuguese, and British colonists; Eurasians and Malays; and the Veddahs, the aborigines of the island. On February 4, 1948, Ceylon became a fully independent member of the British Commonwealth. The Sri Lankan electoral system, in effect since 1948, resulted in wide swings in composition of Parliament. The constitution that came into effect on September 7, 1978, changed the name of the country to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. It vested executive power in a president to be elected directly by the people, legislative power in the Parliament and in the people by referendum, and judicial power in Parliament through the courts. Sri Lanka's most difficult domestic problem, inherited by the United National Party (UNP) from its predecessor governments, is posed by the grievances and aspirations of the minority Tamil community. Plantation agriculture continues to be important in Sri Lanka, and Sri Lanka is predominantly an agricultural and trading nation. Efforts are being made to expand the agricultural base and to diversity into light industryk tourism, and other nontraditional industries, with emphasis on the export sector. In 1985, Sri

  2. Investigation of groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    aquifers of the basement complex rocks of north central. Nigeria are ... Complex areas in the north and south of the River Benue. The elongated .... Industrial Estate. 10. 6. 0.60. 45.10. 270.60. 08.49008. 07.70197. Moderate. 12. Lafia road. 84. 52. 0.62. 6.20. 322.40. 08.56592. 07.79809. Moderate. 13. UniAgric road. 31. 30.

  3. The elusive quest for access and collective action: North Sri Lankan fishers’ thwarted struggles against a foreign trawler fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of how unequal access to commons is (re)produced and contested. I do so by looking into the thwarted struggle of small-scale fishers in post-war Northern Sri Lanka to contest encroachment of an Indian trawler fleet. I contend that for

  4. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF FLATFOOT AMONG 6 TO 10 AGED CHILDREN IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Senadheera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of flatfoot is highly variable in different world populations. Previous studies have found that many factors are associated with flatfoot. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of flatfoot and its association with age, gender and BMI in group of 6-10 aged children in Central province of Sri Lanka. Methods: A total of 722 children aged 6 to 10 were used to assess normalize navicular height using two clinical measurements (navicular height, truncated foot length. Weight and height of the subjects were measured to calculate body mass index. Age and gender of the children were also recorded. Calculated normalize navicular heights were plotted in a distribution curve and area under the curve between +1SD and -1SD was considered as normal foot. Area under the curve which is left to the -1SD was considered as flatfoot. Results: Overall prevalence of flatfoot among 6-10 aged children in the present sample was 16.06%. The prevalence of flatfoot in 6,7,8,9 and 10 aged children were 26.35%, 16.19%, 12.75%, 13.57% and 11.1%, respectively. Prevalence of flatfoot was high in overweight children (21.05%. Prevalence of flatfoot among males and females were 47% and 53%,respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant association between flatfoot and age (p<0.05. Prevalence of flat foot decreases with advancing age. Furthermore, there is a significant association between flatfoot and body mass index (p<0.05. Prevalence of flatfoot is higher in overweight children than normal weight and underweight children. There is no significant association between flatfoot and gender.

  5. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  6. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  7. Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Palk Strait separates India (upper left) from Sri Lanka (center). This true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 20, 2002, shows the strait filled with bright sediment, while off the northeast tip of Sri Lanka, a dark stain in the waters could be a phytoplankton bloom. On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared, but small pockets remain in preserves, such as that seen in the southeastern portion of the island, where dense green vegetation can be seen.

  8. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs...

  9. Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the civil war in 2009, there has been a marked deterioration in democratic governance in Sri Lanka, with many commentators describing a shift towards soft authoritarianism. This entry explores how Sri Lanka’s democratic malaise has been shaped by its post-independence history. First, it presents a story of “institutional decay,” examining how contemporary problems of ethno-nationalism, social exclusion, and civil war can be clearly traced to the parliamentary system inherited...

  10. Essential drugs in primary health centres of north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the availability of essential drugs and the perceptions of clients on drugs situation in the primary health centres of Tafa Local Government Area, north central Nigeria. Checklist consisting ofminimum drugs expected in a generic primary health centre developed by the National Primary Health Care Development ...

  11. Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central Nigerian centre. ... The causes of PSAEs vary worldwide, and the management is challenging, often with unimaginably poor outcome if not carefully handled. The aim of this ... Keywords: abdominal emergencies, acute abdomen, children, morbidity, mortality ...

  12. Endometrial pathology in a teaching hospital in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a 5 year histopathological survey of endometrial biopsies seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital , Ilorin, North Central Nigeria from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2001. It aimed at identifying the morphological patterns of endometrial disorders, prevalence of these disorders and the ...

  13. Predicting Suitable Field Workdays for Soil Tillage in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simulation model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for tillage operations in North Central Nigeria. Predictions were made from a computer model which simulates daily soil moisture in the top 30 cm of soil depth using 6 years of daily meteorological records. The model was tested and validated by ...

  14. Obstetric outcome in grandmultipara in Bida, North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the striking differences in obstetric parameters between booked and unbooked grandmultiparous patients in a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria. Methods: A total of 160 booked grandmultiparous patients who attended at least 6 sessions of antenatal clinic were compared with 160 unbooked ...

  15. World and experiences of AIDS orphans in north central Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, van der M.

    2007-01-01

    How do young AIDS orphans deal with the loss of their parents and their changed circumstances? This thesis discusses the social environment, experiences and perceptions of fourteen orphans in north central Namibia. The author followed the children for five months from September 2003 until March

  16. Wildfire atlas of the northeastern and north central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; Von J. Johnson; William A. Main

    1975-01-01

    Describes patterns of forest fire activity across the northeastern and north central United States. Gives average dates of greening ad curing of herbaceous plants, medium size of fires in various fuels, and annual profiles of peak fire activity. It also examines combinations of major fire cause and day-of-week activity.

  17. Medicolegal autopsies in North Central Nigeria | Mandong | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern and the causes of deaths reported to the coroner for medicolegal autopsies in North Central Nigeria. Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January1996 to December 2003. Subjects: Autopsies reports of 279 subjects ...

  18. Trypanosomosis in hunting dogs in kaduna, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A parasitological survey of hunting dogs during the month of August, peak of rainy season, was carried out in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria using the standard trypanosome detection techniques and concentration methods. This was with the view of assessing the socio-economic importance and public health implications ...

  19. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SMALL ENTERPRISES, TAX EXEMPTIONS, EMPLOYMENT CREATION, WOMEN, POLICY MAKING, INDIA, PAKISTAN, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BANGLADESH, Gender. Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: ...

  20. Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances.

  1. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating...... alcohol’s role in selfharm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems...... and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis: To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative...

  2. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity in a cohort of males in the central province of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, N W I A; Jayalath, W A T A; Madhujith, W M T; Ralapanawa, U; Jayasekera, R S; Alagiyawanna, S A S B; Bandara, A M K R; Kalupahana, N S

    2017-01-05

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence of obesity has also increased in the South Asian region in the last decade. However, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults are unclear. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2469 males aged between 16 and 72 years ([Formula: see text]) were included in the study. The sample comprised individuals who presented for a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants into four groups as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. The data on dietary and lifestyle patterns such as level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours and other socio demographic data were obtained using validated self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations of individual lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity. The mean BMI of the study group was 22.7 kg m -2 and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8 and 12.3%, respectively. Mean waist circumference of the participants was 78.6 cm with 17.1% of them being centrally obese. After adjusting for potential confounders, weight status was associated with older age (P obese (odds ratio: 0.898 - confidence interval: 0.744-1.084), alcohol intake, consumption of fruits, level of education, sleeping hours, smoking, consumption of fish, meat, dairy, sweets or fried snacks were not significantly associated with the weight status. The high prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in working-age males is a threatening sign for Sri Lanka. Since the prevalence rate is higher in certain ethnic groups and higher-income groups, targeted interventions for

  3. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  4. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Wim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

  5. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  6. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  7. Geothermal gradient drilling, north-central Cascades of Oregon, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-01-01

    A geothermal gradient drilling program was conducted on the western flank of the north-central Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Six wells were drilled during this program, although in effect seven were drilled, as two wells were drilled at site 3, the second well, however, actually going to a lesser depth than the first. Three of the wells (3, 4, and 5) were drilled in areas which topographically are subject to strong throughflows of ground water. None of these wells reached the regional water table, and all showed essentially isothermal geothermal gradients. The single well which was started essentially at the water table (well 6) shows a linear temperature rise with depth essentially from the top of the well bore. Well No. 2 shows an isothermal gradient down to the level of the regional water table and then shows a linear gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km from the regional water table to total depth.

  8. Biogenic hydrocarbon emission estimates for North Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Wade Strange, I.; Allen, D.T. [University of Texas at Austin (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Estes, M. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States); Yarwood, G. [ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were estimated for a 37 county region in North Central Texas. The estimates were based on several sources of land use/land cover data that were combined using geographical information systems. Field studies were performed to collect species and tree diameter distribution data. These data were used to estimate biomass densities and species distributions for each of the land use and cover classifications. VOC emissions estimates for the domain were produced using the new land use/land cover data and a biogenic emissions model. These emissions were more spatially resolved and a factor of 2 greater in magnitude than those calculated based on the biogenic emissions landuse database (BELD) commonly used in biogenic emissions models. (author)

  9. Karst-driven flexural isostasy in North-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Byul; Panning, Mark P.; Adams, Peter N.; Dutton, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Deformed marine terraces can be used to explore a region's uplift history. Trail Ridge is a marine terrace in north Florida that is nearly 80 m above modern sea level and contains Quaternary marine fossils, a fact that is inconsistent with estimates of paleo-sea level history since the early Pleistocene. This implies that the terrace has experienced uplift since its formation, as well as nonuniform deformation recorded by the warping of its previously horizontal state. The Florida carbonate platform, located on the passive margin of eastern North America, is a setting where nontectonic influences (e.g. isostatic adjustment, dynamic topography) can be examined. We present a single-transect, numerical model of vertical displacement, derived from elastic flexure, to assess the influence of karst-driven isostatic uplift on present day topography of Trail Ridge in north Florida. Flexural modeling predicts elevations in central Florida not observed today, most likely because surface erosion and karst cavity collapse have obliterated this high topography. Older subsurface stratigraphic units, however, display the arched profile predicted from flexural modeling. Mass loss, calculated by differencing modeled topography and observed topography, was found to be 6.75 × 1012 kg, since emplacement of Trail Ridge. Uplift rates, assuming karst-driven flexural isostasy alone, using previously estimated ages of Trail Ridge of 0.125, 1.4, 3, or 3.5 Ma were found to be 0.535, 0.048, 0.022, and 0.019 mm/yr, respectively. A more likely explanation of uplift includes contributions from dynamic topography and glacial isostatic adjustment which should be further explored with more advanced geophysical modeling.

  10. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households...... than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so...

  11. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  12. Geologic characteristics of the central stretch of the Ticona Channel, north-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, B.A.; Malone, D.H.; Pugin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Ticona Channel is located in north-central Illinois and occurs in Grundy, LaSalle, and Putnam counties. It is a buried bedrock valley that served as the principal paleodrainage system in north-central Illinois during the Illinoian and pre-Illinoian. This study focused on the part of the Ticona Channel within the Leonore 7.5??? Quadrangle. The geometry and stratigraphy of sediments that fill the Ticona Channel were investigated using high-resolution, shallow seismic reflection profiling, traditional field geologic mapping techniques, borehole data, and water-well-log data. The valley is about 2 km (1 mi) wide and approximately 60 m (200 ft) deep. The U-shape channel is straight, trends east-west, and has only one mappable tributary. The valley is carved into the Pennsylvanian Carbondale Formation in the eastern part of the study area; it has incised into the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group in the west. At its base, the Ticona Channel is filled with the Pearl Formation, which is coarse-grained sand and gravel that was deposited during the Illinoian glaciation. The Pearl Formation is overlain by Illinoian till of the Glasford Formation and is capped by Wedron Group sediments from the Wisconsinan stage. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  14. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  15. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  16. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  17. Revised draft: North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  18. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  19. Annotated checklist of millipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoysa, H K S De; Nguyen, Anh D; Wickramasinghe, S

    2016-01-11

    This review lists the currently known species of millepedes in Sri Lanka and discusses their current taxonomic status and distribution based on previous studies from 1865 to date. A total of 104 millipede species belonging to 44 genera, 18 families and nine orders have been recorded in Sri Lanka. Of these, 82 are known only from Sri Lanka; additionally, nine genera and one family are known only from Sri Lanka. Most of the millipede species have been recorded from two localities, namely Pundaluoya and Kandy in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Current knowledge on the taxonomy, evolutionary relationships, distribution and conservation of the millipedes of Sri Lanka is still limited and scattered. Thus we suggest more intensive surveys to acquire comprehensive data on the millipedes of Sri Lanka.

  20. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  1. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the winter (December–February haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR and the generalized additive model (GAM. By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP. After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM prediction model was 3.39 (3.38 and 53 % (54 %, respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (−0.07 and −3.33 (−1.01, respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  2. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  4. Survey of Key Monarch Habitat Areas along Roadways in Central and North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Roadsides in North and Central Florida harbor a large number of milkweed populations important to the monarch butterfly. A total of 303 roadway locations had one or more plants of the target species Asclepias humistrata (pinewoods milkweed) or Asclep...

  5. Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: spatial distribution and seasonal variations from 2009 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Iddawela, Devika

    2018-01-25

    Leishmaniasis is listed as one of the eight neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization and the number of cases in endemic areas has seen a sharp rise in the past decade. More alarmingly, reports have shown that leishmaniasis is spreading to non-endemic areas of the world due to co-infection with HIV. In Sri Lanka, leishmaniasis is considered as a notifiable disease from 2008 and has seen a rising trend of incidence since then. This is the first study describing the burden, seasonal variation and spatial distribution of leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka since the disease has been included as a notifiable disease. Data on health statistics from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from published databases maintained by the Epidemiology Unit of the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka. Climatic data for Sri Lanka were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and the populations in administrative districts were obtained from the Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. Descriptive spatiotemporal analysis, correlation between leishmaniasis incidence and climatic variables were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. The total number of people reported with leishmaniasis during the study period was 8487. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the prominent form in Sri Lanka while few visceral and muco-cutaneous cases were reported. Although leishmaniasis patients were identified from all 25 districts in the island, almost 90% of the total caseload was reported from Anuradhapura, Hambantota, Polonnaruwa, Kurunegala and Matara districts. The highest number of patients was reported from the Anuradhapura district and the highest incidence per 100,000 persons was reported from the Hambantota district. The disease has a seasonal trend, a peak of leishmaniasis occur in July to September in the north-central region and in October to December in the southern region. Maximum temperature, humidity and wind speed are significantly associated climatic variables with leishmaniasis in

  6. Veneer industry and timber use, North Central Region, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    Shows 1984 veneer log production and receipts by species in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with the 1980 data. Includes tables showing veneer log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the Central States...

  7. Isolations of Bwamba virus from south central Uganda and north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the strains was isolated from a sample of blood from a refugee in Burigi Camp, Ngara, in north eastern Tanzania; another strain was isolated from a health worker at the Uganda Virus Research Institute, working with the Rakai Project on HIV in Rakai district; while the third strain was isolated from a pool of 50 ...

  8. Sri Lanka. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M N

    1985-01-01

    Sri Lanka, an island country off the southeastern coast of India, populated by an estimated 16.1 million inhabitants, was one of the 1st developing countries to adopt a population policy aimed at reducing population growth and redistributing the population more equitably throughout the country. Population density is high. There are 636 persons/square mile, and 2/3 of the population lives in the southwestern and central regions of the country. Government redistribution policies seek to increase internal migration flows to the drier and less populated areas. The country's birth rate was 27 in 1982, the death rate was 6 in 1981, and the infant mortality rate was 34.4 in 1980. The rate of natural increase in 1982 was 2.1%, and the population growth rate declined from 2.5% prior to 1970 to 1.7% in 1980. The total fertility rate declined between 1963-74 from 5.0-3.4 and then increased to 3.7 in recent years. Given the age structure of the population, the population is expected to continue growing at a high rate in the coming years; however, the age at marriage is increasing and the proportion of young married women in the population is declining, and these trends will have an impact on population growth. These trends are due in part to increased educational and employment opportunities for women. The delay in marriage may also be linked to the dowry system. Given the high rate of poverty, it is difficult for parents to accummulate sufficient resources to provide dowries for their daughters. Sri lanka's economy is predominantly agricultural, with only 15% of the gross national product derived from manufacturing. Approximately 22% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. In 1981 exports totaled US$1.1 billion, and major export items were tea and rubber. In the same year, imports totaled US$1.8 billion and consisted primarily of food, petroleum, and fertilizers. The per capita gross national product was US$320 in 1982. Sri Lanka receives considerable foreign aid, and the

  9. Pulpwood production in the north central region by county, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    Discusses 1978 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1978 production and receipts data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  10. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2005-01-01

    Discusses 2002 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2002 production for the...

  11. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2005-01-01

    Discusses 2003 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2003 production for the...

  12. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2003-01-01

    Discusses 1999 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 1999 production for the...

  13. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 1998 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1998 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species...

  14. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    1998-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production decreased 1%--from 9.6 million cords in 1995 to 9.5 million cords in 1996. Central States pulpwood production decreased 26%--from 528 thousand cords in 1995 to 393 thousand cords in 1996. Plains States pulpwood production was 110 thousand cords, a decrease of 4% from 1995. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for...

  15. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Hackett; Ronald J. Piva

    1994-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production increased to 8.8 million cords in 1992. Central States pulpwood production increased about 5%--from 339 thousand cords in 1991 to 356 thousand cords in 1992. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.

  16. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    1996-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production decreased 2%--from 9.7 million cords in 1994 to 9.6 million cords in 1995. Central States pulpwood production increased 59%--from 333 thousand cords in 1994 to 528 thousand cords in 1995. Plains States pulpwood production was 115 thousand cords in 1995, an increase of 4% from 1994. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species...

  17. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    1999-01-01

    Discusses 1997 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1997 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows...

  18. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2007-01-01

    Discusses 2005 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form are presented. Production for 2005 for the...

  19. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Discusses 1980 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1980 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  20. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by County, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1987-01-01

    Discusses 1985 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1985 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri and shows four...

  1. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by county, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1989-01-01

    Discusses 1987 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1987 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  2. Veneer industry and timber use, North Central Region, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Shows 1980 veneer-log production and receipts by species in the Lake State (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) and in the Central States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri). Comparisons are made with similar data collected in 1976. Includes tables showing veneer-log production and receipts (for selected years) since 1946 in the Lake States and since 1956 in the...

  3. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  4. The "Macburger", Non-State Universities and the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Dhammika

    2017-01-01

    In the present moment of global capitalism, the marketisation of higher education is a reality in the Global South and North. Yet, the Southern experience of marketisation differs from that of the North. This article examines how market-based development in Sri Lanka since the economic liberalisation of 1977 has reshaped Sri Lankan university…

  5. Sri Harsha Akella

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. SRI HARSHA AKELLA. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 38 Issue 5 September 2015 pp 1399-1405. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 nanoparticles using slurry technique · Sasidhar Siddabattuni Sri Harsha Akella Abilash ...

  6. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: COMMUNITY FACILITIES, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION SERVICES, INFORMATION NETWORKS. Region: Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Total Funding: CA$ 265,330.00. Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building Capacity in ICT Policy. Project.

  7. Cooling ponds and small rivers in north central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to review those Commonwealth Edison (Ceco) programs related directly or indirectly to compensation and stock manipulation in fish populations. The direct stocking of sport fish fingerlings for mitigation is one method of stock manipulation. There are, however, two other, less common manipulative approaches to enhancing local fish stocks. First is the use of cooling ponds as off-stream nursery areas for forage and sport species. Second is the use of waste heat to modify habitat temperatures and permit or improve overwintering survival of select species such as gizzard or threadfin shad in north-temperate waters that are naturally too cold to sustain strong populations. This, in turn, will increase the abundance of these species as forage in subsequent years. There are four different Ceco projects which are discussed. These are: Fish releases in Pool 14 of the Mississippi River; Studies of endemic and stock fishes at the Collins and Dresden Cooling Ponds; Fish and water quality monitoring of the Des Plaines and Upper Illinois Rivers; and Proposed walleye, muskellunge and striped bass x white bass hybrid stocking in the Rock River. 7 references

  8. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field. Our results provide evidence that the region requires more intensive seismic surveying, and in some cases that some structures have been reactivated recently.

  9. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  10. Matkakohteena Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Sri Lankan matkailua. Tavoitteena on selvittää mitä tarjottavaa Sri Lankalla on suomalaisille matkailijoille. Työssä tutkitaan kohteen sopivuutta suomalaisille matkailijoille ja vastataan tutkimuskysymykseen; onko Sri Lanka suomalaisille sopiva matkakohde. Työn tarkoituksena on myös kartoittaa alueen vetovoimatekijöitä sekä listata joitain matkailukohteita. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuus koostuu matkustuskäyttäytymiseen ja kohdevalintaan vaikuttavista tekijöistä. T...

  11. Kerosene Oil Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayasiri, M B Kavinda Chandimal; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y

    2017-01-01

    Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4%) while 283 (93%) children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.

  12. Kerosene Oil Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. Methods. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Results. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4% while 283 (93% children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Conclusions. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.

  13. Evolving Policy Initiatives for Effective Vocational Technical Education in North Central Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombugus, Danjuma A.; Angbre, Francis Adams

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on evolving policy initiatives for effective Vocational Technical Education (VTE) on sustainable development. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was carried out in North Central Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The population for the study was 450 respondents (VTE teachers/lecturers, government officials,…

  14. ICT and Decision Making in Universities in North-Central Geo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the use of ICT for decision-making in North-Central Nigerian universities. It adopted a correlation design, in which four out of the seven federal universities were chosen, using stratified random sampling techniques. A total of 240 participants responded to an instrument entitled: ICT and ...

  15. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon

    1998-01-01

    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  16. Burrow architecture and turbative activity of the thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Schreurs, CE; Videler, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The architecture and development of the burrows of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea were studied in sediment-filled containers and thin cuvettes in the laboratory. Three-dimensional burrows of 81 shrimps were used to describe the 3-dimensional burrow

  17. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  18. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  19. Data bases for forest inventory in the North-Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    Describes the data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work Unit at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Explains how interested parties may obtain information from the databases either through direct access or by special requests to the FIA database manager.

  20. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Richard P. Guyette; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2015-01-01

    Fire history studies are important tools for understanding past fire regimes and the roles humans played in those regimes. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a fire history study in the Pine Creek Gorge area of north-central Pennsylvania to ascertain the number of fires and fire-free intervals, their variability through time, and the role of human influences. We collected...

  1. The future of fiber production in the north-central States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.S. Bromley

    1973-01-01

    It is an honor and a pleasure to make the initial presentation at this Tree Improvement Conference. I plan to cover the "future of fiber production in the north-central States" by confining my remarks to three major issues: (1) the potentials for expansion, (2) factors that may inhibit growth, and (3) changes in policies and procedures required.

  2. Temperature of upland and peatland soils in a north central Minnesota forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale S. Nichols

    1998-01-01

    Soil temperature strongly influences physical, chemical, and biological activities in soil. However, soil temperature data for forest landscapes are scarce. For 6 yr, weekly soil temperatures were measured at two upland and four peatland sites in north central Minnesota. One upland site supported mature aspen forest, the other supported short grass. One peatland site...

  3. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  4. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  5. Availability of ICTs in public libraries in North Central states of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This scenario prompted the researchers to examine the situation of ICTs provision in public libraries in North Central States of Nigeria. Public libraries were del iberately selected for this study because of their importance to the general public (the peoples' university) in Nigeria. The study is predominantly qualitative as most ...

  6. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  7. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-10-07

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. 3-D crustal structure along the North Anatolian Fault Zone in north-central Anatolia revealed by local earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolsal-Ćevikbilen, Seda; Biryol, C. Berk; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Taymaz, Tuncay; Adıyaman, Hande E.; Özacar, A. Arda

    2012-03-01

    3-D P-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs variations in the crust along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in north-central Anatolia were investigated by the inversion of local P- and S-wave traveltimes, to gain a better understanding of the seismological characteristics of the region. The 3-D local earthquake tomography inversions included 5444 P- and 3200 S-wave readings obtained from 168 well-located earthquakes between 2006 January and 2008 May. Dense ray coverage yields good resolution, particularly in the central part of the study area. The 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs tomographic images reveal clear correlations with both the surface geology and significant tectonic units in the region. We observed the lower limit of the seismogenic zone for north-central Anatolia at 15 km depth. Final earthquake locations display a distributed pattern throughout the study area, with most of the earthquakes occurring on the major splays of the NAFZ, rather than its master strand. We identify three major high-velocity blocks in the mid-crust separated by the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture and interpret these blocks to be continental basement fragments that were accreted onto the margin following the closure of Neo-Tethyan Ocean. These basement blocks may have in part influenced the rupture propagations of the historical 1939, 1942 and 1943 earthquakes. In addition, large variations in the Vp/Vs ratio in the mid-crust were observed and have been correlated with the varying fluid contents of the existing lithologies and related tectonic structures.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  10. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  11. A new species of Aspidura Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Sri Pada sanctuary (Peak Wilderness), Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Kandambi, H K Dushantha; Pyron, R Alexander; Wickramasinghe, Nethu

    2017-11-13

    We describe a new species, Aspidura ravanai sp. nov., representing the eighth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern, scalation, and genetic distinctiveness. Our molecular results indicated that Aspidura began diversifying in the Miocene approximately 18 Ma, and A. ravanai sp. nov. diverged from its likely sister lineage A. trachyprocta at least 6.2 Ma. The species is currently known only from the type locality, on the western slopes of Sri Pada Peak in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.

  12. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  13. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north central...... adult An. culicifacies in the bedrooms. Poor housing construction was an independent risk factor for malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Risk maps of malaria in Sri Lanka can be based on the location of houses relative to streams and rivers that are potential breeding sites for the malaria vector An. culicifacies......BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...

  14. Epidemilogical Profile of Speech and Language Disorder in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Shuaib K.; Afolabi, Olushola A.; Alabi, Biodun S.; Elemunkan, Isiah O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Speech-language pathologists/Otolaryngologists recognize high prevalence of speech and language disorder among children. The aim of the study is to find out the epidemiological profile of speech and language disorder in north central Nigeria. Method: A five year retrospective review of all referral to speech and language therapy unit ENT Department between January 2005 and December 2009. Information retrieved and analysed included bio-data, clinical presentation and diagnosis of t...

  15. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Isinkaye, Omoniyi Matthew; Jibiri, Nnamdi N.; Olomide, Adebowale A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl) detector was employed for the measurem...

  16. Airborne pollen and fungal spores in Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezike, Dimphna Nneka; Nnamani, Catherine V.; Ogundipe, Oluwatoyin T.; Adekanmbi, Olushola H.

    2016-01-01

    The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1?year (June 1, 2011?May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples wer...

  17. The changing climate and human vulnerability in north-central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Angula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available North-central Namibia is more vulnerable to effects of climate change and variability. Combined effects of environmental degradation, social vulnerability to poverty and a changing climate will compromise subsistence farming in north-central Namibia (NCN. This will make subsistence and small-scale farmers in the region more vulnerable to projected changes in the climate system. Thus, the aim of this article was to examine factors contributing to subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change. The article further discusses different aspects of human vulnerability and existing adaptation strategies in response to impacts of climate related disasters experienced over the past three to four decades in NCN. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches and methodology were employed to obtain information from subsistence farmers in north-central Namibia. The sociodemographic characteristics of Ohangwena, Oshana and Omusati Region reveals high levels of unemployment, high adult and elderly population and high dependency on agricultural livelihood system. These indicators help understand levels of household vulnerability. The study concludes that households interviewed revealed low levels of adaptive capacity due to exposure to climate risks and combined effects of social, political and cultural factors. This article provided an understanding that is required to inform the adaptation pathways relevant for NCN.

  18. Parlamentswahl in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Carola

    2004-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag analysiert das Wahlergebnis der Parlamentswahl 2004 in Sri Lanka. Er wurde zuerst 2004 in der Zeitschrift "KAS-Auslandsinformationen" eröffnet. Bei den Wahlen ging zwar die von Staatspräsidentin Kumaratunga angeführte United People's Freedom Alliance aus den jüngsten Parlamentswahlen in Sri Lanka als Sieger hervor, jedoch wartet auf den neuen Premier Rajapakse kein leichtes Regieren – werden doch die anstehenden Aufgaben wie die Wiederaufnahme der Friedensgespräche mit der radi...

  19. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  20. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  1. International Intervention in Intra-State Conflicts: The Case in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the adult franchise .43 With this decision, a controversial question arose about who should be given the voting privilege. The Indian Tamils, who...therefore, of its defense. It possesses unrivalled geographical advantages . Consider its radiating distances towards the west and East, Sri Lanka’s central...with a antagonist attitude in Sri Lankan affairs over strategic concerns. British involvement in Sri Lanka was strategically disadvantageous for

  2. sri lanka : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Disease control, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, TELEPHONE. Région: India, Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ... Sujet: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Région: Far East Asia, Philippines, Central Asia, South ...

  3. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  4. IDRC in Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has been supporting research in Sri Lanka since 1973. Its initial focus was on improving farming practices. A new rice cropping system that harnessed monsoon rains, for example, increased yields more than three-fold in four years. This innovation was widely adopted by farmers. Urban agriculture has also been an.

  5. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead.

  6. A new sketch of the central North Banda Sea, Eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réhault, J. P.; Malod, J. A.; Larue, M.; Burhanuddinn, S.; Sarmili, L.

    The North Banda Sea (Eastern Indonesia) is an oceanic domain whose origin is controversial. New bathymetric and seismic reflection profiles, in addition to those published previously, allow presentation of a new bathymetric map and structural sketch of this basin. A general NW-SE structural pattern appears to be the result of: first, the orientation of very large NW-SE strike-slip faults. Among them the West Baru fracture zone is described for the first time and can be traced for about 300 km; second, the present direction of convergence seems to be oriented NE-SW. This has resulted in the faulting and underthrusting of the Banda Sea crust beneath the East Sulawesi margin, particularly well expressed in the north. As a consequence of the convergence along the Tolo Thrust an active accretionary prism is developed and a peripheral bulge arches the central domain of the North Banda Sea. The nature of the North Banda Sea floor is still unknown but several good dredging sites are identified to solve this major problem in the region.

  7. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2018-02-01

    Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ) evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions) and quantitative (laboratory analyses) data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs) and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs) based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ). The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential) and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status). This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a) estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU) and (b) soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content). The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  8. Local soil quality assessment of north-central Namibia: integrating farmers' and technical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prudat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is a major threat for farmers of semi-arid north-central Namibia. Soil conservation practices can be promoted by the development of soil quality (SQ evaluation toolboxes that provide ways to evaluate soil degradation. However, such toolboxes must be adapted to local conditions to reach farmers. Based on qualitative (interviews and soil descriptions and quantitative (laboratory analyses data, we developed a set of SQ indicators relevant for our study area that integrates farmers' field experiences (FFEs and technical knowledge. We suggest using participatory mapping to delineate soil units (Oshikwanyama soil units, KwSUs based on FFEs, which highlight mostly soil properties that integrate long-term productivity and soil hydrological characteristics (i.e. internal SQ. The actual SQ evaluation of a location depends on the KwSU described and is thereafter assessed by field soil texture (i.e. chemical fertility potential and by soil colour shade (i.e. SOC status. This three-level information aims to reveal SQ improvement potential by comparing, for any location, (a estimated clay content against median clay content (specific to KwSU and (b soil organic status against calculated optimal values (depends on clay content. The combination of farmers' and technical assessment cumulates advantages of both systems of knowledge, namely the integrated long-term knowledge of the farmers and a short- and medium-term SQ status assessment. The toolbox is a suggestion for evaluating SQ and aims to help farmers, rural development planners and researchers from all fields of studies understanding SQ issues in north-central Namibia. This suggested SQ toolbox is adapted to a restricted area of north-central Namibia, but similar tools could be developed in most areas where small-scale agriculture prevails.

  9. Radiocarbon dating techniques for tephras in central North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.M.; Pullar, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Tephra samples from Whakatane Ash and Rotoma Ash in central North Island of New Zealand were subject to a wide range of chemical treatments in order to isolate different components of soil organic matter for radiocarbon dating. These samples were radiocarbon-dated before and after treatments and were then compared with radiocarbon dates derived from charcoal in the same tephra formation. Tephra deposits when dated as whole samples without prior chemical treatments, yielded unreliable radiocarbon dates. The reliability was improved by chemical treatments, particularly those involving acid hydrolysis with 6 M HCl or 72% H 2 SO 4 . Improvement, however, was less using the classical humus extraction and fractionation procedure

  10. Challenges of groundwater management in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Villholth, Karen G.

    2013-01-01

    In International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Groundwater Governance in Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 15 August 2013. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)

  11. SRI funds: Nomen est omen

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Alexander; Osthoff, Peer

    2007-01-01

    We test the frequently made claim that SRI funds are conventional funds in disguise. For this purpose, we compare the portfolio holdings of SRI funds to conventional funds concerning their social and environmental standards. Our empirical study of US equity funds shows that SRI funds have a significantly higher ethical ranking than standard funds, i.e., they are not conventional funds in disguise. This result holds for all ethical criteria we investigate. It is stable over time and holds afte...

  12. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper al...

  13. Factors blocking the development of north - central Rzeszów

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Adam; Mazur, Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Rzeszów is one of the best developing cities in Poland. Once the small HQ of a principality - due to complicated historical conditioning - it has now become a place where an increasing number of people choose to live. The city with its bursting life, streets and squares starts and ends, however, in an area which only a few dozen years ago still catered for one fifth of the current population. The main reason for this phenomenon is the presence of spatial barriers, which significantly limit the development of the central urban area. This article analyzes the elements, which block the development of the north-central part of Rzeszów. An appropriate diagnosis of the problem may in the future allow the right actions in urban planning to be taken in order to cross these barriers. This may lead to the future development of areas with huge urbanization potential. Investments undertaken by city authorities to develop the northern peripheries of Rzeszów may trigger the development of the central district in this direction. This may occur as a result of concrete design interventions. The new part of the central district should have the scale and proportions of urban space that answer to the needs of a dynamically developing capital of the Podkarpacie region.

  14. Residential grid-connected photovoltaics adoption in north central Texas: Lessons from the Solarize Plano project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katherine G.

    Residential Grid-Connected Photovoltaics (GPV) systems hold remarkable promise in their potential to reduce energy use, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy costs to consumers, while also providing grid efficiency and demand-side management benefits to utilities. Broader adoption of customer-sited GPV also has the potential to transform the traditional model of electricity generation and delivery. Interest and activity has grown in recent years to promote GPV in north central Texas. This study employs a mixed methods design to better understand the status of residential GPV adoption in the DFW area, and those factors influencing a homeowner's decision of whether or not to install a system. Basic metrics are summarized, including installation numbers, distribution and socio-demographic information for the case study city of Plano, the DFW region, Texas, and the United States. Qualitative interview methods are used to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing adoption for the Solarize Plano case study participants; to evaluate the effectiveness of the Solarize Plano program; and to identify concepts that may be regionally relevant. Recommendations are presented for additional research that may advance GPV adoption in north central Texas.

  15. Forest Owners’ Organizations in North and Central Portugal – Assessment of Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Feliciano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The emergence of forest owners’ organizations (FOOs in Portugal occurred in the 1990s. Fifteen years later there were 173 FOOs providing services to the private forest owners and also to the whole of society. This study aims to evaluate the success of FOOs in increasing their membership and the quantity of services provided. Material and Methods: Eight FOOs from the North and Central Portugal were chosen as case studies. Quantitative data on membership numbers and number of services provided by the eight case studies were collected from the archives of FORESTIS or directly at the FOOs headquarters. Qualitative data from newsletters, annual reports, local newspapers and letters were also collected to be further analysed. Secondary data collected cover a period of ten years (1994-2005. In addition, eight interviews to members of staff or FOOs directors were conducted in 2005. It was hypothesised that the number of members and the quantity of services provided may be interrelated and that the turnover of staff and their productivity influence the success of FOOs in increasing their membership and providing technical advice services. Results and Conclusion: The study showed that although most FOOs were successful in making their membership grow, there were big differences in the number of members, in the forest area covered by them and in the quantity of services provided. It was concluded that human capital, financial capital and path dependence were the factors that most constrained the success FOOs in North and Central Portugal.

  16. Land use and land cover change in the North Central Appalachians ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, D.E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Auch, Roger F.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    The North Central Appalachians ecoregion, spanning northern Pennsylvania and southern New York, has a long history of land use and land cover change. Turn-of-the-century logging dramatically altered the natural landscape of the ecoregion, but subsequent regeneration returned the ecoregion to a forest dominated condition. To understand contemporary land use and land cover changes, the U.S. Geological Survey with NASA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used a random sample of satellite remotely sensed data for 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000 to estimate the rates and assess the primary drivers of change in the North Central Appalachians. The overall change was 6.2%. The 1973-1980 period had the lowest rate of change (1.5%); the highest rate (2.9%) occurred during the 1992-2000 period. The primary conversions were deforestation through harvesting and natural disturbance (i.e., tornados) followed by regeneration, and conversion of forests to mining and urban lands. The primary drivers of the change included changes in access, energy and forest prices, and attitudes toward the environment.

  17. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A.

    2003-01-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

  18. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  19. A synoptic climatology of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems in the North-Central Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Mote, Thomas L.; Byrd, Stephen F.

