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Sample records for normotensive conscious rats

  1. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  2. NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF SUBCUTANEOUS INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I ADMINISTRATION IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS WITH AN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geyter, D.; Stoop, W.; Sarre, S.; de Keyser, J.; Kooijman, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as a neuroprotective agent in a rat model for ischemic stroke and to compare its neuroprotective effects in conscious normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of subcutaneous IGF-I injection were

  3. The Diterpene Sclareol Vascular Effect in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Debora Ribeiro; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S.; Ferreira, Luciana Garros; Monteiro, Ariadne Santana e Neves; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Background The diterpene Sclareol has antimicrobial action, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects and anti-tumor activities. However, researches on the cardiovascular system are scarce. Objective This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the Sclareol cardiovascular effect in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods The arterial hypertension was promoted using 2-kidneys 1-clip model in rats. The effect of sclareol on blood pressure was performed by using three dose (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Cumulative dose-response curves for Sclareol were determined for endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings in presence or absence of L-NAME and ODQ. The NOx levels were measure in the plasma sample. Results The Sclareol administration in vivo caused a significant reduction in blood pressure in both groups. In vitro the sclareol promoted relaxation in aorta, with endothelium, pre-contracted to Phe. The inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase were as efficient as the removal of endothelium, in inhibiting the Sclareol-induced relaxation. Otherwise, it was no change of NOx. Also, for unknown reasons, the Sclareol is not selective for hypertensive animals. Conclusion The diterpene Sclareol showed in vivo hypotensive and in-vitro vasodilator effects;The chemiluminescence plasmatic NO analysis showed no significant difference between groups andThe Sclareol exhibit better effect on normotensive than hypertensive animals to reduce blood pressure. It is concluded that the diterpenes metabolites would be a promising source prototype for the development of new agents in the cardiovascular therapy. PMID:28678928

  4. The Diterpene Sclareol Vascular Effect in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Debora Ribeiro; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Ferreira, Luciana Garros; Monteiro, Ariadne Santana E Neves; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2017-06-29

    The diterpene Sclareol has antimicrobial action, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects and anti-tumor activities. However, researches on the cardiovascular system are scarce. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the Sclareol cardiovascular effect in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The arterial hypertension was promoted using 2-kidneys 1-clip model in rats. The effect of sclareol on blood pressure was performed by using three dose (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Cumulative dose-response curves for Sclareol were determined for endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings in presence or absence of L-NAME and ODQ. The NOx levels were measure in the plasma sample. The Sclareol administration in vivo caused a significant reduction in blood pressure in both groups. In vitro the sclareol promoted relaxation in aorta, with endothelium, pre-contracted to Phe. The inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase were as efficient as the removal of endothelium, in inhibiting the Sclareol-induced relaxation. Otherwise, it was no change of NOx. Also, for unknown reasons, the Sclareol is not selective for hypertensive animals. The diterpene Sclareol showed in vivo hypotensive and in-vitro vasodilator effects; The chemiluminescence plasmatic NO analysis showed no significant difference between groups and The Sclareol exhibit better effect on normotensive than hypertensive animals to reduce blood pressure. It is concluded that the diterpenes metabolites would be a promising source prototype for the development of new agents in the cardiovascular therapy. O diterpeno Esclareol tem ação antimicrobiana, efeitos citotóxicos e citostáticos e atividades antitumorais. No entanto, pesquisas sobre o sistema cardiovascular são escassas. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar os mecanismos envolvidos no efeito cardiovascular de Esclareol em ratos normotensos e hipertensos. A hipertensão arterial foi promovida utilizando modelo de

  5. Characterization of rat lines with normotensive and hypertensive status using genomic fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adarichev, V A; Korokhov, N P; Ostapchuk, Ia V; Dymshits, G M; Markel', A L; Ostaptchouk, Jana

    1996-01-01

    The properties of normotensive and hypertensive rat lines were investigated by the DNA fingerprinting method using a multilocus micro-satellite (CAC)5 probe. The HaeIII and HinfI restriction endonucleases were found to be the most informative enzymes in this case. The high genetic homogeneity of the

  6. Influence of fluid resuscitation on renal microvascular PO2 in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Tanja; Mik, Egbert G.; Nohé, Boris; Raat, Nicolaas J. H.; Unertl, Klaus E.; Ince, Can

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Septic renal failure is often seen in the intensive care unit but its pathogenesis is only partly understood. This study, performed in a normotensive rat model of endotoxemia, tests the hypotheses that endotoxemia impairs renal microvascular PO2 (microPO2) and oxygen consumption

  7. Evaluation of the Ca2+ distribution in aortic tissue of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieker, C.; Zidek, W.; von Bassewitz, D.B.; Heck, D.; Rahn, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to get information on the spatial distribution of Ca 2+ in aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls aged 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. To differentiate changes in Ca 2+ metabolism in hypertensive arteries from secondary phenomena due to the arteriosclerosis, the animals were examined in the earliest stage of hypertension. It was found that the Ca 2+ content was not elevated in the aortic smooth muscle of SHR aged 1 week (n = 11), as compared to normotensive controls (n = 10) (186.8 +/- 89.9 micrograms Ca 2+ /g tissue v 254.0 +/- 173.3 micrograms Ca 2+ /g). The Ca 2+ content was raised (P less than .05) in the aortic smooth muscle of SHR aged 4 weeks (n = 13), as compared to 12 WKY rats (4 weeks) (726.0 +/- 130.4 micrograms Ca 2+ /g tissue v 440.3 +/- 214.4 micrograms Ca 2+ /g) and in 17 SHR (3 months), as compared to 13 WKY rats, respectively (3390.1 +/- 729.9 micrograms Ca 2+ /g tissue v 1632.1 +/- 569.5 micrograms Ca 2+ /g). The results confirm the age-related increase in the arterial Ca 2+ content in normotensive rats and demonstrate additionally that this age-related rise in arterial Ca 2+ content is accelerated in SHR

  8. Normotensive sodium loading in conscious dogs: Regulation of renin secretion during beta receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, Peter; Mølstrøm, Simon; Wamberg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Cl (20 micromol/kg/min for 180 min, NaLoad) during regular or low-sodium diet (0.03 mmol/kg/d, LowNa) with and without metoprolol (2 mg/kg plus 0.9 mg/kg/h). Vasopressin V2 receptors were blocked by Otsuka compound OPC31260 to facilitate clearance measurements. Body fluid volume was maintained by servo-controlled...... that in this setting, renin secretion and renin-dependent sodium excretion are controlled by via the renal nerves and therefore eliminated or reduced by blocking the action of norepinephrine on the juxtaglomerular cells with the beta1-receptor antagonist metoprolol. This was tested in conscious dogs by infusion of Na...... irrespective of diet. In conclusion, PRC depended on dietary sodium and beta1-adrenergic control as expected; however, the acute sodium-driven decrease in PRC at constant MAP and GFR was unaffected by beta1-receptor blockade demonstrating that renin may be regulated without changes in MAP, GFR, or beta1...

  9. Locomotor activity and catecholamine receptor binding in adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrand, K.; Engel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The binding of 3 H-WB 4101, an α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, the membranes of the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lower brainstem was examined in adult spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WK) controls. The specific binding of 3 H-WB 4101 (0.33 nM) was significantly higher in homogenates from the cerebral cortex of SH rats as compared to WK rats. No differences were detected between SH and WK rats in the specific binding of 3 H-spiroperidol (0.25 nM), a dopamine receptor antagonist, to membranes from the corpus striatum and the limbic forebrain. The locomotor activity was significantly higher in SH rats as compared to WK controls, in all probability due to a lack of habituation to environmental change. It is suggested that the high reactivity of SH rats is related to a disfunction in the noradrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. (author)

  10. Effects of spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma on blood pressure and tail artery calcium uptake in normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanczuk, R.Z.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.R.; Pang, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have described the presence of humoral hypertensive factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Other studies have described factors that increase calcium uptake in vascular tissue. In this study, we attempted to confirm, and thereby correlate, the presence of both types of factors in SHR plasma. Intravenous infusion or bolus administration of dialyzed SHR plasma consistently induced an increase in blood pressure in normotensive rats. This hypertensive response was somewhat delayed, with peak blood pressures occurring 45 minutes after bolus administration and 90 minutes after infusion of SHR plasma. Spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma also increased 45 Ca uptake in isolated normotensive rat tail arteries in a dose-dependent manner, with a time course similar to that for the hypertensive response to bolus administration. These findings suggest, therefore, that a substance exists in SHR plasma that can increase intracellular calcium in vascular tissues and thereby increase blood pressure

  11. Nonlinear system analysis of renal autoregulation in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We compared the dynamic characteristics in renal autoregulation of blood flow of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using both linear and nonlinear systems analysis. Linear analysis yielded only limited information about the differences in dynamics......, NMSE are significantly higher in SHR than SDR, suggesting a more complex nonlinear system in SHR. The contribution of the third-order kernel in describing the dynamics of renal autoregulation in arterial blood pressure and blood flow was found to be important. Moreover, we have identified the presence...

  12. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions during attempts to consciously raise or lower heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, Peter; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during conscious control under visual biofeedback and background noise conditions. Normotensive volunteers were instructed to (i) decrease and (ii) increase HR (group A, n = 16) or BP (group B, n = 16). After instructions to lower HR or BP there was no significant change in HR or BP for either group. After instructions to raise HR, HR increased significantly (13.8 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001) and BP did not change. However, following instructions to raise BP, both HR and BP increased significantly: systolic BP (5.2 ± 1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic BP (3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (8.6 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001). Biofeedback and background noise did not alter the relative change in HR or BP. In conclusion, normotensive subjects were unable to reduce BP or HR under conscious control. Subjects were able to increase both HR and BP, and voluntary increases in HR did not alter BP, while voluntary increases in BP also increased HR indicating distinct HR/BP interactions during conscious control

  13. Different responses of mesenteric artery from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats to nitric oxide and its redox congeners.

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    Orescanin, Zorana S; Milovanović, Slobodan R; Spasić, Snezana D; Jones, David R; Spasić, Mihajlo B

    2007-01-01

    The conversion of nitric oxide (NO*) into its congeners nitrosonium (NO(+)) and nitroxyl (HNO/NO(-)) ions may have important consequences for signal transduction and physiological responses. Manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) may convert NO. into its redox congeners. In our current work, we have examined the mechanism of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation of arteries, with or without endothelium, from both normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats in the absence and presence of MnSOD. SNP induced a greater degree of relaxation in normotensive than in SH rats. MnSOD antagonized SNP-induced relaxation and effect was greater in normotensive than hypertensive rats. However, MnSOD even potentiated SNP-induced relaxation in mesenteric arteries with endothelium from SH rats. Our results indicate that HNO/NO(-)-mediated relaxation is more effective in mesenteric artery smooth muscle from SH rats than from normotensive rats and that vascular dysfunction in SH rats is not solely endothelium-derived but involves changes in vascular smooth muscles.

  14. Notch1 Mediates Preconditioning Protection Induced by GPER in Normotensive and Hypertensive Female Rat Hearts

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    Carmine Rocca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER is an estrogen receptor expressed in the cardiovascular system. G1, a selective GPER ligand, exerts cardiovascular effects through activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway and Notch signaling in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether the G1/GPER interaction is involved in the limitation of infarct size, and improvement of post-ischemic contractile function in female spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR hearts. In this model, we also studied Notch signaling and key components of survival pathway, namely PI3K-Akt, nitric oxide synthase (NOS and mitochondrial K+-ATP (MitoKATP channels. Rat hearts isolated from female SHR underwent 30 min of global, normothermic ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. G1 (10 nM alone or specific inhibitors of GPER, PI3K/NOS and MitoKATP channels co-infused with G1, just before I/R, were studied. The involvement of Notch1 was studied by Western blotting. Infarct size and left ventricular pressure were measured. To confirm endothelial-independent G1-induced protection by Notch signaling, H9c2 cells were studied with specific inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5 difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, 5 μM, of this signaling. Using DAPT, we confirmed the involvement of G1/Notch signaling in limiting infarct size in heart of normotensive animals. In the hypertensive model, G1-induced reduction in infarct size and improvement of cardiac function were prevented by the inhibition of GPER, PI3K/NOS, and MitoKATP channels. The involvement of Notch was confirmed by western blot in the hypertensive model and by the specific inhibitor in the normotensive model and cardiac cell line. Our results suggest that GPERs play a pivotal role in mediating preconditioning cardioprotection in normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The G1-induced protection involves Notch1 and is able to activate the survival pathway in the presence of comorbidity. Several pathological conditions

  15. Structural properties of lipid reconstructs and lipid composition of normotensive and hypertensive rat vascular smooth muscle cell membranes

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    T.R. Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR. Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.

  16. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

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    Roque, Fernanda R.; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; De Angelis, Katia; Coelho, Marcele A.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Oliveira, Edilamar M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05). RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion. PMID:22189737

  17. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

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    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate treatment during transient or sustained lactic acidemia in normoxic and normotensive rats.

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    Franco Valenza

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. METHODOLOGY: Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+ lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group: S sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05 and strong ion difference (P<0.05 drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.36 ± 0.04, P<0.05 while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.53 ± 0.03, P<0.05. When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05 so that blood lactate was higher (2.9 ± 1 mmol/l vs. 1.0 ± 0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively. The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

  19. Blood pressure reducing effects of Phalaris canariensis in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Passos, Clévia Santos; Carvalho, Lucimeire Nova; Pontes, Roberto Braz; Campos, Ruy Ribeiro; Ikuta, Olinda; Boim, Mirian Aparecida

    2012-02-01

    The birdseed Phalaris canariensis (Pc) is popularly used as an antihypertensive agent. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) was administered in adult normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in prehypertensive young SHR (SHR(Y), 3 weeks old). Animals received AEPc (400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), by gavage) for 30 days, then groups were divided into 2 subgroups: one was treated for another 30 days and the other received water instead of AEPc for 30 days. AEPc reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in both adult groups; however, treatment interruption was followed by a gradual return of the SBP to baseline levels. SHR(Y) became hypertensive 30 days after weaning. AEPc minimized the increase in SBP in SHR(Y), but blood pressure rose to levels similar to those in the untreated group with treatment interruption. There were no changes in renal function, diuresis, or Na(+) excretion. Pc is rich in tryptophan, and the inhibition of the metabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine, a potential vasodilator factor, prevented the blood pressure reducing effect of AEPc. Moreover, AEPc significantly reduced sympathoexcitation. Data indicate that the metabolic derivative of tryptophan, kynurenine, may be a mediator of the volume-independent antihypertensive effect of Pc, which was at least in part mediated by suppression of the sympathetic tonus.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Differentially Modulates the SDF-1/CXCR-4 Cell Homing Axis in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats.

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    Halmenschlager, Luiza; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado; Marcadenti, Aline; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the effect of acute and chronic dietary supplementation of ω-3 on lipid metabolism and cardiac regeneration, through its influence on the Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor (CXCR4) axis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated in eight groups (of eight animals each), which received daily orogastric administration of ω-3 (1 g) for 24 h, 72 h or 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of the lipid profile and SDF-1 systemic levels (ELISA). At the end of the treatment period, cardiac tissue was collected for CXCR4 expression analysis (Western blot). The use of ω-3 caused a reduction in total cholesterol levels ( p = 0.044), and acutely activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in normotensive animals ( p = 0.037). In the presence of the ω-3, after 72 h, SDF-1 levels decreased in WKY and increased in SHR ( p = 0.017), and tissue expression of the receptor CXCR4 was higher in WKY than in SHR ( p = 0.001). The ω-3 fatty acid supplementation differentially modulates cell homing mediators in normotensive and hypertensive animals. While WKY rats respond acutely to omega-3 supplementation, showing increased release of SDF-1 and CXCR4, SHR exhibit a weaker, delayed response.

  1. Effects of nimodipine on learning in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Meneses, A; Terrón, J A; Ibarra, M; Hong, E

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, has beneficial effects on learning in either aged or hypertensive animals and humans. However, no attempts have been made to investigate if nimodipine can reverse the synergistic deleterious effects of aging and hypertension in the same subject. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of stable infusions of nimodipine in the autoshaping learning task using middle-aged normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. WKY and SHR of 12 months of age were implanted with osmotic minipumps releasing either vehicle or nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg/day). After 3 weeks of treatment, the animals received autoshaping training sessions during 4 consecutive days. The WKY animals treated with nimodipine exhibited the highest levels of learning during the last session, the rank order being WKY-nimodipine > SHR-nimodipine > WKY-vehicle > SHR-vehicle. These results confirm that nimodipine can reverse the impairing effects of either aging or hypertension on learning; the presence of both conditions, however, might produce more severe dysfunctional changes that cannot be totally reversed by nimodipine.

  2. Effects of captopril on cerebral blood flow in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.I.; Paulson, O.B.; Jarden, J.O.; Juhler, M.; Graham, D.I.; Strandgaard, S.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebrovascular effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril were examined in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Cerebral blood flow was measured with the intracarotid 133 xenon injection method in halothane-anesthetized animals. The blood-brain barrier permeability of captopril (determined with an integral-uptake method) was negligible, the permeability-surface area product in most brain regions being 1 X 10(-5) cm3/g per second, that is, three to four times lower than that of sodium ion. When administered into the cerebral ventricles to bypass the blood-brain barrier, captopril had no effect on cerebral blood flow: furthermore, cerebral blood flow autoregulation (studied by raising and lowering blood pressure) was identical to that in controls. In contrast, when given intravenously, captopril had a marked effect on cerebral blood flow autoregulation--both the lower and upper limits of autoregulation being shifted to a lower pressure (by about 20 to 30 and 50 to 60 mm Hg, respectively), and the autoregulatory range was shortened by about 40 mm Hg. This effect may be ascribed to inhibition of converting enzyme in the cerebral blood vessels rather than within the brain

  3. Effects of high dose olive leaf extract on haemodynamic and oxidative stress parameters in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Dekanski Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive activity of natural antioxidant, olive leaf extract (OLE is known, but its influence on cardiovascular system when administered in a high dose has not been investigated yet. Our aim was to determine the acute effects of excessive intake of standardized OLE on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative status in both spontaneously hypertensive rats and normotensive Wistar rats. Systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff, pneumatic pulse detector, before, 60 and 120 minutes after intragastric OLE administration. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes, as well as lipid peroxidation in plasma (pTBARS were measured at the same time points, spectrophotometrically. High-dose OLE did not influence blood pressure, heart rate and pTBARS in normotensive rats, while SOD, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities significantly increased. The same dose significantly decreased blood pressure in hypertensive rats, but increased pTBARS and SOD activity. Excessive oral intake of OLE induced moderate hypotensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats only, suggesting absence of harmful haemodynamic effects after oral overdose in both rats strain. However, its prooxidative role when given in high dose in hypertensive organism should not be neglected. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175096

  4. Time course of the hemodynamic responses to aortic depressor nerve stimulation in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Durand, M.T.; Mota, A.L. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Barale, A.R. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Castania, J.A.; Fazan, R. Jr.; Salgado, H.C. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-16

    The time to reach the maximum response of arterial pressure, heart rate and vascular resistance (hindquarter and mesenteric) was measured in conscious male spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive control rats (NCR; Wistar; 18-22 weeks) subjected to electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN). The parameters of stimulation were 1 mA intensity and 2 ms pulse length applied for 5 s, using frequencies of 10, 30, and 90 Hz. The time to reach the hemodynamic responses at different frequencies of ADN stimulation was similar for SHR (N = 15) and NCR (N = 14); hypotension = NCR (4194 ± 336 to 3695 ± 463 ms) vs SHR (3475 ± 354 to 4494 ± 300 ms); bradycardia = NCR (1618 ± 152 to 1358 ± 185 ms) vs SHR (1911 ± 323 to 1852 ± 431 ms), and the fall in hindquarter vascular resistance = NCR (6054 ± 486 to 6550 ± 847 ms) vs SHR (4849 ± 918 to 4926 ± 646 ms); mesenteric = NCR (5574 ± 790 to 5752 ± 539 ms) vs SHR (5638 ± 648 to 6777 ± 624 ms). In addition, ADN stimulation produced baroreflex responses characterized by a faster cardiac effect followed by a vascular effect, which together contributed to the decrease in arterial pressure. Therefore, the results indicate that there is no alteration in the conduction of the electrical impulse after the site of baroreceptor mechanical transduction in the baroreflex pathway (central and/or efferent) in conscious SHR compared to NCR.

  5. Time course of the hemodynamic responses to aortic depressor nerve stimulation in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, M.T.; Mota, A.L.; Barale, A.R.; Castania, J.A.; Fazan, R. Jr.; Salgado, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The time to reach the maximum response of arterial pressure, heart rate and vascular resistance (hindquarter and mesenteric) was measured in conscious male spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive control rats (NCR; Wistar; 18-22 weeks) subjected to electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN). The parameters of stimulation were 1 mA intensity and 2 ms pulse length applied for 5 s, using frequencies of 10, 30, and 90 Hz. The time to reach the hemodynamic responses at different frequencies of ADN stimulation was similar for SHR (N = 15) and NCR (N = 14); hypotension = NCR (4194 ± 336 to 3695 ± 463 ms) vs SHR (3475 ± 354 to 4494 ± 300 ms); bradycardia = NCR (1618 ± 152 to 1358 ± 185 ms) vs SHR (1911 ± 323 to 1852 ± 431 ms), and the fall in hindquarter vascular resistance = NCR (6054 ± 486 to 6550 ± 847 ms) vs SHR (4849 ± 918 to 4926 ± 646 ms); mesenteric = NCR (5574 ± 790 to 5752 ± 539 ms) vs SHR (5638 ± 648 to 6777 ± 624 ms). In addition, ADN stimulation produced baroreflex responses characterized by a faster cardiac effect followed by a vascular effect, which together contributed to the decrease in arterial pressure. Therefore, the results indicate that there is no alteration in the conduction of the electrical impulse after the site of baroreceptor mechanical transduction in the baroreflex pathway (central and/or efferent) in conscious SHR compared to NCR

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP...

  7. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, A; Fernandes, G S; Leme, A M; Castino, B; Pessoa, E A; Fernandes, S M; Fonseca, C D; Vattimo, M F; Schor, N; Borges, F T

    2017-12-11

    Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg) for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg) or MAC (25 mg/kg) by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR), and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  8. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1 receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS and macitentan (MAC antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg or MAC (25 mg/kg by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP, RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR, and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  9. Conscious wireless electroretinogram and visual evoked potentials in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Charng

    Full Text Available The electroretinogram (ERG, retina and visual evoked potential (VEP, brain are widely used in vivo tools assaying the integrity of the visual pathway. Current recordings in preclinical models are conducted under anesthesia, which alters neural physiology and contaminates responses. We describe a conscious wireless ERG and VEP recording platform in rats. Using a novel surgical technique to chronically implant electrodes subconjunctivally on the eye and epidurally over the visual cortex, we are able to record stable and repeatable conscious ERG and VEP signals over at least 1 month. We show that the use of anaesthetics, necessary for conventional ERG and VEP measurements, alters electrophysiology recordings. Conscious visual electrophysiology improves the viability of longitudinal studies by eliminating complications associated with repeated anaesthesia. It will also enable uncontaminated assessment of drug effects, allowing the eye to be used as an effective biomarker of the central nervous system.

  10. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    The binding of 3 H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. 3 H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of 3 H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B max value) and apparent dissociation constant (K d value) values of 3 H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B max value of 3 H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K d values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with 3 H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats

  11. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  12. Noninvasive recording of electrocardiogram in conscious rat: A new device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Pooja; Gupta, Ankit; Bajpai, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important tool for the study of cardiac electrophysiology both in human beings and experimental animals. Existing methods of ECG recording in small animals like rat have several limitations and ECG recordings of the anesthetized rat lack validity for heart rate (HR) variability analysis. The aim of the present study was to validate the ECG data from new device with ECG of anesthetized rat. The ECG was recorded on student's physiograph (BioDevice, Ambala) and suitable coupler and electrodes in six animals first by the newly developed device in conscious state and second in anesthetized state (stabilized technique). The data obtained were analyzed using unpaired t -test showed no significant difference ( P < 0.05) in QTc, QRS, and HR recorded by new device and established device in rats. No previous study describes a similar ECG recording in conscious state of rats. Thus, the present method may be a most physiological and inexpensive alternative to other methods. In this study, the animals were not restrained; they were just secured and represent a potential strength of the study.