    2000-09-01

    Synoptic-scale environments favourable for producing derechos, or widespread convectively induced windstorms, in the North-Central Plains are examined with the goal of providing pattern-recognition/diagnosis techniques. Fifteen derechos were identified across the North-Central Plains region during 1986-1995. The synoptic environment at the initiation, mid-point and decay of each derecho was then evaluated using surface, upper-air and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets.Results suggest that the synoptic environment is critical in maintaining derecho producing mesoscale convective systems (DMCSs). The synoptic environment in place downstream of the MCS initiation region determines the movement and potential strength of the system. Circulation around surface low pressure increased the instability gradient and maximized leading edge convergence in the initiation region of nearly all events regardless of DMCS location or movement. Other commonalities in the environments of these events include the presence of a weak thermal boundary, high convective instability and a layer of dry low-to-mid-tropospheric air. Of the two corridors sampled, northeastward moving derechos tend to initiate east of synoptic-scale troughs, while southeastward moving derechos form on the northeast periphery of a synoptic-scale ridge. Other differences between these two DMCS events are also discussed.

  20. New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional

  1. Triassic structural and stratigraphic evolution of the Central German North Sea sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marco; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface of the Central German North Sea sector is characterized by a complex sequence of tectonic events that span from the Permo-Carboniferous initiation of the Southern Permian Basin to the present day. The Triassic period is one of the most prominent stratigraphic intervals in this area due to alternating phases of relatively tectonic quiescence and intense tectonic activity with the development of grabens, salt-tectonics movements, various regional and local erosional events and strong local and regional changes in subsidence over time. The heterogeneous geological history led to complex structural and lithological patterns. The presented results are part of a comprehensive investigation of the Central German North Sea sector. It was carried out within the scope of the project TUNB (www.bgr.bund.de). The main goal was to enhance the understanding of the Triassic geological development in the area of interest due to detailed seismic interpretation of several hundred 2D seismic lines and as well 3D seismic data sets. A seismostratigraphic concept was used to interpret most formations of the Triassic resulting in a detailed subdivision of the Triassic unit. Depth and thickness maps for every stratigraphic unit and geological cross sections provided new insights regarding an overall basin evolution as well as the timing and mechanisms of rifting and salt-tectonics. New results concerning the evolution of the Keuper in the German North Sea and especially the Triassic evolution of the Horn Graben, as one of the major Triassic rift-structures in the North Sea, will be highlighted. We will show aspects of strong tectonic subsidence in the Horn Graben in the Lower Triassic. In parts of the study area, halotectonic movements started in the Upper Triassic, earlier than previously proposed. Besides mapping of regional seismic reflectors, distinct sedimentary features like fluvial channel systems of the Stuttgart formation (Middle Keuper) or subrosion-like structures

  2. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  3. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldo, Salvatore S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895. PMID:28769729

  4. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among primary school pupils in north central region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwori EE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among primary school pupils in north central area of Nigeria. Methods: 2 000 randomly selected primary school pupils in and around eastern part of Idoma area of Benue state were interviewed using an open-ended questionnaire. Data analysis was done with EPI-INFO 2000. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and the 0.05 level of significance was adopted. Results: A totle of 1 010 males and 990 females at ages between five and sixteen years were drawn from 10 primary schools in the area. Pupils in the higher classes were more knowledgeable and sex difference was not statistically significant. Certain misconceptions were noted. Conclusions: There is need for health education for all cadres of primary school pupils in the area, which will increase the awareness of the disease.

  5. Surface Area Variability of a North-Central Tanzanian Crater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Higgins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A history of modern (1973–2015 surface area variability for Lake Basotu in north-central Tanzania has been reconstructed using archived Landsat images from the dry season between June and October. This record was compared to local weather data as well as larger scale weather patterns. The lake has been in a state of decline interrupted by major flood events since the beginning of the satellite record. From 1973 to 1997, the lake area was between 0.97 km2 and 4.28 km2. Lake extent abruptly increased to 13.86 km2 in 1998, when a co-occurrence of El Niño and a positive Indian Ocean Dipole led to extensive flooding. It is hypothesized that local agricultural practices leading to soil erosion and subsequent basin sedimentation have most likely increased the sensitivity of Lake Basotu to climatic fluctuations.

  6. Response of the Land-Atmosphere System Over North-Central Oklahoma During the 2017 Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [NOAA/OAR/ESRL Global Services Division, Boulder CO USA; Wulfmeyer, V. [Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany; Behrendt, A. [Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany; Bonin, T. A. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO USA; Choukulkar, A. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO USA; Newsom, R. K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Brewer, W. A. [NOAA/OAR/ESRL Physical Sciences Division, Boulder CO USA; Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL USA

    2018-02-10

    On 21 August 2017, a solar eclipse occurred over the continental United States resulting in a rapid reduction and subsequent increase of solar radiation over a large region of the country. The eclipse’s effect on the land-atmosphere system is documented in unprecedented detail using a unique array of sensors deployed at three sites in north-central Oklahoma. The observations showed that turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum at the surface responded quickly to the change in solar radiation. The decrease in the sensible heat flux resulted in a decrease in the air temperature below 200 m, and a large decrease in turbulent motions throughout the boundary layer. Furthermore, the turbulent mixing in the boundary layer lagged behind the change in the surface fluxes, and this lag depended on the height above the surface. The turbulent motions increased and the convective boundary layer was reestablished as the sensible heat flux recovered.

  7. Cultural differences in stigma surrounding schizophrenia: comparison between Central Europe and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Carta, Mauro G; Matschinger, Herbert; Millier, Aurélie; Refaï, Tarek; Schomerus, Georg; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-04-01

    Exploring cultural differences may improve understanding about the social processes underlying the stigmatisation of people with mental illness. To compare public beliefs and attitudes about schizophrenia in Central Europe and North Africa. Representative national population surveys conducted in Germany (2011) and in Tunisia (2012), using the same interview mode (face to face) and the same fully structured interview. In Tunisia, respondents showed a stronger tendency to hold the person with schizophrenia responsible for the condition. At the same time they expressed more prosocial reactions and less fear than their German counterparts. In Germany, the desire for social distance was greater for more distant relationships, whereas in Tunisia this was the case for close, family-related relationships. Stigma differs between Tunisia and Germany more in form than in magnitude. It manifests particularly in those social roles which 'matter most' to people within a given culture. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Review of the genera of Conoderinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore S. Anzaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement. Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.

  9. Response of the Land-Atmosphere System Over North-Central Oklahoma During the 2017 Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Behrendt, A.; Bonin, T. A.; Choukulkar, A.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.; Cook, D. R.

    2018-02-01

    On 21 August 2017, a solar eclipse occurred over the continental United States resulting in a rapid reduction and subsequent increase of solar radiation over a large region of the country. The eclipse's effect on the land-atmosphere system is documented in unprecedented detail using a unique array of sensors deployed at three sites in north-central Oklahoma. The observations showed that turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum at the surface responded quickly to the change in solar radiation. The decrease in the sensible heat flux resulted in a decrease in the air temperature below 200 m, and a large decrease in turbulent motions throughout the boundary layer. Furthermore, the turbulent mixing in the boundary layer lagged behind the change in the surface fluxes, and this lag depended on the height above the surface. The turbulent motions increased and the convective boundary layer was reestablished as the sensible heat flux recovered.

  10. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  11. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  12. Seismic anisotropy in central North Anatolian Fault Zone and its implications on crustal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, A.; Eken, T.; Taymaz, T.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, S.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the crustal seismic structure and anisotropy around the central portion of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, a major plate boundary, using receiver function analysis. The characterization of crustal seismic anisotropy plays a key role in our understanding of present and past deformation processes at plate boundaries. The development of seismic anisotropy in the crust arises from the response of the rocks to complicated deformation regimes induced by plate interaction. Through the analysis of azimuthally-varying signals of teleseismic receiver functions, we map the anisotropic properties of the crust as a function of depth, by employing the harmonic decomposition technique. Although the Moho is located at a depth of about 40 km, with no major offset across the area, our results show a clear asymmetric distribution of crustal properties between the northern and southern blocks, divided by the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Heterogeneous and strongly anisotropic crust is present in the southern block, where complex intra-crustal signals are the results of strong deformation. In the north, a simpler and weakly anisotropic crust is typically observed. The strongest anisotropic signal is located in the first 15 km of the crust and is widespread in the southern block. Stations located on top of the main active faults in the area indicate the highest amplitudes, together with fault-parallel strikes of the fast plane of anisotropy. We interpret the origin of this signal as due to structure-induced anisotropy, and roughly determine its depth extent up to 15-20 km for these stations. Away from the faults, we suggest the contribution of previously documented uplifted basement blocks to explain the observed anisotropy at upper and middle crustal depths. Finally, we interpret coherent NE-SW orientations below the Moho as a result of frozen-in anisotropy in the upper mantle, as suggested by previous studies.

  13. 110 years of local glacier and ice cap changes in Central- and North East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Box, J.

    2014-12-01

    The local glaciers and ice caps of Greenland are becoming more apparent players in global sea-level rise, and their contribution to future changes is significant. Very little information on their historical fluctuations exists as much of the focus has been on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Now, we can for the first time present historic data that spans 110 years for more than 200 of the local glaciers and ice caps covering this large and important region of the Arctic. The central- and north eastern part of Greenland is of particular interest as these areas are predicted to exhibit a more active behavior with higher mass loss in the future - simultaneously with an increase in precipitation. Our results show that the glaciers and ice caps in the region are responding very rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. The present retreat is the fastest observed within the last eight decades, only surpassed by the rapid post LIA retreat. The 1930s was the golden era for scientific exploration in Central- and North East Greenland as several large expeditions visited the area and photographed from land, sea and air. We use historic recordings from Danish and Norwegian aerial missions and terrestrial recordings from the renowned American Explorer Louise Boyd. These unique pictures from the early 1930s form the backbone of the study and are supplemented the more recent aerial photographs the 1940s and onwards and satellite imagery from the mid-1960s and up until present. From high resolution aerial photographs we are able to map the maximum extent of the glaciers during the LIA (Little Ice Age), from which retreat in this area is estimated to commence in 1900. Using a new SMB (Surface Mass Balance) model and its components covering the entire observational period along with high resolution DEMs and historic sea-ice records we are now able to extract valuable information on the past and present triggers of glacial change.

  14. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shedlock

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  15. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  16. Genetic Variation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from Multiple Crops in the North Central United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aldrich-Wolfe

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen of numerous crops in the North Central region of the United States. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of 145 isolates of the pathogen from multiple hosts in the region. Mycelial compatibility groups (MCG and microsatellite haplotypes were determined and analyzed for standard estimates of population genetic diversity and the importance of host and distance for genetic variation was examined. MCG tests indicated there were 49 different MCGs in the population and 52 unique microsatellite haplotypes were identified. There was an association between MCG and haplotype such that isolates belonging to the same MCG either shared identical haplotypes or differed at no more than 2 of the 12 polymorphic loci. For the majority of isolates, there was a one-to-one correspondence between MCG and haplotype. Eleven MCGs shared haplotypes. A single haplotype was found to be prevalent throughout the region. The majority of genetic variation in the isolate collection was found within rather than among host crops, suggesting little genetic divergence of S. sclerotiorum among hosts. There was only weak evidence of isolation by distance. Pairwise population comparisons among isolates from canola, dry bean, soybean and sunflower suggested that gene flow between host-populations is more common for some crops than others. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium in the isolates from the four major crops indicated primarily clonal reproduction, but also evidence of genetic recombination for isolates from canola and sunflower. Accordingly, genetic diversity was highest for populations from canola and sunflower. Distribution of microsatellite haplotypes across the study region strongly suggest that specific haplotypes of S. sclerotiorum are often found on multiple crops, movement of individual haplotypes among crops is common and host identity is not a barrier to gene flow for S. sclerotiorum in the

  17. Bedload exports in a forest catchment following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2014-05-01

    In Portugal, the occurrences of wildfires are frequently, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year, but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 the burnt areas can go over 300.000 ha. Studies in various parts of the world, including Portugal, have well-documented a strong and sometimes extreme response in overland flow generation and associated soil losses following wildfire. Over the last two decades, the construction of terraces in preparation of a new eucalypt plantation has become increasingly common in the mountain areas of north-central Portugal, including in recently burnt areas. Terraces are traditionally viewed as a soil conservation technique, however, the present authors have measured high splash and inter-rill erosion on recent terraces and have frequently observed gully formation connecting the terraces over the full hill slope length, as well as within the adjacent unsealed roads. The present study was carried out in a forest catchment in the north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010 and logged and then terraced with a bulldozer during the winter 2010. The burnt catchment of roughly 25 ha was instrumented with two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. The bed load that deposited in the smallest flume was removed and weighted in the field at regular intervals during the subsequent three years. The records are being now analyzed, nonetheless preliminary results suggested that, besides the wildfire effects, also post-fire land management played an important role on bedload exports.

  18. Climatological coupling of the thermohaline decadal changes in Central Water of the Eastern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Pérez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Data collected at 42ºN, 10ºW in the intergyre region of the Northeast Atlantic show significant year to year variability in the T-S characteristics of the upper 800m of the water column. Taking salinity values on the sq = 27.1 kg m-3 isopycnal as representative of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water mass it was found that the variability correlates well with the wind stress at 43ºN, 11ºW, with cumulative river discharge (which we take as an index of precipitation over the ocean and with the NAO (which is an index of the strength and position of storm tracks and the state of the evaporation-precipitation balance. The covariation illustrates the close coupling between water mass formation and climate in the North Atlantic, where climate changes affect the deep ventilation by which ENACW is formed and the evaporation-precipitation balance from which the T-S signature results. Hints of a 20 year cycle in the ocean correlate with a 20 year periodicity in the NAO. It remains to be established whether there is a feedback mechanism by which water mass anomalies affect the climate and the intensity and variation of the NAO pattern, and the extent to which upper ocean observations can be used as an indicator of future climate trends.

  19. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  20. sri lanka : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Région: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Far East Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Central Asia, South Asia. Programme: Économies en ...

  1. Sri Lanka : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , CONFLICTS, PRISONS, WOMEN, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Région: Asia, Bangladesh, South and Central Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 585,800.00.

  2. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  3. OTEC thermal resource report for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W. A.

    1979-05-01

    The water surrounding the island of Sri Lanka has a temperature difference resource which is more than adequate for potential OTEC use. The temperature resource was examined between 5--10/sup 0/ North latitude and 78--83/sup 0/ East longitude. This area includes the surrounding waters on all sides of Sri Lanka. There is a large area north and northwest of the island where there is insufficient depth to provide the needed cold water supply. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 21.3/sup 0/C. An annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is available at 800 meters. The temperature is very consistent at depths with little difference between the coldest monthly mean temperature and the warmest. The area has an upper mixed layer the entire year, (deepest in January--February and shallowest in the fall). Winds and storms are not a major problem for this site, although there are occasional tropical storms or hurricanes. Low to moderate sea and swell conditions generally dominate throughout the year. The surface currents are generally moderate throughout the year, changing direction with the shifting monsoons.

  4. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewantha, Hasitha S

    2017-01-01

    Liver disease in Sri Lanka is mainly due to alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In contrast to other South Asian countries, the prevalence of hepatitis B and C is low in Sri Lanka and prevalence of hepatitis A is intermediate. The few reported cases of hepatitis E in Sri Lanka are mainly in people who have traveled to neighboring South Asian countries. Wilson's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, drug-induced liver disease, and primary biliary cirrhosis are recognized causes of liver disease in Sri Lanka. Pyogenic and amebic liver abscesses and dengue infection are the other causes of liver disease. Some of the commonly used plants as traditional herbal medicine in Sri Lanka have been shown to have deleterious effects on the liver in animal studies. Considering the high popularity of traditional herbal medicine in the country, it is likely that herbal medicine is an etiological factor for liver disease in Sri Lanka, but no published data are available. Address reprint requests to: Wijewantha HS. Liver Disease in Sri Lanka. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(1):78-81.

  5. Analysis of rubber supply in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, M.J.; Nerlove, M.; Peters, R.K. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis of the supply response for perennial crops is undertaken for rubber in Sir Lanka, focusing on the uprooting-replanting decision and disaggregating the typical reduced-form supply response equation into several structural relationships. This approach is compared and contrasted with Dowling's analysis of supply response for rubber in Thailand, which is based upon a sophisticated reduced-form supply function developed by Wickens and Greenfield for Brazilian coffee. Because the uprooting-replanting decision is central to understanding rubber supply response in Sri Lanka and for other perennial crops where replanting activities dominate new planting, the standard approaches do not adequately capture supply response.

  6. The first intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe; Yatawara, Lalani; Kano, Shigeyuki; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater snails (family Paludomidae, genus Paludomus) were collected from streams in Hedeniya and Peradeniya (the campus of Peradeniya University), Kandy district, Central Province, Sri Lanka, and found to harbor rediae and cercariae of a Paragonimus sp. These larvae were identified as Paragonimus westermani by using ITS2 DNA sequences. The infection rates of P. westermani in Paludomus sp. in Hedeniya and Peradeniya were 0.1% (one of 1014) and 0.2% (two of 1006), respectively. The snail has not been identified to species in the present study. This is the first report of the snail host of Paragonimus in Sri Lanka.

  7. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  8. Access to facility delivery and caesarean section in north-central Liberia: a cross-sectional community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Matthew G; Taryor, Victor D; Norman, Andy M; Vermund, Sten H

    2012-01-01

    Objective Rural north-central Liberia has one of the world's highest maternal mortality ratios. We studied health facility birthing service utilisation and the motives of women seeking or not seeking facility-based care in north-central Liberia. Design Cross-sectional community-based structured interviews and health facility medical record review. Setting A regional hospital and the surrounding communities in rural north-central Liberia. Participants A convenience sample of 307 women between 15 and 49 years participated in structured interviews. 1031 deliveries performed in the regional hospital were included in the record review. Primary outcomes Delivery within a health facility and caesarean delivery rates were used as indicators of direct utilisation of care and as markers of availability of maternal health services. Results Of 280 interview respondents with a prior childbirth, only 47 (16.8%) delivered their last child in a health facility. Women who did not use formal services cited cost, sudden labour and family tradition or religion as their principal reasons for home delivery. At the regional hospital, the caesarean delivery rate was 35.5%. Conclusions There is an enormous unmet need for maternal health services in north-central Liberia. Greater outreach and referral services as well as community-based education among women, family members and traditional midwives are vital to improve the timely utilisation of care. PMID:23117566

  9. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  10. Estimating regional pore pressure distribution using 3D seismic velocities in the Dutch Central North Sea Graben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.L.A.; Verweij, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the empirical Eaton method to calibrated sonic well information and 3D seismic interval velocity data in the southeastern part of the Central North Sea Graben, using the Japsen (Glob. Planet. Change 24 (2000) 189) normal velocitydepth trend, resulted in the identification of an

  11. "El Miedo y El Hambre": Understanding the Familial, Social, and Educational Realities of Undocumented Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viramontez Anguiano, Ruben P.; Lopez, Anayeli

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how different ecological factors, within and outside the family, affected the educational success of the children of undocumented families. The sample consisted of 63 immigrant Latino parents (40 families) who resided in North Central Indiana. This study utilized an ethnographic research design. Findings demonstrated that…

  12. Assessment of College Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Solid Waste Management in North Central Zone of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Mohammed Dauda; Makilik, Mangut; Ozoji, Bernadette Ebele

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on assessment of colleges of education students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management in the North Central zone of Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey design was adopted. A students' knowledge and attitudes toward solid waste management questionnaire were used to collect data from 1,800 students. The findings…

  13. The strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2018-04-01

    The haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades and imposes damage on society, ecosystems, and human health. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, climate change and variability were conducive to haze in China. In this study, the relationship between the snow cover over eastern Europe and western Siberia (SCES) and the number of haze days in December in central North China was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the SCES and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations. During 1998-2016, the SCES significantly influenced the soil moisture and land surface radiation, and then the combined underlying drivers of enhanced soil moisture and radiative cooling moved the the East Asia jet stream northward and induced anomalous, anti-cyclonic circulation over central North China. Modulated by such atmospheric circulations, the local lower boundary layer, the decreased surface wind, and the more humid air were conducive to the worsening dispersion conditions and frequent haze occurrences. In contrast, from 1979 to 1997, the linkage between the SCES and soil moisture was negligible. Furthermore, the correlated radiative cooling was distributed narrowly and far from the key area of snow cover. The associated atmospheric circulations with the SCES were not significantly linked with the ventilation conditions over central North China. Consequently, the relationship between the SCES and the number of hazy days in central North China was insignificant before the mid-1990s but has strengthened and has become significant since then.

  14. The strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The haze pollution in December has become increasingly serious over recent decades and imposes damage on society, ecosystems, and human health. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, climate change and variability were conducive to haze in China. In this study, the relationship between the snow cover over eastern Europe and western Siberia (SCES and the number of haze days in December in central North China was analyzed. This relationship significantly strengthened after the mid-1990s, which is attributed to the effective connections between the SCES and the Eurasian atmospheric circulations. During 1998–2016, the SCES significantly influenced the soil moisture and land surface radiation, and then the combined underlying drivers of enhanced soil moisture and radiative cooling moved the the East Asia jet stream northward and induced anomalous, anti-cyclonic circulation over central North China. Modulated by such atmospheric circulations, the local lower boundary layer, the decreased surface wind, and the more humid air were conducive to the worsening dispersion conditions and frequent haze occurrences. In contrast, from 1979 to 1997, the linkage between the SCES and soil moisture was negligible. Furthermore, the correlated radiative cooling was distributed narrowly and far from the key area of snow cover. The associated atmospheric circulations with the SCES were not significantly linked with the ventilation conditions over central North China. Consequently, the relationship between the SCES and the number of hazy days in central North China was insignificant before the mid-1990s but has strengthened and has become significant since then.

  15. Growth-Inhibitory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Wild Mushrooms from North-Central British Columbia (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Javed, Sumreen; Barad, Ankush; Myhre, Vicky; Li, Wai Ming; Reimer, Kerry; Massicotte, Hugues B; Tackaberry, Linda E; Payne, Geoffrey W; Egger, Keith N; Lee, Chow H

    2017-01-01

    Wild mushrooms, especially from North America, have not been systematically explored for their medicinal properties. Here we report screening for the growth-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities of 12 species collected from multiple locations in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Mushrooms were characterized using morphology and DNA sequencing, followed by chemical extraction into 4 fractions using 80% ethanol, 50% methanol, water, and 5% sodium hydroxide. Growth-inhibitory, immunostimulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of 5 mushrooms (Leucocybe connata, Trichaptum abietinum, Hydnellum sp., Gyromitra esculenta, and Hericium coralloides) are reported here, to our knowledge for the first time. Growth-inhibitory effects were assessed using the cytotoxic MTT assay. Immunostimulatory activity was assessed by tumor necrosis factor-α production in Raw 264.7 macrophages, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was assessed based on the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Hydnellum sp. were potent growth inhibitors, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.6 mg/mL. All 5 fungi displayed strong immunostimulatory activity, whereas only L. connata and T. abietinum showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. For the 7 other fungi investigated, which included well-known medicinal species such as Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus igniarius, and Ganoderma applanatum, the remarkable similarities in the biological activities reported here, and by others for specimens collected elsewhere, suggest that mushrooms can produce similar metabolites regardless of their habitat or ecosystem. This is to our knowledge the first study to explore wild mushrooms from British Columbia for biological activities that are relevant to cancer, and the results provide an initial framework for the selection of mushroom species with the potential for discovery of novel anticancer compounds.

  16. Matched Filter Detection of Microseismicity at Ngatamariki and Rotokawa Geothermal Fields, Central North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, C. J.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.; Sherburn, S.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring patterns in local microseismicity gives clues to the existence and location of subsurface structures. In the context of a geothermal reservoir, subsurface structures often indicate areas of high permeability and are vitally important in understanding fluid flow within the geothermal resource. Detecting and locating microseismic events within an area of power generation, however, is often challenging due to high levels of noise associated with nearby power plant infrastructure. In this situation, matched filter detection improves drastically upon standard earthquake detection techniques, specifically when events are likely induced by fluid injection and are therefore near-repeating. Using an earthquake catalog of 637 events which occurred between 1 January and 18 November 2015 as our initial dataset, we implemented a matched filtering routine for the Mighty River Power (MRP) geothermal fields at Rotokawa and Ngatamariki, central North Island, New Zealand. We detected nearly 21,000 additional events across both geothermal fields, a roughly 30-fold increase from the original catalog. On average, each of the 637 template events detected 45 additional events throughout the study period, with a maximum number of additional detections for a single template of 359. Cumulative detection rates for all template events, in general, do not mimic large scale changes in injection rates within the fields, however we do see indications of an increase in detection rate associated with power plant shutdown at Ngatamariki. Locations of detected events follow established patterns of historic seismicity at both Ngatamariki and Rotokawa. One large cluster of events persists in the southeastern portion of Rotokawa and is likely bounded to the northwest by a known fault dividing the injection and production sections of the field. Two distinct clusters of microseismicity occur in the North and South of Ngatamariki, the latter appearing to coincide with a structure dividing the

  17. An assessment of the SSC impact on the training and employment needs of North Central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsak, C.G.; McGlohen, P.; Jenkens, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded the Navarro College/Dallas County Community College Districe SSC Technical Training Project to determine the direct and inderect manpower needs in the eighteen-county North Cenbtral Texas area surrounding the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) and to identify training programs to be developed by local community colleges. The tasks of this project were specifically designed to maximize the use of existing informatiion resources of various organizations and agencies concerned with lobor force development issues to provide custom databases focusied upon the SSCL. The labor market informataion (LMI) resources developed in this project provide a strong foundation for examining the impacts of the SSCL on the training and employment needs of the North Central Texas region. The direct and indirect effects of the SSCL are analyzed to the smallest level of occupational detail feasible. Regional labor demand estimates and forecasts were updated and expanded, county level demand data was developed, statewide vocational education programs were inventoried and lists of affected regional employers were extracted. All of the data developed in this project is available in standard Dbase disk files, formatted to be compatible with other LMI resources such as INTERLINK's LMIS. Further, a custom version of INTERLINK's PC-based LMIS software was developed for the SSC Technical Training Project to provide the greatest access to and linkage between the labor demand and supply data developed in this study. Future efforts to develop additional information resources relevant to the event of the SSCL must focus upon comparative analyses of similar projects, such as Fermilab and others, to provide more detail to the products developed in this project

  18. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  19. Bioavailability of Metals in Sediments of the Dogger Bank (Central North Sea): A Mesocosm Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W. J.; Burt, G. R.; Pope, N. D.

    1999-05-01

    There are conflicting arguments surrounding the nature and origins of metal enrichment in sediments from the Dogger Bank (central North Sea) and much speculation as to its biological significance. To help resolve this controversy, a mesocosm approach was evaluated to test whether metal loadings in sediments from the Dogger Bank region display enhanced bioavailability, relative to reference sites off south-west England. This involved the combination of physicochemical characterization of sediments (including porewaters) with bioaccumulation studies, using sediment cores seeded with benthic organisms (bivalves Spisula solida and Venus striatula, the gastropod Turritella communis and the polychaete Melinna palmata). There was little evidence of As, Cu, Hg or Pb bioaccumulation from Dogger cores. In contrast, all species accumulated Cd; Ag concentrations rose by up to fourfold in most bioindicators; and Ni, Cr and Mn burdens also increased, occasionally by as much as 10-fold. Variable, but generally smaller increases in Fe and Zn were observed. Physiological variations in metal bioaccumulation processes, including the ability to regulate essential elements, were responsible for species differences in response—a feature which may contribute to uncertainty in the interpretation and comparison of biomonitoring data. Mesocosm results nevertheless complement earlier field reports of unexpectedly enriched levels of certain metals (notably Cd) in biota from this part of the central North Sea. Characterization of sediments provided some physicochemical explanations for enhanced metal uptake in biota and helped, partly, to define bioavailable and anthropogenic fractions. Thus, whilst total sediment-metal concentrations were not exceptional in Dogger samples, for some metals there was a significant proportion in non-refractory (readily extractable) form, together with relatively high concentrations in interstitial waters—both presumably available for assimilation

  20. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Stephen J.; Farrell, Kathleen M.; Mallinson, David J.; Willard, Debra A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Riggs, Stanley R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.; Parham, Peter; Snyder, Scott W.; Hillier, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes.Micropaleontological data, coupled with sedimentologic, chronostratigraphic and seismic data provide the bases for detailed interpretations of paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimates in the 90. m thick Quaternary record of the Albemarle Embayment. The data presented here come from a transect of cores drilled through a barrier island complex in the central Albemarle Embayment. This area sits in a ramp-like setting between late Pleistocene incised valleys.The data document the episodic infilling of the Albemarle Embayment throughout the Quaternary as a series of transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles, characterized by inner shelf, midshelf, and shoreface assemblages, that overlie remnants of fluvial to estuarine valley-fill. Barrier island and marginal marine deposits have a low preservation potential. Inner to mid-shelf deposits of the early Pleistocene are overlain by similar middle Pleistocene shelf sediments in the south of the study area but entirely by inner shelf deposits in the north. Late Pleistocene marine sediments are of inner shelf origin and Holocene deposits are marginal marine in nature. Pleistocene marine sediments are incised, particularly in the northern half of the embayment by lowstand paleovalleys, partly filled by fluvial/floodplain deposits and in some cases, overlain by remnants of transgressive estuarine sediments. The shallowing

  1. The Use of Ground Penetrating Radar to Exploring Sedimentary Ore In North-Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Almutair, Muteb

    2015-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a non-destructive geophysical method that provides a continuous subsurface profile, without drilling. This geophysical technique has great potential in delineating the extension of bauxites ore in north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is from types sedimentary ores. This study aim to evaluate the effectiveness of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to illustrate the subsurface feature of the Bauxite deposits at some selected mining areas north-central Saudi Arabia. Bauxite is a heterogeneous material that consists of complex metals such as alumina and aluminum. An efficient and cost-effect exploration method for bauxite mine in Saudi Arabia is required. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have been carrying out along outcrop in order to assess the potential of GPR data for imaging and characterising different lithological facies. To do so, we have tested different antenna frequencies to acquire the electromagnetic signals along a 90 m profile using the IDS system. This system equipped with a 25 MHz antenna that allows investigating the Bauxite layer at shallow depths where the clay layers may existed. Therefore, the 25 MHz frequency antenna has been used in this study insure better resolution of the subsurface and to get more penetration to image the Bauxite layer. After the GPR data acquisition, this data must be processed in order to be more easily visualized and interpreted. Data processing was done using Reflex 6.0 software. A series of tests were carried out in frequency filtering on a sample of radar sections, which was considered to better represent the entire set of data. Our results indicated that the GPR profiling has a very good agreement for mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 7 m to 11 m. This study has emphasized that the high-resolution GPR method is the robust and cost-effect technique to map the Bauxite layer. The exploration of Bauxite resource using the GPR technique could reduce the number of holes to

  2. Detrital zircon geochronology of quartzose metasedimentary rocks from parautochthonous North America, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Jones, James V.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2017-01-01

    We report eight new U-Pb detrital zircon ages for quartzose metasedimentary rocks from four lithotectonic units of parautochthonous North America in east-central Alaska: the Healy schist, Keevy Peak Formation, and Sheep Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist in the northern Alaska Range, and the Butte assemblage in the northwestern Yukon-Tanana Upland. Excepting 1 of 3 samples from the Healy schist, all have dominant detrital zircon populations of 1.9–1.8 Ga and a subordinate population of 2.7–2.6 Ga. Three zircons from Totatlanika Schist yield the youngest age of ca. 780 Ma. The anomalous Healy schist sample has abundant 1.6–0.9 Ga detrital zircon, as well as populations at 2.0–1.8 Ga and 2.7–2.5 Ga that overlap the ages from the rest of our samples; it has a minimum age population of ca. 1007 Ma.Detrital zircon age populations from all but the anomalous sample are statistically similar to those from (1) other peri-Laurentian units in east-central Alaska; (2) the Snowcap assemblage in Yukon, basement of the allochthonous Yukon-Tanana terrane; (3) Neoproterozoic to Ordovician Laurentian passive margin strata in southern British Columbia, Canada; and (4) Proterozoic Laurentian Sequence C strata of northwestern Canada. Recycling of zircon from the Paleoproterozoic Great Bear magmatic zone in the Wopmay orogen and its Archean precursors could explain both the Precambrian zircon populations and arc trace element signatures of our samples. Zircon from the anomalous Healy schist sample resembles that in Nation River Formation and Adams Argillite in eastern Alaska, suggesting recycling of detritus in those units.

  3. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  4. Surface and subsurface flow in eucalyptus plantations in north-central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulet Anne-K.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Baixo Vouga region of north-central Portugal, forests occupy half of the territory, of which two thirds are Eucalypts plantations. The hydrological implications of this large-scale introduction of eucalypt are unknown and the aim of this exploratory study, realized in the Caramulo Mountains, was to describe overland flow (OLF, subsurface flow (SSF and stream flow (Q in a catchment dominated by Eucalyptus plantations. The main conclusions are that annual OLF rate is low, spatially heterogeneous between 0.1% and 6% and concentrated during the wet season as saturation excess, particularly as return flow. Infiltration-excess OLF due to the strong soil water repellence (SWR is dominant during dry season, but produces residual runoff amount. SSF is the principal mechanism of runoff formation. It originates from matrix flow and pipe flow at the soil-bedrock interface, principally during the wet season. Matrix flow is correlated with soil moisture (SM content, with a threshold of 25 %. Pipe flow starts with saturation of soil bottom but without saturation of the entire soil profile, due to a large network of macropores. Stream flow response is highly correlated with matrix flow behaviour in timing and intensity. SWR induces a very patchy moistening of the soil, concentrates the fluxes and accelerates them almost 100 times greater than normal percolation of the water in the matrix.

  5. Field Features And Mode Of Emplacement Of Pegmatites Of Keffi Area North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into 1 Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and 2 Granitoids orthogneisses hosted pegmatites and the granites into 1 the Bakin Ayini biotite granites 2 the Angwan Madugu biotite-muscovite granites and 3 the Sabongida biotite-muscovite granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from 400-2000m and 2-20m respectively some are huge isolated sill-like and flat-lying whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow ranging in length 40-1000m and width 1-4m crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones which suggest passive emplacement

  6. Recent greening in the Mu Us dune field, north-central China, and influential factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Rui; Wang, Kexin; Mason, Joseph A.; Wu, Shuang-Ye; Lu, Huayu

    2017-04-01

    Land desertification in arid and semi-arid environments is a severe environmental problem of fundamental importance. Better understanding of the development of desertification in the context of changing climate and human intervention is essential for policy-making on desertification control strategies and land-use management in these environmentally sensitive areas. The state, change and trend of vegetation cover and dune activity in the Mu Us dune field, a typical semi-arid dune field in north-central China, are analyzed over the years 1981-2013 by remote sensing techniques and geomorphic analysis. NDVI served as an indicator of vegetation cover, showing a significant increasing trend, while a dune mobility index indicates a reduced degree of desertification during the observation period. The transformation of dune morphologies can potentially be used to detect the long-term trend in desertification, suggesting that the dunes are being stabilized under vegetation growth. By a detailed analysis of both climatic and socioeconomic data, we found that vegetation change in the study area can be largely explained by long-term variation and short-term fluctuation of the climate, however, anthropogenic perturbations that superimposed on the natural tendency are also important at both local and regional scales. This study implies that current climatic conditions probably offer a window of opportunity for land regeneration in semi-arid northern China.

  7. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  8. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  9. Epidemilogical profile of speech and language disorder in north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aremu, Shuaib K; Afolabi, Olushola A; Alabi, Biodun S; Elemunkan, Isiah O

    2011-12-01

    Speech-language pathologists/Otolaryngologists recognize high prevalence of speech and language disorder among children. The aim of the study is to find out the epidemiological profile of speech and language disorder in north central Nigeria. A five year retrospective review of all referral to speech and language therapy unit ENT Department between January 2005 and December 2009. Information retrieved and analysed included bio-data, clinical presentation and diagnosis of the patients. Descriptive analysis of these data were done. A total of 146 patients were seen out of which 89 (61%) were under five, 32 (21.9%) were between 5-10 years, 20 (13.7%) in the range of 11-20 yrs and 2 (1.4%) were between 21-34 yrs. None was observed in the elderly. Male preponderance was noted with male to female ratio of 1.9:1.0. The commonest diagnosis was deaf-mutism in 84 (57.5%) followed by delayed speech development in 31(21.2%) patients. The least diagnosis was aphasia in 2 (1.4%) patients. Speech and language disorder was commonest among the under five's with non in the elderly, There was a higher prevalence amongst males and deaf-mutism was the commonest observed.

  10. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  11. Organic matter budget in a mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.; Gamble, J.F.; Ewel, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    Organic-matter flows through a mixed-hardwood forest were analyzed as part of a study of the unusual behavior of 137 Cs in Florida ecosystems. The data suggest that rates of organic-matter flow in the mixed-hardwood forest in north central Florida more closely approach those of similar systems in tropical areas than in temperate areas. Annual litterfall was 1069 g/m 2 ; litter turnover, 1.3/year; net daytime productivity of leaves and twigs, 12.4 g m -2 day -1 ; nighttime respiration, 5.1 g m -2 day -1 ; and stem respiration, 1.4 g m -2 day -1 . Constancy of litter storage (820 g/m 2 ) and leaf fall and lack of net wood deposition indicate that the forest is in steady state. It was concluded that 137 Cs accumulation in this forest is probably caused by intrinsic ecosystem processes, as previously suggested, rather than by buildup that might be expected in a successional ecosystem

  12. Radiocarbon in dissolved organic matter in the central North Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Druffel, E.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the first detailed profile of radiocarbon measured in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the oligotrophic gyre of the central North Pacific. Δ 14 C of DOC ranged from -150 per mille (1,310 yr BP) in surface waters to -540 per mille (6,240 yr BP) at 5,710 m, 40 m off the bottom. The surprising similarity in the shapes of the profiles of Δ 14 C in the DOC and DIC pools suggest that similar processes are controlling the radiocarbon distribution in each of the two reservoirs and that bomb-produced radiocarbon has penetrated the DOC + DIC pools to a depth of ∼ 900 m. The depletion of the Δ 14 Csub(DOC) values by 300 per mille with respect to the Δ 14 Csub(DIC) values suggests that a certain fraction of the DOC is recycled within the ocean on longer time-scales than DIC. (author)

  13. Segmentation pattern and structural complexities in seismogenic extensional settings: The North Matese Fault System (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Federica; Boncio, Paolo; de Nardis, Rita; Pappone, Gerardo; Cesarano, Massimo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Lavecchia, Giusy

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the northern slope of the Matese Mts. (Molise, Central Italy) with the aim of characterizing the N- to NE-dipping active normal fault system in the Bojano basin, a sector of primary importance from a seismic hazard perspective. We collected field data to define the geometry and segmentation pattern of two sub-systems (Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo and Bojano-Campochiaro). New evidence of late Quaternary faulting was obtained by exploiting well log interpretations. Kinematic analysis revealed the interaction of pre-Quaternary inherited (mainly E-W-striking) and newly formed (NW-SE-striking) normal faults. Slip accommodation through linkage was clearly noted in the case of the Patalecchia-Colle di Mezzo sub-system. Detailed topographic profiles across the active fault segments provided post-LGM (15 ± 3 kyr) slip rates up to ∼2 mm/yr which agree with the high deformation rates based on different approaches in the literature. Finally, the instrumental seismicity analysis constrained the bottom of the seismogenic layer to depths of 13-14 km, and the gathered information allowed us to reconstruct the North Matese seismogenic source. Its 3D geometry and dimensions agree with both the dimension-magnitude relationships and macroseismic information available for the 1805 earthquake (Mw 6.6), the main historical earthquake to have struck the Bojano basin.