  13. Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    No one did more to draw neuroscientists' attention to the problem of consciousness in the twentieth century than Francis Crick, who may be better known as the co-discoverer (with James Watson) of the structure of DNA. Crick focused his research on visual awareness and based his analysis on the progress made over the last fifty years in uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Because much of what happens in our brains occurs below the level of consciousness and many of our intuitions about unconscious processing are misleading, consciousness remains an elusive problem. In the end, when all of the brain mechanisms that underlie consciousness have been identified, will we still be asking: "What is consciousness?" Or will the question shift, just as the question "What is life?" is no longer the same as it was before Francis Crick?

  14. Electrocoagulation of the Locus coeruleus and the plasma catecholamine responses to immobilization stress in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronjak, S.; Nikolic, J.; Varagic, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Locus coeruleus (LC), the largest noradrenergic nucleus in the brain, plays a major role in behavioral arousal in response to novel or stressful stimuli (Foote et al, 1983). An interesting feature of the LC is the degree of plasticity it displays in response to stress or drug treatment. For example, electrophysiological evidence suggests that sprouting of LC axons may occur following repeated stress (Sakaguchi and Nakamura, 1990). Stress increases LC firing rate and results in increased levels of noradrenaline (Glavin et al, 1983). High concentrations of noradrenergic neurons in LC indicated that this structure might have an integrative role in the blood pressure regulation. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHP) are widely used as a model of human essential hypertension. These animals exhibit enhanced sympathetic activity (Brody et al, 1980). It was therefore of interest to study the role of LC in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, and the effect of unilateral and bilateral electrocoagulation of the LC on the plasma concentration of noradrenaline and adrenaline during immobilization stress. (author)

  15. Data on the effects of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds on intraocular pressure of ocular normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Julian Marcus

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This data is to document the intraocular pressure (IOP lowering activity of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds in ocular normotensive rats. Effects of single drop application of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds on IOP in ocular normotensive rats are presented at 3 different concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%. Time course of changes in IOP is presented over 6 h period post-instillation. The IOP lowering activities of test compounds were determined by assessing maximum decrease in IOP from baseline and corresponding control, duration of IOP lowering and area under curve (AUC of time versus response curve. Data shown here may serve as benchmarks for other researchers studying IOP-lowering effect of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole compounds and would be useful in determining therapeutic potential of these test compounds as IOP lowering agents. Keywords: Drug screening, Intraocular pressure, Intraocular pressure lowering activity, Imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazoles, Pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles, Ocular normotensive rats, Rebound tonometry

  16. Effects of dihydropyridines on tension and calcium-45 influx in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels from spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, C.; Hwang, O.; Yamamoto, M.; van Breemen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Contractile tension responses to norepinephrine and depolarizing potassium (80 mM K+), as well as calcium-45 influx stimulated by these agents, were studied in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels (each 100 microM internal diameter) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs). Inhibitory effects of 2 dihydropyridine Ca++ antagonists, PN 200-110 (isradipine) and nisoldipine, on these parameters were also determined. Contractile responses to 80 mM K+ were inhibited by both Ca++ antagonists with the same potency and efficacy in SHR compared with WKY vessels (PN 200-110 IC50 = 2.8 +/- 1.3 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 2.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(-8) M in WKYs; nisoldipine IC50 = 1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 1.2 +/- 0.9 X 10(-8) M in WKYs). However, contractile responses to norepinephrine (10(-4) M) were inhibited less potently by nisoldipine in SHR vessels (IC50 = 2.2 +/- 0.3 X 10(-9) M) compared with WKY vessels (IC50 = 1.6 +/- 0.6 X 10(-10) M). Similarly, PN 200-110 tended to be less (but not significantly less) potent in SHR vessels (IC50 = 3.3 +/- 1.8 X 10(-8) M) than in WKY vessels (IC50 = 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(-9) M); its efficacy was significantly depressed in the SHR vessels (by approximately 20%). When norepinephrine-stimulated calcium-45 influx was determined in the presence of these Ca++ antagonists, a similar profile emerged with respect to a comparison of SHR and WKY vessels. These results support a previously hypothesized alteration in receptor-activated Ca++ influx pathways in SHR mesenteric resistance vessels

  17. Effects of nonhypotensive endotoxemia in conscious rats: Role of prostaglandins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, M.; Waeber, B.; Aubert, J.F.; Nussberger, J.; Brunner, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    A nonhypotensive dose of endotoxin was administered to normal conscious rats to evaluate the vascular and humoral effects of endotoxemia per se. Mean blood pressure and heart rate remained stable during the 45 min infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin. However, a marked increase in plasma renin activity plasma epinephrine and plasma norepinephrine was observed during infusion in endotoxin-treated rats when compared with the vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the blood pressure response to exogenous norepinephrine was significantly reduced during nonhypotensive endotoxemia. Significant changes in regional blood flow distribution, as assessed by radiolabeled microspheres, were observed in endotoxemic rats; in particular a decrease in renal blood flow, and an increase in coronary blood flow were found. The role of prostaglandins in the vascular and humoral alterations induced by nonhypotensive endotoxemia was also examined. Pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg) prevent the increase in plasma renin activity as well as plasma catecholamine levels. On the contrary, the decreased vascular reactivity and the reduction in renal blood flow observed during endotoxemia were not affected by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Thus significant vascular and humoral changes have been found during endotoxemia even in absence of hypotension. The humoral but not the vascular effects of endotoxemia were abolished when prostaglandin synthesis was inhibited

  18. Dynamic modeling of renal blood flow in Dahl hypertensive and normotensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Elmer, Henrik; Knudsen, Morten H

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed in this paper which allows characterization of renal autoregulatory dynamics and efficiency using quantitative mathematical methods. Based on data from rat experiments, where arterial blood pressure and renal blood flow are measured, a quantitative model for renal blood flow...

  19. Dissociation of changes in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier from catecholamine-induced changes in blood pressure of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, R.; Domer, F.R.; Taylor, B.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have studied the effects of the pressor catecholamine, dopamine, and the depressor catecholamine, isoproterenol, on the systemic blood pressure and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to albumin in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. The rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. The permeability of the BBB to protein was measured by the extravasation of radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA). The permeability was decreased by both catecholamines despite the dose-dependent, yet opposite, changes in blood pressure in the WKY rats. The blood pressure response to both of the catecholamines was enhanced in the SHR rats. Isoproterenol caused a decrease in the permeability of the BBB in the SHR but dopamine did not. Results with both WKY and SHR rats are suggestive of an adrenergically-mediated decrease in movement across the BBB of compounds of large molecular weight, regardless of changes in blood pressure

  20. Chronic photoperiod disruption does not increase vulnerability to focal cerebral ischemia in young normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku Mohd Noor, Ku Mastura; Wyse, Cathy; Roy, Lisa A; Biello, Stephany M; McCabe, Christopher; Dewar, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Photoperiod disruption, which occurs during shift work, is associated with changes in metabolism or physiology (e.g. hypertension and hyperglycaemia) that have the potential to adversely affect stroke outcome. We sought to investigate if photoperiod disruption affects vulnerability to stroke by determining the impact of photoperiod disruption on infarct size following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult male Wistar rats (210-290 g) were housed singly under two different light/dark cycle conditions ( n = 12 each). Controls were maintained on a standard 12:12 light/dark cycle for nine weeks. For rats exposed to photoperiod disruption, every three days for nine weeks, the lights were switched on 6 h earlier than in the previous photoperiod. T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 48 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Disruption of photoperiod in young healthy rats for nine weeks did not alter key physiological variables that can impact on ischaemic damage, e.g. blood pressure and blood glucose immediately prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no effect of photoperiod disruption on infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion. We conclude that any potentially adverse effect of photoperiod disruption on stroke outcome may require additional factors such as high fat/high sugar diet or pre-existing co-morbidities.

  1. Uric acid does not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta from normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Watts, Stephanie W

    2010-06-01

    Uric acid (UA) results from xanthine oxidase (XO) catabolism of xanthine and is the final product of purine catabolism in humans. In this species, hyperuricemia is associated with gout, nephropathy, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of hyperuricemia in vascular biology are overall controversial, UA has been described as an antioxidant and as potentially improving endothelial function. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that UA improves the endothelial function of aorta from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. UA (100 microM) in the presence of the uricase inhibitor oxonic acid (10 microM) did not modify relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (1 nM-10 microM) in the aorta from nontreated, sham normotensive, and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats [response to 10 microM ACh for UA versus vehicle, respectively: nontreated = 37 +/- 7 versus 48 +/- 7%, sham = 53 +/- 15 versus 57 +/- 20%, DOCA = 81 +/- 4 versus 85 +/- 2% from 20 microM prostaglandin 2alpha (PGF(2alpha))-induced contraction]. Allopurinol (100 microM), a XO inhibitor, did not significantly alter the ACh-induced relaxation of sham and DOCA aortic rings (response to 10 microM ACh for allopurinol versus vehicle, respectively: sham = 61 +/- 5 versus 68 +/- 9%, DOCA = 87 +/- 6 versus 88 +/- 3% from 20 microM PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction). Uricemia, ranging from unmeasurable to 547 microM in sham and to 506 microM in DOCA rats, was not significantly different between these two groups. The expression and activity of XO, as well as the expression of uricase, were not different between sham and DOCA rat aorta. We conclude that, at least in vitro, UA does not affect the ACh-induced relaxation of normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  2. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine effected significant increases in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS, and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS. In rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate, the effects of apomorphine upon local glucose utilization were less widespread and less marked than in conscious animals. The profound effects of chloral hydrate anesthesia upon local cerebral glucose use, and the modification by this anesthetic regime of the local metabolic responses to apomorphine, emphasize the difficulties which exists in the extrapolation of data from anesthetized animals to the conditions which prevail in the conscious animal.

  3. The effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grome, J J; McCulloch, J

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1 i.v.) upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals, although the magnitude of the reductions in glucose use displayed considerable regional heterogeneity. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use (by 40-60% from conscious levels) were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1) effected significant increased in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS (e.g., subthalamic nucleus, ventral thalamic nucleus, rostral neocortex, substantia nigra, pars reticulata), and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS (lateral habenular nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex).

  4. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  5. Evaluation of mechanism for antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of hexanic and hydroalcoholic extracts of celery seed in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae is one of the popular aromatic vegetables and part of the daily diet around the world. In this study, aqueous-ethanolic and hexane extracts of celery seed were prepared and the amount of n-butylphthalide, as an active component, was determined in each extract. Then the effects of hexanic extract on systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated in an invasive rat model. The vasodilatory effect and possible mechanisms of above mentioned extracts on aorta ring were also measured. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that hexanic extract contains significantly higher amounts of n-butylphthalide, compared to aqueous-ethanolic extract. The results indicated that hexanic extract significantly decreased the systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our data revealed that celery seed extract exerts its hypotensive effects through its bradycardic and vasodilatory properties. Moreover, the active components in celery seed extracts could induce their vasodilatory properties through Ca2+ channel blocking activity in endothelial and non-endothelial pathways and particularly by interference with the extra or intracellular calcium.