  14. Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.C.; Frost, B.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Snyder, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Laramie Mountains of south-eastern Wyoming contain two metamorphic domains that are separated by the 1.76 Ga. Laramie Peak shear zone (LPSZ). South of the LPSZ lies the Palmer Canyon block, where apatite U-Pb ages are c. 1745 Ma and the rocks have undergone Proterozoic kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphism. In contrast, in the Laramie Peak block, north of the shear zone, the U-Pb apatite ages are 2.4-2.1 Ga, the granitic rocks are unmetamorphosed and supracrustal rocks record only low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism that is Archean in age. Peak mineral assemblages in the Palmer Canyon block include (a) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-garnet-staurolite-kyanite in the pelitic schists; (b) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-low-Ca amphiboles-kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists, and locally (c) hornblende-plagioclase-garnet in amphibolites. All rock types show abundant textural evidence of decompression and retrograde re-equilibration. Notable among the texturally late minerals are cordierite and sapphirine, which occur in coronas around kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists. Thermobarometry from texturally early and late assemblages for samples from different areas within the Palmer Canyon block define decompression from > 7 kbar to textures. The Proterozoic tectonic history of the central Laramie Range is similar to exhumation that accompanied late-orogenic oblique convergence in many Phanerozoic orogenic belts.

  15. Evaluation of an Improved Quasi-stochastic Collection Model Through Precipitation Prediction Over North Central Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lkhamjav, Jambajamts; Jeon, Ye-Lim; Lee, Hyunho; Baik, Jong-Jin; Seo, Jaemyeong Mango

    2017-12-01

    One of the key components of bin microphysics schemes is the quasi-stochastic collection equation that describes the collection process of cloud particles. The normal quasi-stochastic model, hereafter the NQS model, assumes that the time step is infinitesimally small, so that a cloud particle can collide with other cloud particle only once within the time step. However, since the time step is finite, a cloud particle can collide with other cloud particle more than one time within the time step. Hence, the improved quasi-stochastic model that realizes this approach, hereafter the IQS model, is physically more reasonable. This study provides the evaluation of the IQS model against the NQS model in precipitation prediction. For this, a precipitation event observed over north central Mongolia on 21 August 2014 is simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with a detailed bin microphysics scheme. The surface precipitation amount is larger in the IQS model than in the NQS model, particularly over the strong precipitation region. The IQS model increases the mass contents of small drops and large drops due to multiple collisions. The increased large drops contribute to the increase in surface precipitation amount. The increased small drops are transported upward, which eventually leads to an increase in snow mass content. Deposition and riming in the IQS model occur more actively, further increasing snow mass content. The increased snow mass content also contributes to the increase in surface precipitation amount through melting.

  16. Carbon Flux of Down Woody Materials in Forests of the North Central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Across large scales, the carbon (C) flux of down woody material (DWM) detrital pools has largely been simulated based on forest stand attributes (e.g., stand age and forest type). The annual change in forest DWM C stocks and other attributes (e.g., size and decay class changes) was assessed using a forest inventory in the north central United States to provide an empirical assessment of strategic-scale DWM C flux. Using DWM inventory data from the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program, DWM C stocks were found to be relatively static across the study region with an annual flux rate not statistically different from zero. Mean C flux rates across the study area were -0.25, -0.12, -0.01, and -0.04 (Mg/ha/yr) for standing live trees, standing dead trees, coarse woody debris, and fine woody debris, respectively. Flux rates varied in their both magnitude and status (emission/sequestration) by forest types, latitude, and DWM component size. Given the complex dynamics of DWM C flux, early implementation of inventory re measurement, and relatively low sample size, numerous future research directions are suggested.

  17. Floods of August 21-24, 2007, in Northwestern and North-Central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, David E.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Astifan, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy rains in northwestern and north-central Ohio on August 19-22, 2007, caused severe flooding and widespread damages to residential, public, and commercial structures in the communities of Bluffton, Bucyrus, Carey, Columbus Grove, Crestline, Findlay, Mansfield, Ottawa, and Shelby. On August 27, 2007, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued a notice of a Presidential declaration of a major disaster affecting Allen, Crawford, Hancock, Hardin, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, and Wyandot Counties as a result of the severe flooding. Rainfall totals for most of the flooded area were 3 to 5 in., with some locations reporting as much as 8 to 10 in. Three National Weather Service (NWS) gages in the area indicated a rainfall recurrence interval of greater than 1,000 years, and two indicated a recurrence interval between 500 and 1,000 years. Total damages are estimated at approximately $290 million, with 8,205 residences registering for financial assistance. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) computed flood recurrence intervals for peak streamflows at 22 streamgages and 8 ungaged sites in and around the area of major flooding. The peak streamflows at Sandusky River near Bucyrus streamgage and at seven of the eight ungaged sites had estimated recurrence intervals of greater than 500 years. The USGS located and surveyed 421 high-water marks and plotted high-water profiles for approximately 44.5 miles of streams throughout the nine communities.

  18. Sociodemographic Correlates of Choice of Health Care Services in Six Rural Communities in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemocho Audu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Household expenditure on health has increasingly remained a major source of health care financing in Nigeria despite the introduction of several social health scheme policies provided by the government for meeting the health care costs of patients. Recognizing these limitations, this study assessed the type of health care services people commonly use in various illnesses and the sociodemographic correlates of the preferred health care services by household heads in six rural communities of North Central Nigeria. A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study design was used to study 154 household heads in the settlements using a multistage sampling method. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate independent predictors that had significant chi-square at P<0.05. The leading causes of illness experienced by respondents were medical conditions (42.0% and 41.7% of them sought treatment from patent medicine vendors. The dominant reasons for health-seeking preferences were financial access (53.7% and proximity (48.6%. Age had a higher impact (Beta = 0.892 on the health-seeking preferences of the respondents as compared to their occupation and religion (Beta = 0.368 and −0.746, resp.. Therefore, in order to meet the health care of patients, it is pertinent that the unmet needs of patients are properly addressed by appropriate agencies.

  19. Radiological health assessment of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omoniyi Matthew Isinkaye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in and around Obajana cement factory, North Central Nigeria have been carried out in this study to determine the activity levels of natural radionuclides in different environmental matrices in order to assess the radiological health hazards associated with the use of these matrices by the local population. A low-background Pb-shielded gamma spectroscopic counting assembly utilizing NaI (Tl detector was employed for the measurements. The results show that sediment samples have the highest activity concentrations of all the radionuclides relative to soil, farmland soil, and rock samples. The radium equivalent activity and indoor gamma dose rates together with the corresponding annual effective indoor doses evaluated were found to be lower than their permissible limits. It suffices to say, that contrary to age-long fear of radiation risks to the population in the vicinity of the cement factory, no excessive radiological health hazards either indoors and/or outdoors is envisaged. Therefore, the environmental matrices around the factory could be used without any restrictions.

  20. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (odds ratios around 1.5 for 0 glasses per day relative to 1-3 glasses per day, falling to 0.8 for 4+ glasses per day). THM concentration and dose (concentration x amount) were not related to pregnancy outcome, with the possible exception of an increased risk of miscarriage in the highest sextile of THM concentration (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.7), which was not part of an overall dose-response gradient. These data do not indicate a strong association between chlorination by-products and adverse pregnancy outcome, but given the limited quality of our exposure assessment and the increased miscarriage risk in the highest exposure group, more refined evaluation is warranted. PMID:7556013

  1. Deleterious Emission Abatement through Structured Energy Use Pattern: A North Central Nigeria Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi-Banji Ademola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holistic view of household energy consumption based on greenhouse gas emissions in the North Central cities of Nigeria was examined in this study. Scenarios considered were based on income level of energy users (low and high and energy metering system (i.e. pre-paid and post-paid energy billing systems. Strong direct nexus was observed between energy use and emissions pattern. Energy utilization by post-paid category had higher weekly average value of 35.09 and 41.70 kWh as against 23.18 and 33.38 kWh for low and high income pre-paid consumers respectively. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both classification followed similar trend. Data obtained and analysed in the study show that global warming and acidification potentials could be reduced by 33.94 and 19.95 % for low and high income category consumers when pre-paid meters are in place. Conclusively, energy system users with pre-paid metering system displayed reasonable level of management decisions that reduce energy wastage and consequently environmental negative impacts.

  2. ENERGY USE PATTERN IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION UNDER FADAMA IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the energy use pattern, energy use efficiency and energy productivity for vegetable production under Fadama or the seasonally flooded or floodable plains along major savanna rivers in north central Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, the data for the production of four major vegetables produced under Fadama (Onion, Tomato, Sweet and Hot Pepper were collected from 192 Fadama farmers. The results show that Tomato production was the most energy intensive among the four vegetables investigated. For all the vegetables, the usage of non-renewable energy inputs such as petrol and urea fertilizer was quite substantial as such, the efficiency of energy use and energy productivity were very low. The energy use efficiency were, 0.20, 0.10, 0.10 and 0.06, while the energy productivity were 0.25, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.07 for Onion, Tomato, Sweet and Hot Pepper respectively. However, to enhance the energy use efficiency and energy productivity of the system, the usage of renewable energy inputs especially organic manure should be promoted. In addition, energy efficient water pumps should be introduced into the Fadama communities.

  3. Predicting residential air exchange rates from questionnaires and meteorology: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Breen, Miyuki; Williams, Ronald W; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-12-15

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure models is the estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) of individual homes, where people spend most of their time. The AER, which is the airflow into and out of a building, is a primary mechanism for entry of outdoor air pollutants and removal of indoor source emissions. The mechanistic Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) AER model was linked to a leakage area model to predict AER from questionnaires and meteorology. The LBL model was also extended to include natural ventilation (LBLX). Using literature-reported parameter values, AER predictions from LBL and LBLX models were compared to data from 642 daily AER measurements across 31 detached homes in central North Carolina, with corresponding questionnaires and meteorological observations. Data was collected on seven consecutive days during each of four consecutive seasons. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 43% (0.17 h(-1)) and 40% (0.17 h(-1)) for the LBL and LBLX models, respectively. Additionally, a literature-reported empirical scale factor (SF) AER model was evaluated, which showed a median absolute difference of 50% (0.25 h(-1)). The capability of the LBL, LBLX, and SF models could help reduce the AER uncertainty in air pollution exposure models used to develop exposure metrics for health studies.

  4. Mineralogical sources of groundwater fluoride in Archaen bedrock/regolith aquifers: Mass balances from southern India and north-central Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Hallett

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: An estimate of weathering duration for the in situ regolith in Andhra Pradesh, 250–380 Ka, is close to a previous estimate for southern India. Partial or total destruction of the primary F-bearing bedrock minerals and consistent depletion of F in the remnant minerals result in a much reduced total F content in the regolith. Leaching experiments and field relationships, however, indicate a greater potential for F mobilisation to groundwater from the regolith than the bedrock. Schemes for managed aquifer recharge should beware the risk of mobilising additional F to groundwater.

  5. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  6. Evolution of physical and biological characteristics of mesoscale eddy in north-central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zarokanellos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Eddies appear to be important to both the physical and biogeochemical dynamics of the Red Sea. Numerical simulations of physical dynamics and remote sensing studies of chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height in the Red Sea indicate their importance to the upper portions of the sea (Raitsos et al., 2013; Yao et al., 2014; Zhan et al., 2014). Despite their apparent importance, process studies of these eddies have been lacking. In March 2013 we began an extended observational study of the north-central Red Sea (NCRS) where anticyclonic eddies have been observed. The study began with a ship-based characterization of the eddy and was followed by a three-month observational time series using an autonomous glider equipped with a CTD, oxygen sensor, and optical sensors for chlorophyll, CDOM and optical backscatter. The ship-based study captured an initial snapshot of an anticyclonic eddy and it\\'s associated biological and bio-optical distributions. Initially, chlorophyll distributions tended to mirror the density distribution, with deeper isopycnals and chlorophyll maximum depth in the anticyclonic eddy center. The anticyclone eddy in March had an along basin diameter of 150 km, penetrated vertically less than 150 m and elevated near surface chlorophyll concentrations appeared along its outer boundary. The shallowing of the pycnocline of the outer boundaries of the anticyclone eddy on March may elevate nutrients into the lower euphotic zone, contributing to phytoplankton productivity and biomass within the eddy. This eddy contains most of the kinetic energy of the region with the maximum velocities up to 30 - 35 cm/s. The eddy appeared to interact with the coastal reefs where exchange particulate and dissolved matter may occur. The autonomous glider provided the spring-to-summer progression of the system with increasing stratification, shallowing of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, and fluctuations in the position and intensity of the eddy. Our glider effort

  7. Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.W. [International Resources Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

  8. Premigrational movements and behavior of young mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R.E.; Cowardin, L.M.; Tester, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Movements and behavior of 89 young mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 48 young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were monitored on a 932-km2 study area in north-central Minnesota in late summer and fall, 1972-74, with telemetry, visual observation, and aerial surveys. Initial flights of both species were confined to the natal (brood) marsh; first flights away from the natal marsh occurred in the third week after fledging in both species. First flights of young mallards and wood ducks away from their natal marshes were not significantly different between the sexes (mallard, mean = 4.95 km for females and 5.83 km for males; wood ducks, mean = 2.31 km for females and 2.64 km for males). However, flights away from the brood marshes by wood ducks were significantly shorter than for mallards.As young mallards and wood ducks grew, their daytime use of the natal marshes decreased in an irregular pattern as both species began daily flights between day- and night-use areas. Locally reared mallards made longer daily flights between use areas than did wood ducks, but wood ducks changed use areas with greater frequency before 1 October. Despite often extensive movements, most locally reared mallards and wood ducks remained in the vicinity of their brood marshes throughout fall until migration.Movement of young birds to new habitat was not the result of random searching and thus fortuitous discovery of nearby areas. Instead, birds seemed to learn of new habitat and develop movement patterns by associating with other birds; locally reared young always moved in the company of flocks of conspecifics that included adults and older immatures.Differences in movement patterns between the sexes of young birds and between young and adult birds cause them to be differentially distributed by age and sex on and near the breeding grounds. These differences are ultimately reflected in the distribution of the hunter harvest. We have interpreted generalizations about such phenomena, developed from

  9. Estimating the Change of Groundwater Salinization in the Central North China Plain for Sustainable Groundwater Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Y.; He, X.; Zheng, C.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of food supplies and limited freshwater resources, North China Plain (NCP) is highly dependent on the groundwater resources. Groundwater overdraft has made NCP a closed hydrologic basin, where the connection between surface and groundwater has been cut off, which can lead to salt accumulation in the groundwater system. Thus it is imperative to investigate the overall salt balance in the region for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources, as well as to better understand the salt accumulating processes caused by groundwater pumping and return flow. The central plain of NCP (excluding the piedmont plain and coastal plain) is selected in the present study, where the groundwater salt content is mainly controlled by precipitation, irrigation, groundwater pumping and rock-water interaction in vertical direction; therefore, a conceptual 1-D mixing model is developed for salt balance calculation, where the salt content is expressed by the concentration of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in groundwater. Geological structures and regional water balance data are obtained from numerical groundwater models previously developed in the area. The simulation starts in year 1900 with a 50-year time step and groundwater vertical flow velocity starting with 2 m/y. TDS concentration is then calculated through salt input and output in each layer, with consideration of soil salt accumulation, change of precipitation, rock-water interaction etc. The results suggest that in a closed hydrologic basin, groundwater pumping and return flow will gradually increase salt content in the groundwater body from upper layers to lower layers resulting from the flushing of salt accumulated in the top soil layer. After two time steps, the model is able to reproduce the observed TDS concentration in present time with reasonable accuracy; and after six time steps, which correspond to 300 years, the whole central plain of NCP will be under the influence of high salinity, which

  10. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    öpelin, S. etal (2015): New data on the unresolved paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad). Abstract #64322 AGU-Fall-Meeting-2015.

  11. Field Survey of the 2015 Ilapel Tsunami in North Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M.; Fritz, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake in north-central Chile on September 16, 2015 generated a tsunami that rapidly flooded coastal areas. The tsunami impact was concentrated in Coquimbo region, while the regions of Valparaiso and Atacama were also affected. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past tsunamis in the region, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The event caused 11 fatalities: 8 were associated with the tsunami, while 3 were attributed to building collapses caused by the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared with recent Chilean tsunamis. The tsunami was characterized by rapid arrival within minutes in the nearfield requiring spontaneous self-evacuation as warning messages did not reach some of the hardest hit fishing villages prior to

  12. Indications and Outcome of Tracheostomy in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: 10 Years Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, B. S.; Afolabi, O. A.; Dunmade, A. D.; Omokanye, H. K.; Ajayi, I. O.; Ayodele, S. O.; Busari, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The study aims to highlight common indications as well as outcome of treatment among patients with tracheostomy in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. Methods: A review of clinical records of all patients with tracheostomy over a period of ten years (2002-2011), using the Theatre, Ward, ICU and the emergency register after approval from the ethical review committee. Data retrieved included; demographic profile, primary diagnosis, indication for tracheostomy, surgical technique, hospital admission and care outcome of management. All information retrieved input and analysed using an SPSS version 17.0 and data analyzed descriptively. Results: Seventy-six patients had complete data for analysis, age range from 1-89yrs, and mean age of 41.9yrs. There are 48males and 28 females with M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Majority of the patients were in the 3rd–5th decade. About 47.4% had temporary tracheostomy. The commonest indication for tracheostomy is upper airway obstruction secondary to aerodigestive tract tumors in 60.5%, then trauma in 26.3%. The complications are higher among the under tens’. Out of the 36 temporary tracheostomy only 18 were successfully decannulated. The mean hospital stay was 22±2days. Overall 15% mortality was recorded. Conclusion: Common reason for tracheostomy is essentially same earlier documentation in developing countries, common among males, emergency type still most common, neoplasm, prolonged intubation and trauma are the commonest indications, its complication is still high among the under tens’. The outcome is good with 15% mortality due to the primary disease and not from tracheostomy. PMID:29363628

  13. Morphotectonic records of neotectonic activity in the vicinity of North Almora Thrust Zone, Central Kumaun Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch; Kandregula, Raj Sunil; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2017-05-01

    The landform development and valley floor morphology of active regions is significantly controlled by tectonic processes. In the present study the upper catchments of Kosi and Gagas river valleys have been investigated with special emphasis on aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary and Holocene in Central Kumaun Himalaya. Major tectonic elements such as the North Almora thrust (NAT), Rasiyari fault (RF), and Gagas fault (GF) are considered to be controlling the development of landforms in the region. The valleys have preserved debris flow terraces, bedrock strath terraces, and fluviolacustrine terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms are preserved in the hanging wall block of the NAT, RF, and along the GF. Reconstructions based on morphostratigraphy through the application of optical chronology suggests multiple phases of fluvial aggradation in the upper catchment of the Kosi and Gagas rivers that were initiated around 34 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated to be around early to mid-Holocene (7-1 ka). Based on terrace morphology, four major phases of enhanced uplift have been estimated during 34, 15.8, 7, and 3 ka. The older uplift event dated to be around 34 ka is represented uplift along GF, which accommodated onset of valley-fill aggradation in Gagas valley. The 15.8 ka event represents uplift along RF, which led to the generation of debris flow from adjacent hillslopes. The 7 ka event represents uplift of a hanging wall block of the NAT and deposition of debris flow terraces. However, the youngest 3 ka event represents enhanced uplift, which is responsible for the incision of the older valley fill sediments and bedrock. Following this, a phase of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath

  14. Hydrological implications of soil water-repellency in Eucalyptus globulus forests, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.; Ceballos, A.; Doerr, S. H.

    2000-05-01

    Soil water-repellency (hydrophobicity) is a widespread property of Eucalyptus globulus and Pinus pinaster forest soils in central and north littoral Portugal and is particularly severe during the summer dry conditions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of water repellency on overland flow and runoff generation at plot and catchment scales for two types of terrain with differing land management and degree of soil hydrophobicity: (i) highly hydrophobic land with regenerating eucalyptus forest following fire; and (ii) largely hydrophilic land on which deep-ploughing prior to planting eucalyptus seedlings had eliminated hydrophobicity. Overland flow responses were monitored over a 40-month period for two 8 m×2 m plots and streamflow was recorded continuously at gauging stations for two small catchments of predominantly regrowth eucalyptus and ploughed/planted eucalyptus, respectively. Soil hydrophobicity was assessed using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test. Seasonal variations in the factors influencing plot overland flow response were assessed for each land management type using multivariate analysis. For the regrowth eucalyptus plot, overland flow generation was found to be negatively correlated with antecedent soil moisture in summer (suggesting that hydrophobicity-linked Hortonian overland flow is then dominant), but positively related to throughflow in winter (suggesting that saturation overland flow generation in a hydrophilic-phase soil was at that time the dominant mechanism). In the ploughed/planted areas, negative correlations with soil moisture were found neither in summer nor winter. Rainfall amount (and in winter also antecedent precipitation) were found to be the variables most strongly and positively related to overland flow volume. The plot results are compared with streamflow responses for the small catchments.

  15. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  16. Pediatric laparoscopic surgery in North-Central Nigeria: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Olajide Abdur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Advances in laparoscopy are making the service accessible even in resource-poor countries where adaptations are made to meet local challenges. We report our experience in the provision of laparoscopy service to children at a tertiary health center in North-central Nigeria. Methods: A team of pediatric surgeons, anesthetists, and nurses collaborated to provide service and train other personnel. A prospective collection of data on biodata, diagnoses, procedure, and outcome over an effective period of 36 months of laparoscopy intervention of the 54 months between September 2009 and February 2014 was done. Consent, which also included the possibility of conversion to open was obtained from the parents of the patients. Results: A total of 73 patients aged 2 weeks to 16 years with a male: female ratio of 3 to 1 had laparoscopy done during the period. Fifty-two (71.2% procedures were therapeutic, and 21 (28.8% cases were done as emergency. Laparoscopic appendectomy was the most commonly performed procedure 25 (34.3%, followed by laparoscopic orchidopexy 17 (23. 3%, and diagnostic laparoscopy for disorders of sexual differentiation in 13 (17.8%. The length of stay in hospital postoperative was 1-3 days with a mean of 1.34 ΁ 0.45 days. The complications recorded included hemorrhage, in a case of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis due to failed electrocautery, one port site burns injury from diathermy dissection, and two periport pain postoperation. There was no mortality recorded. Conclusion: Pediatric laparoscopic service is gaining recognition in our practice in spite of poor resources, incessant industrial actions, and apathy from support staff. The outcomes are encouraging as the patients had minimal morbidities. Skills are improved through practice and retraining and manpower, and instruments are being expanded through our collaboration and training.

  17. Canada goose nest survival at rural wetlands in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Brenna N.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The last comprehensive nest survival study of the breeding giant Canada goose (Branta canadensis maxima) population in Iowa, USA, was conducted >30 years ago during a period of population recovery, during which available nesting habitat consisted primarily of artificial nest structures. Currently, Iowa's resident goose population is stable and nests in a variety of habitats. We analyzed the effects of available habitat on nest survival and how nest survival rates compared with those of the expanding goose population studied previously to better understand how to maintain a sustainable Canada goose population in Iowa. We documented Canada goose nest survival at rural wetland sites in north-central Iowa. We monitored 121 nests in 2013 and 149 nests in 2014 at 5 Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) with various nesting habitats, including islands, muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) houses, and elevated nest structures. We estimated daily nest-survival rate using the nest survival model in Program MARK. Survival was influenced by year, site, stage, presence of a camera, nest age, and an interaction between nest age and stage. Nest success rates for the 28-day incubation period by site and year combination ranged from 0.10 to 0.84. Nest survival was greatest at sites with nest structures (β = 17.34). Nest survival was negatively affected by lowered water levels at Rice Lake WMA (2013 β = −0.77, nest age β = −0.07). Timing of water-level drawdowns for shallow lake restorations may influence nest survival rates.

  18. Late Devonian spermatophyte diversity and paleoecology at Red Hill, north-central Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cressler, Walter L. III. [Francis Harvey Green Library, 29 West Rosedale Avenue, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Prestianni, Cyrille [Universite de Liege, Boulevard du Rectorat B18, Liege 4000 (Belgium); LePage, Ben A. [The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103 and PECO Energy Company, 2301 Market Avenue, S9-1, Philadelphia, PA 19103 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Early spermatophytes have been discovered at Red Hill, a Late Devonian (Famennian) fossil locality in north-central Pennsylvania, USA. The Red Hill locality contains an Archaeopteris-dominated flora within an outcrop of the Duncannon Member of the Catskill Formation. Palynological analyses of the plant fossil-bearing horizons within the Red Hill outcrop indicate deposition within the VCo palynozone. This is the earliest time horizon known to contain evidence for spermatophytes, and is contemporaneous with well-known spermatophyte-bearing deposits in West Virginia and Belgium. Some of the spermatophyte material from Red Hill compares well with Aglosperma sp., previously known as isolated ovules from the latest Devonian of South Wales and England, thus extending its geographic and stratigraphic range. Red Hill specimens of Aglosperma sp. occur both as isolated ovules and attached to dichotomously forking axes. Additional spermatophyte cupules discovered at Red Hill are morphologically similar to those of the previously described Late Devonian spermatophytes Elkinsia Rothwell, Scheckler, et Gillespie, Moresnetia Stockmans, and Xenotheca Arber et Goode. Some of the Red Hill cupule complexes are distinct from the aforementioned taxa in consisting of slender dichotomously forking axes terminating in paired cupules with highly fused and symmetric cupule quadrant lobes. The distinctive nature of these Red Hill specimens warrants the creation of Duodimidia pfefferkornii Cressler, Prestianni, et LePage gen. et sp. nov. Plant fossil remains with sphenopteroid foliage are also present at Red Hill, possibly attributable to the spermatophytes. Previous systematic sampling of the rich plant-fossil bearing layer at Red Hill and analysis of its floristic diversity and abundance as well as the presence and absence of charcoal suggests a pattern of floral turnover from a local-scale Rhacophyton-dominated community to spermatophyte colonization following disturbance by wildfires

  19. Seasonal methane accumulation and release from a gas emission site in the central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, S.; Gentz, T.; Körber, J.-H.; Torres, M. E.; Römer, M.; Sahling, H.; Wintersteller, P.; Martinez, R.; Schlüter, M.; Helmke, E.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated dissolved methane distributions along a 6 km transect crossing active seep sites at 40 m water depth in the central North Sea. These investigations were done under conditions of thermal stratification in summer (July 2013) and homogenous water column in winter (January 2014). Dissolved methane accumulated below the seasonal thermocline in summer with a median concentration of 390 nM, whereas during winter, methane concentrations were typically much lower (median concentration of 22 nM). High-resolution methane analysis using an underwater mass-spectrometer confirmed our summer results and was used to document prevailing stratification over the tidal cycle. We contrast estimates of methane oxidation rates (from 0.1 to 4.0 nM day-1) using the traditional approach scaled to methane concentrations with microbial turnover time values and suggest that the scaling to concentration may obscure the ecosystem microbial activity when comparing systems with different methane concentrations. Our measured and averaged rate constants (k') were on the order of 0.01 day-1, equivalent to a turnover time of 100 days, even when summer stratification led to enhanced methane concentrations in the bottom water. Consistent with these observations, we could not detect known methanotrophs and pmoA genes in water samples collected during both seasons. Estimated methane fluxes indicate that horizontal transport is the dominant process dispersing the methane plume. During periods of high wind speed (winter), more methane is lost to the atmosphere than oxidized in the water. Microbial oxidation seems of minor importance throughout the year.

  20. Indications and outcome of tracheostomy in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: 10 years review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, B S; Afolabi, O A; Dunmade, A D; Omokanye, H K; Ajayi, I O; Ayodele, S O; Busari, N O

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to highlight common indications as well as outcome of treatment among patients with tracheostomy in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. A review of clinical records of all patients with tracheostomy over a period of ten years (2002-2011), using the Theatre, Ward, ICU and the emergency register after approval from the ethical review committee. Data retrieved included; demographic profile, primary diagnosis, indication for tracheostomy, surgical technique, hospital admission and care outcome of management. All information retrieved input and analysed using an SPSS version 17.0 and data analyzed descriptively. Seventy-six patients had complete data for analysis, age range from 1-89yrs, and mean age of 41.9yrs. There are 48males and 28 females with M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Majority of the patients were in the 3rd-5th decade. About 47.4% had temporary tracheostomy. The commonest indication for tracheostomy is upper airway obstruction secondary to aerodigestive tract tumors in 60.5%, then trauma in 26.3%. The complications are higher among the under tens'. Out of the 36 temporary tracheostomy only 18 were successfully decannulated. The mean hospital stay was 22±2days. Overall 15% mortality was recorded. Common reason for tracheostomy is essentially same earlier documentation in developing countries, common among males, emergency type still most common, neoplasm, prolonged intubation and trauma are the commonest indications, its complication is still high among the under tens'. The outcome is good with 15% mortality due to the primary disease and not from tracheostomy.

  1. Agronomical evaluation of cape gooseberries (Physalis peruviana L. from central and north-eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Moreno Axel Mauricio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate agronomical traits in a germplasm collection of cape gooseberry from central and north-eastern Colombia in order to measure the variability of the collection in relation to the geographic origin of the accessions and their biological status (cultivated, feral and undetermined. For this purpose, a total of 54 accessions from the departments of Norte de Santander, Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca was evaluated using 30 descriptors (23 quantitative and seven qualitative by means of a principal component analysis (PCA applied to the quantitative variables and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA applied to the qualitative variables. The first two PCA components explained 52.42% of the total variation. The first component (39.79% was positively related to the weight and fruit size and negatively to the pH and maturity index. A hierarchical classification analysis based on the continuous variables resulted into two classes with contrasting affinities, with 94.37% of the cultivated accessions grouped into class 2 and 64% of the undetermined accessions grouped into class 1. The first three MCA axes explained 48.48% of the total variation. The first one (20.51% was related to strong serosity, medium fruit size and absence of damage caused by Phoma sp. A hierarchical classification analysis based on the categorical variables resulted in four classes (A, B, C, and D; with one of them (class B containing five accessions characterized by having strong serosity and absence of damage caused by insects and pathogens.

  2. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  3. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysol Trujano-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosols over the central Himalayas along two south-north transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengfei; Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico K.; Zhang, Qianggong

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to the Himalayas remains limited. Concentrations of PAHs were therefore measured in total suspended particles (TSP) from six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. Spatially, the annual average TSP and PAH (especially 5- and 6-ring) concentrations were found to decrease noticeably along both transects. The dry deposition fluxes had similar distribution pattern with the ambient PAH levels. Moreover, annual TSP and PAH concentrations exhibited a logarithmic decreasing pattern with increasing elevation especially in the non-monsoon seasons (TSP: y=-57.3lnx+552, R2=0.952; PAHs: y=-26.8lnx+229, R2=0.948). The TSP and PAH concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with the minimum concentrations around the mid-monsoon season and the maximum concentrations in winter season at Lumbini and Pokhara. While at other remote sites these pollutants were slightly higher during the non-monsoon season than those in the monsoon season. The diagnostic ratio suggested that atmospheric PAHs from the Nepal sites were mainly associated with emission of biomass, coal burning and petroleum combustion. A similar composition pattern was found between the two sides of the Himalayas, suggesting that the northern side of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions from the IGP due to long-range transportation as well as the unique mountain/valley breeze system which bring pollution from the IGP into Tibet across the high Himalayas.

  5. Present Permafrost Thaw in Central Yakutia, North-East Siberia: Surficial Geology and Hydrology Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawska, Jolanta; Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Current climate change in the high-latitudes of Eurasia is a generally accepted phenomenon characterized by increased annual temperature values and marked weather anomalies observed in the sub-polar and polar regions. In the northern and NE Siberia, this trend of the MAT rise, documented particularly over the last three decades, is believed to account for the territorial lowland as well as insular mountain frozen ground thaw that in turn has triggered ecosystem feedbacks on the local as well as regional scales. In the northern regions of Yakutia, this is principally witnessed by accelerated near-surface dynamics of seasonally activated de-freezing grounds and inter-linked geomorphic and hydrological actions affecting large-scale tundra landscape settings. In the southern and central taiga-forest areas with perennial alpine and continuous permafrost conditions, respectively, an increased depth of the seasonally melted top-soil layers has become evident accompanied by thermokarst lake expansion and ground surface collapsing. Some cryogenic depressions generated from small gullies over the past decades eloquently demonstrate the intensity and scales of the current permafrost degradation in the Siberian North. The fluvial discharge is most dynamic in late spring to mid-summer because of the cumulative effect of snow-melting because of a high solar radiation and short intervals of torrential rains. Yet, the climate-change-dependent and most active geomorphic agent is the accelerated permafrost thaw seen in landslides and tundra-forest cover decay due to a higher water table. Numerous preserved biotic fossiliferous records Pleistocene and early Holocene in age are being exposed in this process providing unique palaeoecology evidence at particular sites. These climate-generated processes have mostly highly negative effects to the natural habitats (migratory animal routes and riverine biota due to an earlier ice-melting) as well as the local settlement communities

  6. Nitrogen Cycling throughout Secondary Succession following Agricultural Disturbance in North-Central Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, A.; Epstein, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    While much is known about the carbon cycle during succession that follows agricultural disturbance, less understood are the dynamics of the nitrogen cycle throughout secondary succession, and how plant-available nitrogen may or may not limit vegetation transitions and net primary productivity over time. Two chronosequences at the Blandy Experimental Farm in Boyce, north-central Virginia were examined to elucidate the complexities of the nitrogen cycle over a temporal successional gradient. Each chronosequence consists of one early, one mid, and one late secondary successional field ( 15 years, 30 years, and 100 years post agricultural abandonment, respectively). Five 10x10 m plots were established in each of the 6 fields for a total of 30 plots. Total soil nitrogen (and carbon) data were collected from soils to 30 cm depth at 10-cm intervals, and net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were estimated using an in situ soil core with anion-cation exchange resin bag technique. Previous studies of carbon cycling at this location have indicated relatively constant soil CO2 efflux of approximately 1100 g C/m2, as well as increasing net primary production and therefore net ecosystem production, with time since abandonment. In addition, soil C and N, and the soil C:N ratio have been shown to increase from the early to late successional plots. Our current study marks the first comprehensive examination of soil nitrogen dynamics including mineralization and nitrification over a successional gradient at Blandy Farm. A thorough understanding of nitrogen dynamics during secondary succession is especially important in the southeastern United States, where a large portion of previously cultivated land has been abandoned over the past century, due to advances in farming efficiency and the move westward to more fertile soils. Much of the southeastern U.S. is now undergoing secondary succession, and quality data on the dynamics of nitrogen cycling during this procession can

  7. Increased Fluid Flow Activity in Shallow Sediments at the 3 km Long Hugin Fracture in the Central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtschlag, A.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D. P.; James, R. H.; Bull, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The North Sea hosts a wide variety of seafloor seeps that may be important for transfer of chemical species, such as methane, from the Earth's interior to its exterior. Here we provide geochemical and geophysical evidence for fluid flow within shallow sediments at the recently discovered, 3 km long Hugin Fracture in the Central North Sea. Although venting of gas bubbles was not observed, concentrations of dissolved methane were significantly elevated (up to six-times background values) in the water column at various locations above the fracture, and microbial mats that form in the presence of methane were observed at the seafloor. Seismic amplitude anomalies revealed a bright spot at a fault bend that may be the source of the water column methane. Sediment porewaters recovered in close proximity to the Hugin Fracture indicate the presence of fluids from two different shallow (footprint of seepage from other morphological features in the North Sea.

  8. Gender, Sexual Health Seeking Behavior, and HIV/AIDS Among Tarok Women in North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2016-06-01

    In this study, which was part of a larger project I undertook in North-central Nigeria, I explored the differences in the sexual health seeking behavior of Tarok women and men and how these differences affect the spread of HIV. With the help of three research assistants, I conducted 16 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in four Tarok communities in North-central Nigeria. I found certain negative effects of gender inequality on women's sexual health seeking behavior in particular, a situation that has adverse implications for HIV acquisition and transmission. I therefore concluded that addressing the challenges of gender inequality is imperative for a sustained fight against HIV and AIDS in Nigeria.

  9. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II. - August of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-10-01

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  10. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - May-June of 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Camacho V, B.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2003-09-01

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  11. Preservation of beach ridges due to pedogenic calcrete development in the Tongoy palaeobay, North-Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pfeiffer; J. P. Le Roux; E. Solleiro-Rebolledo; Helga Kemnitz; S. Sedov; O. Seguel

    2011-01-01

    At the Tongoy palaeobay in north-central Chile, a series of beach ridges developed during seaward progradation that took place after the MIS 11 sea-level highstand (412ka). The microrelief left by this succession of beach ridges has been well preserved from erosion due to the development of a calcrete (petrocalcic horizons), which was resistant to the chemical and physical weathering that characterized the area during humid phases of the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene. Macro- and micro-...