  6. Effects of music composed by Mozart and Ligeti on blood pressure and heart rate circadian rhythms in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Björn

    2008-11-01

    There is continuing discussion on the effect of music ("Mozart effect") on numerous functions in man and experimental animals. Radiotelemetry now allows one to monitor cardiovascular functions in freely-moving unrestrained experimental animals. Radiotelemetry was used to monitor systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), and motor activity (MA) in male normotensive WKY and hypertensive SHR animals. Rats were synchronized to a 12 h light (L): 12 h dark (D) regimen in an isolated, ventilated, light-controlled, sound-isolated animal container. Music (Mozart, Symphony # 40; Ligeti, String Quartet # 2) were played for 2 h at 75 dB in the animal cabin starting at the onset of L or D in a cross-over design. Data were collected every 5 min for 24 h under control conditions and during and after music. In addition, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) were determined in unrestrained animals at 3 h intervals over 24 h. In both WKY and SHR, highly significant circadian rhythms were obtained in SBP, DBP, HR, and MA under control conditions; HR was lower and BP higher in SHR than in WKY. NE was circadian rhythmic in both strains with higher values in D; the increase in NE with immobilization was much more pronounced in SHR than in WKY. The music of Mozart had no effect on either parameter in WKY, neither in L nor in D. In contrast, in SHR, the music of Mozart presented in L significantly decreased HR and left BP unaffected, leading to a small decrease in cardiac output. The music of Ligeti significantly increased BP both in L and in D and reflexively reduced HR in L, the effects being long-lasting over 24 h. Interestingly, white noise at 75 dB had no effect at all on either function in both strains. The effects of both Mozart and Ligeti cannot be attributed to a stress reaction, as stress due to cage switch increased HR and BP both in WKY and SHR. The study clearly demonstrates that music of different character (tempo, rhythm, pitch, tonality) can

  7. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases DNA damage and modify the expression of genes associated with hypertension in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Silva Machado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D3 is a lipophilic micronutrient obtained from the diet (salmon, sardines, mackerel and cod liver oil or by the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol on skin after exposure to UVB radiation. This vitamin participates in several cellular processes, contributes to the maintenance of calcium concentrations, acts on phosphorus absorption, and is also related to the development and progression of chronic diseases. In hypertension, it is known that vitamin D3 act on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, regulates the gene expression and can induce or attenuate oxidative DNA damage. Vitamin D3 deficiency is present in 30-50% of human population (Pilz et al., 2009, and has been associated with increase of chromosomal instability and DNA damage (Nair-Shalliker; Armstrong; Fenech, 2012. Since experimental and clinical studies have suggested a relationship between vitamin D3 and blood pressure, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D3 deficiency or supplementation lead to an increase or decrease in DNA damage, regulates the expression of genes associated with hypertension and changes the systolic blood pressure. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, used as a model of human essential hypertension, and their normotensive controls (Wistar Kyoto – WKY were fed a control diet (vitamin D3 at 1.000 UI/kg, a deficient diet (vitamin D3 at 0 UI/kg or a supplemented diet (vitamin D3 at 10.000 UI/kg for 12 weeks. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in cardiac muscle tissue and blood tissue, following the methodology proposed by Singh et al. (1988 and Tice et al. (2000; gene expression of 84 genes was assessed by RT2ProfilerTM PCR Array in cardiac muscle tissue; and systolic blood pressure was measured weekly by a noninvasive method using tail plethysmography. In SHR and WKY rats, vitamin D3 deficiency increased DNA damage in the blood tissue and did not change the DNA damage in cardiac muscle tissue; vitamin D3 supplementation maintained the

  8. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3-induced 45Ca uptake in vascular myocytes cultured from spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Hong; McCarron, D.A.; Bukoski, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 on basal 45 Ca uptake was examined in vasvular smooth muscle cells cultured from mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats. Basal uptake of 45 Ca was significantly greater in myocytes of WKY than SHR at 5, 10, 30 and 60 min incubation with the isotope. Incubation with 1 ng/ml 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 for 48 hr increased basal 45 Ca uptake between 1-10 min in SHR and between 5-10 min in WKY. The dose-response relationship indicated that cells from both strains are equally sensitive to the calciotropic effects of 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 with half-maximal stimulation occurring at approximately 0.3-0.4 ng/ml. In cells of both strains maximal stimulation of 45 Ca uptake was achieved only after a 12-24 hr period of incubation with hormone and pretreatment with cycloheximide inhibited 1,24 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 -enhanced 45 Ca uptake. Although 45 Ca binding by extracellular matrix material was significantly greater in WKY than SHR, 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D 3 had no effect on the amount of matrix 45 Ca binding in either strain

  9. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in the conscious rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Sabine; Krzykalla, Volker; Weckesser, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important parameter for studying drug-induced impairments on renal function in rats. The GFR is calculated from the concentration of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum and in urine, respectively. Following current protocols serum and urine samples must be taken from the same animal. Thus, in order to determine time-dependent effects it is necessary to use for each time point one separated group of animals. We developed a statistical test which allows analyzing the GFR from two different groups of animals: one used for repeated serum and the other one used for repeated urine analysis. Serum and urine samples were taken from two different sets of rats which were otherwise treated identically, i.e. drug doses, routes of administration (per os or per inhalation) and tap water loading. For each dose group GFR mean, standard deviation and statistical analysis to identify differences between the dose groups were determined. After determination of the optimal time points for measurements, the effect on GFR of the three reference compounds, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide and formoterol, was calculated. The results showed that the diuretic drugs furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide decreased the GFR and the antidiuretic drug formoterol increased the GFR, as counter regulation on urine loss or urine retention, respectively. A mathematical model and the corresponding algorithm were developed, which can be used to calculate the GFR, and to test for differences between groups from two separated sets of rats, one used for urine, and the other one for serum analysis. This new method has the potential to reduce the number of animals needed and to improve the quality of data generated from various groups of animals in renal function studies.

  10. Extrasynaptic location of alpha-2 and noninnervated beta-2 adrenoceptors in the vascular system of the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The receptors involved in the pressor and tachycardic effects of catecholamines applied systemically or released from sympathetic nerve endings were compared. Intravenously administered (-)-epinephrine activated alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors as demonstrated in pithed rats, using

  11. Blood pressure-renal blood flow relationships in conscious angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-infused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichnowski, Aaron J; Griffin, Karen A; Long, Jianrui; Williamson, Geoffrey A; Bidani, Anil K

    2013-10-01

    Chronic ANG II infusion in rodents is widely used as an experimental model of hypertension, yet very limited data are available describing the resulting blood pressure-renal blood flow (BP-RBF) relationships in conscious rats. Accordingly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 19) were instrumented for chronic measurements of BP (radiotelemetry) and RBF (Transonic Systems, Ithaca, NY). One week later, two or three separate 2-h recordings of BP and RBF were obtained in conscious rats at 24-h intervals, in addition to separate 24-h BP recordings. Rats were then administered either ANG II (n = 11, 125 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or phenylephrine (PE; n = 8, 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) as a control, ANG II-independent, pressor agent. Three days later the BP-RBF and 24-h BP recordings were repeated over several days. Despite similar increases in BP, PE led to significantly greater BP lability at the heart beat and very low frequency bandwidths. Conversely, ANG II, but not PE, caused significant renal vasoconstriction (a 62% increase in renal vascular resistance and a 21% decrease in RBF) and increased variability in BP-RBF relationships. Transfer function analysis of BP (input) and RBF (output) were consistent with a significant potentiation of the renal myogenic mechanism during ANG II administration, likely contributing, in part, to the exaggerated reductions in RBF during periods of BP elevations. We conclude that relatively equipressor doses of ANG II and PE lead to greatly different ambient BP profiles and effects on the renal vasculature when assessed in conscious rats. These data may have important implications regarding the pathogenesis of hypertension-induced injury in these models of hypertension.

  12. An improved strategy for evaluating the extent of chronic arterial baroreceptor denervation in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rodríguez-Martínez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is no index or criterion of aortic barodenervation, nor can we differentiate among rats that have suffered chronic sham, aortic or sino-aortic denervation. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure to generate at least one quantitative, reproducible and validated index that precisely evaluates the extent of chronic arterial barodenervation performed in conscious rats. Data from 79 conscious male Wistar rats of about 65-70 days of age with diverse extents of chronic arterial barodenervation and used in previous experiments were reanalyzed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP and the heart rate (HR of all rats were measured systematically before (over 1 h and after three consecutive iv bolus injections of phenylephrine (PHE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Four expressions of the effectiveness of barodenervation (MAP lability, PHE ratio, SNP ratio, and SNP-PHE slope were assessed with linear fixed models, three-level average variance, average separation among levels, outlier box plot analysis, and overlapping graphic analysis. The analysis indicated that a neither MAP lability nor SNP-PHE slope was affected by the level of chronic sodium intake; b even though the Box-Cox transformations of both MAP lability [transformed lability index (TLI] and SNP-PHE slope [transformed general sensitivity index (TGSI, {((3-(ΔHRSNP-ΔHRPHE/ΔMAPSNP-ΔMAPPHE-0.4-1/-0.04597}] could be two promising indexes, TGSI proved to be the best index; c TLI and TGSI were not freely interchangeable indexes for this purpose. TGSI ranges that permit differentiation between sham (10.09 to 11.46, aortic (8.40 to 9.94 and sino-aortic (7.68 to 8.24 barodenervated conscious rats were defined.

  13. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  14. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; pcorn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; pcorn silk aqueous extract is diuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt. and kaliuretic at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg body wt. In water-loaded conscious rats (5.0 ml/100 g body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is kaliuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt., but glomerular filtration and filtered load decrease without affecting proximal tubular function, Na+, or uric acid excretion.

  15. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]. E-mail: woody@bnl.gov; Vaska, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schlyer, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Pratte, J.-F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Junnarkar, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Park, S.-J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Southekal, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kriplani, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Krishnamoorthy, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Maramraju, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schiffer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dewey, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Neill, J. [Long Island University, Brookville, NY (United States); Kandasamy, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fontaine, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada); Lecomte, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of {approx}14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  16. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-01-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ∼14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18 F-FDG and 11 C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP

  17. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  18. Cardiovascular responses to microinjections of GABA or anesthetics into the rostral ventrolateral medulla of conscious and anesthetized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda J.E.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM contains neurons involved in tonic and reflex control of arterial pressure. We describe the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and anesthetics injected into the RVLM of conscious and urethane (1.2 g/kg, iv anesthetized Wistar rats (300-350 g. In conscious rats, bilateral microinjection of GABA (50 nmol/200 nl induced a small but significant decrease in blood pressure (from 130 ± 3.6 to 110 ± 5.6 mmHg, N = 7. A similar response was observed with sodium pentobarbital microinjection (24 nmol/200 nl. However, in the same animals, the fall in blood pressure induced by GABA (from 121 ± 8.9 to 76 ± 8.8 mmHg, N = 7 or pentobarbital (from 118 ± 4.5 to 57 ± 11.3 mmHg, N = 6 was significantly increased after urethane anesthesia. In contrast, there was no difference between conscious (from 117 ± 4.1 to 92 ± 5.9 mmHg, N = 7 and anesthetized rats (from 123 ± 6.9 to 87 ± 8.7 mmHg, N = 7 when lidocaine (34 nmol/200 nl was microinjected into the RVLM. The heart rate variations were not consistent and only eventually reached significance in conscious or anesthetized rats. The right position of pipettes was confirmed by histology and glutamate microinjection into the RVLM. These findings suggest that in conscious animals the RVLM, in association with the other sympathetic premotor neurons, is responsible for the maintenance of sympathetic vasomotor tone during bilateral RVLM inhibition. Activity of one or more of these premotor neurons outside the RVLM can compensate for the effects of RVLM inhibition. In addition, the effects of lidocaine suggest that fibers passing through the RVLM are involved in the maintenance of blood pressure in conscious animals during RVLM inhibition.

  19. Increased hepatic nicotine elimination after phenobarbital induction in the conscious rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foth, H.; Walther, U.I.; Kahl, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Elimination parameters of [14C]nicotine in conscious rats receiving nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) either intravenously or orally were studied. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine, derived by comparison of the respective areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC), was 89%, indicating low hepatic extraction ratios of about 10%. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) markedly increased hepatic first-pass extraction of nicotine. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine in plasma dropped to 1.4% of the corresponding values obtained from PB-treated rats receiving nicotine iv. After PB pretreatment, the clearance of iv nicotine was increased approximately twofold over controls, much less than the observed more than ninefold increase of hepatic first-pass extraction. It is assumed that extrahepatic metabolism contributed significantly to the rapid removal of nicotine from the plasma. The elimination of cotinine, originating from nicotine administered either po or iv, was significantly increased by PB pretreatment, as determined by the ratio of corresponding AUCs. The pattern of nicotine metabolites in urine also indicated an increase in the rate of cotinine metabolic turnover. The amount of norcotinine in the organic extract of urine paralleled PB microsomal enzyme induction. The ratio between urinary concentrations of the normetabolite and cotinine correlated strongly with the PB-induced state of rat liver. This may be a suitable indicator of PB-inducible hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme(s). Since smoking habits in man are feedback-regulated by nicotine plasma concentrations, a similar increase of nicotine elimination by microsomal enzyme induction in man may be of relevance for tobacco consumption

  20. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca2+ on 45Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis on 45 Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca 2+ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased 45 Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca 2+ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca 2+ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell

  1. Nesfatin-1 activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus and elicits bradycardia in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Benamar, Khalid; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. More recently, increasing evidence supports a modulatory role for nesfatin-1 in autonomic and cardiovascular activity. This study was undertaken to test if the expression of nesfatin-1 in the nucleus ambiguus, a key site for parasympathetic cardiac control, may be correlated with a functional role. As we have previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1 elicits Ca²⁺ signaling in hypothalamic neurons, we first assessed the effect of this peptide on cytosolic Ca²⁺ in cardiac pre-ganglionic neurons of nucleus ambiguus. We provide evidence that nesfatin-1 increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentration via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. The nesfatin-1-induced Ca²⁺ rise is critically dependent on Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q-type voltage-activated Ca²⁺ channels. Repeated administration of nesfatin-1 leads to tachyphylaxis. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 produces a dose-dependent depolarization of cardiac vagal neurons via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. In vivo studies, using telemetric and tail-cuff monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure, indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into the nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia not accompanied by a change in blood pressure in conscious rats. Taken together, our results identify for the first time that nesfatin-1 decreases heart rate by activating cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that nesfatin-1, one of the most potent feeding peptides, increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ by promoting Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q channels and depolarizes nucleus ambiguus neurons; both effects are Gi/o-mediated. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia in conscious rats. This is the first report that nesfatin-1 increases the parasympathetic cardiac tone. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Structured triglyceride vehicles for oral delivery of halofantrine: examination of intestinal lymphatic transport and bioavailability in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Müllertz, Anette

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. METHODS: Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different...... triglycerides; sunflower oil, and two structured triglycerides containing different proportion and position of medium-(M) and long-chain (L) fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. The two structured triglycerides were abbreviated MLM and LML to reflect the structural position on the glycerol. The concentration...... animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption...

  3. Pressor response to L-cysteine injected into the cisterna magna of conscious rats involves recruitment of hypothalamic vasopressinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2013-03-01

    The sulfur-containing non-essential amino acid L-cysteine injected into the cisterna magna of adult conscious rats produces an increase in blood pressure. The present study examined if the pressor response to L-cysteine is stereospecific and involves recruitment of hypothalamic vasopressinergic neurons and medullary noradrenergic A1 neurons. Intracisternally injected D-cysteine produced no cardiovascular changes, while L-cysteine produced hypertension and tachycardia in freely moving rats, indicating the stereospecific hemodynamic actions of L-cysteine via the brain. The double labeling immunohistochemistry combined with c-Fos detection as a marker of neuronal activation revealed significantly higher numbers of c-Fos-positive vasopressinergic neurons both in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and tyrosine hydroxylase containing medullary A1 neurons, of L-cysteine-injected rats than those injected with D-cysteine as iso-osmotic control. The results indicate that the cardiovascular responses to intracisternal injection of L-cysteine in the conscious rat are stereospecific and include recruitment of hypothalamic vasopressinergic neurons both in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, as well as of medullary A1 neurons. The findings may suggest a potential function of L-cysteine as an extracellular signal such as neuromodulators in central regulation of blood pressure.

  4. Effects of mosapride citrate, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist, on gastric distension-induced visceromotor response in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Mosapride citrate (mosapride), a prokinetic agent with 5-HT(4)-receptor agonistic activity, is known to enhance gastric emptying and alleviate symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). As hyperalgesia and delayed gastric emptying play an important role in the pathogenesis of FD, we used in this study balloon gastric distension to enable abdominal muscle contractions and characterized the visceromotor response (VMR) to such distension in conscious rats. We also investigated the effects of mosapride on gastric distension-induced VMR in the same model. Mosapride (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. However, itopride even at 100 mg/kg failed to inhibit gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. Additionally, a major metabolite M1 of mosapride, which possesses 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonistic activity, inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR. The inhibitory effect of mosapride on gastric distension-induced visceral pain was partially, but significantly inhibited by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT(4)-receptor antagonist. This study shows that mosapride inhibits gastric distension-induced VMR in conscious rats. The inhibitory effect of mosapride is mediated via activation of 5-HT(4) receptors and blockage of 5-HT(3) receptors by a mosapride metabolite. This finding indicates that mosapride may be useful in alleviating FD-associated gastrointestinal symptoms via increase in pain threshold.

  5. Regulation of Arterial Pressure By The Paraventricular Nucleus in Conscious Rats: Interactions Among Glutamate, GABA, and Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Cardoso Martins-Pinge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus is an important site for autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. Experiments in anesthetized animals and in vitro indicate an interaction among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, nitric oxide (NO and glutamate in the PVN. The cardiovascular role of the PVN and interactions of these neurotransmitters in conscious animals have not been evaluated fully. In chronically instrumented conscious rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR responses to microinjections (100 nl in the region of the PVN were tested. Bilateral blockade of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors (kynurenic acid, Kyn in the PVN produced small but significant decreases in MAP and HR. GABAA receptor blockade (bicuculline, Bic, and inhibition of NO synthase (N-(G-monomethyl-L-arginine, L-NMMA each increased MAP and HR. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP produced depressor responses that were attenuated by Bic. NO synthase inhibition potentiated both pressor responses to the selective EAA agonist, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, and depressor responses to Kyn. Increases in MAP and HR due to Bic were blunted by prior blockade of EAA receptors. Thus, pressor responses to GABA blockade require EAA receptors and GABA neurotransmission contributes to NO inhibition. Tonic excitatory effects of glutamate in the PVN are tonically attenuated by NO. These data demonstrate that, in the PVN of conscious rats, GABA, glutamate and NO interact in a complex fashion to regulate arterial pressure and heart rate under normal conditions.

  6. Influence of a multideficient diet from northeastern Brazil on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious, freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Monteiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The "regional basic diet" or RBD is a multideficient diet (providing 8% protein which is known to produce dietary deficiencies in some populations in northeastern Brazil. The present study investigated the effects of RBD-induced malnutrition on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams the RBD during mating and pregnancy (RBD-1 group or during nursing and a 10-day period after weaning (RBD-2 group. At 90 days of age, only RBD-2 rats weighed significantly (P<0.001 less than control rats born to dams fed a standard commercial diet (23% protein during pregnancy and nursing. Baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate of both RBD-1 and RBD-2 rats were comparable to those of controls. The slopes for both reflex bradycardia and tachycardia (bpm/mmHg induced by intravenous phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were unchanged in either RBD-1 (-2.08 ± 0.11 and -3.10 ± 0.43, respectively or RBD-2 (-2.32 ± 0.30 and -3.73 ± 0.53, respectively rats, when compared to controls (-2.09 ± 0.10 and -3.17 ± 0.33, respectively. This study shows that, after a prolonged period of nutritional recovery, the patterns of resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity of both pre- and postnatally malnourished rats were similar to those of controls. The decreased body weight and the tendency to increased reflex tachycardia in RBD-2 rats may suggest that this type of maternal malnutrition during lactation is more critical than during pregnancy.

  7. Structured triglyceride vehicles for oral delivery of halofantrine: examination of intestinal lymphatic transport and bioavailability in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Müllertz, Anette; Kristensen, Henning G; Charman, William N

    2002-09-01

    To compare the influence of triglyceride vehicle intramolecular structure on the intestinal lymphatic transport and systemic absorption of halofantrine in conscious rats. Conscious, lymph cannulated and nonlymph cannulated rats were dosed orally with three structurally different triglycerides; sunflower oil, and two structured triglycerides containing different proportion and position of medium-(M) and long-chain (L) fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. The two structured triglycerides were abbreviated MLM and LML to reflect the structural position on the glycerol. The concentration of halofantrine in blood and lymph samples was analyzed by HPLC. Both the lymphatic transport and the total absorption of halofantrine were enhanced by the use the MLM triglyceride. The estimated total absorption of halofantrine in the lymph cannulated animals was higher than in the nonlymph cannulated animals, and this was most pronounced for the animals dosed with the structured triglycerides. Using MLM as vehicle increases the portal absorption of halofantrine and results in similar lymphatic transport levels when compared to sunflower oil. Total absorption when assessed as absorption in the blood plus lymphatic transport for halofantrine after administration in the MLM triglyceride was higher than after administration in sunflower oil.

  8. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanintra Suwanmanon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD; Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD; Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD; Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD; Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM; Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD; and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD. Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg, a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8th week to the 16th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity.

  9. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanon, Kanintra; Hsieh, Pao-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8 th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD); Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD); Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD); Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD); Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM); Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD); and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD). Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg), a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8 th week to the 16 th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Angiotensin II and CRF Receptors in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediate Hemodynamic Response Variability to Cocaine in Conscious Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mari A.; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A.; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, ...

  11. Evaluation of purinergic mechanism for the treatment of voiding dysfunction: a study in conscious spinal cord-injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shing-Hwa; Groat, William C de; Lin, Alex T L; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chang, Luke S

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a selective P2X(3-)P2X(2/3) purinergic receptor antagonist (a-317491) on detrusor hyperreflexia in conscious chronic spinal cord-injured female rats. Six chronic spinal cord-transected female Sprague-Dawley rats (290-336 g) were used in this study. Spinal transection at the T8-T9 segmental level was performed using aseptic techniques under halothane anesthesia. Fourteen to 16 weeks after spinal transection, A-317491, a selective P2X(3-)P2X(2/3) purinergic receptor antagonist, was administered intravenously in cystometry studies at increasing doses of 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 micromol/kg at 40-50 minute intervals. Cystometrograms (CMGs) were performed before and after the administration of each dose of the drug. The continuous filling of CMGs revealed a large number of small-amplitude (> 8 cmH(2)O), non-voiding contractions (NVCs) (average, 9.7 per voiding cycle) preceding voiding contractions (mean amplitude, 31 cmH(2)O; duration, 2.5 minutes), which occurred at an interval of 539 seconds and at a pressure threshold of 5.7 cmH(2)O. When tested in a range of doses (0.03-30 micromol/kg, intravenous), A-317491 in doses between 1 and 30 micromol/kg significantly (p spinal cord injury in rats.

  12. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: 12......-15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  13. Effects of clenbuterol on insulin resistance in conscious obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, S J; Hancock, J; Ding, Z; Fogt, D; Lee, M; Ivy, J L

    2001-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of chronic administration of the long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol on rats that are genetically prone to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) were given 1 mg/kg of clenbuterol by oral intubation daily for 5 wk. Controls received an equivalent volume of water according to the same schedule. At the end of the treatment, rats were catheterized for euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (15 mU insulin. kg(-1). min(-1)) clamping. Clenbuterol did not change body weight compared with the control group but caused a redistribution of body weight: leg muscle weights increased, and abdominal fat weight decreased. The glucose infusion rate needed to maintain euglycemia and the rate of glucose disappearance were greater in the clenbuterol-treated rats. Furthermore, plasma insulin levels were decreased, and the rate of glucose uptake into hindlimb muscles and abdominal fat was increased in the clenbuterol-treated rats. This increased rate of glucose uptake was accompanied by a parallel increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis. The increase in muscle glucose uptake could not be ascribed to an increase in the glucose transport protein GLUT-4 in clenbuterol-treated rats. We conclude that chronic clenbuterol treatment reduces the insulin resistance of the obese Zucker rat by increasing insulin-stimulated muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake. The improvements noted may be related to the repartitioning of body weight between tissues.