  12. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the clinical north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - December of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    The clinical north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  13. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.

    2001-09-01

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  14. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III. - September of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-12-01

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  15. Three sympatric clusters of the malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies E (Diptera: Culicidae) detected in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harischandra, Iresha Nilmini; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha; De Silva, Bambaranda Gammacharige Don Nissanka Kolitha

    2016-01-04

    The disease re-emergence threat from the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, Anopheles culicifacies, is currently increasing. To predict malaria vector dynamics, knowledge of population genetics and gene flow is required, but this information is unavailable for Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to determine the population structure of An. culicifacies E in Sri Lanka. Eight microsatellite markers were used to examine An. culicifacies E collected from six sites in Sri Lanka during 2010-2012. Standard population genetic tests and analyses, genetic differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Bayesian cluster analysis, AMOVA, SAMOVA and isolation-by-distance were conducted using five polymorphic loci. Five microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with high allelic richness. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was significantly rejected for four loci with positive F(IS) values in the pooled population (p Sri Lanka as the dividing line. Three sympatric clusters were detected among An. culicifacies E specimens isolated in Sri Lanka. There was no effect of geographic distance on genetic differentiation and the central mountain ranges in Sri Lanka appeared to be a barrier to gene flow.

  16. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  17. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  18. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Czechowskie Lake is located in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake there are preserved laminated sediments with an excellent Holocene climatic record. The lake has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. It occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the last glaciation. The lake has a history reaching back to Pommeranian phase which is proved by analysis of sedimentary succesions in the vicinity of present-day waterbody. Primarily it come to existence as an very variable ice dammed lake but after dead ice and permafrost desintegration it changed into a stable lake. In the terrestrialised part oft the lake and in its litoral zone there were curried out numerous boreholes within limnic and slope sediments. They have been analysed in respect to lithology and structure. Some of them were also investigated palynologically which along with radiocarbon datings allowed to reconstruct major phases of the water level fluctuations. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. The analysis of limnic sediments revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability mainly in dependance of the area of the water body and water level in time of deposition. In the lake are recorded three distinct phases of lake level decrease. The sedimentary evolution in the isolated minor lake basins showed gradual decrease of mineral and organic deposition in favour for carbonate one although in places separated by

  19. Prediction of gas production using well logs, Cretaceous of north-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous gas sands underlie much of east-central Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, and parts of South Dakota and Wyoming. Estimates of recoverable biogenic methane from these rocks in the United States are as high as 91 TCF. In northern Montana, current production is localized around a few major structural features, while vast areas in between these structures are not being exploited. Although the potential for production exists, the lack of commercial development is due to three major factors: 1) the lack of pipeline infrastructure; 2) the lack of predictable and reliable rates of production; and 3) the difficulty in recognizing and selecting potentially productive gas-charged intervals. Unconventional (tight), continuous-type reservoirs, such as those in the Cretaceous of the northern Great Plains, are not well suited for conventional methods of formation evaluation. Pay zones frequently consist only of thinly laminated intervals of sandstone, silt, shale stringers, and disseminated clay. Potential producing intervals are commonly unrecognizable on well logs, and thus are overlooked. To aid in the identification and selection of potential producing intervals, a calibration system is developed here that empirically links the 'gas effect' to gas production. The calibration system combines the effects of porosity, water saturation, and clay content into a single 'gas-production index' (GPI) that relates the in-situ rock with production potential. The fundamental method for isolating the gas effect for calibration is a crossplot of neutron porosity minus density porosity vs gamma-ray intensity. Well-log and gas-production data used for this study consist of 242 perforated intervals from 53 gas-producing wells. Interval depths range from about 250 to 2400 ft. Gas volumes in the peak calendar year of production range from about 4 to 136 MMCF. Nine producing formations are represented. Producing-interval data show that porosity

  20. Intestinal parasitism in Magama Gumau rural village and Jos township in north central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeh, E I; Obadofin, M O; Brindeiro, B; Baugherb, C; Frost, F; Vanderjagt, D; Glew, R H

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in one rural village and one urban centre in North Central Nigeria. A total of 111 single stool specimens from all the volunteered rural dwellers and 93 specimens from randomly selected urban dwellers were examined using Formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques; during the months of June and July 2005. A questionnaire was completed for each subject and the nutritional status of the adults was assessed using the anthropometric measurements (weight and height for age and Biomass index). The results suggest very high prevalence rates of intestinal parasitosis of 72.1% and 69.9% for the rural and urban populations respectively. All the age groups were infected. The males in the rural area had a prevalence of 69.2% as against 74.6% in females (P>0.05); while in the urban area, the males were more significantly infected (77.4%) compared with the females with 66.1% (Pprevalence of 79.3% and 72.4% for the rural and urban populations respectively. The prevalence of the parasites in the rural and urban populations respectively were: Entamoeba coli (16.2% and 9.7%); E. histolytica (18.9% and 18.3%); E. hartmani (1.8% ad 0.0%); Endolimax nana (16.2% and 18.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii (0.0% and 1.1%); Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 4.3%); Schistosoma mansoni (9.9% and 0.0%); Strongyloides stercoralis (0.9% and 0.0%); Hookworm (4.5% and 5.4%); Ascaris lumbricoides (1.8% and 0.0%); Enterobius vermicularis (0.0% and 1.1%); Cryptosporidium parvum (29.7% and 19.4%); and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis (39.6% and 47.3%). Polyparasitism was recorded in 48.6% of the rural subjects and 36.6% of the urban subjects. The study has shown a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in both the rural and urban populations and that C. parvum and E. bieneusi/E. intestinalis are harboured by apparently healthy individuals.

  1. Analysing the origin of rain- and subsurface water in seasonal wetlands of north-central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Kanamori, Hironari; Kambatuku, Jack R.; Kotani, Ayumi; Asai, Kazuyoshi; Mizuochi, Hiroki; Fujioka, Yuichiro; Iijima, Morio

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the origins of rain- and subsurface waters of north-central Namibia’s seasonal wetlands, which are critical to the region’s water and food security. The region includes the southern part of the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs) of the Cuvelai Basin, a transboundary river basin covering southern Angola and northern Namibia. We analysed stable water isotopes (SWIs) of hydrogen (HDO) and oxygen (H2 18O) in rainwater, surface water and shallow groundwater. Rainwater samples were collected during every rainfall event of the rainy season from October 2013 to April 2014. The isotopic ratios of HDO (δD) and oxygen H2 18O (δ 18O) were analysed in each rainwater sample and then used to derive the annual mean value of (δD, δ 18O) in precipitation weighted by each rainfall volume. Using delta diagrams (plotting δD vs. δ 18O), we showed that the annual mean value was a good indicator for determining the origins of subsurface waters in the CSSWs. To confirm the origins of rainwater and to explain the variations in isotopic ratios, we conducted atmospheric water budget analysis using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) data and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data. The results showed that around three-fourths of rainwater was derived from recycled water at local-regional scales. Satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and complementary satellite data from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) series implied that the isotopic ratios in rainwater were affected by evaporation of raindrops falling from convective clouds. Consequently, integrated SWI analysis of rain-, surface and subsurface waters, together with the atmospheric water budget analysis, revealed that shallow groundwater of small wetlands in this region was very likely to be recharged from surface waters originating from local rainfall, which was

  2. Ancient nigella seeds from Boyali Höyük in north-central Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, B; Sipahi, T; Dönmez, E Oybak

    2009-07-30

    The seeds of nigella (black cumin) (Nigella sativa L.) have been widely used as a natural remedy, either alone or in combination with bee products, for the treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions for centuries, especially in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. In consideration of potential utilization, in recent years the seeds have been extensively studied in terms of pharmacological effects. It has been shown that the seeds have significant effects on multiple biological systems. In addition, the protective roles of the seeds with bee products (honey and wax) have been recently proved. This study reports the palaeoethnobotanical find of nigella seeds recovered in a pilgrim flask from the Old Hittite Period level of Boyali Höyük (Mound), dating from around 1650 BC, in north-central Turkey. The study also deals with a comparison between the chemical properties of the Boyali Höyük nigella seeds (ancient seeds) and those of modern nigella seeds. The results of chemical analysis of the debris found in the pilgrim flask to test the presence of bee product are also presented here. All macro-remains found in the pilgrim flask were first examined under a zoom stereomicroscope for specific determination and all were identified as nigella seeds using the reference collection of modern seeds. Ethyl alcohol and dichloromethane (Aldrich, Buch-Switzerland) were used for the extraction of the ancient seeds and modern nigella seeds to trace both polar and non-polar chemical compounds by a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) system. Characterization of the chemical compounds in propolis extracts was also made by GC-MS. The GC-MS chromatograms showed that the ancient and modern seed samples were similar in essential oil acids. Many organic compounds of bee products, such as wax and phenolic antioxidants, were also detected in the container. The results of this study indicated that the Hittite pilgrim flask contained a pure cache of nigella seeds mixed

  3. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  4. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  5. Nutritional status among primary school children in rural Sri Lanka; a public health challenge for a country with high child health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naotunna, N P G C R; Dayarathna, M; Maheshi, H; Amarasinghe, G S; Kithmini, V S; Rathnayaka, M; Premachandra, L; Premarathna, N; Rajasinghe, P C; Wijewardana, G; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B

    2017-01-10

    Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94), 2.91%(SE 0.74), 2.95%(0.26) and 2.43%(SE 0.92) respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07-27.89%) and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55-47.56%). Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16-12.24) g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749). Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

  6. Leptospirosis in rural Sri Lanka:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung Schønning, Marie; Agampodi, Suneth; Phelps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The present study investigates risks associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure. Data was obtained from structured inte...

  7. Granitoid emplacement during syn-convergent transtension: An example from the Huamenlou pluton in North Qinling, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Huamenlou pluton, is an elongated granite intrusion with high aspect ratio, emplaced within the southern margin of the North Qinling (central China. Here we investigate this pluton through multiple techniques including the fabric study, microstructural observation and zircon geochronology. Our zircon U–Pb data confirm that the granite crystallized at ca. 462 Ma which is consistent with the ages of other linear plutons in North Qinling. Microstructural observations of the Huamenlou granites illustrate that the pluton has undergone superimposed deformation during its emplacement, from magmatic to high-temperature solid state conditions. The internal fabric obtained by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS and shape preferred orientation (SPO show similar results. The fabrics are relatively concordant and generally vary from NE–SW to NEE–SWW which are roughly oblique to the trend of the pluton elongation and the regional structures. Meanwhile, scalar parameters reflect two completely different strain regimes for the pluton and its host rocks, i.e., the fabrics within host rocks are mainly oblate while the central part of the intrusion displays mainly prolate fabrics. It is inferred that the structural pattern recorded in this pluton was caused by local dextral transtension in consequence of oblique convergence between the South and North China Blocks. We propose that the local transtension in convergence setting probably evolved from vertical extrusion tectonics that provided room for the magma emplacement and imparted prolate fabrics in the Huamenlou pluton.

  8. Phase III (final) evaluation report : national evaluation of the FY01 earmark, area transportation authority of North Central Pennsylvania--regional GIS/ITS initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-31

    This report presents the results of the United States Department of Transportation evaluation of a federally funded earmark project implemented by the Area Transportation Authority of North Central Pennsylvania (ATA). The project implemented a suite ...

  9. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  10. The flight periodicity, attack patterns, and life history of Dryocoetes confusus Swaine (Coleoptera: Curculionida: Scolytinae), the western balsam bark beetle, in north central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2009-01-01

    Dryocoetes confusus Swaine, the western balsam bark beetle, is an important bark beetle associated with Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir) in western North America. Little information is available on the life cycle and ecology of this insect in Colorado. In this study in north central Colorado, we examined its...

  11. Lightning Evolution In Two North Central Florida Summer Multicell Storms and Three Winter/Spring Frontal Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, J. A.; Uman, M. A.; Pilkey, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first lightning evolution studies, via the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and radar, performed in North Central Florida. Parts of three winter/spring frontal storms (cold season) and two complete summer (warm season) multicell storms are studied. Storm parameters measured are as follows: total number of flashes, flash-type classification, first flashes, flash initiation altitude, flash initiation power, flash rate (flashes per minute), charge structure, altitude and temperature ranges of the inferred charge regions, atmospheric isotherm altitude, radar base reflectivity (dBZ), and radar echo tops (EET). Several differences were found between summer multicell and winter/spring frontal storms in North Central Florida: (1) in winter/spring storms, the range of altitudes that all charge regions occupy is up to 1 km lower in altitude than in summer storms, as are the 0°C, -10°C, and -20°C isotherms; (2) lightning activity in summer storms is highly correlated with changes in radar signatures, in particular, echo tops; and (3) the LMA average initiation power of all flash types in winter/frontal storms is about an order of magnitude larger than that for summer storms. In relation to storms in other geographical locations, North Central Florida seasonal storms were found to have similarities in most parameters studied with a few differences, examples in Florida being (1) colder initiation altitudes for intracloud flashes, (2) charge regions occupying larger ranges of atmospheric temperatures, and (3) winter/spring frontal storms not having much lightning activity in the stratiform region.

  12. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n = 44), North (n = 35), and South (n = 22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p = 0.0005) and Central vs South (p = 0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  13. Sri Lanka’s Post-Conflict Strategy: Restorative Justice for Rebels and Rebuilding of Conflict-affected Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iromi Dharmawardhane

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a

  14. Recent viroid disease outbreaks in greenhouse tomatoes in North and Central America and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tomato productions in North America have suffered from several high profile viroid disease outbreaks in recent years. In this presentation, I will summarize and briefly describe each of these viroid disease outbreak and their relationship. What are viroids and their transmission through ...

  15. Carbonaceous aerosol over a Pinus taeda forest in Central North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic aerosol is the least understood component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Presented in this study are organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) within ambient PM2.5 over a three-year period at a forested site in the North Carolina Piedmon. EC exhibited signifi...

  16. Downscaled Climate Model for the North Central Atlantic Ocean 2000-2100

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The regional MOM5 domain contain the Atlantic Ocean between 100°W and 20°E bounded north and south by 65°N and 20°S, respectively. The regional MOM5 will have a...

  17. Letters From Batticaloa : TMVP's Emergence and the Transmission of Conflict in Eastern Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Meertens, A.

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004 a man known as Karuna Amman announced his defection from the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), an armed group seeking the formation of an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Six months after his defection, Karuna launched a new political movement – the

  18. The design of Sri Lanka's Samanalawewa project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, P.A.A.; Westwell, J.R. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Reading (GB))

    1988-06-01

    Sri Lanka has both a climate and topography favourable to hydroelectricity. The largest river in the country is the Mahaweli Ganga, of which almost all the potential has now been exploited by the Kotmale, Victora, Randenigala and Rantembe (under construction) schemes. The hydro development of Sri Lanka will continue with the construction of projects on other river systems, and the Samanalawewa project on the Walawe Ganga (flowing south from the Central Highlands) is one such project now under construction. This project consists of a 100 m-high embankment dam, a 5 km-long power tunnel, a steel penstock and a surface power station with two 60 MW units. At a later stage it is planned to double the size of the powerplant and tap the flow from a tributary, which passes above the power tunnel near its downstream end. (author).

  19. Le CRDI au Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI appuie la recherche au Sri. Lanka depuis 1973. Il s'est d'abord concentré sur l'amélioration des pratiques agricoles. Par exemple, grâce à la mise au point d'un système de rizi - culture permettant d'exploiter les pluies de mousson, les riziculteurs ont triplé leurs rendements en quatre ans. Ils ont été nombreux à ...

  20. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  1. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  2. Intercultural relations in Northern Peru: the north central highlands during the Middle Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, George

    2014-01-01

    This contribution surveys the emergence and character of the Middle Horizon in Peru’s north highlands. It centers on Ancash department, a region with a rich and unique archaeological record for contextualizing interaction during the period. My discussion begins by detailing the sequence and variability of interregional interaction in Ancash Department during the latter half of the 1st millennium AD. Then I will examine the general implications of the available data – especially architecture, ...

  3. An overview of air pollution and respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senarath, C. [Nilwala College of Education, Wilpita, Akuressa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines the effects on human health and controlling measures of air pollution in Sri Lanka. The objectives of the study were to identify and categorize the major air pollutants in Sri Lanka and their sources; examine the public health effects of air pollution; study the air pollution situation in Sri Lanka; understand the link between respiratory illnesses in Sri Lanka and air pollution; and, find control measures taken by the regulatory authorities to abate air pollution. Data were collected through interviews and conversation with air pollution stakeholders, reference materials, and visits with the Central Environmental Authority, Urban Development Authority and Public Health Bureau. The paper concludes that automobile exhaust is one of the major causes of air pollution and that respiratory diseases in Sri Lanka have become a major health problem. The author recommends that control measures should be strengthened to abate air pollution in Sri Lanka; steps should be taken to minimize traffic congestion and to develop programs to raise public awareness; artificial materials such as polythene and plastics in day-to-day activities should be minimized; and recycling processes of artificial materials should be enhanced. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Historical evolution and present status of family medicine in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanayake, R P J C

    2013-04-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status.

  5. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU or National Heritage Party, led by Buddhist monks ) 552,724 6.0 9 +9 Sri Lanka Muslim Congress 186,876 2.0 5 — Other 136,353...early 2007, but his government has faced constant pressure from the JVP and from hard-line Buddhist -nationalist parties that are part of the ruling...struggle between majority Buddhist Sinhalese and a Hindu Tamil minority clustered in the island’s north and east. During this time Washington

  6. Aetiological profile of nasal trauma in Ilorin North-Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The nose being the most prominent part of the face is easily traumatized in facial injuries and these has been found to be common among the Caucasians compared to the Africans and Asians. The aim is to ighlight the Aetiological profile of nasal trauma in Ilorin orth-central Nigeria. Method: A prospective study ...

  7. A guide to the TWIGS program for the North Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Miner; Nancy R. Walters; Monique L. Belli

    1988-01-01

    This is a complete reference to TWIGS, a forest growth-and-yield program with management and economic components developed for Lake and Central States tree species. The guide describes how TWIGS models growth and yield and how the model can be applied to obtain the best results. Step-by-step operating instructions are provided for TWIGS and its companion program,...

  8. The Cenozoic geological evolution of the Central and Northern North Sea based on seismic sequence stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, Henrik

    1996-03-01

    This thesis represents scientific results from seismic sequence stratigraphic investigations. These investigations and results are integrated into an ongoing mineralogical study of the Cenozoic deposits. the main results from this mineralogical study are presented and discussed. The seismic investigations have provided boundary conditions for a forward modelling study of the Cenozoic depositional history. Results from the forward modelling are presented as they emphasise the influence of tectonics on sequence development. The tectonic motions described were important for the formation of the large oil and gas fields in the North Sea.

  9. Holocene flood frequency across the Central Alps - solar forcing and evidence for variations in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Glur, Lukas; Gilli, Adrian; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of large-scale heavy precipitation events in the European Alps is expected to undergo substantial changes with current climate change. Hence, knowledge about the past natural variability of floods caused by heavy precipitation constitutes important input for climate projections. We present a comprehensive Holocene (10,000 years) reconstruction of the flood frequency in the Central European Alps combining 15 lacustrine sediment records. These records provide an extensive catalog of flood deposits, which were generated by flood-induced underflows delivering terrestrial material to the lake floors. The multi-archive approach allows suppressing local weather patterns, such as thunderstorms, from the obtained climate signal. We reconstructed mainly late spring to fall events since ice cover and precipitation in form of snow in winter at high-altitude study sites do inhibit the generation of flood layers. We found that flood frequency was higher during cool periods, coinciding with lows in solar activity. In addition, flood occurrence shows periodicities that are also observed in reconstructions of solar activity from 14C and 10Be records (2500-3000, 900-1200, as well as of about 710, 500, 350, 208 (Suess cycle), 150, 104 and 87 (Gleissberg cycle) years). As atmospheric mechanism, we propose an expansion/shrinking of the Hadley cell with increasing/decreasing air temperature, causing dry/wet conditions in Central Europe during phases of high/low solar activity. Furthermore, differences between the flood patterns from the Northern Alps and the Southern Alps indicate changes in North Atlantic circulation. Enhanced flood occurrence in the South compared to the North suggests a pronounced southward position of the Westerlies and/or blocking over the northern North Atlantic, hence resembling a negative NAO state (most distinct from 4.2 to 2.4 kyr BP and during the Little Ice Age). South-Alpine flood activity therefore provides a qualitative record of variations

  10. Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Abeysekera, Gayan S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Tallaksen, Chantal ME; Dissanayake, Vajira HW

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. Methods ...

  11. Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasinghe, J.M.A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with

  12. Eesti puidufirma laieneb Sri Lankale / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti puidufirma Hapa Group alustab tootmist Sri Lankal, lootes suurendada kasumit odava toorme ja tööjõu kasutamise läbi. Lisa: Mõned faktid Hapa Groupi kohta. Diagramm: Tööjõud Sri Lankal 10 korda odavam. Kommenteerivad August Kull, Jaak Leimann, Ilmar Petersen ja Alar Kolk

  13. Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.

    2007-01-01

    There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  14. ‘Reconstructing Centrality and Peripherality in the North Denmark Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Jens Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Peripherality and centrality, as labels attached to places, have become fluent denominators. Their use is contingent upon the applied scalar perspective and the specific spatial features of place that are taken into consideration. If a multiscalar and multimodal perspective is applied, it has...... be labelled as peripheral, as this would imply peripherality independently of scalar perspective and across all defining aspects. Beyond definitional issues, this situation makes it appropriate to wonder, how a multiscalar and multimodal reading of place can contribute to a more nuanced understanding......, how images of peripherality and centrality change across local, regional, national and international scales. Empirically the paper is based on document analysis (place descriptions, planning and strategy documents, media reports, historical accounts etc.), qualitative interviews (municipal officials...

  15. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  16. Mental health research trends in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S S; Hewage, S N; Karandawala, I R

    2011-06-01

    To review the number of research publications in the field of mental health in Sri Lanka from 1900 to 2009. A search of all publications in psychiatry and mental health from Sri Lanka was conducted using Pubmed, all medical journals published in Sri Lanka and researchers. The identified papers were reviewed for their content and categorised as research in psychiatry and mental health, based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 207 papers were identified. The first mental health research publication from Sri Lanka is in 1964. The last decade (2000-2009) accounted for 62% of the publications with the majority of the papers being published in indexed journals. The Ceylon Medical Journal carried the most number of papers and the topic on which most of the research was conducted was suicide and deliberate self harm. There is an increasing trend towards research in to psychiatry and mental health in Sri Lanka.

  17. Chemical composition and trophic state of shallow saline steppe lakes in central Asia (North Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Emil; Jurecska, Laura; Tatár, Enikő; Vörös, Lajos; Kolpakova, Marina

    2017-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevailing chemical composition and trophic state of the shallow saline steppe lakes of North Kazakhstan along a wide size range (SO 4 and Na-Cl (n = 16; 64%); the Ca, Mg, HCO 3 , and SO 4 ions precipitate with increasing salinity (2-322 g L -1 ); and ion composition shifts from Na>Mg-Cl>SO 4 to Na-Cl. The most of the chemical variables positively, but chlorophyll a negatively, correlated with total dissolved solids, and the total phosphorus had no significant correlation with any variables. The trophic state of these lakes in most cases exceeded the hypertrophic level. The increase in salinity causes change in chemical composition and effects on the phytoplankton development independently from the size of water surface, and the human disturbances had negligible effect on the trophic state of shallow saline lakes in this region of Kazakhstan.

  18. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the North Central Hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. V. November of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the North Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of November of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  19. Seismic geomorphology and origin of diagenetic geobodies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of the North Sea Basin (Danish Central Graben)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, F. W. H.; van Buchem, F.S.P.; Holst, J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Kilometre-scale geobodies of diagenetic origin have been documented for the first time in a high-resolution 3D seismic survey of the Upper Cretaceous chalks of the Danish Central Graben, North Sea Basin. Based on detailed geochemical, petrographic and petrophysical analyses it is demonstrated...... with formation tops, and the feeder fault systems. One of these, the Top Campanian Unconformity at the top of the Gorm Formation, is particularly effective, and created a basin-wide barrier separating low-porosity chalk below from high-porosity chalk above (a regional porosity marker, RPM). It is in particular...... in this upper high-porosity unit (Tor and Ekofisk formations) that the diagenetic geobodies occur, delineated by ‘Stratigraphy Cross-cutting Reflectors’ (SCRs) of which 8 different types have been distinguished. The geobodies have been interpreted as the result of: 1) escaping pore-fluids due to top seal...

  20. Seasonal habitat use and movements of woodland caribou in the Omineca Mountains, north central British Columbia, 1991-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari D. Wood

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1991 to 1993, 30 woodland caribou were captured and fitted with radio-collars west of the Williston Reservoir in north central B.C. Monthly radio-telemetry location flights revealed that caribou in the Northern Area, characterized by a complex of mountain ranges, moved greater distances to calving areas than did those in the South, where only one major mountain range exists. In the year of record heavy snowfall for the area, all collared caribou wintered on windswept alpine slopes, while during the below average snowfall year, many caribou remained in forested habitats. In winter, caribou were found to forage on terrestrial lichens in both lowland lodgepole pine flats and on windswept alpine slopes, and on arboreal lichens in upper elevation Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir forests. There are at least 600-700 caribou in the Omineca Mountains.

  1. Hydrologic, chemical, and isotopic characterization of two small watersheds on Catoctin Mountain, north-central Maryland, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Bricker, O.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two small (100 ha) watersheds located on Catoctin Mountain in north-central Maryland were intensively instrumented in 1990 and have been hydrologically, chemically, and isotopically monitored for 3 years. Dissolved concentrations of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total AI, CI-, NO3-, SO42- , HCO3-, and SiO2) and stable isotopic (D and 18O) values have been analyzed for most types of water (precipitation, throughfall, two depths of soil water, shallow groundwater, and streamwater) that enter, travel through, and exit each watershed. The major objectives of the study were to characterize the chemical and isotopic signatures of all aqueous components of the watersheds and to interpret the causes of the changes in chemical and isotopic compositions of streamwater during storm runoff. This paper describes selected results of the study.

  2. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  3. The peat resources of Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, E. [Geological Survey, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The wetlands of Sri Lanka cover a total area of somewhat less than 150 km{sup 2}. The wetlands of the coast are tidal flats and lagoons with small mangrove areas. In addition to these, small, locally eroding mires occur in the mountains of the island`s interior. The most significant peatland is, however, the Muthurajawela mire north of Colombo, the capital city. On this extension of the Negombo lagoon there are 29 km{sup 2} of peatland. Since paludification started there 7 400 years ago, the long-term average peat growth increment has been 0.6 mm y-i, and the average rate of accumulation of dry matter 80.4 g m-2 y{sup -1}. The average carbon content of the peat is 42.8 %, the hydrogen content 4.20 %, the nitrogen content 0.79 % and the phosphorus content 0.14 %. The area of 165 ha suitable for energy production contains 3.14 Mm{sup 3} of peat and 258 000 tonnes of dry matter. The ash content of mineable peat is 14.5 %, dry bulk density 82.4 kg m{sup -3} and the sulphur content 5.86 %, on average. (orig.) (7 refs.)

  4. Significance of tourmaline-rich rocks in the north range group of the cuyuna iron range, East-Central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, J.M.; Morey, G.B.; McSwiggen, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of tourmaline in Early Proterozoic metasedirnentary rocks of the Cuyuna iron range, east-central Minnesota, provide a basis for redefinition of the evolutionary history of the area. Manganiferous iron ore forms beds within the Early Proterozoic Trommald Formation, between thick-bedded granular iron-formation having shallow-water depositional attributes and thin-bedded, nongranular iron-formation having deeper water attributes. These manganese-rich units were previously assumed to be sedimentary in origin. However, a revaluation of drill core and mine samples from the Cuyuna North range has identified strata-bound tourmaline and tourmalinite, which has led to a rethinking of genetic models for the geology of the North range. We interpret the tourmaline-rich rocks of the area to be a product of submarine-hydrothermal solutions flowing along and beneath the sedirnent-seawater interface. This model for the depositional environment of the tourmaline is supported by previously reported mineral assemblages within the Trommald Formation that comprise aegirine; barium feldspar; manganese silicates, carbonates, and oxides; and Sr-rich barite veins. In many places, tourmaline-rich metasedimentary rocks and tourmalinites are associated locally with strata-bound sulfide deposits. At those localities, the tourmaline-rich strata are thought to be lateral equivalents of exhalative sulfide zones or genetically related subsea-floor replacements. On the basis of the occurrence of the tourmaline-rich rocks and tourmalinites, and on the associated minerals, we suggest that there is a previously unrecognized potential for sediment-hosted sulfide deposits in the Cuyuna North range.

  5. Economic cost of tobacco-related cancers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Hemantha; Ranaweera, Sajeeva; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Chandraratne, Nadeeka; Kumara, Dinesh Ruwan; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Abeykoon, Palitha; de Silva, Amala

    2017-10-27

    Cancer has a high mortality rate and morbidity burden in Sri Lanka. This study estimated the economic cost of smoking and smokeless tobacco (ST) related to cancers in Sri Lanka in 2015. Prevalence-based cost of illness is calculated according to the guidelines of the WHO (2011). The direct costs are costs of curative care (costs of inward patients and outpatient care borne by the state and out of pocket expenditure by households) for tobacco-related cancers, weighted by the attributable fractions for these cancers. Indirect costs are lost earnings due to mortality and morbidity (absenteeism of both patient and carers resulting from seeking care and recuperation).Data were obtained from the Registrar General's Department, National Cancer Registry, Department of Census and Statistics and the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Household and systemic costs and relative risks were extracted from research studies. Oncologists (working in both public and private sectors), other clinical specialists, medical administrators and economists were consulted during the estimation and validation processes. The total economic cost of tobacco-related cancers for Sri Lanka in 2015 was estimated to be US$121.2 million. The direct cost of smoking and ST-related cancers was US$42.1 million, which was 35% of the total cost, while the indirect cost was US$79.1 million, which was 65% of the total cost. Burden of tobacco smoking and ST-related cancers as reflected in these economic costs is enormous: affecting the healthcare system and country's economy. Policymakers should take note of this burden and address tobacco consumption control as a priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  7. Use Of ProductionService Work In Enhancing Skill Acquisition In Technical Colleges In North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ashlame Agu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Skill acquisition is a critical component of any vocational or technical training program. When this component is missing or falls below expectation it tends to defeat the objectives or the essence of the program. In Nigeria many skill acquisition institutions experience great challenges in trying to provide the necessary facilities required for effective vocational training of those enrolled in their programs because of paucity of funds. The result is that students graduate from the programs without adequate employability skills for meaningful productiveservice work after leaving school. In realization of this shortfall government has directed technical colleges to establish what is called ProductionService Work PSW into its curriculum. This is with the view that in the event that there is shortfall in the supply of training facilities by sponsors of the programs jobs could be brought in from inside or outside the school which could provide opportunity for students to acquire hands-on experience that would equip them with requisite skills for post-graduation work. As laudable as this initiative appears to be many schools in the North Central Nigeria are yet to implement the directive of the federal government in their schools and even where this has been done its implementation does not appear to be viable. Over the years different technical colleges have adopted different approaches toward the establishment and management of productionservice work in their schools. While some have recorded appreciable success in its implementation others seem to exist only in name. The present study therefore sought to identify the current practices employed in the use of PSW in technical colleges the appropriateness of the practices in use and the alternative practices that could be adopted to improve and guide the implementation of the program with a view to enhancing the acquisition of employability skills in technical colleges in North Central Nigeria.

  8. Building partnerships to produce actionable science to support climate-informed management decisions: North Central Climate Science Center example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackett, J.; Ojima, D. S.; McNeeley, S.

    2017-12-01

    As climate change impacts become more apparent in our environment, action is needed to enhance the social-ecological system resilience. Incorporating principles which lead to actionable research and project co-development, when appropriate, will facilitate building linkages between the research and the natural resource management communities. In order to develop strategies to manage for climatic and ecosystem changes, collaborative actions are needed between researchers and resource managers to apply appropriate knowledge of the ecosystem and management environments to enable feasible solutions and management actions to respond to climate change. Our team has been involved in developing and establishing a research and engagement center, the North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC), for the US Department of Interior, to support the development and translation of pertinent climate science information to natural resource managers in the north central portion of the United States. The NC CSC has implemented a platform to support the Resource for Vulnerability Assessment, Adaptation, and Mitigation Projects (ReVAMP) with research, engagement, and training activities to support resource managers and researchers. These activities are aimed at the co-production of appropriate response strategies to climate change in the region, in particular to drought-related responses. Through this platform we, with other partners in the region, including the Department of Interior and the Department of Agriculture, are bringing various training tools, climate information, and management planning tools to resource managers. The implementation of ReVAMP has led to development of planning efforts which include a more explicit representation of climate change as a driver of drought events in our region. Scenario planning provides a process which integrates management goals with possible outcomes derived from observations and simulations of ecological impacts of climate change. Co

  9. Structure of the Cordillera de la Costa Belt, North-Central Venezuela: Implications for plate tectronic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Sisson, V.B.; Wright, J.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary results of an on-going study of the Cordillera de la Costa belt between Puerto Cabello and Choroni, north-central Venezuela, indicate that the deformational history is far more complicated than expected from simple plate-tectonic models. The Cordillera de la Costa belt consists of oceanic rocks (e.g., serpentinites, amphibilites, with lenses of eclogite and blueschist) intimately intermixed with metamorphosed continental margin deposits (e.g., mica and graphite schist, quartzite, marble). Locally, large granitic (basement ) complexes of Lower Paleozoic age are included as well. In late Cretaceous time, the entire belt was involved in four synmetamorphic deformations phases (D[sub 1a] to D[sub 1d]); the first (D[sub 1a]) occurred at depths of at 35-40 km and the later ones at successively shallower depths. This deformation occurred in a subduction zone, related to right-oblique convergence of the Farallon and Atlantic plates. The most penetrative structures resulted from (all in present coordinates) north-south contraction and east-west dextral simple shear (D[sub 1b]). During an Early Tertiary ( ) event (D[sub 2]), the belt was emplaced southward onto the South American continental margin. Subsequent deformational structures (D[sub 3]) resulted in cross folds and faults (with small pull-apart basins) which are consistent with the eastward passage of the Caribbean past the South American plate.

  10. Hydrogeology of the cave Vetrovna jama in karst aquifer north from Planinsko polje (Notranjska region, central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovšek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For one year we have been measuring level and temperature of underground water in Vetrovna jama, to find outthe origin of underground water and hydraulic characteristics of the cave and karst aquifer north east of Planinsko polje (karst of Notranjska region, central Slovenia. Similar parameters as in Vetrovna jama were measured also at the Unica River and at the Cerknica Lake. Cave is located only 2.7 km north from the polje and is fed by the Unica River, according to measurements. But in contrast with our expectations, we did not directly detect undergroundwater flow, which drains from the Cerknica Lake. Hydrographs measured in Vetrovna jama were compared with those measured in some other caves within the aquifer. Hydrographs from Vetrovna jama are only partly comparablewith hydrographs obtained in other monitored caves, as comparison shows no statistical significant correlation.Final conclusion would be that drainage of water between “eastern” and “western” part of karst aquifer islimited. More over, out flow from Vetrovna jama strongly depends on local hydrogeological restriction, such as supposedrockfall under Laška kukava collapse doline.

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments from the north -eastern edge of the Fucino basin (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Galadini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments cropping out at the north-eastern edge of the Fucino extensionaI basin (Italy, Central Apennines was investigated. The area is characterized by strong neo-tectonic activity and the original purpose was to investigate possibIe verticaI axis rotations in Plio-Pleisto- cene sediments, in order to improve the understanding of the recent geodynamic processes. Scarcity of suit- able outcrops limited sampling at 8 sites (83 specimens from the north-eastern edge of the basin, in clay-rich intervals beIonging to two different sedimentary cycIes. The paleomagnetic resuIts pointed out a peculiar mag- netic behaviour common to the whole set of studied samples. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM is dominated by a vigcous normal component acquired under the influence of the present geomagnetic field, stable only below 200°C. Another (reverse very weak component, stable at higher temperatures (up to 400°C, is present in most of the samples. This component can be precisely isolated for only 7 specimens from 3 different sites and therefore the information gained is not statistically sufficient for any tectonic reconstruction. Rock magnetism analyses showed a variable magnetic mineralogy j but the NRM carriers are not well represented in the artificial remanences produced in the laboratory. Results suggest that the natural viscous remanence is most likeIy carried by coarse multi-domain magnetite.

  12. Age and Isotopic Studies of Some Pan-African Granite from North-Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breemen, O. van; Pidgeon, R.T.; Bowden, P.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-nine Rb-Sr whole-rock isotopic analyses and three U-Pb zircon analyses on foliated granites and largely unfoliated charnockitic rocks indicate that the central part of the Pan-African belt in west Africa was characterised by intense orogenic plutonism. These data and Rb-Sr analyses on muscovite books from late cross-cutting pegmatites indicate that the peak of magmatic activity occurred 610 +- 10 m.y.ago. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the granitic and charnockitic rocks are in the range 0.7065-0.7125, and indicate a significantly older crustal component in the magmas

  13. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Helmig, Detlev [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron

  14. Challenges in understanding strain localization and deformation at different spatiotemporal scales - examples from the north-central Tien Shan and northern Pamir, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Metzger, S.; Codilean, A.; Korup, O.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2016-12-01

    Strain accumulation and deformation in tectonically active mountain belts are generally well documented over decadal times and on time-scales averaging millions of years. Across timescale data sets, however, are still rare. The intracontinental mountain belts of Central Asia offer a very good possibility to overcome this dilemma because of a relatively long geodetic measurement period, good historical seismic records and a high preservation potential of deformed landscape markers. Observations across instrumental and geologic scales may challenge our concepts of strain localization and accumulation. Shortening across the central Tien Shan, for instance, is homogenous across the entire width of the belt, as seen from geodesy and from averaged Quaternary fault-slip rates showing little variation in deformation rate among slowly-slipping single faults. Preliminary results from basin-wide denudation rates that might be indicative of intermediate-term deformation of the respective ranges show also little variation. Indeed, such a pattern is expected for thick-skinned orogens, like the Tien Shan, where basement-cored uplifts are spatiotemporally disparate and a clear deformation front (as common for thin-skinned provinces) is missing. Contrasting to distributed deformation, the northern rim of the Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan has experienced a remarkable series of major earthquakes between 1885 and 1938, with a cumulative seismic moment adding to a magnitude of approximately 9. Moderate seismicity still coincides with this well-defined zone; a pattern resembling a deformation front on decadal to perhaps centennial times. Present internal deformation of the Pamir indenter, in turn, seems concentrated along the northern and (north)western margins, virtually irrespective of neighboring thin-skinned and thick-skinned provinces. We will highlight these complexities and discuss how paleoseismic records help to unravel the deformation history over millenial time scales.

  15. Tectonics and sedimentation of the central sector of the Santo Onofre rift, north Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Fernanda Costa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Santo Onofre Group registers the filling of a Tonian, intracontinental paleo-rift that developed along the northern and central Espinhaço regions. This paper examines this unit in the central Espinhaço region with stratigraphic analysis and U-Pb geochronology, reviewing and dividing into the Canatiba and Rio Peixe Bravo Formations, which include the Barrinha Member. The Canatiba Formation mainly comprises carbon-rich mudstones that were deposited through low-density turbidity flows that alternated with sediment settling under anoxic conditions. The Rio Peixe Bravo Formation consists of a succession of sandstones and minor mudstones, which were deposited through low- to high-density turbidity flows. The Barrinha Member mainly consists of conglomerates and is related to channelized debris flows. Detrital zircon grains show maximum depositional ages of 930 ± 33 Ma and around 865 Ma for the Canatiba and Rio Peixe Bravo Formations, respectively. We interpret the Santo Onofre rifting to be relative younger than that for the Sítio Novo Group and to be a precursor stage of the glacial and post-glacial rift-to-passive margin-related sequences of the Macaúbas Group. The lithostratigraphic term “Macaúbas Supergroup” would be of better use to accommodate the unconformity-bounded Tonian sequences that were related to the Rodinia breakup in the Congo-São Francisco paleocontinent.

  16. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Cindy Combs,; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) changes the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLC on ecosystem dynamics during hot, dry Mediterranean climate summers. FLCC indices were generated from 26,000 hourly night and day FLCC maps derived from Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) data for June, July, August, and September, 1999- 2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N, south of Monterey Bay, to latitude 41.95°N, north of Crescent City. Monthly FLCC average hours per day (h/d) range from night hours of FLCC is higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. Interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long term geographic stability strongly associated with landform position. Contours delineating homogeneous zones of FLCC, derived from average decadal h/d FLCC, provide data to refine the commonly used term ‘fog belt.’ FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website. FLCC indices can be used to improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models, meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns, ecohydrological investigations of evapotranspiration, solar energy feasibility studies, agricultural irrigation demand and viticultural ripening models.

  17. The greenhouse effect in central North America: If not now, when?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.R.; Heim, R.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The consistency of the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with observed data are discussed, with reference to statistical models and Monte-Carlo simulation. Climate change projections for North America predict increases of temperature of 2-4 degree C by 2030. Analysis of the climate record over the last 95 years has failed to indicate statistically significant changes. Statistical models using auto-regressive moving-average techniques have been developed to calculate the likelihood that the greenhouse signal may have been masked by natural climate variability, and have indicated that there is a high probability that changes have been masked. However, some projections, such as the increase in ratio of winter to summer precipitation, should have been detected. The probability of not detecting temperature changes as large as projected range from 5% for large temperature increases to 65% for smaller increases, depending on the scenario. These results suggest that the projections of large increases in temperature of 3-4 degree C are inconsistent with past observation. It will likely take 15-20 years beyond 1990 before summer temperature increases would be detected, and over 40 years before summer precipitation decreases would be detected, assuming IPCC projections are basically correct. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  19. Mesozoic alkaline plutonism: Evidence for extensional phase in Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt in Central Alborz, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Doroozi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kamarbon Jurassic alkaline basic intrusion crops out in Central Alborz, north Iran, along the northern margin of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. The intrusion includes foid gabbros at the margins and foid monzodiorites towards the center. The foid monzodiorites are considered as the evolved melts after the fractional crystallization mostly of olivine and clinopyroxene from a foid gabbro parental magma. Based on mass balance calculation the evolution of the Kamarbon alkaline gabbro could be explained by 19.2% fractionation of clinopyroxene, 13.8% of olivine, 3% of plagioclase and 1.0% Ti-Magnetite, with 63% of residual liquid. REE inversion modeling indicates that the Kamarbon intrusion magma was generated by low degrees (<3% of partial melting from a garnet-bearing mantle source. In primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element diagrams, the Kamarbon rocks show enrichment in LILE elements (Ba, Rb, Sr and Th, HFSE elements (Nb, Ta, Ti, Zr and Hf and P and depletion in K, Y and HREE (Yb, Lu which are similar to patterns of HIMU-OIBs or intraplate alkaline magmas. According to the existence of extensional phases and occurrence of different rifting during late Triassic to middle Jurassic in Central Alborz, the formation of Kamarbon intrusion could be related to an intracontinental rifting.

  20. Physics-based forecasting of earthquake hazards associated with induced seismicity in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Weingarten, M.; Zoback, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional earthquake hazard maps rely on the pre-condition of long-term stationarity of seismicity related to large-scale tectonic processes. Thus, application of these methods to induced seismicity is inherently problematic since injection rates (and earthquake rates) can vary markedly in space and time. We present a physics-based method to forecast seismicity rates and the probability of magnitude exceedance associated with produced water injection induced seismicity in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas. Our model incorporates spatial and temporal variations of wastewater injection rates, and a regional hydrologic model to predict pressure and pressure rate changes throughout the seismically active area. This model extends the work of Langenbruch and Zoback (Science Advances, 2016, 2017) and applies the Seismogenic Index model to produce physics-based forecasts of seismicity rates and maps of magnitude exceedance probabilities. Due to decreasing injection rates since mid-2015, pressure increases at depth are slowing down in most areas such that fewer pre-existing faults are expected to be pushed beyond stability. The seismic hazard in 2017 is significantly lower than in 2016. At the current level of wastewater injection the seismic hazard will continue to decrease through 2018 and beyond. In most parts of central Oklahoma the earthquake hazard is expected to approach the tectonic background level over the next five years. In some parts of northern Oklahoma further injection rate reductions might be required to approach this level within the same time period.

  1. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

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    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations

  2. Sri Lanka : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, CIVIL SOCIETY, DEFENCE POLICY, MILITARY EXPENDITURE, WEAPON PROCUREMENT. Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 76,500.00. Diasporas ...

  3. Marginalisation, discrimination and the health of Latino immigrant day labourers in a central North Carolina community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Villa-Torres, Laura; Taboada, Arianna; Richards, Chelly; Barrington, Clare

    2017-03-01

    The morbidity and mortality of Latino immigrants in the United States (US) stem from a complex mix of policy, culture, discrimination and economics. Immigrants working as day labourers may be particularly vulnerable to the negative influences of these social factors due to limited access to social, financial and legal resources. We aimed to understand how the health of male Latino day labourers in North Carolina, US is influenced by their experiences interacting with their community and perceptions of their social environment. To respond to our research questions, we conducted three focus groups (n = 9, n = 10, n = 10) and a photovoice project (n = 5) with Latino male immigrants between October 2013 and March 2014. We conducted a thematic analysis of transcripts from the discussions in the focus groups and the group discussions with Photovoice participants. We found that men's health and well-being were primarily shaped by their experiences and feelings of discrimination and marginalisation. We identified three main links between discrimination/marginalisation and poor health: (i) dangerous work resulted in workplace injuries or illnesses; (ii) unsteady employment caused stress, anxiety and insufficient funds for healthcare; and (iii) exclusionary policies and treatment resulted in limited healthcare accessibility. Health promotion with Latino immigrant men in new settlement areas could benefit from community-building activities, addressing discrimination, augmenting the reach of formal healthcare and building upon the informal mechanisms that immigrants rely on to meet their health needs. Reforms to immigration and labour policies are also essential to addressing these structural barriers to health for these men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Study of characteristic of tsunami base on the coastal morphology in north Donggala, Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadaningsi, W. S. N.; Assegaf, A. H.; Setyonegoro, W.; Paharuddin

    2018-03-01

    The northern arm of Sulawesi potentials to generate earthquake and Tsunami due to the existence of subduction zone in sulawesi sea. It makes the North Donggala as an area with active seismicity. One of the earthquake and Tsunami events occurred is the earthquake and tsunami of Toli-Toli 1996 (M 7.9) causing 9 people are killed and severe damage in Tonggolobibi, Siboang, and Balukang. This earthquake induced tsunami runup of 3.4 m and inundated as far as 400 meters. The aims of this study is to predict runup and inundation area using numerical model and to find out the characteristics of Tsunami wave on straight, bay and cape shape coastal morphology and slopes of coastal. The data in this research consist of are the Etopo2 bathymetry data in data obtained from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Toli-toli’s main earthquakes focal mechanism data 1st January1996 from GCMT (Global Centroid Moment Tensor), the data gained from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data 30 m and land cover data in 1996 from Ministry of environment and forestry . Single fault model is used to predict the high of tsunami run-up and to inundation area along Donggala coastal area. Its reviewed by morphology of coastal area that higher run up shows occurs at coastline type like bay have higher run up compare to area with cape and straight coastline. The result shows that the slopes have negative or contras correlation with Tsunami runup and its inundation area.

  5. Gap acceptance and Driver behavior at intersections in Minna, North Central Nigeria

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    P. N. Ndoke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The headways, spacing distributions and gap acceptance were measured from two main intersections in Minna, Central Nigeria/The average critical gap and spacing for stadium junction are 2.39 seconds and 11.08m respectively, and that of Mustapha hospital junction are 2.28 seconds and 9.56m respectively. The gap size at the intersections ranges between 1 and 57 seconds. Drivers accept gaps ranging from 2.89 to 3.72 seconds with an average of 3.2 seconds at Mustapha hospital junction and the average time of movement is 2.06 seconds. Similarly, drivers accept gaps ranging from 3.60 seconds and 4.5 seconds with an average of 4.05 seconds at Stadium Junction, and the average time of movement is 2.69 seconds. Comparing these values with the respective critical gaps from the Highway Capacity Manual shows that only values from stadium junction get close. This shows that the delays at the intersections are due mostly to driver impatience and intolerance which at times lead to accidents at the intersections. Hence, it can be concluded that traffic accidents at the intersections are due mostly to driver judgment rather than gap availability.

  6. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  7. Characteristics of the active Luoshan Fault since Late Pleistocene, North Central China

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    M. Fengying

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Luoshan Fault located at the northeastern margin of Tibet plateau strikes roughly N-S, and is composed of six left-stepping sections with a total length of 60 km. Much evidence suggests that the Luoshan Fault is a reverse right-lateral strike-slip fault. The largest right-lateral strike-slip displacement and the most abundant dextral offset phenomena are located along the central section. Based on the right-lateral strike-slip offsets of the oldest alluvial fan, and of a gully and on the average displacement of the same order of gullies, the minimum slip-rate has been 2.15 ± 0.2 mm/yr since Late Pleistocene. Many surface rupture phenomena, such as fault scarps with fresh free-face, ground fissures, displacements of very young gullies, imply that a recent earthquake occurred along this fault. Combining the historical catalogue and our results, we believe that the 1561 A.D. earthquake was produced by the Luoshan Fault. Three paleoearthquakes were determined by means of paleoseismic studies along the Luoshan Fault: they occurred after 8200 ± 600 years BP, between 3130 ± 240 years BP and 4150 ± ± 120 years C.BP, and before 2230 ± 170 years BP, respectively.

  8. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  9. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  10. Late Early Permian continental ichnofauna from Lake Kemp, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, S.G.; Voigt, S.; Lerner, A.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Continental trace fossils of Early Permian age are well known in the western United States from Wolfcampian (~. Asselian to Artinskian) strata, but few examples are known from Leonardian (~. Kungurian) deposits. A substantial ichnofauna from strata of the lower part of the Clear Fork Formation at Lake Kemp, Baylor County, Texas, augments the meager North American record of Leonardian continental trace fossil assemblages. Ichnofossils at Lake Kemp occur in the informally-named Craddock dolomite member of the Clear Fork Formation, which is 12-15. m above the local base of the Clear Fork. The trace-bearing stratum is an up-to-0.3. m thick, laminated to flaser-bedded, dolomitic siltstone that also contains mud cracks, raindrop impressions, microbially induced mat structures, and some land-plant impressions. We interpret the Craddock dolomite member as the feather-edge of a marine transgressive carbonate deposit of an irregular coastline marked by shallow bays or estuaries on the eastern shelf of the Midland basin, and the trace-fossil-bearing stratum at Lake Kemp is an unchannelized flow deposit on a muddy coastal plain. The fossil site at Lake Kemp yields a low to moderately diverse fauna of invertebrate and vertebrate traces. A sparse invertebrate ichnofauna consists of arthropod feeding and locomotion traces assigned to Walpia cf. W. hermitensis White, 1929 and Diplichnites gouldi Gevers in Gevers et al., 1971. Tetrapod footprints are most common and assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (Geinitz, 1861), cf. Amphisauropus kablikae (Geinitz and Deichm??ller, 1882), and Dromopus lacertoides (Geinitz, 1861), which represent small temnospondyl, seymouriamorph, and basal sauropsid trackmakers. Both the traces and sedimentary features of the fossil horizon indicate a freshwater setting at the time of track formation, and the trace assemblage represents the Scoyenia ichnofacies and the Batrachichnus ichnofacies in an overbank environment with sheet flooding and shallow

  11. Enhancing Social-Ecological Resilience in Indonesia: A Case of North Pekalongan District, Central Java

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    A. Artiningsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last eight years (2008-2016, some areas in the northern part of Pekalongan have been experiencing coastal inundation. There have been social, economic and physical disruptions caused by coastal inundation particularly on built environments, paddy fields, and fishpond. The capacity of these areas to provide support for community livelihood has decreased significantly. This accumulative environmental change leads to the emerging of vulnerable regions which are characterized by limited social and ecological capability in responding to hazards. In order to enhance the social-ecological resilience, it is necessary to identify how these communities elevate their capacity and improve their livelihood. This paper presents empirical evidence of various pathways on how the community has transformed their capacity to respond to the changing environment due to coastal inundation. Using a case study approach, this paper explores on how the community has learned from their experiences, knowledge, and efforts withdrawn from the past, and then turns them into a better understanding to cope with, to adapt to, and to become resilient from coastal inundation. In-depth interviews with several key persons who are selected by purposive and snowballing sampling method are employed. These key persons represent the most capable person in each sub-district who poses some important data and information related to coastal inundation either as the individual, household members, or community organization members. The scope of area observation is limited to six sub-districts which adjacent to the coast in the North Pekalongan District. This research employs inductive approach and manual coding technique. The research demonstrates that social-ecological resilience will likely enhance in a community which is capable of nurturing flexible networking. Such networking has made it possible for important information, novel knowledge and practical tools and solutions spread

  12. Overdose of oral contraceptive pills as a means of intentional self-poisoning amongst young women in Sri Lanka: considerations for family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Storm, Frederikke; Agampodi, Suneth

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most popular family planning methods in Sri Lanka. As part of two hospital-based studies on self-harm, the use of OCPs was identified, from yet unpublished results, as a means of intentional self-poisoning. To inform future guidelines for better OCP promotion, this article aims to describe the extent, patient characteristics and outcomes of OCP self-poisoning in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. A secondary analysis was carried out on two hospital-based self-harm case series, from January 2011 to June 2014. Fifty-four patients (52 women and two men) with an overdose of OCP as a means of intentional self-poisoning were admitted to one of the surveyed hospitals. The median age of the patients was 19 (interquartile range, 5) years. None of the patients were severely sick from their overdose and two-thirds of the patients were discharged within a day of admission. Intentional self-poisoning with OCPs represented less than 5% of all types of intentional medicine self-poisonings recorded at the hospitals. Information available for a subset of female patients indicates that many cases (13/23, 56.5%) were in their first year of marriage. More research is required to understand why young women in rural Sri Lanka overdose with OCPs as a means of intentional self-poisoning. Although the toxicity of OCPs is low and the public health significance of OCP poisoning remains minor, reproductive health service providers should be attentive to OCP overdose, monitor the development of this problem, and ensure appropriate information to OCP users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Personal and professional challenges in the management of deliberate self-poisoning patients in rural Sri Lanka: a qualitative study of rural hospital doctors' experiences and perceptions

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    Buckley Nick A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning is a major public heath issue in developing countries. In rural Sri Lanka deliberate self-poisoning is one of the leading causes of hospital death. The majority of patients with poisoning present to rural hospitals for initial treatment that are staffed by non-specialist and often relatively junior doctors. The treatment of self-poisoning patients poses numerous clinical challenges and further difficulties are experienced if patients are uncooperative and aggressive, intoxicated with alcohol or suffering mental illness. Previous research in developed countries has examined self-poisoning patients and their treatment but little is know about self-poisoning patient care in the context of rural health provision in developing countries. This study provides the first focused exploration of the experiences and perceptions of primary care rural hospital doctors in Sri Lanka toward the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen doctors from rural hospitals in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. All interviews were recorded and transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Participating doctors did perceive that treating self-poisoning patients in a primary care rural hospital as potentially confidence-building. However, resource issues such as the lack of medication, equipment and staffing were seen as important challenges to treating self-poisoning patients. Other challenges identified included disparity with community and other staff members regarding expectations of care, a sense of professional isolation and a lack of continuing education programs. Conclusion Addressing professional isolation through educational and trainee programs for doctors and reducing the variance in expectations between professional groups and the community has the potential to improve delivery of care for self-poisoning patients.

  14. Effect of a brief outreach educational intervention on the translation of acute poisoning treatment guidelines to practice in rural Sri Lankan hospitals: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Lalith Senarathna

    Full Text Available In developing countries, including Sri Lanka, a high proportion of acute poisoning and other medical emergencies are initially treated in rural peripheral hospitals. Patients are then usually transferred to referral hospitals for further treatment. Guidelines are often used to promote better patient care in these emergencies. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN73983810 which aimed to assess the effect of a brief educational outreach ('academic detailing' intervention to promote the utilization of treatment guidelines for acute poisoning.This cluster RCT was conducted in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. All peripheral hospitals in the province were randomized to either intervention or control. All hospitals received a copy of the guidelines. The intervention hospitals received a brief out-reach academic detailing workshop which explained poisoning treatment guidelines and guideline promotional items designed to be used in daily care. Data were collected on all patients admitted due to poisoning for 12 months post-intervention in all study hospitals. Information collected included type of poison exposure, initial investigations, treatments and hospital outcome. Patients transferred from peripheral hospitals to referral hospitals had their clinical outcomes recorded. There were 23 intervention and 23 control hospitals. There were no significant differences in the patient characteristics, such as age, gender and the poisons ingested. The intervention hospitals showed a significant improvement in administration of activated charcoal [OR 2.95 (95% CI 1.28-6.80]. There was no difference between hospitals in use of other decontamination methods.This study shows that an educational intervention consisting of brief out-reach academic detailing was effective in changing treatment behavior in rural Sri Lankan hospitals. The intervention was only effective for treatments with direct clinician involvement, such as administering

  15. A Descriptive and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Teacher Education Programs in Land-Grant Universities of the North-Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Larry D.; Crawford, Harold R.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a study which assessed the inputs and outputs of the agricultural programs of land-grant universities in the North-Central region. It was found that programs in this region are fairly homogeneous, particularly at the undergraduate level. (CT)

  16. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  17. Mennonite Country: The Role of Latina Leaders in the Familial, Social, and Educational Outreach of Immigrant Latino Families in North Central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Anayeli; Anguiano, Rubén P. Viramontez

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of Latina leaders in serving Latino families in North Central Indiana and how they produced social capital through service and leadership. The larger sample of the ethnographic study consisted of 40 Latino families (63 parents) and 14 school personnel. This study focused specifically on 13 Latina women who were…

  18. Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Bupresitidae) in recently invaded areas in north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Kristopher J. Abell; Roy. van Driesch

    2012-01-01

    Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with larval stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in north central United States (Michigan), where two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi...

  19. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-11-17

    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  20. Effects of fire management on the richness and abundance of central North American grassland land snail faunas

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    Nekola, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The land snail faunas from 72 upland and lowland grassland sites from central North America were analyzed. Sixteen of these had been exposed to fire management within the last 15 years, while the remainder had not. A total of 91,074 individuals in 72 different species were observed. Richness was reduced by approximately 30% on burned sites, while abundance was reduced by 50-90%. One-way ANOVA of all sites (using management type as the independent variable, a full 2-way ANOVA (using management and grassland type of all sites, and a 2-way ANOVA limited to 26 sites paired according to their habitat type and geographic location, demonstrated in all cases a highly significant (up to p < 0.0005 reduction in richness and abundance on fire managed sites. Contingency table analysis of individual species demonstrated that 44% experienced a significant reduction in abundance on fire-managed sites. Only six species positively responded to fire. Comparisons of fire response to the general ecological preferences of these species demonstrated that fully 72% of turf-specialists were negatively impacted by fire, while 67% of duff-specialists demonstrated no significant response. These differences were highly significant (p = 0.0006. Thus, frequent use of fire management represents a significant threat to the health and diversity of North American grassland land snail communities. Protecting this fauna will require the preservation of site organic litter layers, which will require the increase of fire return intervals to 15+ years in conjunction with use of more diversified methods to remove woody and invasive plants.

  1. Analysis of Volatile Organic and Sulfur Compounds in Air Near a Pulp Paper Mill in North-Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, N. A. C.; Bundy, B. A.; Andrew, J. P.; Grimm, B. K.; Ketcherside, D.; Rivero-Zevallos, J. A.; Uhlorn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Lewiston, Idaho is a small city in the Snake River Valley bordering North-Central Idaho and Southeastern Washington, with a population of over 40,000 including the surrounding areas. One of the main industries and employers in the region is a kraft paper mill in North Lewiston, which results in odorous levels of sulfur air pollutants there. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality has an air monitoring station in Lewiston but measures only air particulate matter (PM). Surprisingly, not much long-term data exists on this area for specific air constituents such as volatile organics, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfur compounds. One year-long study conducted in 2006-2007 by the Nez Perce Tribe found high formaldehyde levels in the area, and warranted further study in July of 2016-2017. Our ongoing study began in the fall of 2016 and investigates the seasonal air composition in the Lewiston area. Specifically, active air sampling via sorbent tubes and analysis by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). was utilized to measure over 50 volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and sulfurous compounds in ambient air (adapted from EPA Method TO-17). Seasonal, diurnal, and spatial variations in air composition were explored with weekly to monthly grab sampling. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were the primary sulfur compounds detected, and these varied considerably depending on time of day, season, location and meteorology. DMS was more prevalent in the summer months, while DMDS was more prevalent in the spring. Elevated concentrations of benzene and chloroform were found in the region during 2017, with average values of short term grab samples over three times the acceptable ambient concentrations in Idaho. These levels did not persist during longer term sampling of 12-hours, however further monitoring is needed to assess a potential health concern.

  2. Mental health literacy among secondary school students in North and Central Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Elialilia S; Abbo, Catherine; Muhwezi, Wilson W; Akello, Grace; Ovuga, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    There has been limited effort to explore young people's perceptions about mental illness in Uganda. For mental health programs targeting young people to succeed, it is important to incorporate their understanding of mental illness, their perceptions about causes of mental illness and their attitudes about mentally ill people. The objective of this study was to explore the mental health of young people in secondary schools in Northern and Central Uganda. This was a qualitative study where 24 focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with young people in secondary schools. Respondents aged 14-24 years were purposively selected from 4 secondary schools in the two regions. During the FGDs, young people's perceptions and understanding of three areas listed below were explored: meaning of mental health/mental illness; causes of mental illness and attitudes toward mental illness. Data management and analysis was done with the help of Atlas.ti, a-qualitative-analysis software. Thematic analysis approach was employed. FGD participants used concepts like a sound and normal mind, right thinking, normal behavior and normal thoughts to define mental health. Mental illness on the other hand was defined as loss of sense of reality, malfunctioning of the brain, impaired thinking and bizarre behavior. Young people attributed mental illness to; substance abuse (Marijuana, alcohol), witnessing traumatic events (seeing ones your relatives being killed, or being forced to participate in killing-frequently mentioned by young people in Northern Uganda); witch craft, effect of physical illness e.g. HIV/epilepsy, thinking too much, accidents and genetic explanations. They had mixed opinions about interacting with mentally ill individuals. Unpredictability and dangerousness were known to be a recurrent theme among people with negative views about mentally ill. Nonetheless, some FGD participants believed that the level of interaction with mentally ill persons depended on familiarity with

  3. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin in Sri Lanka using RegCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammadh, K. M.; Mafas, M. M. M.; Weerakoon, S. B.

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Mahaweli basin is the upper most sub basin of 788 km2 in size above Polgolla barrage in the Mahaweli River, the longest river in Sri Lanka which starts from the central hills of the island and drains to the sea at the North-east coast. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin is important for issuing flood warning in the river downstream of the reservoirs, landslide warning in the settlements in hilly areas. Anticipatory water management in the basin including reservoir operations, barrage gate operation for releasing water for irrigation and flood control also require reliable rainfall and runoff prediction in the sub basin. In this study, the Regional Climate Model (RegCM V4.4.5.11) is calibrated for the basin to dynamically downscale reanalysis weather data of Global Climate Model (GCM) to forecast the rainfall in the basin. Observed rainfalls at gauging stations within the basin were used for model calibration and validation. The observed rainfall data was analysed using ARC GIS and the output of RegCM was analysed using GrADS tool. The output of the model and the observed precipitation were obtained on grids of size 0.1 degrees and the accuracy of the predictions were analysed using RMSE and Mean Model Absolute Error percentage (MAME %). The predictions by the calibrated RegCM model for the basin is shown to be satisfactory. The model is a useful tool for rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli River basin.

  4. Reverse osmosis plant maintenance and efficacy in chronic kidney disease endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Ranasinghe, Omesh; Ranasinghe, Sachini; Siriwardhana, Imalka; Gunatilake, Sarath; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding. We also measured total dissolved solids (TDS in ppm) to assess the efficacy of the RO process. Most RO plants were operated by community-based organizations. They provide clean and sustainable water source for many in the NCP for a nominal fee, which tends to be variable. The RO plant operators carry out RO plant maintenance. However, maintenance procedures and quality management practices tend to vary from an operator to another. RO process itself has the ability to lower the TDS of the water. On average, RO process reduces the TDS to 29 ppm. The RO process reduces the impurities in water available to many individuals within CINAC endemic regions. However, there variation in maintenance, quality management, and day-to-day care between operators can be a cause for concern. This variability can affect the quality of water produced by RO plant, its maintenance cost and lifespan. Thus, uniform regulation and training is needed to reduce cost of maintenance and increase the efficacy of RO plants.

  5. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Pattern and Eco-climatological Drivers of Striped Skunk Rabies in the North Central Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ram K; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Goodin, Douglas G; Davis, Rolan; Moore, Michael; Moore, Susan; Anderson, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns. Two Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to point-referenced striped skunk rabies cases [n = 656 (negative), and n = 310 (positive)] received at a leading rabies diagnostic facility between the years 2007-2013. The first model included only spatial and temporal terms and a second covariate model included additional covariates representing eco-climatic conditions within a 4 km(2) home-range area for striped skunks. The better performing covariate model indicated the presence of significant spatial and temporal trends in the dataset and identified higher amounts of land covered by low-intensity developed areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.41; 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (CrI) = 2.08, 3.85], higher level of patch fragmentation (OR = 1.70; 95% CrI = 1.25, 2.89), and diurnal temperature range (OR = 0.54; 95% CrI = 0.27, 0.91) to be important drivers of striped skunk rabies incidence in the study area. Model validation statistics indicated satisfactory performance for both models; however, the covariate model fared better. The findings of this study are important in the context of rabies management among striped skunks in North America, and the relevance of physical and climatological factors as risk factors for skunk to human rabies transmission and

  6. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Pattern and Eco-climatological Drivers of Striped Skunk Rabies in the North Central Plains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K Raghavan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Striped skunks are one of the most important terrestrial reservoirs of rabies virus in North America, and yet the prevalence of rabies among this host is only passively monitored and the disease among this host remains largely unmanaged. Oral vaccination campaigns have not efficiently targeted striped skunks, while periodic spillovers of striped skunk variant viruses to other animals, including some domestic animals, are routinely recorded. In this study we evaluated the spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of infection status among striped skunk cases submitted for rabies testing in the North Central Plains of US in a Bayesian hierarchical framework, and also evaluated potential eco-climatological drivers of such patterns. Two Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted to point-referenced striped skunk rabies cases [n = 656 (negative, and n = 310 (positive] received at a leading rabies diagnostic facility between the years 2007-2013. The first model included only spatial and temporal terms and a second covariate model included additional covariates representing eco-climatic conditions within a 4 km(2 home-range area for striped skunks. The better performing covariate model indicated the presence of significant spatial and temporal trends in the dataset and identified higher amounts of land covered by low-intensity developed areas [Odds ratio (OR = 3.41; 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (CrI = 2.08, 3.85], higher level of patch fragmentation (OR = 1.70; 95% CrI = 1.25, 2.89, and diurnal temperature range (OR = 0.54; 95% CrI = 0.27, 0.91 to be important drivers of striped skunk rabies incidence in the study area. Model validation statistics indicated satisfactory performance for both models; however, the covariate model fared better. The findings of this study are important in the context of rabies management among striped skunks in North America, and the relevance of physical and climatological factors as risk factors for skunk to human rabies

  7. The Economic Virtues of SRI and CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Derwall (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFinancial markets and company managers are increasingly acknowledging the concepts of socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), but not without reservations. These hesitations are largely attributable to ongoing debates about a potential conflict

  8. Leprosy control in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewapura, D R

    1994-01-01

    Even though health workers have treated all registered cases of leprosy in Sri Lanka with multiple drug therapy since 1982, it continues to be transmitted. The government has launched a social marketing and social mobilization campaign to reduce the incidence of leprosy. It has expanded the network of leprosy services. A national advertising program included mass media ads, posters, stickers on buses, and radio and television serials to create awareness of the early signs of leprosy and to reduce fear to leprosy. Health workers distributed leaflets and booklets to the general public and to new patients. The Anti-Leprosy Campaign of Sri Lanka organized 1-week health education programs for administrative officer, village leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and voluntary workers. Skin camps were set up to detect leprosy cases and to treat minor skin disorders. Teachers received flip charts on leprosy to help them teach colleagues and children about leprosy. All primary level staff, medical officers in hospital staff, and estate medical and paramedical staff have undergone special training on diagnosing leprosy and on reducing their fear of it. Almost every district has at least 1 leprosy control specialist. 2 leprosy control specialists work in those districts where leprosy is endemic Each district has a trained medical laboratory technician, who stains and interprets leprosy smears. In 1992, school, contact, and mass surveys have found 31, 149, and 225 new cases, respectively. Active case findings methods found 16.5% of new cases. 50% of new cases are self- reported, compared to less than 10% in 1989, suggesting increased awareness of early signs of leprosy and a reduced fear of it. 25 more clinics opened in 1991 to meet the demand for leprosy services.

  9. Large-scale evolution of the central-east Greenland margin: New insights to the North Atlantic glaciation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove; Knutz, Paul C.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Damm, Volkmar

    2018-04-01

    The continental shelf of central-east Greenland is shaped by several glacially carved transverse troughs that form the oceanward extension of the major fjord systems. The evolution of these troughs through time, and their relation with the large-scale glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere, is poorly understood. In this study seismostratigraphic analyses have been carried out to determine the morphological and structural development of this important sector of the East Greenland glaciated margin. The age of major stratigraphic discontinuities has been constrained by a direct tie to ODP site 987 drilled in the Greenland Sea basin plain off Scoresby Sund fan system. The areal distribution and internal facies of the identified seismic units reveal the large-scale depositional pattern formed by ice-streams draining a major part of the central-east Greenland ice sheet. Initial sedimentation along the margin was, however, mainly controlled by tectonic processes related to the margin construction, continental uplift, and fluvial processes. From late Miocene to present, progradational and erosional patterns point to repeated glacial advances across the shelf. The evolution of depo-centres suggests that ice sheet advances over the continental shelf have occurred since late Miocene, about 2 Myr earlier than previously assumed. This cross-shelf glaciation is more pronounced during late Miocene and early Pliocene along Blosseville Kyst and around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary off Scoresby Sund; indicating a northward migration of the glacial advance. The two main periods of glaciation were separated by a major retreat of the ice sheet to an inland position during middle Pliocene. Mounded-wavy deposits interpreted as current-related deposits suggest the presence of changing along-slope current dynamics in concert with the development of the modern North Atlantic oceanographic pattern.

  10. Accreted seamounts in North Tianshan, NW China: Implications for the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaoxue; Li, Yongjun; Kerr, Andrew C.; Tong, Lili

    2018-03-01

    The Carboniferous Bayingou ophiolitic mélange is exposed in the North Tianshan accretionary complex in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The mélange is mainly composed of serpentinised ultramafic rocks (including harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, dunite and peridotite), pillowed and massive basalts, layered gabbros, radiolarian cherts, pelagic limestones, breccias and tuffs, and displays block-in-matrix structures. The blocks of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, basalts, cherts, and limestones are set in a matrix of serpentinised ultramafic rocks, massive basalts and tuffs. The basaltic rocks in the mélange show significant geochemical heterogeneity, and two compositional groups, one ocean island basalt-like, and the other mid-ocean ridge-like, can be distinguished on the basis of their isotopic compositions and immobile trace element contents (such as light rare earth element enrichment in the former, but depletion in the latter). The more-enriched basaltic rocks are interpreted as remnants/fragments of seamounts, derived from a deep mantle reservoir with low degrees (2-3%) of garnet lherzolite mantle melting. The depleted basalts most likely formed by melting of a shallower spinel lherzolite mantle source with ∼15% partial melting. It is probable that both groups owe their origin to melting of a mixture between plume and depleted MORB mantle. The results from this study, when integrated with previous work, indicate that the Junggar Ocean crust (comprising a significant number of seamounts) was likely to have been subducted southward beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous. The seamounts were scraped-off and accreted along with the oceanic crust in an accretionary wedge to form the Bayingou ophiolitic mélange. We present a model for the tectonomagmatic evolution of this portion of the CAOB involving prolonged intra-oceanic subduction with seamount accretion.

  11. Stromatoporoid-Algal-Facies hydrocarbon traps in Upper Devonian (Fammenian)Wabamun Group, north-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, D.K.; Murray, W.; Stearn, C.W.

    1985-02-01

    Recent oil and gas discoveries in the Upper Devonian (Fammenian) Wabamun Group of the Peace River arch area, north-central Alberta, have led to a reevaluation of stratigraphic and structural trapping mechanisms. These discoveries have occurred at a number of different intervals within the Wabamun. In the Tangent, Teepee, and Eaglesham areas, fractured and dolomitized mudstones, and grainstones produce hydrocarbons. At Normandville, however, fractured stromatoporoid-algal boundstones form the reservoir. Stromatoporoid-algal boundstones in the Wabamun Group have not been reported previously in this area. The stromatoporoids consist of predominantly massive and bulbous growth forms that created shoals and mounds in the Wabamun epeiric sea. Encrusting algae constitute an additional major component of the boundstone. Sparry-calcite cemented pelletal, skeletal, and oolitic grainstones form the surrounding matrix. Although the Wabamun carbonates are predominantly well-cemented mudstones and grainstones, the reemergence of relatively primitive stromatoporoid forms in the Late Devonian, after the extinction of the numerous Frasnian stromatoporoid families, provides potential for an interesting new exploration target.

  12. Malaria in pregnancy; facts from the parasitology laboratory: a ten-year study in Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibecheozor, N.K.O

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, which is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes, is the major cause of mortality among the pregnant women in the sub-Saharan Africa. A ten year study of malaria in pregnancy was carried out in Abuja, North Central Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were stained with the Giemsa methodology. Of the 16760 pregnant women blood samples, 4571 (27.3% were positive for malaria parasites caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Of the 4571 positive cases, 75 (1.7% had parasite density of >5000 parasites/µl of blood; 148 (3.2% had between 500-5000 parasites/µl of blood; 520 (11.4% had between 50 - 500 parasites/µl of blood; while 3828 (83.7% had between 5-50 parasites/µl of blood. With the current estimate of over 4500 deaths of pregnant women in Nigeria due to malaria annually, we must make deliberate efforts to stop these unacceptable and painful losses. The continued use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (M-RDTs methodologies should be discontinued because of its negative implications. Therefore, the microscopic laboratory diagnostic component should be included in ANC at all level of health care facility.

  13. A pollen-based reconstruction of summer temperature in central North America and implications for circulation patterns during medieval times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Eugene R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Ohlwein, Christian

    2012-03-01

    We present a reconstruction of mean summer temperature for the northern Midwest of the USA based on lacustrine pollen records from three different lakes in Wisconsin. The results suggest a relatively warm period during the earlier part of the record (~ 1200-1500 CE) followed by a cooler Little Ice Age (~ 1500-1900) and a subsequent warming to modern conditions. The reconstructed modern summer mean temperature is in good agreement with observations, and the decades of the 1930s to 1950s appear to be the warmest such period in the proxy record (through 1974). Analyses of circulation features associated with the warmest summers in the recent climate record suggest a prevalence of continental ridging accompanied by generally dry conditions during these warm summers in the Midwest. Drought reconstruction using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and tree-ring records as predictors also yield relatively dry conditions in medieval times for the central US. As reported in a number of recent studies, possible forcing mechanisms include La Niña-like conditions in the equatorial Pacific and warmer than average waters in the tropical Indo-western Pacific Ocean possibly coupled to a positive mode of the AMO/NAO North Atlantic circulation pattern.