  14. In vitro vascular effects produced by crude aqueous extract of green marine algae, Cladophora patentiramea (Mont.) Kützing, in aorta from normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yee-Ling; Mok, Shiueh-Lian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the antihypertensive activity of aqueous extracts obtained from Malaysian coastal seaweeds and to determine the pharmacological mechanisms of the extracts on rat aorta in vitro. The antihypertensive activity of 11 species of seaweeds (5 brown, 1 red and 5 green algae) were tested by cumulative addition of the extracts to phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) aortic rings in in vitro isometric contraction studies. Mechanisms for vasorelaxant effect were investigated in the presence of various antagonists. Of the 11 species tested, 2 showed a vasorelaxant effect. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of green alga, Cladophora patentiramea (AECP),showed that the vascular relaxant effect was endothelium- and concentration-dependent. A maximum relaxation of 45.8 +/- 4.6% (n = 8, p < 0.001) was obtained at 0.1 mg/ml of extract, after which the response was found to reduce in a concentration-dependent manner to 15.7 +/- 4.9% (n = 8, p < 0.001) at the highest extract concentration tested. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact aortic rings with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), (1)H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) and methylene blue (100 microM) resulted in a complete blockade of AECP-induced vasorelaxation. However, the relaxant effects of the extract were not blocked by atropine (1 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM), although the maximum relaxant responses were enhanced in the presence of glibenclamide. Our data showed that the in vitro vascular relaxant effect of AECPwas mediated through endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, and was not associated with the release of vasodilator prostaglandins, activation of muscarinic receptors, or ATP-sensitive potassium channels opening. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  16. Potentiation of Hormonal Responses to Hemorrhage and Fasting, but not Hypoglycemia in Conscious Adrenalectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy (ADRX) in rats removes the source of two major stress-responsive hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine. To test how ADRX rats with-stand stress, we performed the following experiments in adult male rats provided with indwelling femoral arterial and venous cannulae and either ADRX or sham-adrenalectomized (Sham) 3 days later and given 0.5% NaCl to drink. Five to 6 days after adrenal surgery the rats were studied after either a 15 ml/kg.5 min hemorrhage or after an overnight fast followed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In fed unstressed ADRX rats, basal mean arterial blood pressure was slightly decreased; heart rate was increased; blood volume, vasopressin, and oxytocin concentrations were not different from sham values; and renin and norepinephrine were significantly elevated. The recovery of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in the ADRX rats was similar to that in the sham group over a 5-h period; however, the responses of vasopressin and oxytocin were significantly greater, and those of renin and norepinephrine were markedly potentiated in the ADRX group. Heart rate recovered faster in the ADRX group and was elevated, compared to the sham value, for most of the 5-h period. Restitution of blood volume was attenuated in the ADRX group, although the restitution of plasma protein was not different between the groups. A significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between groups after hemorrhage may account for the attenuated restitution of blood volume. After an overnight fast, which reduced blood volume in both groups of rats, the plasma renin concentration rose still further in ADRX rats; the differences in other measured variables observed between fed ADRX and sham groups remained the same. The insulin-induced 50% decrease in glucose caused minor effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate and occasioned responses in renin and norepinephrine of similar magnitudes in the two groups. We conclude that in the absence of

  17. Use of microdialysis for monitoring sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Teisman, A.C H; van Gilst, W.H; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A microdialysis method was developed to sample norepinephrine and acetylcholine from the heart of freely moving rats. A flexible dialysis fiber (length 14 mm), with a copper wire inserted inside, was implanted into the heart. Extracellular norepinephrine was detectable for at least 72 h after

  18. Pathways Involving Beta-3 Adrenergic Receptors Modulate Cold Stress-Induced Detrusor Overactivity in Conscious Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pathways involving beta-3 adrenergic receptors (ARs) in detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress, we determined if the beta-3 AR agonist CL316243 could modulate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in normal rats. Two days prior to cystometric investigations, the bladders of 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were taken to estimate baseline values at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2 °C) for 20 min. They were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg CL316243 (n = 6 in each group). Five minutes after the treatments, they were gently and quickly transferred to the low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2 °C) room for 40 min where the cystometric measurements were again made. Afterward, the rats were returned to RT for final cystometric measurements. The cystometric effects of CL316243 were also measured at RT (n = 6 in each group). At RT, both low and high dose of CL316243 decreased basal and micturition pressure while the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased voiding interval and bladder capacity. During LT exposure, the high dose of CL316243 partially reduced cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity characterized by increased basal pressure and urinary frequency. The high drug dose also significantly inhibited the decreases of both voiding interval and bladder capacity compared to the vehicle- and low dose (0.1 mg/kg)-treated rats. A high dose of the beta-3 agonist CL316243 could modulate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. Therefore, one of the mechanisms in cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity includes a pathway involving beta-3 ARs. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Cardiovascular and hematologic effects produced by chronic treatment with etoricoxib in normotensive rats Efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com etoricoxib em ratos normotensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo César do Vale Baracho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the cardiovascular and hematological effects produced by chronic treatment with two dosis of etoricoxib in Wistar normotensive rats. METHODS: Thirty rats have been used and divided into one control group and two etoricoxib (10mg/kg and 30mg/kg treatments groups for 60 days. The mean arterial pressure (MAP was taken during the whole experimental period and at the end of this period, under anesthesia blood samples were taken, and further the withdrawn of the aorta, heart, brain, liver, and kidneys for the anatomopathologic study. RESULTS: The treatment with etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produced a significant increase of the MAP from the 28th day of the experiment and from the platelets when compared to the control group and to the group treated with 10mg/Kg, besides producing a highly significant difference in hematocrit and in the red blood cells in relation to the control group. On the other hand the treatment with etoricoxib has not caused histopathological changes when compared to the control. CONCLUSION: These data show that the chronic treatment with etoricoxib leads to increase of the MAP, and to important hematological changes which seem to be associated to the hemoconcentration although not producing anatomopathological significant changes.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e hematológicos produzidos pelo tratamento crônico com duas doses de etoricoxib em ratos Wistar normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 30 ratos divididos em um grupo controle e dois grupos tratamentos (10mg/kg e 30mg/kg de etoricoxib por 60 dias. A pressão arterial média (PAM dos animais foi aferida durante todo o período experimental e, ao final deste, sob anestesia, foram coletadas amostras de sangue, além da retirada da aorta, coração, cérebro, fígado e rins para estudo anatomopatológico. RESULTADOS: O tratamento com etoricoxib (30mg/Kg produziu aumento significativo da PAM a partir do 28° dia do experimento e das plaquetas quando

  20. Water-avoidance stress enhances gastric contractions in freely moving conscious rats: role of peripheral CRF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2014-05-01

    Stress alters gastrointestinal motility through central and peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that peripheral CRF is deeply involved in the regulation of gastric motility, and enhances gastric contractions through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) and delays gastric emptying (GE) through CRF receptor type 2 (CRF2). Since little is known whether water-avoidance stress (WAS) alters gastric motility, the present study tried to clarify this question and the involvement of peripheral CRF receptor subtypes in the mechanisms. We recorded intraluminal gastric pressure waves using a perfused manometric method. The rats were anesthetized and the manometric catheter was inserted into the stomach 4-6 days before the experiments. We assessed the area under the manometric trace as the motor index (MI), and compared this result with those obtained 1 h before and after initiation of WAS in nonfasted conscious rats. Solid GE for 1 h was also measured. WAS significantly increased gastric contractions. Intraperitoneal (ip) administration of astressin (100 μg/kg, 5 min prior to stress), a nonselective CRF antagonist, blocked the response to WAS. On the other hand, pretreatment (5 min prior to stress) with neither astressin2-B (200 μg/kg, ip), a selective CRF2 antagonist, nor urocortin 2 (30 μg/kg, ip), a selective CRF2 agonist, modified the response to WAS. These drugs did not alter the basal MI. WAS did not change GE. WAS may activate peripheral CRF1 but not CRF2 signaling and stimulates gastric contractions without altering GE.

  1. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its main metabolites on cardiovascular function in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Blough, Bruce E; Tella, Srihari R; Goldberg, Steven R; Baumann, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') contribute to its acute toxicity, but the potential role of its metabolites in these cardiovascular effects is not known. Here we examined the effects of MDMA metabolites on cardiovascular function in rats. Radiotelemetry was employed to evaluate the effects of s.c. administration of racemic MDMA and its phase I metabolites on BP, heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity in conscious male rats. MDMA (1-20 mg·kg(-1)) produced dose-related increases in BP, HR and activity. The peak effects on HR occurred at a lower dose than peak effects on BP or activity. The N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), produced effects that mimicked those of MDMA. The metabolite 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA; 1-10 mg·kg(-1)) increased HR more potently and to a greater extent than MDMA, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA) increased HR, but to a lesser extent than HHMA. Neither dihydroxy metabolite altered motor activity. The metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) did not affect any of the parameters measured. The tachycardia produced by MDMA and HHMA was blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results demonstrate that HHMA may contribute significantly to the cardiovascular effects of MDMA in vivo. As such, determining the molecular mechanism of action of HHMA and the other hydroxyl metabolites of MDMA warrants further study. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  3. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W; Janssen, Ben J; Pinkham, Maximilian I; Ow, Connie P C; Evans, Roger G; Joles, Jaap A; Malpas, Simon C; Krediet, C T Paul; Koeners, Maarten P

    2016-11-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation. Exogenous angiotensin-II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine. Activation of the endogenous renin-angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin-II receptor type 1 antagonist. Angiotensin-II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose-dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi-pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min -1 . Equi-pressor infusion of

  5. Blood Pressure Regulation by the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla in Conscious Rats: Effects of Hypoxia, Hypercapnia, Baroreceptor Denervation, and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenker, Ian C.; Abe, Chikara; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    in the medulla oblongata, which may operate as a switchboard for differential, behavior-appropriate activation of selected sympathetic efferents. Based largely on experimentation in anesthetized or reduced preparations, a rostrally located subset of C1 neurons may contribute to both BP stabilization and dysregulation (hypertension). Here, we used Archaerhodopsin-based loss-of-function optogenetics to explore the contribution of these neurons to BP in conscious rats. The results suggest that C1 neurons contribute little to resting BP under normoxia or hypercapnia, C1 neuron discharge is restrained continuously by arterial baroreceptors, and C1 neuron activation is critical to stabilize BP under hypoxia or anesthesia. This optogenetic approach could also be useful to explore the role of C1 neurons during specific behaviors or in hypertensive models. PMID:28363984

  6. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Key points Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary.We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats.This method provides stable and continuous measurements of cortical tissue oxygen tension (PO2) for more than 2 weeks and can reproducibly detect acute changes in cortical oxygenation.Exogenous angiotensin‐II reduced renal cortical tissue PO2 more than equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine, probably because it reduced renal oxygen delivery more than did phenylephrine.Activation of the endogenous renin–angiotensin system in transgenic Cyp1a1Ren2 rats reduced cortical tissue PO2; in this model renal hypoxia precedes the development of structural pathology and can be reversed acutely by an angiotensin‐II receptor type 1 antagonist.Angiotensin‐II promotes renal hypoxia, which may in turn contribute to its pathological effects during development of chronic kidney disease. Abstract We hypothesised that both exogenous and endogenous angiotensin‐II (AngII) can decrease the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the renal cortex of unrestrained rats, which might in turn contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Rats were instrumented with telemeters equipped with a carbon paste electrode for continuous measurement of renal cortical tissue PO2. The method reproducibly detected acute changes in cortical oxygenation induced by systemic hyperoxia and hypoxia. In conscious rats, renal cortical PO2 was dose‐dependently reduced by intravenous AngII. Reductions in PO2 were significantly greater than those induced by equi‐pressor doses of phenylephrine. In anaesthetised rats, renal oxygen consumption was not affected, and filtration fraction was increased only in the AngII infused animals. Oxygen delivery decreased by 50% after infusion of AngII and renal blood flow (RBF) fell by 3.3 ml min−1

  7. Refinement of a model of repeated cerebrospinal fluid collection in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Eva Maria; Brecheisen, Muriel; Sach-Peltason, Lisa; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    The cannulation of the cisterna magna in rats for in vivo sampling of cerebrospinal fluid serves as a valuable model for studying the delivery of new drugs into the central nervous system or disease models. It offers the advantages of repeated sampling without anesthesia-induced bias and using animals as their own controls. An established model was retrospectively reviewed for the outcomes and it was hypothesized that by refining the method, i.e. by (1) implementing pathophysiological-based anesthesia and analgesia, (2) using state-of-the-art peri-operative monitoring and supportive care, (3) increasing stability of the cement-cannula assembly, and (4) selecting a more adaptable animal strain, the outcome in using the model - quantified by peri-operative mortality, survival time and stability of the implant - could be improved and could enhance animal welfare. After refinement of the technique, peri-operative mortality decreased significantly (7 animals out of 73 compared with 4 out of 322; P = 0.001), survival time increased significantly (36 ± 14 days compared with 28 ± 18 days; P concept of Russell and Burch was successfully addressed and animal welfare was improved by (1) the reduction in the total number of animals needed as a result of lower mortality or fewer euthanizations due to technical failure, and frequent use of individual rats over a time frame; and (2) improving the scientific quality of the model.

  8. Influence of secretagogues on asynchronous secretion of newly synthesized pancreatic proteins in the conscious rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, V.; Rohr, G.