  14. Long aftershock sequences in North China and Central US: implications for hazard assessment in mid-continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Luo, Gang; Wang, Hui; Stein, Seth

    2014-02-01

    Because seismic activity within mid-continents is usually much lower than that along plate boundary zones, even small earthquakes can cause widespread concerns, especially when these events occur in the source regions of previous large earthquakes. However, these small earthquakes may be just aftershocks that continue for decades or even longer. The recent seismicity in the Tangshan region in North China is likely aftershocks of the 1976 Great Tangshan earthquake. The current earthquake sequence in the New Madrid seismic zone in central United States, which includes a cluster of M ~ 7.0 events in 1811-1812 and a number of similar events in the past millennium, is believed to result from recent fault reactivation that releases pre-stored strain energy in the crust. If so, this earthquake sequence is similar to aftershocks in that the rates of energy release should decay with time and the sequence of earthquakes will eventually end. We use simple physical analysis and numerical simulations to show that the current sequence of large earthquakes in the New Madrid fault zone is likely ending or has ended. Recognizing that mid-continental earthquakes have long aftershock sequences and complex spatiotemporal occurrences are critical to improve hazard assessments.

  15. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  16. Preservation of beach ridges due to pedogenic calcrete development in the Tongoy palaeobay, North-Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Marco; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Solleiro-Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Kemnitz, Helga; Sedov, Sergey; Seguel, Oscar

    2011-09-01

    At the Tongoy palaeobay in north-central Chile, a series of beach ridges developed during seaward progradation that took place after the MIS 11 sea-level highstand (412 ka). The microrelief left by this succession of beach ridges has been well preserved from erosion due to the development of a calcrete (petrocalcic horizons), which was resistant to the chemical and physical weathering that characterized the area during humid phases of the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene. Macro- and micro-morphological analysis shows that the calcrete is of pedogenic origin and formed during two stages: in the first stage a massive (beta) calcrete developed, followed during the second stage by a laminar (alpha) calcrete. Each event in the development of the calcrete was intimately related to the foregoing process, mainly due to changes in the permeability of the profile horizons. During the first stages of development, organisms played an important role in the precipitation of calcite, which made the calcrete less permeable and favored the accumulation of ponded water during the wet season. As a result of this increased humidity, calcium carbonate with a laminar structure was precipitated. The development of the calcrete was also intimately associated with the evolution of the drainage network, which is characterized by a trellis pattern of tributaries parallel to the beach ridges. This study demonstrates the importance of soil genesis in the geomorphological evolution of landscapes.

  17. Application of water quality indices and analysis of the surface water quality monitoring network in semiarid North-Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Lesly; Kretschmer, Nicole; Oyarzún, Jorge; Meza, Francisco; Núñez, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Oyarzo, Paula; Garrido, Marcela; Suckel, Felipe; Amezaga, Jaime; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Surface water quality has increasing importance worldwide and is particularly relevant in the semiarid North-Central Chile, where agriculture and mining activities are imposing heavy pressure on limited water resources. The current study presents the application of a water quality index in four watersheds of the 29°-33°S realm for the period 1999-2008, based on the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment approach and the Chilean regulation for irrigation water quality. In addition, two modifications to the index are tested and a comprehensive characterization of the existing monitoring network is performed through cluster analysis. The basins studied show fairly good water quality in the overall, specially the Limarí basin. On the other hand, the lower index values were obtained for the headwaters of Elqui, associated with the El Indio mining district. The first modification of the indicator (i.e., to consider parameters differentially according to their effect on human health or the environment) did not produce major differences with respect to the original index, given the generally good water quality. The second modification (i.e., to consider as threshold values the more restrictive figures derived from a set of regulations) yielded important differences in the indicator values. Finally, an adequate characterization of the monitoring network was obtained. The results presented spatial coherence and the information can be used as a basis for the optimization of the monitoring network if required.

  18. Identification of Calotropis procera L. as a potential phytoaccumulator of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Urban North Central India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Rohan J.; Varun, Mayank; Masih, Jamson; Paul, Manoj S.

    2010-01-01

    Lead and cadmium levels were monitored in soil at fifteen urban (riverbank, roadside, industrial and residential) sites in the north central part of India. Calotropis procera, a hardy xerophytic plant was identified and selected for remedial potential as it was seen growing well at all sites. Root and leaf samples were collected simultaneously with soil samples to assess the characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of Pb and Cd in C. procera. Chlorophyll and phenological studies were undertaken to investigate the health of plants. The overall trend of Pb and Cd content in soil and plant samples was in the order Industrial > Roadside > Riverbank > Residential. The highest uptake of both the metals was observed in plants from industrial sites. Sites with more anthropogenic disturbance like vehicular and machinery exhausts exhibited reduced chlorophyll levels, stunted growth as well as a delayed, shortened reproductive phase. The ratios of Pb in leaves to Pb in soil were in the range of 0.60-1.37; while similar ratios of Cd were in the range of 1.25-1.83. Highly significant correlation coefficients were determined between concentrations of Pb and Cd in the samples with R 2 values 0.839 for soil, 0.802 for leaf and 0.819 for root samples. The strong correlation between the degree of contamination and concentrations of Pb and Cd in plant samples identifies C. procera as an effective heavy metal remediator of contaminated lands coupled with environmental stress.

  19. Fall and winter survival of brook trout and brown trout in a north-central Pennsylvania watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweka, John A.; Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Stream-dwelling salmonids that spawn in the fall generally experience their lowest survival during the fall and winter due to behavioral changes associated with spawning and energetic deficiencies during this time of year. We used data from Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta implanted with radio transmitters in tributaries of the Hunts Run watershed of north-central Pennsylvania to estimate survival from the fall into the winter seasons (September 2012–February 2013). We examined the effects that individual-level covariates (trout species, size, and movement rates) and stream-level covariates (individual stream and cumulative drainage area of a stream) have on survival. Brook Trout experienced significantly lower survival than Brown Trout, especially in the early fall during their peak spawning period. Besides a significant species effect, none of the other covariates examined influenced survival for either species. A difference in life history between these species, with Brook Trout having a shorter life expectancy than Brown Trout, is likely the primary reason for the lower survival of Brook Trout. However, Brook Trout also spawn earlier in the fall than Brown Trout and low flows during Brook Trout spawning may have resulted in a greater risk of predation for Brook Trout compared with Brown Trout, thereby also contributing to the observed differences in survival between these species. Our estimates of survival can aid parameterization of future population models for Brook Trout and Brown Trout through the spawning season and into winter.

  20. The Role of Necropsy in Diagnostic Dilemmas as Seen in a Tertiary Hospital in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga A. Silas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Necropsy (autopsy has helped medical science and law. It has given rise to numerous diagnostic surprises as it explains cause of death, pathogenesis of diseases, and circumstances of death. It also explains reasons for most therapeutic failures. In spite of its usefulness, the rate has dropped worldwide and Africa is worse hit. This work aims to highlight the role autopsy (Necropsy plays in demystifying diagnostic dilemmas and to encourage its patronage by medical practitioners, law enforcement agents and society. Methods. This is a retrospective review of autopsy and clinical reports of cases seen by pathologists and physicians in the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH, Jos, North central Nigeria. Results. A total 166 cases were studied out of which 52 had same diagnosis for both attending physician and pathologist, 106 had different diagnoses and in eight cases diagnoses remained unknown even after autopsy was performed. Conclusions. Autopsy remains an important tool for obtaining definitive diagnosis, determining cause of death to explain pathogenesis of diseases, medical auditing and a vital source of data for health statistics and planning.

  1. Base-level Response to Holocene Climate Change in the Central Appalachian Mountains of North America: Preview of Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, G. S.; Rowe, H. D.; Cocina, F. G.; Hardt, B.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    Global Warming is expected to bring about substantive changes in global precipitation patterns, which will lead to altered stream hydrologies. The directions and magnitudes of streamflow changes can be inferred from climate projections, but changes in stream architecture and base level are open questions. We address base level response to climate change by reconstructing river behavior during the mid- to late Holocene, including the Hypsithermal when peak Holocene temperatures were achieved. We reconstruct the climate of the Greenbrier River watershed of the central Appalachian Mountains of North America using the stable isotope geochemistry of a stalagmite, cave sediments, and published pollen data. Independently, we construct a history of base level position using cave sediments deposited by the river. Stalagmite values of δ18O and δ13C are heavy during the Hypsithermal, which pollen results indicate was warm and dry compared to the rest of the Holocene. Cave sediments deposited by the Greenbrier River record base level as having been below the cave during the early and late Holocene, but above the cave during the Hypsithermal. The mid-Holocene base level rise is attributed to infilling of the channel with as much as 4 m of sediment, presumably a response to changes in storm frequency and stream hydrology. Global Warming will cause temperatures to exceed those of the Hypsithermal. Flood zones will extend to higher elevations and flood risks and vulnerabilities will increase dramatically if Appalachian rivers respond to Global Warming as the Greenbrier River did to the Hypsithermal.

  2. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Coexisting contraction-extension consistent with buoyancy of the crust and upper mantle in North-Central Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoudia, A; Ismail-Zadeh, A T; Panza, G F; Pontevivo, A

    2002-01-01

    The juxtaposed contraction and extension observed in the crust of the Italian Apennines and elsewhere has, for a long time, attracted the attention of geoscientists and is a long-standing enigmatic feature. Several models, invoking mainly external forces, have been put forward to explain the close association of these two end-member deformation mechanisms clearly observed by geophysical and geological investigations. These models appeal to interactions along plate margins or at the base of the lithosphere such as back-arc extension or shear tractions from mantle flow or to subduction processes such as slab roll back, retreat or pull and detachment. We present here a revisited crust and upper mantle model that supports delamination processes beneath North-Central Italy and provides a new background for the genesis and age of the recent magmatism in Tuscany. Although external forces must have been important in the building up of the Apennines, we show that internal buoyancy forces solely can explain the coexist...

  4. An Abattoir-Based Study on Serodiagnosis of Swine Brucellosis in Makurdi, Benue State, North-Central Nigeria

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    Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An abattoir serological survey of brucellosis in pigs was conducted in Makurdi, Benue State North Central Nigeria between October and November 2011. Blood-sera were collected from a total of 281 slaughtered pigs and their ages and sex were recorded. The sera were tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT. A total of 86 of the 281 (30.60% pigs were serologically positive. The prevalence of positive pigs based on sex was 31.20% and 30.13% for male and female pigs, respectively. The age prevalence was 30.10% and 32.00% for young and adult pigs, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05 between positivity of reactor pigs and their sex or age. This study concluded that brucellosis is a problem in the swine industry. Consequently, strict sanitary measures and control of swine brucellosis is urgently warranted to avoid spread of infection through pigs’ populations and their contacted persons as well as pork consumers.

  5. The influence of breastfeeding beliefs on the sexual behavior of the Tarok in north-central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2013-12-01

    The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15 years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

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    Ajibola Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p=0.001, respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001, and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p=0.001. Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28. Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  7. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

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    Grace O. Kolawole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received.

  8. Soil properties in different types of Eucalypt Plantations in a small forested watershed, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. M.; van Beersum, S.; van Hall, I.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the HIDRIA project is to improve the knowledge and understanding of factors and processes that determine the hydrological behaviour of forested foothills in the Caramulo mountain range, North-Central Portugal. The changes from natural forest cover to Eucalyptus plantations in the last decades in Portugal is present in Serra de Cima catchment, one of the four experimental catchments monitored within the framework of the project. The objectives of the present study are to determine the effects of these changes on soil properties, and to improve the parameterization of the SWAT model to simulate the impact of land-use changes associated with forestry practices on hydrological processes. The study catchment (Serra de Cima) is located in the Águeda Basin, draining the foothills of the Caramulo mountains east of Águeda (40°36'N, -8°20'E). The climate is wet Mediterranean with a mean annual precipitation of about 1600 mm at 445 m a.s.l. Soils are generally Umbric Leptosols (Molarity of Ethanol Droplet test); and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity (mini-disk experiments). There were clear differences in almost every parameter between eucalypt and pine plots, but also for eucalypt stands of different ages, indicating an impact of eucalypt growth on the properties of the underlying soil. The repetition of some measurements is foreseen to evaluate their seasonal variability.

  9. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  10. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of skunk-associated rabies viruses in North America with special emphasis on the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rolan; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Moore, Michael; Hanlon, Cathleen

    2013-06-01

    Across North America the skunk acts as a reservoir for several rabies virus variants. Some of these variants are geographically restricted in range as is the case for the California skunk variant and two distinct variants present in Mexico. In contrast the North Central and South Central skunk rabies viruses are dispersed in overlapping ranges over large areas of the Midwestern region of the United States with the former extending into southern parts of the Canadian prairies. Despite this extensive range, there has been only very limited molecular characterization of these two viral variants. This study has examined the genetic diversity of the rabies viruses associated with North American skunks, with particular emphasis on the South Central skunk variant which was found to comprise three distinct geographically restricted groups of viruses that could in some cases be further sub-divided. The phylogenetic relationships of these groups and sub-groups allowed us to infer the likely direction of spread of these variants in some instances. Patterns of amino acid replacement of North American skunk-associated rabies viruses for both the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein products are also examined. These patterns reflect the virus phylogeny but no amino acid residues associated specifically with the skunk host were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

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    H. Kaeriyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg−1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  12. Adjusting central and eastern North America ground‐motion intensity measures between sites with different reference‐rock site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000  m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760  m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760  m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760  m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0 from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.

  13. Adjusting central and eastern North America ground-motion intensity measures between sites with different reference-rock site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000  m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760  m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760  m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760  m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.

  14. Do biofilm communities respond to the chemical signatures of fracking? A test involving streams in North-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilson H; Douglas, Marlis R; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Stuecker, Tara N; Carbonero, Franck G; Austin, Bradley J; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally A; Douglas, Michael E

    2017-02-03

    Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction (fracking) is ongoing in 29 North American shale basins (20 states), with ~6000 wells found within the Fayetteville shale (north-central Arkansas). If the chemical signature of fracking is detectable in streams, it can be employed to bookmark potential impacts. We evaluated benthic biofilm community composition as a proxy for stream chemistry so as to segregate anthropogenic signatures in eight Arkansas River catchments. In doing so, we tested the hypothesis that fracking characteristics in study streams are statistically distinguishable from those produced by agriculture or urbanization. Four tributary catchments had UNG-wells significantly more dense and near to our sampling sites and were grouped as 'potentially-impacted catchment zones' (PICZ). Four others were characterized by significantly larger forested area with greater slope and elevation but reduced pasture, and were classified as 'minimally-impacted' (MICZ). Overall, 46 bacterial phyla/141 classes were identified, with 24 phyla (52%) and 54 classes (38%) across all samples. PICZ-sites were ecologically more variable than MICZ-sites, with significantly greater nutrient levels (total nitrogen, total phosphorous), and elevated Cyanobacteria as bioindicators that tracked these conditions. PICZ-sites also exhibited elevated conductance (a correlate of increased ion concentration) and depressed salt-intolerant Spartobacteria, suggesting the presence of brine as a fracking effect. Biofilm communities at PICZ-sites were significantly less variable than those at MICZ-sites. Study streams differed by Group according to morphology, land use, and water chemistry but not in biofilm community structure. Those at PICZ-sites covaried according to anthropogenic impact, and were qualitatively similar to communities found at sites disturbed by fracking. The hypothesis that fracking signatures in study streams are distinguishable from those produced by other anthropogenic effects

  15. Positive Patch-Test Reactions to Essential Oils in Consecutive Patients From North America and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Zug, Kathryn A; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; DeKoven, Joel G; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Geier, Johannes; Uter, Wolfgang

    Synthetic fragrances and natural essential oils (EOs) are used in perfumery and found in various cosmetics. Essential oils are also increasingly used to promote wellness. In previous studies, the sensitization potential of some EOs has been identified; however, the current prevalence of sensitivity is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of positive patch-test reactions to EOs tested in the baseline series, along with 3 fragrance markers (FMs) (fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II, and Myroxylon pereirae), in consecutive patients in the US/Canadian North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) (2009-2014) and the central European, trinational Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) (2010-2014). This study used a retrospective analysis of patch-test results and relevant demographic/clinical data collected electronically by the networks, obtained with Santalum album 10% petrolatum (pet) (IVDK only); Cananga odorata 2% (NACDG) and 10% (IVDK) pet; Jasminum species 2% (NACDG) and 5% (IVDK) pet; Mentha piperita 2% pet; Melaleuca alternifolia, oxidized (tea tree oil), 5% pet; and Lavandula angustifolia 2% pet (latter 3 NACDG only). Overall, 62,354 patients were tested to 3 FMs and EOs (NACDG, 13,398; IVDK, 48,956); 11,568 (18.6%) reacted to at least 1 FM or EO, whereas 857 (1.4%) reacted to 1 or more EOs but none of the 3 FMs. For both the NACDG and IVDK populations, individuals who were positive to 1 or more of the 9 study allergens were significantly less likely to be male, have occupational skin disease, or have hand involvement and significantly more likely to have leg dermatitis and be 40 years and older (P's ≤ 0.005). Prevalence rates for EOs were as follows: S. album, 1.4% IVDK; C. odorata, 1.1% NACDG and 2.4% IVDK; Jasminum species, 0.7% NACDG and 1.4% IVDK; M. piperita, 0.9% NACDG; L. angustifolia, 0.3% NACDG; and M. alternifolia, 0.3% NACDG. Of the 140 NACDG patients who reacted to 1 or more of the 5 NACDG EOs but

  16. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

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    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  17. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  18. Perceptions and understanding of climate change in Sri Lanka : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Team for Disaster Prevention and Sustainable Development, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-06-01

    A citizen's organization in Sri Lanka is conducting a study on current perceptions and attitudes of climate change in a small village in southern Sri Lanka just 100 km north of the capital city of Colombo. The study involves 500 villagers, of which the majority are farmers. While not yet completed, several interesting facts are emerging from this study. The 65,610 sq. km island of Sri Lanka is divided into two distinct climate regions, the wet and dry zones. The mean temperature of the island ranges from 26 to 28 degrees C. Rainfall occurs during the southwest and northeast monsoons. The three main factors for climatic change in Sri Lanka are depressions in the Bay of Bengal, intermonsoonal rain, and deforestation. A total of 500 households were given a questionnaire which was divided into the following 4 sections: (1) socio-economic situation of the household, (2) impacts of climate change, (3) behavioural intentions for actions to reduce the advance impacts of climate change, and (4) ideas about public policies to address climate change. Group discussions were also held to allow villagers to express their voices and raise questions. The study indicates that the villagers have a comprehensive perception about climate change issues in their community (experience gained by flash floods), but have less knowledge about climate change issues in the country. Many villagers believe that political intervention is necessary for any effective climate policy to emerge.

  19. Rainfall Distributions in Sri Lanka in Time and Space: An Analysis Based on Daily Rainfall Data

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    T. P. Burt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.

  20. Sri Lanka: An Ethnocratic State Endangering Positive Peace in the Island

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    Nirmanusan Balasundaram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although proclaimed as a democratic republic, the Sri Lankan state is strongly controlled and ruled by Sinhala Buddhist influence due to a deep engrained belief that the island belongs to the Sinhala Buddhists. The modus operandi of the Sri Lankan state apparatus outlines the ethnocratic characteristics of the state. This mono-ethnic and mono-religious attitude has led to the widening and deepening of the discrimination against a particular ethnic group known as the Tamils who traditionally inhabit the North and East of the island. Ethnocracy continues to be defended and justified by the state in the name of sovereignty, territorial integrity and national security and has led to further polarization of the already divided ethnic groups. As a consequence and outcome of the ethnocratic nature of the Sri Lankan state, a bloody war erupted between successive governments of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. After nearly 38 years the prolonged war came to a brutal end in May 2009 amidst blatant violations of international law. However, the root causes of this conflict, which occurred due to ethnocratic nature of the state, have not yet been addressed resulting in the continuation of the ethnic conflict despite the end of the war.

  1. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  2. Reliability of Self-Reported Mobile Phone Ownership in Rural North-Central Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menson, William Nii Ayitey; Olawepo, John Olajide; Bruno, Tamara; Gbadamosi, Semiu Olatunde; Nalda, Nannim Fazing; Anyebe, Victor; Ogidi, Amaka; Onoka, Chima; Oko, John Okpanachi; Ezeanolue, Echezona Edozie

    2018-03-01

    mHealth practitioners seek to leverage the ubiquity of the mobile phone to increase the impact and robustness of their interventions, particularly in resource-limited settings. However, data on the reliability of self-reported mobile phone access is minimal. We sought to ascertain the reliability of self-reported ownership of and access to mobile phones among a population of rural dwellers in north-central Nigeria. We contacted participants in a community-based HIV testing program by phone to determine actual as opposed to self-reported mobile phone access. A phone script was designed to conduct these calls and descriptive analyses conducted on the findings. We dialed 349 numbers: 110 (31.5%) were answered by participants who self-reported ownership of the mobile phone; 123 (35.2%) of the phone numbers did not ring at all; 28 (8.0%) rang but were not answered; and 88 (25.2%) were answered by someone other than the participant. We reached a higher proportion of male participants (68/133, 51.1%) than female participants (42/216, 19.4%; Preliability of self-reported mobile phone access. These observations should therefore affect sample-size calculations and, where possible, alternative means of reaching research participants and program beneficiaries should be established. ©William Nii Ayitey Menson, John Olajide Olawepo, Tamara Bruno, Semiu Olatunde Gbadamosi, Nannim Fazing Nalda, Victor Anyebe, Amaka Ogidi, Chima Onoka, John Okpanachi Oko, Echezona Edozie Ezeanolue. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 01.03.2018.

  3. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  4. LCE: leaf carbon exchange data set for tropical, temperate, and boreal species of North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    Leaf canopy carbon exchange processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, are substantial components of the global carbon cycle. Climate models base their simulations of photosynthesis and respiration on an empirical understanding of the underlying biochemical processes, and the responses of those processes to environmental drivers. As such, data spanning large spatial scales are needed to evaluate and parameterize these models. Here, we present data on four important biochemical parameters defining leaf carbon exchange processes from 626 individuals of 98 species at 12 North and Central American sites spanning ~53° of latitude. The four parameters are the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport for the regeneration of Ribulose-1,5,-bisphosphate (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and leaf dark respiration (R d ). The raw net photosynthesis by intercellular CO 2 (A/C i ) data used to calculate V cmax , J max , and V pmax rates are also presented. Data were gathered on the same leaf of each individual (one leaf per individual), allowing for the examination of each parameter relative to others. Additionally, the data set contains a number of covariates for the plants measured. Covariate data include (1) leaf-level traits (leaf mass, leaf area, leaf nitrogen and carbon content, predawn leaf water potential), (2) plant-level traits (plant height for herbaceous individuals and diameter at breast height for trees), (3) soil moisture at the time of measurement, (4) air temperature from nearby weather stations for the day of measurement and each of the 90 d prior to measurement, and (5) climate data (growing season mean temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and aridity index). We hope that the data will be useful for obtaining greater understanding of the abiotic and biotic determinants of these important biochemical

  5. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  6. Landcover Change, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo and Topography in the Plateau Region of North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirudeen Odunuga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the change in some environmental parameters in the Plateau region of North-Central Nigeria (Barakinladi, Jos, and Kafachan environs using the nexus of landcover change, land surface temperature, surface albedo, and topography. The study employed both remote sensing and statistical techniques for the period between 1986 and 2014 to analyze the dynamics between and within these environmental variables. In Barakinladi, the built up landcover change is highest (increasing from 39.53% to 47.59% between 1986 and 2014; LST ranges from 19.09 °C to 38.59 °C in 1986 and from 22.68 °C and 41.68 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.014 and 0.154 in 1986 and 0.017 and 0.248 in 2014. In Jos, the built-up landcover occupied 34.26% in 1986 and 36.67% in 2014; LST values range between 20.83 °C and 41.33 °C in 1986 and between 21.61 °C and 42.64 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.003 and 0.211 in 1986 and 0.15 and 0.237 in 2014. In Kafachan area, the built up landcover occupied 32.95% in 1986 and 39.01% in 2014. Urbanization and agricultural activities, including animal grazing, were responsible for the gradual loss in vegetation and increasing average LST and albedo. The results also revealed that changing landcover and topography have a relationship with surface albedo and land surface temperature, thereby impacting significantly on ecosystem services delivered by the natural system.

  7. Radial growth of two dominant montane conifer tree species in response to climate change in North-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu

    2014-01-01

    North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring tree species within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a tree-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 trees at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two species in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which species might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two species grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both species displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two species; (3) The species-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both species will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising.

  8. The well-being and personal wellness promotion strategies of medical oncologists in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Tait D; Novotny, Paul; Johnson, Mary E; Zhao, Xinghua; Steensma, David P; Lacy, Martha Q; Rubin, Joseph; Sloan, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The well-being of oncologists is important to the well-being of their patients. While much is known about oncologist distress, little is known about oncologist well-being. We set out to evaluate oncologist well-being and the personal wellness promotion strategies used by oncologists. We performed a cross-sectional survey of medical oncologists in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group using a validated instrument to measure quality of life. Study-specific questions explored stressors, wellness promotion strategies and career satisfaction. Of 241 responding oncologists (response rate 61%), 121 (50%) reported high overall well-being. Being age 50 or younger (57 vs. 41%; p = 0.01), male (53 vs. 31%; p = 0.01) and working 60 h or less per week (50 vs. 33%; p = 0.005) were associated with increased overall well-being on bivariate analysis. Ratings of the importance of a number of personal wellness promotion strategies differed for oncologists with high well-being compared with those without high well-being. Developing an approach/philosophy to dealing with death and end-of-life care, using recreation/hobbies/exercise, taking a positive outlook and incorporating a philosophy of balance between personal and professional life were all rated as substantially more important wellness strategies by oncologists with high well-being (p values career satisfaction. Half of medical oncologists experience high overall well-being. Use of specific personal wellness promotion strategies appears to be associated with oncologist well-being. Further investigations of the prevalence, promotion, causes, inequities and clinical impact of physician well-being are needed. .

  9. Unraveling North-African riverine and eolian contributions to central Mediterranean sediments during Holocene sapropel S1 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawang; Böning, Philipp; Pahnke, Katharina; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; de Lange, Gert J.

    2016-11-01

    Hydroclimate variability has exerted a fundamental control on the alternating deposition of organic-lean marl and organic-rich sapropel sediments in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). However, the exact mechanisms regarding the freshwater sources and related changes are still debated. Here, Sr and Nd isotopes and high-resolution elemental data are used to constrain different riverine and eolian supplies to the central Mediterranean over the past 9.8 ka. The detrital sediments in core CP10BC, taken at the margin of the Libyan shelf in the southwestern Ionian Sea, can be described by a three-endmember mixing system based on Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. The same systematics can also be deduced from Ti and K compositional variability. The endmembers comprise: Saharan Dust, Aegean/Nile, and Libyan Soil, representing the eolian supply from North Africa, the riverine inputs from the Aegean/Nile areas, as well as the riverine and shelf-derived fluxes from the Libyan-Tunisian margin, respectively. For the sapropel S1 period in particular, we find important detrital supplies from fossil river/wadi systems along the Libyan-Tunisian margin, activated by intensified African monsoon precipitation. Combining the temporal profiles with the consistent variability observed in the 87Sr/86Sr-1000/Sr diagram, such Libyan contribution has been most prominent during the uppermost period of sapropel S1 in core CP10BC. This observation is in agreement with hydroclimate reconstructions of northwestern Libya. Comparison of the Sr-Nd isotope data between core CP10BC and four cores taken along a west-east transect throughout the EMS shows that this detrital supply originated mainly from western Libya/Tunisia, and was transported as far eastward as ∼25°E while being diluted by an increasing Nile contribution.

  10. Late Cenozoic stable isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanography of DSDP sites from the East equatorial and central north Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keigwin, L.D. Jr

    1979-01-01

    Stable isotopic analyses of Middle Miocene to Quaternary foraminiferal calcite from east equatorial and central north Pacific DSDP cores have provided much new information on the paleoceanography of the Pacific Neogene. The history of delta 18 O change in planktonic foraminifera reflects the changing isotopic composition and temperature of seawater at the time of test formation. Changes in the isotopic composition of benthonic foraminfera largely reflect changes in the volume of continental ice. Isotopic data from these cores indicates the following sequence of events related to continental galaciation: (1) A permanent Antarctic ice sheet developed late in the Middle Miocene (about 13 to 11.5 m.y. ago). (2) The Late Miocene (about 11.5 to 5 m.y. ago) is marked by significant variation in delta 18 O of about 0.5% throughout, indicating instability of Antarctic ice cap size or bottom-water temperature. (3) The early Pliocene (5 to about 3 m.y. ago) was a time of relative stability in ice volume and bottom-water temperature. (4) Growth of permanent Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is inferred to have begun about 3 m.y. ago. (5) The late Pliocene (3 to about 1.8 m.y. ago) is marked by one major glaciation or bottom-water cooling dated between about 2.1 to 2.3 m.y. (6) There is some evidence that the frequency of glacial-interglacial cycles increased at about 0.9 m.y. (Auth.)

  11. Oceanic influence on extreme rainfall trends in the north central coast of Venezuela: present and future climate assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelys Guenni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are an important part of climate variability and their intensity and persistence are often modulated by large scale climatic patterns which might act as forcing drivers affecting their probability of occurrence. When the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA and the Equatorial Pacific (Ni\\~no 3 region sea surface temperature (SST anomalies are of opposite signs and the first one is positive while the second one is negative, the rainfall response is stronger in the northern coast of Venezuela as well as in the Pacific coast of Central America during the Nov-Feb period. The difference between these two SST anomaly time series (NTA-Ni\\~no3 is used in this analysis and it is called the Atlantic-Pacific Index or API. By fitting a dynamic generalized extreme value (GEV model to station based daily rainfall at different locations and to the Xie and Arkin dataset for the Vargas state, we found the API index to be an adequate index to explain the probabilistic nature of rainfall extremes in the northern Venezuelan coast for the months Nov-Feb. Dependence between the Atlantic-Pacific index and the probabilistic behavior of extreme rainfall was also explored for simulations from two global coupled General Circulation Models for the 20th century climate (20C3M experiment and the 21st century climate (SRES A2 experiment: the Echam5 model and the HadCM3 model. A significant dependence of extreme rainfall on the Atlantic-Pacific index is well described by the GEV dynamic model for the Echam5 20C3M experiment model outputs. When looking at future climates under the SRES A2 experiment, the dependence of extreme rainfall from the API index is still significant for the middle part of the 21st century (2046-2064, while this dependence fades off for the latest part of the century (2081-2099

  12. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  13. Two new bairdiid ostracod species from the early Barremian-Hauterivian of the northern and central North Sea to the Atlantic margin off Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayress, Michael; Gould, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Two new species of bairdiid Ostracoda are described from the lower Barremian - Hauterivian interval of the Valhall and Åsgard formations in the northern and central North Sea and Atlantic margin off Norway. The new species are Pontocyprella valhalla (lsid:zoobank.org:act:CA6B273F-CFF6-4C38-B9F4-18188225A711, 18 January 2018) and Bairdia asgarda (lsid:zoobank.org:act:4A4DC817-A028-45FB-9287-ABF3794F2FCB, 18 January 2018). These species dominate the ostracod assemblage that occurs abundantly in early Barremian-Hauterivian deep marine sediments of the northern and central North Sea and Haltenbanken area off Norway. Pontocyprella valhalla is restricted to this interval and because of its large size and distinct shape is a useful stratigraphic marker species, its last appearance being within the early Barremian.

  14. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX I.- Julio de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A

    2001-09-15

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  15. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - May-June of 2003; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX I.- Mayo-Junio de 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Camacho V, B.; Rodriguez A, F

    2003-09-15

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  16. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the clinical north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - December of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica a la clinica hospital central norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX. IV.- Diciembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F

    2002-01-15

    The clinical north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  17. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II. - August of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX II.- Agosto de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-10-15

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)0.

  18. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the north central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III. - September of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX III.- Septiembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-12-15

    The north central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  19. Forty-two years of change in an old-growth and second-growth beech-maple forest of north central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie R. Pinheiro; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected in 1964 and 2006, we examined changes in the composition and structure of a second-growth and old-growth beech-maple forest of Crall Woods, located in Ashland County of north central Ohio. Over the 42 years, the old-growth forest (estimated to be at least 250 years old) experienced a significant shift in species composition as American beech,...

  20. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the most important yellow fever and dengue virus vectors in most of the world. Although Ae. aegypti prefer- entially...EVALUATION OF SIX MOSQUITO TRAPS FOR COLLECTION OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS AND ASSOCIATED MOSQUITO SPECIES IN A SUBURBAN SETTING IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA1 D...F. HOEL,1 D. L. KLINE2 AND S. A. ALLAN2 ABSTRACT. We compared 6 adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban

  1. Preventing animal-to-human pandemics in Sri Lanka | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... Mobile technology detects, prevents disease outbreaks in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, mobile phones are now much more than just a way to stay in touch or check the Internet. View moreMobile technology detects, prevents disease outbreaks in Sri Lanka ...

  2. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: VIOLENCE, URBAN AREAS, DISPLACED PERSONS, INDIA, Poverty, SOUTH ASIA, SRI LANKA, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, Gender. Region: India, Sri Lanka, United Kingdom. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 547,600.00. Study of State of Democracy and Governance in Sri Lanka. Project.

  3. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  4. [Establishment of medians for maternal serum markers in Down's syndrome screening during the second trimester of pregnancy in north-central region of Jiangxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Liu, Yanqiu; Ma, Pengpeng; You, Xueyun; Yuan, Huizhen

    2017-07-28

    To establish the median databases of serum markers for Down's syndrome screening during the second trimester of pregnancy women in the north-central area of Jiangxi Province.
 Methods: Time-resolved fluorometry was used to detect the serum contents of AFP free β-hCG and uE3 in 57 548 pregnant women during 15-20 gestational weeks. Risk evaluation was conducted by LifeCycle 4.0. SAS 9.2 software was used to establish a model of the median fitted equation. The newly constructed median system was used to reassess the risk of Down's syndrome development in pregnant women.
 Results: The medianand built in medianof north-central region in Jiangxi Province are significantly different (Z=2.201, P=0.028). The relationship between the median of the triple index and the gestational age was analyzed by the weight regression model. The relationship between the MoM value and the weight was used to calculate the reciprocal model. The median of the new system was more efficiency than the built in median. In the median of the new system than the reference, the detection rate improved from 62.75% to 72.55%, false positive rate reduced by 5.84% to 4.94%.
 Conclusion: The newly constructed median system is suitable for Down's syndrome screening in the north-central region of Jiangxi Province.

  5. Controls of late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic extension in the British Isles: evidence from seismic reflection data in the Central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.; Cameron, T. D. J.

    2009-04-01

    Controls of late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic extension in the British Isles: evidence from seismic reflection data in the Central North Sea. Kevin Smith (1) and Don Cameron (2) (1) British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA. (ksm@bgs.ac.uk). (2) British Geological Survey, 376 Gilmerton Road, Edinburgh, EH17 7QS. In the area of the British Isles during the late Devonian and early Carboniferous, the oblique convergence of Laurentia and Gondwana imposed a torque on the adjoining terranes of Baltica and Avalonia. Their resulting clockwise rotation was accommodated by widely distributed N-S extension in the intervening zones previously formed by Caledonian and Acadian convergence. South of Laurentia and Baltica, late Palaeozoic extension was focused (1) at terrane margins, (2) in areas of limited Caledonian-Acadian plutonism, and (3) in places where the western (Iapetus) and eastern (Tornquist) convergence zones intersect at a high angle. One of these latter areas lies in Central England immediately north of the Midland Microcraton (part of Eastern Avalonia), where thermal subsidence associated with early Carboniferous extension gave rise to the late Carboniferous Pennine Basin. Interpretation of an extensive set of 3D and 2D long-offset seismic reflection data suggests that a similar area of enhanced extension at a fold belt intersection lies to north of the Mid North Sea High in the middle of the Central North Sea. Variscan uplift and inversion of the late Palaeozoic basins began to predominate in mid-Carboniferous times as final amalgamation of all the different terranes to form Pangaea curtailed the initial episode of extension and thermal subsidence. This change in the tectonic regime was associated with the onset of tholeiitic volcanism within the convergence zones, and was followed by localised extension during the earliest Permian. Evidence obtained from seismic interpretation of the deep structure of the UK sector of the Central

  6. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  7. Climate change and agriculture in Sri Lanka; a Ricardian valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sungno Niggolseo [Yale Univ., School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Mendelsohn, Robert [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Munasinghe, Mohan [Munasinghe Inst. for Development (MIND), Colombo (Sri Lanka); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This paper measures climate change impacts on Sri Lankan agriculture using the Ricardian method. The model examines the net revenue per hectare of the four most important crops in the country. The limited range of temperature variation allows only a simple test of temperature impacts, but the greater range of precipitation across the country distinguishes more complex precipitation effects. We then examine the impacts of the climate predictions of five AOGCM models and two simple uniform change scenarios for Sri Lanka. The impacts of rainfall increases are predicted to be beneficial to the country as a whole in all five AOGCM scenarios, but temperature increases are predicted to be harmful. Nationally, the impacts vary from -11 billion rupees (-20 per cent) to +39 billion rupees (+72 per cent) depending on the climate scenarios. With warming, the already dry regions (the Northern and Eastern provinces), are expected to lose large portions of their current agriculture, but the cooler regions (the central highlands), are predicted to remain the same or increase their output. The paper reconfirms that climate change damages could be large in tropical developing countries, but highly dependent on the actual climate scenario. (Author)

  8. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro extracts with high polar components, consistent with extraction from S-rich Type IIs organic matter which could generate hydrocarbons at low thermal maturity. Low Fe-sulfide mineral abundance and comparison of Pr/Ph ratios between saturate and whole extracts suggest limited Fe concentration resulted in sulfurization of organic matter during early diagenesis. From these observations, we infer that a Type IIs kerogen in ‘immature’ bituminous marl at Madr could be generating high sulfur viscous oil which is seeping from outcrop. However, oil-seep samples were not collected for correlation studies. Aluminum-normalized trace element concentrations indicate enrichment of redox sensitive trace elements Mo, U and V and suggest anoxic-euxinic conditions during sediment deposition. The bulk of organic matter observed via optical microscopy is strongly fluorescent amorphous bituminite grading to lamalginite, possibly representing microbial mat facies. Short chain n-alkanes peak at C14–C16 (n-C17/n-C29 > 1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2

  9. Pyrenean hyper-extension : breaking, thinning, or stretching of the crust ? A view from the central north-Pyrenean zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Bajolet, Flora; Boulvais, Philippe; Boutin, Alexandre; Clerc, Camille; Delacour, Adélie; Deschamp, Fabien; Ford, Mary; Fourcade, Serge; Gouache, Corentin; Grool, Arjan; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Lemirre, Baptiste; Monié, Patrick; de Parseval, Philippe; Poujol, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The geology of the North Pyrenean Zone in the central Pyrenees allows for the observation in the field of the entire section of the Pyrenean rift, from the mantle to the crust and the Mesozoic cover (pre, syn and post rift). The good knowledge we have of the pre-Alpine history of the Pyrenees allows us to properly constrain the Alpine geological evolution of the pre-Triassic rocks which record both Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles. The mantle outcrop as kilometric to centimetric fragments of peridotite dispersed within a carbonate metamorphic breccia. The study of peridotite serpentinisation shows several events of low-temperature serpentinisation, in contact with seawater. In some locallities, we can observe a mixture of fragments of variously serpentinized peridotites. This suggests a tectonic context where fragments of peridotites from different structural levels were sampled more or less synchronously. The granulitic basement is characterized by a Variscan syndeformational HT event (300-280 Ma). So far we have not found any trace of a Cretaceous HT event (> 500°C). On the other hand, the basement is affected by a regional metasomatism that began during the Jurassic and became more spatially focused with time until it was restricted to the Pyrenean rift during the Aptien, Albian and Cenomanian. The talc-chlorite metasomatism (120-95 Ma) shows an evolution from a static toward a syn-deformation hydrothermal event, under a more or less normal geothermal gradient. Extensional deformation is recorded by the reworking of several inherited low-angle Variscan tectonic contacts, but also by dispersed high-angle extensional shear zones formed under greenshist conditions. The metamorphic Mesozoic cover of the basement massifs, which constitute the so-called Internal Metamorphic Zone, is an allochtonous unit made of lenses of Mesozoic rocks enclosed into the breccia, which locally contains peridotite and basement clasts. The Mesozoic metamorphic carbonates show a first

  10. Progress report on sediment analyses at selected faunal monitoring sites in north-central and northeastern Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T.M.; Means, G.H.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    Florida Bay is a shallow, subtropical lagoon at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. The 2200 square kilometer, triangular-shaped area is the site of modern carbonate sediment formation and deposition. The intricate ecosystem of the bay has undergone significant changes as the result of natural influences and human intervention. The purpose of this study is to investigate carbonate sediment characteristics and distribution in conjunction with faunal and floral to determine the substrate preferences of associated fauna and flora. The modern data provide the proxy data for down-core analyses of sediments, fauna and flora in order to document ecosystem changes in the bay. Selected sediment samples collected during 1996 from 18 sites in the northeastern and central bay were analyzed for insoluble residues, organic content, total carbonate, and percent of silt and clay sized particles. Insoluble residues range from 0.8% of the sediment in a shell lag to 11.5% with an average of 5.1%. Organic content ranged from a minimum of 1.43% of the sediment to 18.05% with an average of 7.6%. The total carbonate content ranged from 72.56% to 97.81%, averaging 87.98%. The percent silt and clay sized particles ranged from 13.75% to 63.62% for the samples analyzed. The insoluble residue content shows a general trend of decreasing insoluble residues from the northeastern bay toward the southwest. Organic content is variable throughout the bay and does not show a regional trend. Several sites show a trend of higher organic content in the samples collected in February as compared to those collected in July. Lithologic examination indicated that, in addition to the carbonate mud (less than 63mm), sample components included whole and fragmented mollusks, foraminifers, bryozoans, ostracods, and organic matter. The insoluble residues consisted of quartz sand and silt, clays and siliceous fossils. A component of the insoluble residues may be dust derived from Africa and transported to

  11. Trace elements and radioactivity measurements in some terrestrial food crops in Jos-plateau, north central, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N.N.; Agomuo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Some crops of important nutritive requirements have been collected from farmlands located in Bitsichi an old tin mining town in north central region of Nigeria. The food crops were analyzed in order to determine trace element concentrations level using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The activity concentrations due to natural radionuclides in the food samples and soil samples collected within the root zone of the crops were also determined using gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). The NAA results obtained showed higher concentration of Potassium among the essential elements in all the crops. Calcium concentration in both maize and Guinea corn was below detection limit and also Zn in Green beans, sweet potato and cassava. The trace elements; Sc, Hf, Sm, and Th, were below detection limit in all the crops except in Green beans. Rubidium (Rb) and lanthanum (La) were below detection limits only in Cabbage. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the food samples were found to vary between 83 and 129 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, 19 and 30 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra and 27 to 41 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th. In the soil samples the activity concentrations varied between 177 and 271 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, 53 and 96 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra and 73 to 176 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th. Results of activity concentration levels of the radionuclides obtained in similar crops collected for control measurements were found to be very low compared to those from the study area. The effective dose due to intake of the food crops considered in the study area was estimated based on the measured activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in the food crops. It was found to vary between 0.01 mSv y -1 (Acha) and 1.35 mSv y -1 (Cassava) with a cumulative total dose estimated as 2.5 mSv y -1 . The mining activities in the area are seen to have 1 influenced the concentration of these trace elements and radionuclides in the food I crops. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to

  12. Reconnaissance of the Pigeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pigeon River is one of Michigan's outstanding trout streams and is the favorite of a large number of anglers who return year after year. Camping is also popular and is usually, but not always, associated with fishing. Boating is very rare on the Pigeon because of numerous portages around log jams. Cabin-living and resorting are relatively minor on this river as yet, but much of the private river front may be developed in future years.The Pigeon is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan (see index map). Headwaters are a few miles northeast of Gaylord, and the mouth is at Mullet Lake, a few miles northeast of Indian River. Interstate Highway 75 roughly parallels the river about 5 to 10 miles to the west. Exits from this highway at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River, provide easy access to the Pigeon.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel, and bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics, and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in June, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem of the Pigeon from source to

  13. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  14. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  15. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼ 179 Ma and ∼ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial ɛNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  17. Predicting injection related changes in seismic properties at Kevin Dome, north central Montana, using well logs and laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, S.; Bonner, B. P.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic monitoring (4D) is currently the primary technique available for tracking sequestered CO2 in a geologic storage reservoir away from monitoring wells. The main seismic responses to injection are those due to direct fluid substitution, changes in differential pressure, and chemical interactions with reservoir rocks; the importance of each depends on reservoir/injection properties and temporal/spatial scales of interest. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, we are monitoring the upcoming large scale (1 million ton+) CO2 injection in Kevin Dome, north central Montana. As part of this research, we predict the relative significance of these three effects, as an aid in design of field surveys. Analysis is undertaken using existing open-hole well log data and cores from wells drilled at producer and injector pads as well as core experiments. For this demonstration site, CO2 will be produced from a natural reservoir and re-injected down dip, where the formation is saturated with brine. Effective medium models based on borehole seismic velocity measurements predict relatively small effects (less than 40 m/s change in V¬p) due to the injection of more compressible supercritical CO2. This is due to the stiff dolomite reservoir rock, with high seismic velocities (Vp~6000 m/s, Vs~3000 m/s) and fairly low porosity (<10%). Assuming pure dolomite mineralogy, these models predict a slight increase in Vp during CO2 injection. This velocity increase is due to the lower density of CO2 relative to brine; which outweighs the small change in modulus compared to the stiff reservoir rock. We present both room pressure and in-situ P/T ultrasonic experiments using core samples obtained from the reservoir; such measurements are undertaken to access the expected seismic velocities under pressurized injection. The reservoir appears to have fairly low permeability. Large-volume injection is expected to produce large local pore pressure increases, which may

  18. Abyssopelagic fauna in the central North Pacific: comparison of acoustic detection and trawl and baited trap collections to 5800 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. L.; Kaufmann, R. S.; Edelman, J. L.; Baldwin, R. J.

    1992-04-01

    An integrated study using an acoustic array, opening-closing trawl and baited traps was conducted at an abyssal station in the central North Pacific (31°N, 159°W) to further characterize the near-bottom community. Two split-beam line arrays with beam patterns narrow in the vertical and omnidirectional in the horizontal were moored at 100 and 600 m above bottom (mab), sampling an insonified volume of 7855 m 3 each. In addition, a multiple opening-closing trawl (10 m 2 mouth opening) and baited traps were used to sample the fauna up to 1800 mab. Fourteen deployments of the acoustic arrays during two cruises detected 26 targets, with twice as many at 100 mab as at 600 mab (2.10 vs 0.97 targets h -1). Backscatter strengths for acoustic targets ranged from -57.2 to -26.8 dB. A total of 31 species, at least eight previously undescribed, were identified from trawl and trap collections within 1800 m of the sea floor. Of these new species, four of the decapod genus Hymenodora and one eel, Monognathus rosenblatti, were the most abundant animals collected by trawl. Other species commonly collected in baited traps included Acanthephyra quadrispinosa (Crustacea, Decapoda), Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea, Amphipoda), and Coryphaenoides yaquinae (Osteichthyes, Macrouridae). Acoustic target abundances ranged from 0 to 1.6 animals per 10 5 m 3 per deployment, while values measured with the trawl ranged from 1.4 to 11.9 animals per 10 5 m 3. Biomass of the acoustic targets, estimated using a tentative identification based on size, and a series of regressions based on target strength and animal length and weight, ranged from 0 to 72.3 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. Biomass estimates from the trawl samples ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. The large number of new species collected during this study and the variability in sampling sparse populations using three different sampling techniques illustrate how little we know about the abyssopelagic community.

  19. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  20. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  1. Strategic Role of Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora in Promoting Separatism in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Lankan government’s mono-ethnic armed forces and ensure their speedy reunification with their families ; to ensure the return of the thousands of Tamils...Intelligence Service CTC Canadian Tamil Congress EU European Union FACT Federation of Associations of Canadian Tamils GoSL Government of Sri...permanently migrated to Sri Lanka in large numbers with their families and largely settled down in the hill country areas. The mass arrival of Southern

  2. Sri Lanka : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ces dernières, en effet, ont privilégié les cultures de rente et les céréales comme le riz et le blé. Date de début : 1 mars 2011. End Date: 1 septembre 2014 ... Région: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé.

  3. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen and other data profiles from CTD and bottle casts from NOAA/NMFS cruises of NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell in the central north Pacific, 1997-2002 (NODC Accession 0100295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains measurements from CTD hydrocast stations from seven cruises of NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell in the central north Pacific from 1997 to 2002...

  4. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  5. A Prescription Survey from Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A sample of 200 handwritten outpatient prescriptions were collected from two pharmacies located in a sub-urban (Aluthgama) and an urban (Kandy) area in Sri Lanka. Data were extracted using a pilot-tested questionnaire and the legibility of the prescription was assessed by three independent investigators.

  6. Sri Lanka | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When we began work in Sri Lanka in 1973, our initial focus was to improve farming practices. For example, a new rice cropping system that harnessed monsoon rains increased yields more than three-fold in four years. This innovation was widely adopted by farmers. Urban agriculture has also been a priority. As part of a ...

  7. New opportunities for aquaculture in Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    disappearance of jobs, and abandoning of farms. In order to support the development of location- specific better management practices to address past problems, researchers from Sri Lanka and. Canada have examined how knowledge is used and shared in the shrimp farming sector. Oyster farming has been attempted ...

  8. A Holocene lacustrine record in the central North Atlantic: proxies for volcanic activity, short-term NAO mode variability, and long-term precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Svante; Rittenour, Tammy; Rosén, Peter; França, Zilda; Möller, Per; Snowball, Ian; Wastegård, Stefan; Bennike, Ole; Kromer, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Lake and peat corings on three Azores islands in the central North Atlantic, resulted in the discovery of a 6000 year long lacustrine sequence in a small crater lake, Lake Caveiro, on the island of Pico. This island is dominated by Pico mountain (2351 m), Portugal's highest mountain, and the lake site is situated at 903 m asl. Two sediment profiles, one central and one littoral, were sampled. Due to large facial shifts and disconformities in the littoral cores the analyses were concentrated on the central core; only the earliest 1000 years of the littoral core were studied to complement the central profile. We used sedimentology, geochemistry, diatom analyses, magnetic properties, and multivariate statistics, together with 14C and 210Pb dating techniques, to analyse the environmental history of the lake. Volcanic activity seems to have had a dominating impact on sediment changes and partly also on the diatom assemblages; a large number of tephras are found and seem to be connected with large (diatom) inferred pH variations. However, by a combination of methods, including multivariate techniques, we infer that precipitation changes can be detected through the volcanic noise. In the youngest part of the record (AD 1600-2000), with its decadal resolution, these humidity variations seem partly related to shifts in dominating NAO mode. The more long-term precipitation changes further back in time (350-5100 cal yr BP) roughly correspond to the well-known North Atlantic drift-ice variations as well as other North Atlantic records; low precipitation during drift-ice periods. We think these alterations were driven by changes in the thermohaline circulation as large-scale equivalences to the Great Salt Anomaly; low sea surface temperatures and changes in circulation patterns of the central North Atlantic decreased the regional precipitation. Cooler/drier periods occurred 400-800, 1300-1800, 2600-3000, 3300-3400 and possibly also 4400-4600 cal yr BP, while 300-400, 900

  9. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  10. Assessing the Spatial-Temporal Land use Change and Encroachment Activities Due to Flood Hazard in North Coast of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Setyo Hartanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Demak is known as the second largest region suffering land use change in Java’s North Coast. The topographic condition in downstream affects this area becomes susceptible with flood hazard. This research aims to assess the interactions between flooding, land use change and encroachment activities in Mijen and Wedung sub districts, Demak region, Central Java, Indonesia. This research combines the Driving Force, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR analysis. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood of time series Landsat images (2000, 2009 and 2014 was chosen for land cover analysis. The land use change shows that paddy field area descended almost 6%, mangrove forest fall 79% meanwhile settlement grown up almost double in 2000-2014. The result of overall accuracy assessment is 78.23%. The DPSIR result shows that land use change not too affect the flood events but floods influence land use pattern in north and south area of Mijen and Wedung.

  11. The 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift System, central North America: sedimentology of two deep boreholes, Lake Superior region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.

    2002-03-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of central North America is a 1.1-Ga, 2500-km long structural feature that has been interpreted as a triple-junction rift developed over a mantle plume. As much as 20 km of subaerial lava flows, mainly flood basalts, are overlain by as much as 10 km of sedimentary rocks that are mostly continental fluvial red beds. This rock sequence, known as the Keweenawan Supergroup, has been penetrated by a few deep boreholes in the search for petroleum. In this paper, two deep boreholes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are described in detail for the first time. Both the Amoco Production #1-29R test, herein referred to as the St. Amour well, and the nearby Hickey Creek well drilled by Cleveland Cliffs Mining Services, were 100% cored. The former is 7238 ft (2410 m) deep and the latter is 5345 ft (1780 m) deep. The entirety of the stratigraphic succession of the Hickey Creek core correlates very well with the upper portion of the St. Amour core, as determined by core description and point-counting of 43 thin sections selected out of 100 studied thin sections. Two Lower Paleozoic units and two Keweenawan red bed units—the Jacobsville Sandstone and the underlying Freda Sandstone—are described. The Jacobsville is largely a feldspatholithic sandstone and the Freda is largely a lithofeldspathic sandstone. Below the Freda, the remaining footage of the St. Amour core consists of a thick quartzose sandstone unit that overlies a heterogenous unit of intercalated red bed units of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale; black shale; individual basalt flows; and a basal ignimbritic rhyolite. This lower portion of the St. Amour core presents an enigma, as it correlates very poorly with other key boreholes located to the west and southwest. While a black shale sequence is similar to the petroleum-bearing Nonesuch Formation farther west, there is no conglomerate unit to correlate with the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. Other key boreholes are

  12. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  13. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  14. Effects of air-sea coupling over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea on simulated summer precipitation over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Hagemann, Ha Thi Minh; Gröger, Matthias; Rockel, Burkhardt; Zahn, Matthias; Geyer, Beate; Meier, H. E. Markus

    2017-12-01

    This study introduces a new approach to investigate the potential effects of air-sea coupling on simulated precipitation inland over Central Europe. We present an inter-comparison of two regional climate models (RCMs), namely, the COSMO-CLM (hereafter CCLM) and RCA4 models, which are configured for the EURO-CORDEX domain in the coupled and atmosphere-only modes. Two versions of the CCLM model, namely, 4.8 and 5.0, join the inter-comparison being almost two different models while providing pronouncedly different summer precipitation simulations because of many changes in the dynamics and physics of CCLM in version 5.0. The coupling effect on the prominent summer dry bias over Central Europe is analysed using seasonal (JJA) mean statistics for the 30-year period from 1979 to 2009, with a focus on extreme precipitation under specific weather regimes. The weather regimes are compared between the coupled and uncoupled simulations to better understand the mechanism of the coupling effects. The comparisons of the coupled systems with the atmosphere-only models show that coupling clearly reduces the dry bias over Central Europe for CCLM 4.8, which has a large dry summer bias, but not for CCLM 5.0 and RCA4, which have smaller dry biases. This result implies that if the atmosphere-only model already yields reasonable summer precipitation over Central Europe, not much room for improvement exists that can be caused by the air-sea coupling over the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. However, if the atmosphere-only model shows a pronounced summer dry bias because of a lack of moisture transport from the seas into the region, the considered coupling may create an improved simulation of summer precipitation over Central Europe, such as for CCLM 4.8. For the latter, the benefit of coupling varies over the considered timescales. The precipitation simulations that are generated by the coupled system COSTRICE 4.8 and the atmosphere-only CCLM 4.8 are mostly identical for the summer mean

  15. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddawela, Devika; Vithana, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda; Atapattu, Dhilma; Wijekoon, Lanka

    2018-03-06

    Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study. A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania amastigote from the slit skin smear. A structured questionnaire was used to identify exposure related risk factors and a clinical examination was performed to identify lesion characteristics. Out of 509 clinical cases, 41.5% (n = 211) were smear positive. The study population ranged from ages 1 to 80 years (mean age = 34.76) and the most affected age group was 40-49. Of the smear positives, 58.85% were males. Majority (47.86%) were from the North Western region (Kurunegala) of the country and were exposed to scrub jungles. Sand fly exposure (p = 0.04) and positive contact history (p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for smear positivity. Erythema (p = 0.02), lack of pruritus (p = 0.02) and scaly appearance (p = 0.003) were significant lesion characteristics in smear positivity. Lesions were commonly found in the exposed areas and the commonest morphological type was papulo-nodular. An increasing trend in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic to non-endemic areas has become evident. Positive contact history and sandfly exposure

  16. An Approach to assess the Urban Management Performance of Municipalities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani Ranasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization tends bring out a number of problems, such as inadequate housing and urban services, increase land prices and construction costs, propagation of slums, pollution and deterioration of the urban environment. Currently, spatial development activities focusing on major cities of Sri Lanka are demanding urban infrastructure and services where municipalities are facing challenges on provision of the infrastructure and proper urban management too. This study seeks to identify the relevant criteria, indicators and a method for assessing the urban management performance of municipalities in Sri Lanka since specific measurement criteria and related indicators are not yet identified to evaluate urban management by the central government or local government levels. Based on Literature review, five criteria and 25 indicators were selected considering their applicability for the context of Sri Lanka. The Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator Method (FPPSI was applied to synthesize indicators and the Synthetic indicator has been used to show the performance of each criterion in terms of urban service delivery. Colombo Municipal Council (CMC, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Municipal Council (SJKMC and Moratuwa Municipal Council (MMC have been selected as the case studies for this research. Although selected cases are within Colombo Metropolitan Region, none of the municipalities were achieved the “High” or “Very High” level of synthetic indicator (SR>= 0.50 that shows the standard of municipal service delivery of Sri Lanka as a whole. This research lays the platform to evaluate the functional performance of Municipal Councils to guide the future scenario and to make decisions at the grass root level for managing the urbanization related issues in the country. Also this research helps the government to know the current trends of development impact and to take necessary policy level decisions to guide the economic growth in a correct

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF E.U. INTEGRATION ON THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS NORTH-EAST OF ROMANIA, SUBCARPATHIA OF POLAND AND CENTRAL SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of some notable development differences in EU at interstate and interregional level imposed the elaboration of a regional development policy aimed at reducing such disparities. The financial assistance provided by the EU is to help the underdeveloped regions. In this article we highlight the overall level of development and its evolution in Romania, Poland and Slovakia, at regional level, in the context of EU accession. Our attention will be focused on the North-East region of Romania, achieving a comparative analysis with two other similar regions from Poland and Slovakia: Subcarpathia and Central Slovakia, respectively.

  18. Changing demography of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, S

    1986-06-01

    The point to be made in this article about the changing demography of Sri Lanka is that demographic conditions (an older population and growth rate of 1.6) are favorable for economic growth. Planning for economic growth is demonstrated in discussing trends and their relationship to economic development rather than providing a macroeconomic analysis. The 1st demographic characteristic of importance is the age structure of the population, which identifies labor force potential, dependents, and those not economically active in order to calculate required social services. Consumer expenditure patterns are affected, as well as educational costs. The rapid mortality decline of the 1940's and the high fertility up to the 1960's created a broad based age structure that swelled student populations and labor force (unemployment). The 1980's is marked by 39% 15 years in 1981 versus 35% in 1971, and 6.4$ 60 years in 1981 versus 6.6% in 1971. Anticipated trends based on either 2.1, 2.5, or 2.9 children/mother indicate that the population structure would remain the same except for those 0-14 years. This amounts to 20-21.3 million by 2001 and 5.5-6.7 million 15 years. Economic planning is affected by the following age groups: preschoolers, school age children, working population, and old age population. A gradual decline in preschoolers would eventually lead to a 9% population versus a 13% in 2001. 23% of the current population of 5-14 year olds will decrease after 1996 with slow or medium growth to 19-21%. The next 2 decades will experience a swelling of the working age population from 9.56 million to 12.7 million, which was 15 years ago the total population figure. The rate change is from 58.2% to 60-63%. By 2001 the 60 year old population will be 9% (1.8 million) or equal to those 5 years. Attention, thus, needs to be paid to the equitability of distribution of services and improvement in quality rather than expansion. New jobs need to be created to prevent high unemployment

  19. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2016-04-01

    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand

  20. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1 is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017 is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447.

  1. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Wang, Dongxiao; Priyadarshana Gamage, Tilak; Zhou, Fenghua; Madusanka Widanage, Charith; Liu, Taiwei

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1) is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017) is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447).

  2. Groundwater governance in Sri Lanka: lessons from around the world. Keynote address

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Tushaar

    2013-01-01

    In International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Groundwater Governance in Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 15 August 2013. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI).

  3. Prevalence, patterns, and associations of dyslipidemia among Sri Lankan adults-Sri Lanka Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study in 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Dissanayake, Harsha Anuruddhika; De Silva, S D Neomal; Katulanda, Gaya Wijeweera; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Constantine, Godwin Roger; Sheriff, Rezvi; Matthews, David R

    2018-01-31

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prevalence patterns and determinants of dyslipidemia in Sri Lanka are unkown. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of dyslipidemia among Sri Lankan adults. A nationally representative sample was recruited by multistage random cluster sampling in Sri Lanka Diabetes and Cardiovascular Study, a cross-sectional study. Data collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire, physical examination, anthropometric measurements lipid analysis from take 12-hour fasting blood samples were used. Among 4451 participants 60.5% were women and mean age was 46 years. Mean (standard deviation) total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TGs), and TC/HDLC levels were 206.7 mg/dL (±43.5), 46.8 mg/dL (±10.6), 135.5 mg/dL (±37.6), 121.7 mg/dL (±66.8), and 4.6 (±1.1), respectively. Women had higher mean TC, HDLC, LDLC, and TG values compared to men across all age groups. Mean TC, LDLC, and TGs increased with age in both genders; 77.4% of participants had some form of dyslipidemia. Low HDLC was the commonest type (49.6%) of dyslipidemia. Increasing age, female sex, living in urban sector, high body mass index, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, insufficient physical activity, and smoking were associated with having some form of dyslipidemia. Three in four Sri Lankan adults have some form of dyslipidemia. Physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the leading modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating Observations of the Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    around Sri Lanka Uwe Send and Matthias Lankhorst Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0230 La Jolla, CA 92093-0230...of Bengal. For this, the flow around Sri Lanka is critical since it exchanges salt and freshwater between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea...OBJECTIVES In-situ continuous observations of the boundary current flow around Sri Lanka will be collected over a period of several years. In order

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  6. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; May, Thomas W.; Choijil, J.; Komov, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was to conduct a reconnaissance-level assessment of potential inputs of toxicologically important metals and metalloids to Lake Baikal, Russia, that might originate from mining and urban activities within tributaries of the Selenga River in Mongolia. Samples were collected in triplicate from all sites, then dried, and sieved to <2 mm for analysis by portable X-ray florescence spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after digestion with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. Arsenic, copper, and mercury were greatly elevated in sediment and floodplain soil collected from tributary streams located near two major mining operations. Lead and zinc were moderately elevated in streambed sediment and in floodplain soil obtained from a small tributary in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, but those concentrations were considerably less than probable effects benchmarks. Historical and possibly present mining activities have led to considerable metal contamination in certain tributaries of the Orkhon River in north-central Mongolia; however, metals originating from those sources did not appear to be accumulating in sediments at our downstream-most sampling sites located near the border between Mongolia and Russia.

  7. Depositional environments and stratigraphic architecture of the Late Cretaceous Milk River and Eagle formations, southern Alberta and north-central Montana: relationships to shallow biogenic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payenberg, T. H. D. [Adelaide University, National Centre for Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, SA (Australia); Braman, D. R. [Royal Tyrell Museum of Palaeontology, Drumheller, AB (Canada); Miall, A. D. [Toronto University, Dept. of Geology, ON (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    The Milk River and Eagle formations in southern Alberta and north-central Montana form the core of the first Upper Cretaceous clastic wedge in this part of the Western Interior Foreland Basin. The wedge is a host for shallow biogenic gas in both Canada and the United States. Through a series of detailed sedimentology, palynology and facies models, this paper interprets the depositional environments and stratigraphic architecture during the Santonian and Campanian along the paleo shoreline in these two regions. Seven areas were chosen for study; one in southern Alberta in and around Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park, and six in north-central Montana along the Missouri River and its tributaries. Borehole data were used to get an overall sense of the thickness of the formations in each area. To obtain sub-surface data five cores from the Bearpaw Mountains area were logged, and wireline logs from 2760 wells were integrated into the study. Results of the study are discussed in considerable detail, providing justification for predicting the potential existence for more unconventional reservoirs between the Bearpaw Mountains and the southern Alberta Milk River Gas Pool. 44 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains from the Fox Hills Formation (Maastrichtian): Shoreline and estuarine deposits of the Pierre Sea in south-central North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.; Holland, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although vertebrate fossils, except for fish, are not common in the Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation, amphibian, reptilian, and avian remains have been recovered at several localities in south-central North Dakota from shoreline facies of the retreating Pierre-Fox Hills seaway. This mixed fauna of aquatic, terrestrial, and marine taxa provides insight into the composition of coastal communities and habitats at the interface between the Hell Creek delta and the Western Interior Seaway. The delta-platform aquatic paleocommunity is represented by the efficient swimming salamanders Opistho- trition kayi and Lisserpeton bairdi, the carnivorous soft-shelled turtle "Aspideretes" sensu lato, the underwater piscivorous predator Champsosaurus laramiensis, and the large, predatory crocodile IBorealosuchus. Terrestrial areas were inhabited by the tortoise-like Basilemys and the predatory dinosaurs Tyrannosaurus and cf. Saurornit- holestes. Birds occupied niches in the warm-temperate to subtropical, forested delta platform and shoreline areas. These nonmarine taxa in the Fox Hills Formation indicate that the geographic range of these animals extended to shoreline areas of the Western Interior Seaway. The toxochelyid turtle Lophochelys and the ambush predators Mosasaurus dekayi and IPlioplatecarpus resided in the shallow marine and estuarine habitats. These taxa and marine fish taxa reported earlier indicate that normal marine conditions in south- central North Dakota persisted into the latest Late Cretaceous in comparison with coeval Hell Creek Formation sites more distal from the Western Interior Seaway. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 IN GIANH RIVER IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PART OF VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Anh TUAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and identification of 57 specimens of genus Macropodus Lacépède collected from Gianh River in Quang Binh province in north center region Vietnam. We have classified three species: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758, Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936 was first discovered in the study area and north center region Vietnam.CARACTERISTICA MORFOLOGICĂ PENTRU CLASIFICAREA GENULUI MACROPODUS LACÉPÈDE, 1801 DIN BAZINUL RÂULUI GIANH, REGIUNEA CENTRALĂ DE NORD A VIETNAMULUIAu fost analizate şi identificate 57 de exemplare ale genului Macropodus Lacépède colectate din bazinul râului Gianh, provincia Quang Binh, regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului. Noi am clasificat 3 specii: Macropodus erythropterus (Frey. & Her., 2002, Macropodus opercularis (Linneaeus, 1758 şi Macropodus spechti (Schreitmüller, 1936, descoperite în aria de studiu şi în regiunea centrală de nord a Vietnamului.

  10. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...

  11. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value extraction activities. Major ions and trace metals additionally had lower concentrations in data gathered for this study than in the historical analyses

  12. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatunga, L C; Sinha, D N; Sumanasekera, P; Galapatti, K; Rinchen, S; Kahandaliyanage, A; Mehta, F R; Nishirani Lanka, J D

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  13. Distribution and abundance of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus in the Northeast and Central Atlantic as inferred from the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys 1987-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS is a series of large scale international cetacean line transect surveys, conducted in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001, that covered a large part of the central and eastern North Atlantic. Target species were fin (Balaenoptera physalus, common minke (B. acutorostrata, pilot (Globicephala melas and sei (B. borealis whales. Here we present new estimates of abundance for fin whales from the 2 most recent surveys and analysis of trends throughout the survey period. Fin whales were found in highest densities in the Irminger Sea between Iceland and Greenland. Abundance of fin whales in the survey area of the Icelandic and Faroese vessels (Central North Atlantic was estimated as 19,672 (95% C.I. 12,083-28,986 animals in 1995 and 24,887 (95% C.I. 18,186-30,214 in 2001. The estimates are negatively biased because of whales diving during the passage of vessels, and whales being missed by observers, but these and other potential biases are likely small for this species. The abundance of fin whales increased significantly over the survey period. For all areas combined the estimated annual growth rate was 4%. An estimated annual increase of 10% in the area between Iceland and Greenland was responsible for most of this overall increase in numbers of fin whales in the area. Although high, the estimated rates of increase are not out of bounds of biological plausibility and can thus be viewed as recovery of a depleted population. However, the apparent pattern of population growth and the whaling history in the area indicate that fin whales made a significant recovery during the first half of the 20th century and that the recent observed high growth rates cannot be explained solely by recovery after overexploitation.

  14. Muslims in Post-War Sri Lanka: An Opportunity Lost for Conflict Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Imtiyaz Abdul Razak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-war Sri Lankan conditions among Sri Lanka Muslims, also known as Moors. The article will attempt to argue that state concessions to Muslim political leaders who supported the successive Sri Lanka’s ruling classes from independence through the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in 2009, have meant an isolation of the community from the other two main ethnic communities. The concessions that the Muslim community has won actively helped the Muslim community to be proactive in their religious practices and thus paved the way for exclusive social and political choices. The rise of Islamic movements and mosques in the post-1977 period galvanized Muslims. In time this isolation has been reinforced by socio-religious revival among Muslims whose ethnic identity has been constructed along the lines of the Islamic faith by Muslim elites. Despite this revival it has been clear that the Muslim community has been reluctant to use Islamic traditions and principles for peace building, which could have helped to ease tensions, brought about by the 30 year old ethnic conflict. On the other hand this paper will briefly discuss some reactions from the majority Sinhalese to Islamic revival as well as some issues between the Tamils and Muslims and the reintegration of Muslims in the North. Finally, some pragmatic ways to ease tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims in the greater discipline of conflict resolution are explored using traditions within Islam.

  15. Development of the Sri Lanka Dome and Links to Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K.; Shroyer, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Sri Lanka Dome (SLD) is an upwelling recirculation feature found in the Southwest Monsoon Current that may significantly influence both biological productivity and air-sea interactions in the Bay of Bengal. Here, the twenty-year time series of detrended AVISO satellite absolute dynamic topography is used to track and measure the intensity of the SLD, which shows both a strong seasonal cycle and considerable interannual variability. The dome typically forms in May to the east of Sri Lanka, intensifies through July and August, and migrates to the north and then west before dissipating in September off the coast of northeast Sri Lanka. SLD formation and dissipation, migration path, and magnitude display considerable interannual variability. We also quantify the SLD internal structure using the ARGO float record. The SLD is associated with an elevated pycnocline that is often capped with a fresh surface layer, limiting direct communication of upwelled cold water with the surface. The sea surface temperature response is complex as the subsurface temperature structure is not necessarily monotonic with with height. We also address forcing by remote and local winds and the relation between the SLD and surface heat fluxes through its influence on SST.

  16. Anthropometry and renal size of children suffering under sustained conflict in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehall, John

    2008-11-01

    To measure anthropometry, blood pressure and renal lengths of children in a war torn region of Sri Lanka and compare results with local and international standards. Measurements of 147 Tamil children in Kilinochchi, north-east Sri Lanka, were compared with the World Health Organization standards using Anthro 2005 software in a period of relative peace in December 2005. Renal lengths were measured by ultrasound and compared with Australian and Indian data. 1 2-5 years of age. The weight-to-height ratio for combined sexes revealed 13.9% were children was children was children are stunted and wasted in this older group. Girls are more affected than boys. 3 Renal lengths fell progressively below -2 SD for both age and height when compared with Australian and Indian children. Tamil children in Kilinochchi are more stunted and wasted than others in Sri Lanka, except those in the tea estates. Progressive renal stunting because of under-nutrition may be a mechanism for later disease. The loss of potential for human development can only be addressed by long-term improvement in access to nutrition.

  17. Body image construct of Sri Lankan adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonapienuwala, B L; Agampodi, S B; Kalupahana, N S; Siribaddana, S

    2017-03-31

    “Body image” is more than the visual perception of size and it is probably multidimensional. It is known to influence eating behaviors and self-esteem of adolescents. Although widely studied in developed countries, it has been studied little in Sri Lanka. This study was designed to translate and culturally adapt a tool to assess dimensions of body image in Sri Lankan adolescents. The study was carried out in the Anuradhapura District on school going children in grades nine to eleven. A multidimensional body image questionnaire was translated to Sinhalese language using the nominal group consensus method. The translated version was administered to 278 (114 boys) students after content validation and pre-testing. To assess test-retest reliability, the same questionnaire was administered to the same sample after two weeks. Psychometric properties were assessed using exploratory factor analysis. Three-factor model emerged when dimensions in body image were analysed. Both boys and girls had almost identical factor structure. The three dimensions identified were “affective body image”, “body perception” and “orientation on body size”. All factors had good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.76 and explained more than 56% of the total variance in both sexes. The translated body image questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool which can be used in Sri Lankan adolescents. Both genders had a similar, multidimensional body image construct.

  18. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  19. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  20. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  1. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  2. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  3. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eriyagma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term "Environmental Flows (EF" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  4. Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Patricia Wood

    2003-04-01

    The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing Tien Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late

  5. Humanity at the crossroads: does sri aurobindo offer an alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakuntala A; Singh, Ajai R

    2009-01-01

    may help quieten the turbulences within, which may be a prelude to the quietening of the disturbances without, whether it be physical maladies, cravings (for food, fame, fortune, etc.), destructive competitiveness; or wars, terrorism, ethnic conflicts, communal riots, and the other such social maladies that afflict mankind today. NATION-EGO (FALSE SUBJECTIVISM) AND NATION-SOUL (TRUE SUBJECTIVISM): Sri Aurobindo considers Nation-ego an example of false subjectivism, in which national identity and pride are stressed to prove one's superiority and suppress or exploit the rest. The Nation-soul, as an example of true subjectivism, attempts to capture one's traditional heritage and values in its pristine form, not as a reaction to hurts and angers or as compensation for real or imagined injuries or indignities of the past. WORLD-STATE (FALSE SUBJECTIVISM) AND WORLD-UNION (TRUE SUBJECTIVISM): Similarly, a World-state founded upon the principle of centralization and uniformity, a mechanical and formal unity, is an example of false subjectivism, while a World-union founded upon the principle of liberty and variation in a free and intelligent unity is an example of true subjectivism HUMAN ACTUALIZATION: Even if two human beings are similar, in so far as they are human beings, there is so much diversity between them. Part of the movement towards human self-actualization lies in the fact that this diversity should not be forcibly curbed, as also the realization that beneath all that appears disparate there is an essential unity. Also, man is not the end product of evolution but an intermediate stage between the animal and the divine. Moreover, he is endowed with consciousness that enables him to cooperate with the forces of evolution and speed up and telescope the next stage of evolution.