    1987-01-01

    The secretion of newly synthesized pancreatic enzymes was studied in pancreatic duct cannulated rats after intravenous injection of 100 microCi of [ 35 S]methionine. Secretion rate was stimulated by intravenous infusion of either cerulein (0.2 microgram/kg h) or carbachol (10 nmol/kg h) starting simultaneously with or 180 min before the injection of the labeled methionine. Secretory proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis or by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis followed by determination of the radioactivity associated with the individual proteins. Similar to unstimulated controls in all experiments, an early secretion of newly synthesized trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen was found, whereas amylase and lipase were secreted only after a certain lag period. The results suggest that the intracellular transit of endoproteases is faster than that of other enzymes, irrespective of whether or not secretagogues were applied

  9. The effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain activity waves in conscious and aneasthetized rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki AR

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain's waves are produced by spontaneous activity of neurons. These waves are changed by neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS. Concentration of these neurotransmitters can be changed by various drugs and total power of brain waves also increase or decrease by these drugs. In this research effect of Quinpirol and Sulpiride on the brain waves was investigated. Male wistar rats (weight 190-230 were aneasthetized with thiopental and two holes were made into the frontal and occipital area and two Ag/AgCl electrodes were fixed into these holes. One week after recovery, two electrodes were connected to the physiograph and the results were analyzed before and after intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of drugs by PC computer. Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration (5 mg/kg of diazepam reduced the depth of anesthesia. Conversely, intracerebroventricular injection of sulpiride increased the depth of anesthesia which was manifested by an increase in relative power of delta waves and reduction of relative power of alpha waves. This drug had a biphasic effect on EEG, at high doses in increased the depth of aneasthesia and total sleep. Wehteas depth of anesthesia was decreased at low dose. Simutanuos administration of sulpiride and quinpirole produced an effect on EEG similar to diazepam. As a result, biphasic effect of D2 agonist and antagonist drugs on brain waves are due to nonspecific action of these drugs on these receptors and this effect may be produced by other mechanisms

  10. Electropharmacogram of Sceletium tortuosum extract based on spectral local field power in conscious freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpfel, Wilfried; Schombert, Leonie; Gericke, Nigel

    2016-01-11

    The endemic succulent South African plant, Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. (synonym Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.), of the family Mesembryathemaceae, has an ancient oral tradition history of use by San and Khoikhoi people as an integral part of the indigenous culture and materia medica. A special standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®) has been developed and tested pre-clinically in rats, and clinically in healthy subjects. The present investigation aimed at the construction of electropharmacograms of Zembrin® in the presence of three dosages (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg), and comparative electropharmacograms and discriminatory analyses for other herbal extracts, citicoline and rolipram. Seventeen adult Fischer rats were each implanted with a set consisting of four bipolar concentric steel electrodes fixed by dental cement and three screws driven into the scalp. After two weeks of recovery from surgery the animals were adapted to oral administration by gavage and to experimental conditions (45 min pre-drug period and 5h of recording after a rest of 5 min for calming down). Data were transmitted wirelessly and processed using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). Spectral power was evaluated for 8 frequency ranges, namely delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1a, beta1b, beta2 and gamma power. Zembrin® dose dependently attenuated all frequency ranges, to varying degrees. The most prominent was the statistically significant reduction in alpha2 and beta1a waves, correlated with activation of the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmitter systems respectively. This feature is common to all synthetic and herbal stimulants tested to date. The second strongest effects were reduction in both the delta and the theta frequency ranges, correlated with changes in the cholinergic and norepinephrine systems respectively, a pattern seen in preparations prescribed for neurodegenerative diseases. Theta wave reduction in common with the delta, alpha2 and beta1 attenuation

  11. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgy; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-05-30

    To study the effects of acute and repeated injections of nootropics and to learn how glutamate receptors might be involved in their mediation, the frequency spectra of cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) were analyzed in non-narcotized rats subcutaneously injected repeatedly with Piracetam (400mg/kg) or its analogue, Noopept (0.2mg/kg), after intracerebroventricular infusions of saline (5 μl) or the antagonists of NMDA and quisqualate/AMPA receptors: CPP (0.1 nmol) and GDEE (1 μmol), respectively. Piracetam increased alpha/beta1 EEG activity in the left frontal cortex, and alpha activity in both the right cortex and hippocampus, with a 10-min latency and 40-min duration. Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity, with 30-min latency and 40-min duration in all brain areas. CPP pretreatment eliminated Piracetam EEG effects; reduced Noopept effects in the cortex and completely suppressed them in the hippocampus. After four injections of Piracetam, EEG effects were very small in the cortex, and completely lacking in the hippocampus, while GDEE pretreatment partially recovered them. The effect of Noopept in the alpha/beta1 ranges was replaced by increased beta2 activity after the eighth injection, while no effects were observed after the ninth one. GDEE pretreatment restored the effect of Noopept in the beta2 frequency range. These results demonstrate similarities in EEG effects and their mediatory mechanisms for Piracetam and its much more effective analogue, Noopept. Activation of NMDA receptors is involved in the effects of a single injection of the nootropics, whereas activation of quisqualate/AMPA receptors is associated with the decrease in their efficacy after repeated use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Okumura

    2016-02-01

    Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain.

  13. Organizational consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Richard C; Shoop, Glenda Hostetter; Ziegenfuss, James T

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual understanding of organizational consciousness that expands the discussion of organizational analysis, and use a case study to apply it in the analysis of a merger between an academic health center and a regional medical center. The paper draws on the experiences and insights of scholars who have been exploring complex organizational issues in relationship with consciousness. Organizational consciousness is the organization's capacity for reflection; a centering point for the organization to "think" and find the degree of unity across systems; and a link to the organization's identity and self-referencing attributes. It operates at three stages: reflective, social, and collective consciousness. Translating abstract concepts such as consciousness to an organizational model is complex and interpretive. For now, the idea of organizational consciousness remains mostly a theoretical concept. Empirical evidence is needed to support the theory. Faced with complicated and compelling issues for patient care, health care organizations must look beyond the analysis of structure and function, and be vigilant in their decisions on where important issues sit on the ladder of competing priorities. Organizational consciousness keeps the organization's attention focused on purpose and unifies the collective will to succeed. If the paper can come to understand how consciousness operates in organizations, and learn how to apply it in organizational decisions, the pay-off could be big in terms of leading initiatives for change. The final goal is to use what is learned to improve organizational outcomes.

  14. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  15. Long-term pretreatment with desethylamiodarone (DEA) or amiodarone (AMIO) protects against coronary artery occlusion induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, Nikolett; Baczkó, István; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Falkay, György; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Leprán, István

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of long-term pretreatment with amiodarone (AMIO) and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) on arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by pulling a previously inserted loose silk loop around the left main coronary artery. Long-term oral pretreatment with AMIO (30 or 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days) or DEA (15 or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days), was applied for 1 month before the coronary artery occlusion. Chronic oral treatment with DEA (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) resulted in a similar myocardial DEA concentration as chronic AMIO treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in rats (7.4 ± 0.7 μg·g(-1) and 8.9 ± 2.2 μg·g(-1)). Both pretreatments in the larger doses significantly improved the survival rate during the acute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (82% and 64% by AMIO and DEA, respectively, vs. 31% in controls). Our results demonstrate that chronic oral treatment with DEA resulted in similar cardiac tissue levels to that of chronic AMIO treatment, and offered an equivalent degree of antiarrhythmic effect against acute coronary artery ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

  16. Conscious Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne F; Haase, Beth

    2016-11-01

    Health care leaders need to use leadership methodologies that support safe patient care, satisfy employees, and improve the bottom line. Conscious leaders help create desirable personal and professional life experiences for themselves using specific tools that include mindfulness, context, and the observer-self, and they strive to help their employees learn to use these tools as well. In perioperative nursing, conscious leaders create an environment in which nurses are supported in their aim to provide the highest level of patient care and in which transformations are encouraged to take place; this environment ultimately promotes safety, contributes to fulfilling and meaningful work, and enhances a facility's financial viability. This article discusses some of the key concepts behind conscious leadership, how perioperative leaders can reach and maintain expanded consciousness, and how they can best assist their staff members in their own evolution to a more mindful state. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  18. Creative Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that transforms human relationships into sources of rich emotional capacity; and as value-based educational creativity that can awaken and nurture young minds to develop and discover their own inherent capacity for knowledge in freedom. Through such moments do society and humanity evolve. Education is society’s most advanced institution for conscious social evolution. Values are the essence of society’s knowledge for highest accomplishment. Education that imparts values is an evolutionary social organization that can hasten the emergence of that creative consciousness.

  19. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant diff...

  20. The conscious access hypothesis: Explaining the consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One of the most exciting hypotheses in recent times has been the "conscious access hypotheses" based on the "global workspace model of consciousness". It underscores an important property of consciousness, the global access of information in cerebral cortex. Present article reviews the "conscious access hypothesis" in terms of its theoretical underpinnings as well as experimental supports it has received.

  1. Creative Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that tra...

  2. Exploratory studies of some Mexican medicinal plants. Cardiovascular effects in rats with and without hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Alfonso Magos-Guerrero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Papaveraceae Argemone mexicana L., Burseraceae Bursera simaruba (L. Sarg., Acanthaceae Justicia spicigera Schltdl. and Selaginellaceae Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev. Spring., have been used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat hypertension. The objective of this study was to further characterize the cardiovascular effects of the methanol extracts of such plants. Methods: The medicinal plants were collected and taxonomically identified; the methanol extract of each explored plant were administrated to conscious and unconscious male Wistar rats with and without glucose induced hypertension. The blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated before and after the extract administration. Vascular reactivity experiments were conducted in rat aortic rings obtained from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension, a model widely used to study such effects with cardiovascular agents. Results: After oral administration in normotensive conscious rats all tested extracts decreased the heart rate, such effect was only observed in hypertensive conscious rats after the administration of B. simaruba; only A. mexicana and B. simaruba decreased the blood pressure after oral administration. All extracts administrated by intravenous injection diminished the mean arterial pressure. Dose response curves to cumulative concentrations of all the extracts promote vascular relaxation in precontracted aortas from rats with and without sugar induced hypertension. Conclusions: The present study indicated that B. simaruba is worthy of further investigation as a potential phytotherapeutic agent for treating hypertension. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 274-279

  3. Role of central and peripheral opiate receptors in the effects of fentanyl on analgesia, ventilation and arterial blood-gas chemistry in conscious rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fraser; May, Walter J.; Gruber, Ryan B.; Discala, Joseph F.; Puscovic, Veljko; Young, Alex P.; Baby, Santhosh M.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the peripherally restricted µ-opiate receptor (µ-OR) antagonist, naloxone methiodide (NLXmi) on fentanyl (25 µg/kg, i.v.)-induced changes in (1) analgesia, (2) arterial blood gas chemistry (ABG) and alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient), and (3) ventilatory parameters, in conscious rats. The fentanyl-induced increase in analgesia was minimally affected by a 1.5 mg/kg of NLXmi but was attenuated by a 5.0 mg/kg dose. Fentanyl decreased arterial blood pH, pO2 and sO2 and increased pCO2 and A-a gradient. These responses were markedly diminished in NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg)-pretreated rats. Fentanyl caused ventilatory depression (e.g., decreases in tidal volume and peak inspiratory flow). Pretreatment with NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized the fentanyl decrease in tidal volume but minimally affected the other responses. These findings suggest that (1) the analgesia and ventilatory depression caused by fentanyl involve peripheral µ-ORs and (2) NLXmi prevents the fentanyl effects on ABG by blocking the negative actions of the opioid on tidal volume and A-a gradient. PMID:24284037

  4. Angiotensin II and CRF receptors in the central nucleus of the amygdala mediate hemodynamic response variability to cocaine in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mari A; Kucenas, Sarah; Bowman, Tamara A; Ruhlman, Melissa; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2010-01-14

    Stress or cocaine evokes either a large increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or a smaller increase in SVR accompanied by an increase in cardiac output (designated vascular and mixed responders, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) mediates this variability. Conscious, freely-moving rats, instrumented for measurement of arterial pressure and cardiac output and for drug delivery into the CeA, were given cocaine (5 mg/kg, iv, 4-6 times) and characterized as vascular (n=15) or mixed responders (n=10). Subsequently, we administered cocaine after bilateral microinjections (100 nl) of saline or selective agents in the CeA. Muscimol (80 pmol), a GABA(A) agonist, or losartan (43.4 pmol), an AT(1) receptor antagonist, attenuated the cocaine-induced increase in SVR in vascular responders, selectively, such that vascular responders were no longer different from mixed responders. The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonist, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) (15.7 pmol), abolished the difference between cardiac output and SVR in mixed and vascular responders. We conclude that greater increases in SVR observed in vascular responders are dependent on AT(1) receptor activation and, to a lesser extent on CRF receptors. Therefore, AT(1) and CRF receptors in the CeA contribute to hemodynamic response variability to intravenous cocaine.