  6. Humanity at the Crossroads: Does Sri Aurobindo Offer an Alternative?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakuntala A.; Singh, Ajai R.

    2009-01-01

    may help quieten the turbulences within, which may be a prelude to the quietening of the disturbances without, whether it be physical maladies, cravings (for food, fame, fortune, etc.), destructive competitiveness; or wars, terrorism, ethnic conflicts, communal riots, and the other such social maladies that afflict mankind today. Nation-ego (false subjectivism) and Nation-soul (true subjectivism): Sri Aurobindo considers Nation-ego an example of false subjectivism, in which national identity and pride are stressed to prove one's superiority and suppress or exploit the rest. The Nation-soul, as an example of true subjectivism, attempts to capture one's traditional heritage and values in its pristine form, not as a reaction to hurts and angers or as compensation for real or imagined injuries or indignities of the past. World-state (false subjectivism) and World-union (true subjectivism): Similarly, a World-state founded upon the principle of centralization and uniformity, a mechanical and formal unity, is an example of false subjectivism, while a World-union founded upon the principle of liberty and variation in a free and intelligent unity is an example of true subjectivism Human actualization: Even if two human beings are similar, in so far as they are human beings, there is so much diversity between them. Part of the movement towards human self-actualization lies in the fact that this diversity should not be forcibly curbed, as also the realization that beneath all that appears disparate there is an essential unity. Also, man is not the end product of evolution but an intermediate stage between the animal and the divine. Moreover, he is endowed with consciousness that enables him to cooperate with the forces of evolution and speed up and telescope the next stage of evolution. PMID:21836784

  7. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicin...

  8. A Cultural Assessment of the Archeological Resources in the Keystone Lake Project Area, North-Central Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    CENTRAL OKLAHOMA Assembled by Bruce M. Moore Charles D. Cheek, Principal Investigator 46 Iz DTI Arhooia eerhAscae IL ACULTURAL ASSESSMENT OF THE...region. The list was assembled using material on the Coman- che, Kiowa, Caddo, Cheyenne and Missouri River tribes (MRT) of Gilmore (1919). Reviewing ...no memory of either burial (1979, personal communication) and the informants could not be reached later on (while we were responding to the review

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  10. T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  11. Increased Y-chromosome detection by SRY duplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Høgh; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2012-01-01

    Determining fetal sex noninvasively is dependent of a robust assay. We designed a novel SRY assay and combined it with a SRY assay from literature forming a duplex assay with the same fluorescent dye to increase detection of Y-chromosome at low cell-free fetal DNA or chimeric DNA concentrations....

  12. Lõputu sõda Sri Lankal / Agu Karelsohn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karelsohn, Agu

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Sri Lankal aastakümneid kestnud ja umbes 70 000 tapetut nõudnud kodusõjast, kus omavahel võitlevad võimul olevad singalid ja vähemuses olevad ning mässuliste organisatsiooniks Tamili Tiigrid koondunud tamilid. Kaart: Sri Lanka

  13. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  14. Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project. There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. The largest of these, the Nanasala (rural knowledge centres) program, aims to reach 1 000 villages across the nation. Sarvodaya, an early ...

  15. Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project. There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. The largest of these, the Nanasala (rural knowledge centres) program, aims to reach 1 000 villages across the nation. Sarvodaya, an early ...

  16. Sri Lanka: In peace or in pieces? A critical approach to peace education in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the 'two faces of education' through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be.

  17. Indirect elements off neotectonic in Sri Lanka (Ceylon); Elementi indiretti di neotettonica in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, B.

    1998-12-31

    The hydrography of the eastern side of Sri Lanka appears to be entirely different from the opposite side. Actually in the first case the rivers, before reaching the Ocean flow parallel to the main development of the island thus showing two different ways of recent evolution. Besides these rather classical indirect elements of neotectonic, some remarkable elements may be found pointing out a slow and recent lifting of the region, such as meanders more or less embanked at high altitudes and various orders of terraces. All the considerations contained in this study are strictly personal and are referred to a trip to Sri Lanka in the month of September 1996. [Italiano] L`idrografia presente nel settore orientale dello Sri Lanka appare ben diversa da quella del settore opposto. Nel primo caso, infatti, i corsi d`acqua, prima di defluire verso l`oceano, presentano un decorso parallelo allo sviluppo principale dell`isola denunciando due modalita` diverse di evoluzione recente. Accanto a questi elementi indiretti piuttosto classici di neotettonica, se ne rinvengono altri significatiovi che denunciano un lento e recente sollevamento della regione, come meandri piu` o meno incassati a quote elevate e piu` ordini di terrazzi. Tutte le osservazioni contenute nel presente lavoro sono strettamente personali e si riferiscono ad una escursione effettuata nel settembre del 1996 nello Sri Lanka.

  18. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka and formation of the Sri Lanka Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, S.; De Vos, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sri Lanka, a relatively large island (length 440 km; width 225 km), occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. This allows for the Island to interact with the seasonally reversing monsoon currents leading to the the island mass effect and enhanced primary production. We will present elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 4 years to examine the inter-annual, seasonal and shorter term (~10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system, between the equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast (see Figure). During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast resulting from southward flow converging along the south coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water(see Figure). Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and

  19. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the North Central Hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. V. November of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al Hospital Central Norte de alta especialidad, PEMEX. V. Noviembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-01-15

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the North Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of November of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  20. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  1. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare F

    2016-09-01

    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities.

  2. Bridging the gap between North and Central Chile : insight from new GPS data on coupling complexities and the Andean sliver motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E.; Métois, M.; Meneses, G.; Vigny, C.; Delorme, A.

    2018-03-01

    GPS surveys have been extensively used over the past 20 years to quantify crustal deformation associated with the Andean subduction zone in Chile. Such measurements revealed the coupling variations associated with the seismic segmentation of the subduction. However, because of data gaps mostly due to access difficulties, the Atacama-Antofagasta regions of North Chile remain poorly known. We present here an upgraded interseismic velocity field aggregating new data acquired between 2012 and 2016 in the region of Taltal (24° S - 26° S), over a small scale network of 20 benchmarks. This denser data set reveals a new complexity regarding the modelling methodology commonly used. We first show that a large scale rigid Andean sliver, running from central to North Chile, does not allow to explain the velocities measured near the cordillera in the region of Taltal. This region exhibits an additional coherent block motion of almost 8 mm/yr with respect to the inland motion generated by the rotation of the sliver proposed by (e.g. Brooks et al. 2003; Métois et al. 2013, 2014) which works well everywhere else. Second, once this local block motion is taken into account, the coupling in the Taltal area is refined, which brings new insights about the subduction segmentation there. The Taltal area shows as a relative low in coupling (although coupling values are still high), potentially cutting a long section of the subduction into two independent highly coupled segments: the Paranal segment - North of Taltal, between 23° S and 25° S - and the Chañaral segment - south of Taltal, between 26° S and 28° S. These segments may rupture individually with magnitude ˜8 earthquakes or simultaneously which would produce a larger earthquake, especially if a third segment (Atacama - more to the south - between 28° S and 29° S) is also involved.

  3. Cesium-134 and 137 activities in the central North Pacific Ocean after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kameník

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface seawater 134Cs and 137Cs samples were collected in the central and western North Pacific Ocean during the 2 yr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident to monitor dispersion patterns of these radioisotopes towards the Hawaiian Islands. In the absence of other recent sources and due to its short half-life, only those parts of the Pacific Ocean would have detectable 134Cs values that were impacted by Fukushima releases. Between March and May 2011, 134Cs was not detected around the Hawaiian Islands and Guam. Here, most 137Cs activities (1.2–1.5 Bq m–3 were in the range of expected preexisting levels. Some samples north of the Hawaiian Islands (1.6–1.8 Bq m–3 were elevated above the 23-month baseline established in surface seawater in Hawaii indicating that those might carry atmospheric fallout. The 23-month time-series analysis of surface seawater from Hawaii did not reveal any seasonal variability or trends, with an average activity of 1.46 ± 0.06 Bq m–3 (Station Aloha, 18 values. In contrast, samples collected between Japan and Hawaii contained 134Cs activities in the range of 1–4 Bq m–3, and 137Cs levels were about 2–3 times above the preexisting activities. We found that the southern boundary of the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents represented a boundary for radiation dispersion with higher activities detected within and north of the major currents. The radiation plume has not been detected over the past 2 yr at the main Hawaiian Islands due to the transport patterns across the Kuroshio and Kuroshio extension currents.

  4. Towards a phylogenetic approach to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Bustamante, Dulce M; Menes, Marianela; Stevens, Lori; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Rizzo, Donna; Klotz, Stephen A; Schmidt, Justin; Axen, Heather J; Dorn, Patricia L

    2014-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of insect vectors of parasitic diseases are important for understanding the evolution of epidemiologically relevant traits, and may be useful in vector control. The sub-family Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae) includes ∼140 extant species arranged in five tribes comprised of 15 genera. The genus Triatoma is the most species-rich and contains important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Triatoma species were grouped into complexes originally by morphology and more recently with the addition of information from molecular phylogenetics (the four-complex hypothesis); however, without a strict adherence to monophyly. To date, the validity of proposed species complexes has not been tested by statistical tests of topology. The goal of this study was to clarify the systematics of 19 Triatoma species from North and Central America. We inferred their evolutionary relatedness using two independent data sets: the complete nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 ribosomal DNA (ITS-2 rDNA) and head morphometrics. In addition, we used the Shimodaira-Hasegawa statistical test of topology to assess the fit of the data to a set of competing systematic hypotheses (topologies). An unconstrained topology inferred from the ITS-2 data was compared to topologies constrained based on the four-complex hypothesis or one inferred from our morphometry results. The unconstrained topology represents a statistically significant better fit of the molecular data than either the four-complex or the morphometric topology. We propose an update to the composition of species complexes in the North and Central American Triatoma, based on a phylogeny inferred from ITS-2 as a first step towards updating the phylogeny of the complexes based on monophyly and statistical tests of topologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in seasonality and timing of peak streamflow in snow and semi-arid climates of the north-central United States, 1910–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Wiche, Gregg J.; Lin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the seasonality and timing of annual peak streamflow in the north-central USA are likely because of changes in precipitation and temperature regimes. A source of long-term information about flood events across the study area is the U.S. Geological Survey peak streamflow database. However, one challenge of answering climate-related questions with this dataset is that even in snowmelt-dominated areas, it is a mixed population of snowmelt/spring rain generated peaks and summer/fall rain generated peaks. Therefore, a process was developed to divide the annual peaks into two populations, or seasons, snowmelt/spring, and summer/fall. The two series were then tested for the hypotheses that because of changes in precipitation regimes, the odds of summer/fall peaks have increased and, because of temperature changes, snowmelt/spring peaks happen earlier. Over climatologically and geographically similar regions in the north-central USA, logistic regression was used to model the odds of getting a summer/fall peak. When controlling for antecedent wet and dry conditions and geographical differences, the odds of summer/fall peaks occurring have increased across the study area. With respect to timing within the seasons, trend analysis showed that in northern portions of the study region, snowmelt/spring peaks are occurring earlier. The timing of snowmelt/spring peaks in three regions in the northern part of the study area is earlier by 8.7– 14.3 days. These changes have implications for water interests, such as potential changes in lead-time for flood forecasting or changes in the operation of flood-control dams.

  6. A retrospective analysis of environmental risk factors for the diagnosis of deep stromal abscess in 390 horses in North Central Florida from 1991 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietto, Laura R; Plummer, Caryn E; Maxwell, Kathleen M; Lamb, Kenneth E; Brooks, Dennis E

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify potential environmental risk factors for the diagnosis of equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) in the subtropical climate at the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center (UFVMC). Cases included were selected from the UFVMC medical record and imaging database, and included all cases of equine DSA diagnosed during the period from December 1991 to December 2013 in patients residing in north central Florida. Patient date of diagnosis and atmospheric data was obtained for north central Florida for the corresponding time period. Univariate and multivariate general linear models were generated testing effects and interactions between environmental conditions. When year, sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) and wind were analyzed in the presence of each other, a one-mile per hour increase in wind (P = 0.005) significantly increased the number of DSA cases by 1.63 cases per year. When the influence of temperature was evaluated in conjunction with year and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), the number of cases decreased by 0.1534 per year for every degree increase in temperature (°C) (P = 0.039). Wind speed is the first significant atmospheric risk factor to be identified for DSA formation in the horse. The importance of environmental variance in the incidence of DSA indicates that the pathogenesis of DSA formation may be multifactorial, interdependent and provides support in some horses for the micropuncture hypothesis of DSA formation related to the involvement of environmental conditions causing precorneal tear film and epithelial damage. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 in Sri Lanka: its demographic cost, timing, and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Siddharth; Sarathchandra, Dilshani

    2014-05-01

    As an island and a former British colony, Sri Lanka is a case of special interest for the study of 1918-1919 influenza pandemic because of its potential for isolation from as well as integration into the world epidemiologic system. To estimate population loss attributable to the influenza pandemic and weekly district-level excess mortality from the pandemic to analyze its spread across the island. To measure population loss, we estimated a population growth model using a panel of 100 district-level observations on population for five consecutive censuses from 1891 to 1931, allowing for a one-time drop in population in 1918-1919. To estimate weekly excess mortality from the pandemic, we estimated a seasonally adjusted weekly time series of district-specific mortality estimates from vital registration records, ranked them, and plotted the ranks on weekly maps to create a picture of the geographic pattern of propagation across Sri Lanka. Total loss of population from the influenza pandemic was 307 000 or approximately 6·7% of the population. The pandemic peaked in two discrete (northern and southern) regions in early October of 1918 and in a third (central) region in early March 1919. The population loss estimate is significantly higher than earlier estimates of mortality from the pandemic in Sri Lanka, suggesting underreporting of influenza-attributable deaths and a role for influenza-related fertility declines. The spatial pattern of peak mortality indicates the presence of two distinct entry points and three distinct epidemiologic regions, defined by population density and ethnicity, in colonial Sri Lanka. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Diesel IPP is first for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Sian

    1997-10-01

    In December this year, the first of eight diesel powered generating sets will be delivered to the site of Sri Lanka`s first major independent power project (IPP). Sapugaskanda plant is being developed and constructed by a European joint venture new to the IPP market and has won the support of major international investors. The 51 MW installation will provide a much needed injection of power into the hydropower-dominated system, and will serve as an example for further private investment in the country. (Author)

  10. Identifying biomass fuel shortages in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Michael (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Inst. of Development Studies)

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses data from the Sri Lankan Forestry Master Plan and other sources, to explore the causes of biomass shortages, and to identify the areas where interventions are likely to have most impact. Five districts, concentrated in the wet lowland and hill country zones, are found to be in overall biomass fuel deficit whilst in a further five, which include dry zone locations, fuelwood consumption exceeds potential supply, Within the area of overall deficit, poorer urban groups and rural families with no home gardens - who together comprise 15% of all households nationally - are affected most severely. Another 10% of households are likely to suffer to a lesser extent. (author).

  11. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan Jose

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides , Argemone mexicana , and Thevetia peruviana . In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  12. Medicinal Plants from North and Central America and the Caribbean Considered Toxic for Humans: The Other Side of the Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of medicinal plants has notably increased over the past two decades. People consider herbal products as safe because of their natural origin, without taking into consideration whether these plants contain a toxic principle. This represents a serious health problem. A bibliographic search was carried out using published scientific material on native plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, which describe the ethnobotanical and toxicological information of medicinal plants empirically considered to be toxic. A total of 216 medicinal plants belonging to 77 families have been reported as toxic. Of these plants, 76 had been studied, and 140 plants lacked studies regarding their toxicological effects. The toxicity of 16 plants species has been reported in clinical cases, particularly in children. From these plants, deaths have been reported with the consumption of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Argemone mexicana, and Thevetia peruviana. In most of the cases, the principle of the plant responsible for the toxicity is unknown. There is limited information about the toxicity of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. More toxicological studies are necessary to contribute information about the safe use of the medicinal plants cited in this review.

  13. Knowledge and Risk Factors for Glaucoma among Adults in a Rural Community of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Adekunle Durowade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Glaucoma is becoming an increasingly important public health problem and presents a greater public health challenge because the blindness it causes is irreversible. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in Oke-ose community, Kwara State in North-Cental Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study which assessed the knowledge and risk factors for glaucoma among adults in a rural community of Kwara State. The respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. RESULTS: Less than half 94(47.0% respondents were aware of glaucoma. Only 11(5.5% respondents had some knowledge of symptoms and 18(9.0% had knowledge of the risk factors. Socio-economic status, age of respondents and educational status and family history of glaucoma among the respondents significantly influenced the awareness and knowledge of the disease (p<0.05. Among the respondents, a total of 22(11.0% and 37(18.5% were diabetic and hypertensive respectively. Only five (2.5% of respondents had high risk perception of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of risk factors for glaucoma coupled with the poor risk perception and poor knowledge of the disease require urgent community directed eye care interventions to reduce the devastating effects of glaucoma. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 375-380

  14. Comment on: "Morphotectonic records of neotectonic activity in the vicinity of North Almora Thrust Zone, Central Kumaun Himalaya", by Kothyari et al. 2017, Geomorphology (285), 272-286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Naresh; Sharma, Shubhra

    2018-01-01

    The recent paper by Kothyari et al. (2017) suggests that the North Almora Thrust (NAT) and a few subsidiary faults in the central Lesser Himalaya were active during the late Quaternary and Holocene. Considering that in the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) dominated and tectonically active central Himalaya, the landscape owes their genesis to a coupling between the tectonics and climate. The present study would have been a good contribution toward improving our understanding on this important topic. Unfortunately, the inferences drawn by the authors are based on inadequate/vague field observations, supported by misquoted references, which reflects their poor understanding of the geomorphic processes. For example, authors implicate tectonics in the landform evolution without providing an argument to negate the role of climate (ISM). In view of this, the above contribution does not add anything substantial in improving our existing knowledge of climate-tectonic interaction in landform evolution. On the contrary, if the above publication is not questioned for its scientific merit, it may create enormous confusion and proliferation of wrong scientific data and inferences.

  15. APPLICATION OF MODIS DATA TO ASSESS THE LATEST FOREST COVER CHANGES OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Perera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small

  16. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  17. Investigation of Laramide Deformation in North-Central New Mexico and Its Role in Guiding Miocene Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, C. M.; Hamilton, J.; Murphy, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    North-trending Laramide age dextral faults in New Mexico help to explain shortening features along the northern margin of the Colorado Plateau. However, a palinspastic reconstruction of aeromagnetic anomalies that are cut by these dextral faults, do not explain shortening in the Tusas-Brazos uplift suggesting that the geometry of the Laramide structural system needs to be reassessed. We conducted geologic mapping and structural analysis of a series of Laramide asymmetric anticlines as well as Miocene normal faults between the Tusas-Brazos and Nacimento uplift to assess alternative models describing Laramide deformation. The kinematics of Laramide features in Northern New Mexico has been interpreted in multiple conflicting models. One model suggests that Laramide deformation in this region was characterized by several (4-6) large N-S striking faults with net dextral slip estimates ranging from ~55-170km. A second model suggests a hybrid of the two models above, suggesting a counter-clockwise rotation in the maximum shortening direction from E-W to NNE-SSW. The anticlines investigated lie between the north-trending east-vergent Tusas-Brazos uplift and the west-vergent Nacimento uplift. They form an en echelon set of km-scale folds that trend ~N40E and verge to the east and west. The estimated shortening direction from conjugate fractures and lineations are close to agreeing on an orientation of N30E, with conjugates at N10W and N50E. Fracture data throughout the specific areas are not easily explained by east-west extension during Rio Grande rifting but instead correlate to Laramide deformation. The regional fracture pattern suggests a vertically oriented σ2 advocating for a strike-slip deformation regime. Also apparent from the fracture pattern is a possible change in σ1 direction, with both E-W and NNE-SSW possible, though timing is uncertain. Mineral stretching lineations in Proterozoic rocks of the Laramide-uplifted Tusas Mountains display an average NE

  18. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  19. Soft drink consumption in Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nilantha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2012-08-01

    To determine the factors associated with sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption in adolescents from Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study where the data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Government, private and international schools in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Adolescents aged 17 years attending sixty-five schools. Overall 82 % consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks once weekly or more often, while 77 % and 48 % consumed sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and sugar-sweetened fruit drinks once weekly or more often. Being a boy (OR = 1·44; 95 % CI 1·02, 2·03), attending a private/international school (OR = 4·12; 95 % CI 1·94, 8·75), mother's level of education (OR = 1·53; 95 % CI 1·03, 2·28) and father's occupation (middle level: OR = 2·39; 95 % CI 1·63, 3·52; upper level: OR = 2·48; 95 % CI 1·35, 4·56) were independently associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The majority of adolescents in this sample consumed sugar-sweetened beverages once weekly or more often. It was evident that some sociodemographic factors were associated with the consumption of these drinks.

  20. Coastal environmental degradation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patabendi, P. [Partners for Sustainable Development, Hewagama, Kaduwela (Sri Lanka)

    2000-07-01

    The economic importance of Sri Lanka's coastal area has increased with rapid urbanization and the development of commercial harbours. The growth on this small island has resulted in unmistakable signs of environmental stress which manifests itself in the loss of natural forest cover, water pollution, degradation of rural lands and increased levels of air, water and solid waste pollution. The population is projected to reach 25 million by 2030. This will create an unprecedented demand for food, fibre energy, developable land and other natural resources. Pollution and competition for resources has already degraded about half of the shoreline which put sustainable economic development and environmental values at risk. It is estimated that 25,000 metric tonnes of waste is thrown into the oceanic waters each year. The pollutants include oil, garbage and chemicals from industries. In addition, 60 per cent of the sewage from the city of Colombo is dumped into the sea. Coral mining which supplies 90 per cent of the lime for the construction industry is leading to the destruction of reefs serving as natural barriers against tidal waves. In 1996, the government of Sri Lanka began a plan for coast erosion management in which community participation plays a vital role. A coastal conservation education project for school children is set to begin in the near future. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Estimation of global radiation for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, T.D.M.A. (Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka))

    1991-01-01

    There are several formulae that relate global radiation to other climatological parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity, maximum temperature, and average temperature. In this paper a generally accepted modified form of the formula first introduced by Angstrom is used. It relates global radiation to hours of sunshine that have been measured for several years in many of the meteorological stations in Sri Lanka. The annual average of the ratio of the hours of sunshine to the length of the day, i.e., annual average of (S/Z), is found to vary considerably and to lie in the range 0.42-0.66. Fre're et al., have found, using data from many parts of the world, a general graphical representation for the variation of a and b with annual average (S/Z) lying in the range 0.28 to 0.75. This variation of a and b can be expressed as quadratic functions are modified and used to determine a and b values for stations in Sri Lanka.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  3. Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  5. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F.; Phillips, Michael J.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Everett, Kibri H.; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka. PMID:22690185

  6. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  7. The relationship between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and central neck lymph node metastasis in North American patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Sebastian M; Carson, Kathryn A; Pai, Sara I; Agrawal, Nishant; Richmon, Jeremy D; Prescott, Jason D; Dackiw, Alan; Zeiger, Martha A; Bishop, Justin A; Tufano, Ralph P

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have reported that concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is associated with improved prognosis of the PTC, including decreased lymph node metastasis. We sought to assess the incidence of central nodal metastasis (CNM) in patients with PTC and concurrent CLT. We studied 495 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy with nodal excision for PTC. Pathology reports identified the presence of CLT and the extent of CNM. There were 226 patients (46%) with CLT and 220 (44%) with CNM. Patients with CLT were more often female (88% vs. 71%; P CLT was associated with a 39% decreased odds of CNM after adjusting for age, gender, tumor size, PTC histopathologic subtype, and presence of lymphovascular invasion (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.99; P = .046). Predicted probability modeling showed that all females with CLT and no suspicious nodal findings on ultrasonography had a 9-11% risk of CNM with pT1a tumors. Female patients of all ages with CLT and small PTCs have the least incidence of CNM. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Large scale patterns of genetic variation and differentiation in sugar maple from tropical Central America to temperate North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Yalma L; Platt, William J; Urbatsch, Lowell E; Foltz, David W

    2015-11-19

    Geological events in the latter Cenozoic have influenced the distribution, abundance and genetic structure of tree populations in temperate and tropical North America. The biogeographical history of temperate vegetation that spans large ranges of latitude is complex, involving multiple latitudinal shifts that might have occurred via different migration routes. We determined the regional structuring of genetic variation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum) and its only subspecies in tropical America (Acer saccharum subsp. skutchii) using nuclear and chloroplast data. The studied populations span a geographic range from Maine, USA (46°N), to El Progreso, Guatemala (15°N). We examined genetic subdivisions, explored the locations of ancestral haplotypes, analyzed genetic data to explore the presence of a single or multiple glacial refugia, and tested whether genetic lineages are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene or older divergence. Nuclear and chloroplast data indicated that populations in midwestern USA and western Mexico were highly differentiated from populations in the rest of the sites. The time of the most recent common ancestor of the western Mexico haplotype lineage was dated to the Pliocene (5.9 Ma, 95% HPD: 4.3-7.3 Ma). Splits during the Pleistocene separated the rest of the phylogroups. The most frequent and widespread haplotype occurred in half of the sites (Guatemala, eastern Mexico, southeastern USA, and Ohio). Our data also suggested that multiple Pleistocene refugia (tropics-southeastern USA, midwestern, and northeastern USA), but not western Mexico (Jalisco), contributed to post-glacial northward expansion of ranges. Current southern Mexican and Guatemalan populations have reduced population sizes, genetic bottlenecks and tend toward homozygosity, as indicated using nuclear and chloroplast markers. The divergence of western Mexican populations from the rest of the sugar maples likely resulted from orographic and volcanic barriers

  9. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    literature and uses the idea of non-economic gains from regional trading agreements to explain how Sri Lanka managed to use FTAs to neutralise India and obtain military assistance from Pakistan using its FTAs with two countries during the recently concluded war. Findings – Even though political objectives...... were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other...

  10. Relance de l'aquaculture au Sri Lanka | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Aquaculture au Sri Lanka. L'adoption de l'ostréiculture dans deux collectivités côtières du Sri Lanka a donné lieu aux premières exportations d'huîtres du pays. Au Sri Lanka, le gouvernement a pour objectif de doubler la consommation de poisson par personne, de 11 kilos à 22 kilos par année, d'ici à la fin ...

  11. The Under-side of the Andes: Using Receiver Functions to Map the North Central Andean Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project is an interdisciplinary project to investigate connections between lithospheric removal, crustal shortening and surface uplift in the northern Bolivia and southern Peru region of the South American Andean orogen. The central Andes are defined by six major tectonomorphic provinces; the forearc, the volcanically active Western Cordillera (WC, ~6 km elevation), the internally drained Altiplano (~4 km elevation), an inactive fold and thrust belt in the Eastern Cordillera (EC, ~6 km elevation), a lower elevation active fold and thrust belt in the Subandean (SA) zone and the Beni, a foreland basin. Forty seismic stations installed for the CAUGHT project were deployed between 13° and 18° S latitude, covering the transition zone where the Altiplano region pinches out in southern Peru, in an effort to better constrain the changing character of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Geologic studies across the northern Bolivian portion of the eastern Andean margin (15-17° S) have documented a total of 275 km of upper crustal shortening (McQuarrie et al, Tectonics, v27, 2008), which may be associated with crustal thickening and/or the removal of lithospheric material as a thickened lithosphere root becomes unstable. For this receiver function (converted wave) study, we have little coverage in the forearc and foreland, ~75 km spacing in most of the array, and a relatively dense ~20 km spaced profile along the Charaña-La Paz-Yucumo transect, the eastern portion of which is nearly coincident with the balanced cross-section of McQuarrie et al. (2008). Using the first year of available data, more than 1200 receiver functions have been calculated using an iterative deconvolution method, and stacked using the common conversion point (CCP) method, along profiles parallel to and nearly coincident to those used for the geologic shortening estimates. We identified arrivals for the Moho and generated a 3D map of

  12. Craniometric variability of polecat Mustela putorius L. 1758 from North-Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Marinis

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Craniometrical investigation was performed on 53 skulls of the polecat Mustela putorius from Northern and Central Italy (31 males, 17 females and 5 individuals of unknown sex. Sixteen measurements were taken on each specimen. On average males were 15.2% larger than females. Masticatory apparatus exhibited the most significant sex dimorphism. Skull size (PCI greatly contributed to differentiate sexes explaining 80.46% of the total variance. The results are discussed in relation to the existing theories on sexual dimorphism in mustelids. A discriminant function which used only two skull measurements allowed a 100% of correct sex classification. A comparison among Italian and European populations across the entire Palearctic range of the species, provided an overall view of the pattern of geographic variation. Riassunto Variabilità metrica nel cranio della puzzola Mustela putorius L. 1758 nell'Italia centro-settentrionale - Un'indagine sulla variabilità metrica di 16 misure rilevate su crani di puzzola Mustela putorius, è stata condotta su campioni provenienti dall'Italia centro-settentrionale. I maschi risultano in media 15,2% più grandi delle femmine. L'apparato masticatorio è la regione del cranio maggiormente dimorfica. Le dimensioni del cranio (PCI contribuiscono in maniera notevole a differenziare i due sessi, spiegando l'80,46% della varianza totale. I risultati vengono discussi in relazione alle teorie proposte per spiegare l'esistenza del dimorfismo sessuale nei mustelidi. Una funzione discriminante basata sull'uso di due sole misure del cranio, fornisce una corretta classificazione dei sessi nel 100% dei casi. Un confronto tra popolazione italiana e popolazioni europee, distribuite nell'intera regione Paleartica, consente di analizzare nel suo complesso la variazione geografica delle dimensioni considerate nella puzzola.

  13. The Effect of the Leader in Me, a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention System (SW-PBIS), Based on Student Achievement and Office Discipline Referrals for Fifth Grade Students in a Rural Elementary School in North Central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose this study was to examine the implementation of The Leader in Me, a school-wide positive behavior intervention system (SW-PBIS), and analyze its impact on 5th grade students based on student achievement and office discipline referrals in a rural elementary school in North Central Washington state. The school was in the first year of…

  14. Disaster Recovery Framework for Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueen Uddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is the backbone of the entire financial economy of a country. In today’s globalized world, most organizations use online transaction processing systems for transferring money and doing business. Natural or man-made disasters can lead to data loss which in turn can cause millions of dollars of money lost. This study focuses on disaster recovery practices in commercial banks in Sri Lanka. From our preliminary findings, it was concluded that commercial banks only have ad-hoc disaster recovery standards and practices, as there is no standard framework available. Fourteen (14 banks were selected for data collection and relevant authorities were interviewed. The results were translated as qualitative observations to understand the best practices. Similarly, international standards, compliance requirements of the central bank, and existing researches were used to develop a disaster recovery practice framework. The proposed framework was then validated for its efficiency and usefulness among commercial banks and found to be acceptable by the banking industry.  

  15. Structural imprints at the front of the Chocó-Panamá indenter: Field data from the North Cauca Valley Basin, Central Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, F.; Sartori, M.; Neuwerth, R.; Gorin, G.

    2008-11-01

    The northern Andes are a complex area where tectonics is dominated by the interaction between three major plates and accessory blocks, in particular, the Chocó-Panamá and Northern Andes Blocks. The studied Cauca Valley Basin is located at the front of the Chocó-Panamá Indenter, where the major Romeral Fault System, active since the Cretaceous, changes its kinematics from right-lateral in the south to left-lateral in the north. Structural studies were performed at various scales: DEM observations in the Central Cordillera between 4 and 5.7°N, aerial photograph analyses, and field work in the folded Oligo-Miocene rocks of the Serranía de Santa Barbara and in the flat-lying, Pleistocene Quindío-Risaralda volcaniclastic sediments interfingering with the lacustrine to fluviatile sediments of the Zarzal Formation. The data acquired allowed the detection of structures with a similar orientation at every scale and in all lithologies. These families of structures are arranged similarly to Riedel shears in a right-lateral shear zone and are superimposed on the Cretaceous Romeral suture. They appear in the Central Cordillera north of 4.5°N, and define a broad zone where 060-oriented right-lateral distributed shear strain affects the continental crust. The Romeral Fault System stays active and strain partitioning occurs among both systems. The southern limit of the distributed shear strain affecting the Central Cordillera corresponds to the E-W trending Garrapatas-Ibagué shear zone, constituted by several right-stepping, en-échelon, right-lateral, active faults and some lineaments. North of this shear zone, the Romeral Fault System strike changes from NNE to N. Paleostress calculations gave a WNW-ESE trending, maximum horizontal stress, and 69% of compressive tensors. The orientation of σ1 is consistent with the orientation of the right-lateral distributed shear strain and the compressive state characterizing the Romeral Fault System in the area: it bisects the

  16. Operational Prediction of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Distribution for Neon Flying Squid in Central North Pacific by Using FORA Dataset and a New Data Assimilation System SKUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, H.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wakamatsu, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishikawa, S.; Nishikawa, H.; Kamachi, M.; Kuragano, T.; Takatsuki, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Usui, N.; Toyoda, T.; Hirose, N.; Sakai, M.; Saitoh, S. I.; Imamura, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) has a wide-spread distribution in subtropical and temperate waters in the North Pacific, which plays an important role in the pelagic ecosystem and is one of the major targets in Japanese squid fisheries. The main fishing areas for Japanese commercial vessels are located in the central North Pacific (35-45N, around the date line) in summer. In this study, we have developed several kinds of habitat suitability index (HSI) models of the neon flying squid for investigating the relationship between its potential habitat and the ocean state variations in the target area. For developing HSI models, we have used a new ocean reanalysis dataset FORA (4-dimensional variational Ocean Re-Analysis) produced by JAMSTEC/CEIST and MRI-JMA. The horizontal resolution is 0.1*0.1 degree of latitude and longitude with 54 vertical levels, which can provide realistic fields of 3-dimensional ocean circulation and environmental structures including meso-scale eddies. In addition, we have developed a new 4D-VAR (4-dimensional variational) ocean data assimilation system for predicting ocean environmental changes in the main fishing grounds. We call this system "SKUIDS" (Scalable Kit of Under-sea Information Delivery System). By using these prediction fields of temperature, salinity, sea surface height, horizontal current velocity, we produced daily HSI maps of the neon flying squid, and provided them to the Japanese commercial vessels in operation. Squid fishermen can access the web site for delivering the information of ocean environments in the fishing ground by using Inmarsat satellite communication on board, and show the predicted fields of subsurface temperatures and HSI. Here, we present the details of SKUIDS and the web-delivery system for squid fishery, and some preliminary results of the operational prediction.

  17. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  18. Water quality of the Ogallala Formation, central High Plains aquifer within the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District, Texas Panhandle, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Haynie, Monti M.; Beussink, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    In cooperation with the North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD), the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water-quality samples at 30 groundwater monitor wells in the NPGCD in the Texas Panhandle. All of the wells were completed in the Ogallala Formation of the central High Plains aquifer. Samples from each well were collected during February–March 2012 and in March 2013. Depth to groundwater in feet below land surface was measured at each well before sampling to determine the water-quality sampling depths. Water-quality samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals, and 6 of the 30 samples were analyzed for pesticides. There was a strong relation between specific conductance and dissolved solids as evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.98. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from five wells exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Water from 3 of these 5 wells was near the north central part of the NPGCD. Nitrate values exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in 2 of the 30 wells. A sodium-adsorption ratio of 23.4 was measured in the sample collected from well Da-3589 in Dallam County, with the next largest sodium-adsorption ratio measured in the sample collected from well Da-3588 (12.5), also in Dallum County. The sodium-adsorption ratios measured in all other samples were less than 10. The groundwater was generally a mixed cation-bicarbonate plus carbonate type. Twenty-three trace elements were analyzed, and no concentrations exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard or maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water supplies. In 2012, 6 of the 30 wells were sampled for commonly used pesticides. Atrazine and its degradate 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine were detected in

  19. Current Knowledge on Moderate Malnutrition in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Peter Hiram Prasantha

    2014-01-01

    three forms of under nutrition; stunting, wasting and underweight. A study conducted in 2006 in the central part of the country in the estate sector 46% acutely malnourished, 43% chronically malnourished and 32.9% both acutely and chronically malnourished. Although there were differences between boys and girls those differences were not statistically significant. Another study indicated the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, underweight and wasting in State operated foster care institutions were considerably higher than the national levels (2006). No significant associations were there in relation to the studied sociodemographic characteristics with the under nutritional status of children brought up at ‘day-care centers’ or at home groups (2009). Selected aspects of infant complementary feeding practice in a district of Sri Lanka and outcome of an intervention aimed at improving these practices (2006) Since overweight and obesity has attracted the interest of the researchers’ under-nutrition has become a topic of yesteryear. Therefore it is important to revitalize research studies on moderate malnutrition in children. (author)

  20. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards—A prewildfire evaluation for the Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.

    2016-08-11

    and Rio Grande-Santa Fe watershed areas. No subbasins in this group have basin areas less than 1.0 km2. Many of these areas already had significant mass‑wasting episodes following the Las Conchas Fire in 2011. Other subbasins with integrated hazard index values in the top 2 percent are scattered throughout the Jemez River watershed area, including some subbasins in the interior of the Valles Caldera. Only a few subbasins in the top integrated hazard index group are in the Rio Chama watershed area.This prewildfire assessment approach is valuable to resource managers because the analysis of the debris-flow threat is made before a wildfire occurs, which facilitates prewildfire management, planning, and mitigation. In north‑central New Mexico, widespread watershed restoration efforts are being done to safeguard vital watersheds against the threat of catastrophic wildfire. This study was designed to help select ideal locations for the restoration efforts that could have the best return on investment.