  5. Agential Self-consciousness : beyond conscious agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although we perform many of our actions without much consciousness of these, occasionally we are explicitly conscious that we are doing something for a reason. Such consciousness I call ‘agential self-consciousness’. Since ages we have understood such agential self-consciousness in terms of the

  6. A method for unit recording in the lumbar spinal cord during locomotion of the conscious adult rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W; Chen, Ming-Teh; Huang, Hsueh-Chen

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular recordings from single units in the brain, for example the neocortex, have proven feasible in moving, awake rats, but have not yet been possible in the spinal cord. Single-unit activity during locomotor-like activity in reduced preparations from adult cats and rats have provided...... valuable insights for the development of hypotheses about the organization of functional networks in the spinal cord. However, since reduced preparations could result in spurious conclusions, it is crucial to test these hypotheses in animals that are awake and behaving. Furthermore, unresolved issues...

  7. The conscious access hypothesis: Explaining the consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One of the most exciting hypotheses in recent times has been the ?conscious access hypotheses? based on the ?global workspac...

  8. Influence of the type of surfactant and the degree of dispersion on the lymphatic transport of halofantrine in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpf, Ditte M; Holm, René; Kristensen, Henning G

    2004-01-01

    cannulated rats were orally dosed with Hf in a TG solution or in o/w-emulsions dispersed by lecithin or Cremophor RH40. Lymph was continuously collected, and blood was sampled periodically in the course of 30 h. Hf in the lymph and blood and TG and phosphatidyl choline (PC) in the lymph were analyzed...

  9. Exogenous and endogenous angiotensin-II decrease renal cortical oxygen tension in conscious rats by limiting renal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, Tonja W.; Janssen, Ben J.; Pinkham, Maximilian I.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Evans, Roger G.; Joles, Jaap A.; Malpas, Simon C.; Krediet, C. T. Paul; Koeners, Maarten P.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of hypoxia in the initiation and progression of renal disease remains rudimentary. We have developed a method that allows wireless measurement of renal tissue oxygen tension in unrestrained rats. This method provides stable and continuous

  10. Evaluation of Purinergic Mechanism for the Treatment of Voiding Dysfunction: A Study in Conscious Spinal Cord-injured Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Lu

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that purinergic mechanisms, presumably involving P2X3 or P2X2/3 receptors on bladder C-fiber afferent nerves, play an important role in the detrusor hyperreflexia that occurs after spinal cord injury in rats.

  11. Salt sensitivity of renin secretion, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, G L; Stubbe, J; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that in normal rats in metabolic steady state, (i) the plasma renin concentration (PRC) is log-linearly related to Na(+) intake (NaI), (ii) the concurrent changes in mean arterial pressure (MABP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are negligible and (iii) the function PRC...

  12. Sidestream cigarette smoke effects on cardiovascular responses in conscious rats: involvement of oxidative stress in the fourth cerebral ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Vitor E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS. Methods We evaluated males Wistar rats (320-370 g, which were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR measurement and drug infusion, respectively. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, 5 days/week (CO: 100-300 ppm. Baroreflex was tested with a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PHE, 8 μg/kg, bolus to induce bradycardic reflex and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 μg/kg, bolus to induce tachycardic reflex. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before, 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, catalase inhibitor, 0.001 g/100 μL injection into the 4th V. Results Central catalase inhibition increased basal HR in the control group during the first 5 minutes. SSCS exposure increased basal HR and attenuated bradycardic peak during the first 15 minutes. Conclusion We suggest that SSCS exposure affects cardiovascular regulation through its influence on catalase activity.

  13. Antinociception induced by epidural motor cortex stimulation in naive conscious rats is mediated by the opioid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Dale, Camila Squarzoni; Pagano, Rosana Lima; Paccola, Carina Cicconi; Ballester, Gerson; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Giorgi, Renata

    2009-01-03

    Epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has been used for treating patients with neuropathic pain resistant to other therapeutic approaches. Experimental evidence suggests that the motor cortex is also involved in the modulation of normal nociceptive response, but the underlying mechanisms of pain control have not been clarified yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of epidural electrical MCS on the nociceptive threshold of naive rats. Electrodes were placed on epidural motor cortex, over the hind paw area, according to the functional mapping accomplished in this study. Nociceptive threshold and general activity were evaluated under 15-min electrical stimulating sessions. When rats were evaluated by the paw pressure test, MCS induced selective antinociception in the paw contralateral to the stimulated cortex, but no changes were noticed in the ipsilateral paw. When the nociceptive test was repeated 15 min after cessation of electrical stimulation, the nociceptive threshold returned to basal levels. On the other hand, no changes in the nociceptive threshold were observed in rats evaluated by the tail-flick test. Additionally, no behavioral or motor impairment were noticed in the course of stimulation session at the open-field test. Stimulation of posterior parietal or somatosensory cortices did not elicit any changes in the general activity or nociceptive response. Opioid receptors blockade by naloxone abolished the increase in nociceptive threshold induced by MCS. Data shown herein demonstrate that epidural electrical MCS elicits a substantial and selective antinociceptive effect, which is mediated by opioids.

  14. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Michael

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms.

  15. Influência de vasoconstritores associados a anestésicos locais sobre a pressão arterial de ratos hipertensos e normotensos Influence of vasoconstrictors associated with local anesthetics on the arterial pressure of hypertensive and normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apparecido Neri Daniel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de anestésicos locais associados a vasoconstritores em pacientes hipertensos é controversa. Neste estudo, verificamos a influência desta associação sobre a pressão arterial caudal (PA em ratos hipertensos DOCA-sal. Após ligeira anestesia com éter, os anestésicos GRUPO I - lidocaína 2% sem vasoconstritor, GRUPO II - lidocaína com fenilefrina, GRUPO III - lidocaína a 2% com noradrenalina, GRUPO IV - prilocaína 3% com felipressina, GRUPO V - mepivacaína 2% com adrenalina e GRUPO VI - mepivacaína com noradrenalina foram injetados na submucosa da boca (anestesia infiltrativa, em ratos DOCA-sal e controles. A PA foi determinada 5 e 15 minutos após a primeira dose do anestésico e também 5 e 15 minutos após a segunda dose. Os dados obtidos indicaram que: a a PA dos ratos DOCA-sal (193,05 ± 4,25 mmHg; n = 43 foi significativamente superior àquela observada nos animais controles (115,64 ± 2,47 mmHg; n = 43 e, b não houve variação significativa nas PA observadas em animais DOCA-sal e controles pela administração dos anestésicos locais testados. Assim, nossos dados experimentais sugerem que a presença de agentes vasoconstritores associados à lidocaína 2%, à prilocaína 3% e à mepivacaína 2% não interferem na PA desses animais, neste modelo experimental de hipertensão.The utilization of local anesthetics associated with vasoconstrictors in hypertensive patients is controversial. The purpose of this investigation was to verify the influence of this association on the arterial pressure (AP in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. After light ether anesthesia, the anesthetics (Group I - lidocaine 2% without vasoconstrictor; Group II - lidocaine 2% with phenylephrine, Group III - lidocaine 2% with noradrenaline- Group IV - prylocaine 3% with felypressin; Group V - mepivacaine 2% with epinephrine, and Group VI - mepivacaine 2% with norepinephrine were injected into mucobuccal fold (infiltration anesthesia, in DOCA

  16. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  17. Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.

  18. Humoral Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in essential hypertension and in normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamnani, M.B.; Burris, J.F.; Jemionek, J.F.; Huot, S.J.; Price, M.; Freis, E.D.; Haddy, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma from black male patients with essential hypertension was bioassayed for vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity. Halves of the same rat tail artery were incubated for two hours in boiled plasma supernates from a hypertensive patient and a paired age-, sex-, and race-matched normotensive subject and then ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was measured. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake by their leukocytes was also measured. Eighteen pairs of subjects were studied. The uptakes were not significantly different in the hypertensive patients and control subjects. However, when we selected from the eighteen hypertensive patients, nine with low plasma renin activity on the day of the study, uptakes were reduced in the hypertensive patients relative to the paired control subjects. We also assayed plasma supernates from normotensive black and white male subjects before and after acute volume expansion (2.5 L saline IV + 1.5 L distilled water orally over a three-hour period) and from paired normotensive subjects before and after sham volume expansion and obtained a positive bioassay in the expanded subjects both on intraindividual and interindividual comparisons. These studies demonstrate increased vascular Na+-K+ pump inhibitory activity in the plasma of black male patients with low renin essential hypertension and in the plasma of normotensive subjects after acute volume expansion. The findings suggest that the inhibitory activity in the hypertensive subjects' plasma is related to volume expansion, relative or absolute

  19. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Keles, Fatma; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P pressure were significantly higher in control children aged >10 years (P children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension.

  20. Uric Acid Levels in Normotensive Children of Hypertensive Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated uric acid concentrations in normotensive children of parents with hypertension. Eighty normotensive children from families with and without a history of essential hypertension were included. Concentrations of lipid parameters and uric acid were compared. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were similar in the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension without statistically significant difference (P>0.05. Uric acid concentrations were higher in the normotensive children of parents with hypertension (4.61 versus 3.57 mg/dL, P10 years (P<0.01. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in all children with more pronounced difference after age 10 of years (P<0.001. Positive correlations were found between the level of serum uric acid and age, body weight, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the normotensive children of parents. The higher uric acid levels in the normotensive children of hypertensive parents suggest that uric acid may be a predeterminant of hypertension. Monitoring of uric acid levels in these children may allow for prevention or earlier treatment of future hypertension.

  1. Conscious sensation, conscious perception and sensorimotor theories of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the differences between our conscious sensations (color, sound, smell, etc.) could be linked to the different ways in which our senses process and structure information. It is also proposed that the organization of our conscious sensations into a conscious perception of a three-dimensional world could be linked to our mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. These hypotheses are supported by a number of observations, including the appearance of consciou...

  2. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  3. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  4. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  5. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is...

  6. Cross-sectional study of antioxidant status in normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration of all antioxidants except uric acid were significantly lower during pregnancy when compared with controls (t= 2.06; p<0.01). In the normotensive group of pregnant women, vitamin C was the only antioxidant that showed significant higher concentration when the second trimester concentration and third ...

  7. Fruits intake and cardiovascular function in normotensive young adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the effect of increase fruits intake on cardiovascular health as specified by blood pressure and pulse rate. It is a 4 week study involving 70 apparently healthy normotensive students, between the ages of 20–30 years. They were recruited from the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Ambrose ...

  8. The Science of Consciousness

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We not only act in the world but we consciously perceive it. The interactions of myriad of neuronal and sub-neuronal processes that are responsible for visual behaviors also give rise to the daily movie screened for our benefit in the privacy of our own skull. I will discuss the empirical progress that has been achieved over the past several decades in characterizing the behavioral and the neuronal correlates of consciousness in human and non-human animals and in dissociating selective visual attention from visual consciousness. I will introduce Tononi’s integrated Information Theory (IIT) that explains in a principled manner which physical systems are capable of conscious, subjective experience. The theory explains many empirical facts about consciousness and its pathologies in humans. It can also be extrapolated to more difficult cases, such as fetuses, mice, or bees. The theory predicts that many, seemingly complex, systems are not conscious, in particular digital computers running software, even if thes...

  9. Circadian blood pressure rhythm in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Rabia Tutuncu; Yildirim, Ali; Demir, Tevfik; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the circadian blood pressure (BP) rhythm using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in normotensive children with a family history of essential hypertension. Group 1 consisted of children with hypertensive mothers and/or fathers (n = 20), Group 2 consisted of children with hypertensive grandparents (n = 20), and Group 3 consisted of children with normotensive parents (n = 20). All participating children underwent a 24-h ABPM and echocardiography. Significantly higher systolic burden was found in children with hypertensive parents (p children with a family history of hypertension, a positive correlation between nocturnal systolic BP and LVMI was found, and increasing nocturnal BP values were associated with increasing LVMI (p children with a family history of hypertension, target-organ damage may precede the clinical detection of hypertension, and in those with a nocturnal non-dipper status, a more marked effect on LVMI may occur.

  10. Exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanzhen; Zhang Chenggang; Zhao Deshan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether there is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives and to probe into the possible mechanism giving rise to it, providing some clues to the study of the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension. Methods: Using 99 Tc m -DTPA as the imaging agent, authors performed rest and exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives [NOH, 31 cases, 14 males, 17 females; mean age: (23.2 ± 4.1) years], normotensive young off-spring of non-hypertensives [NON, 31 cases, 20 males, 11 females; mean age: (23.1±3.6) years], some of the hypertensive parents [21 cases, 5 males, 16 females; mean age: (53.0 ± 5.61) years] and old non-hypertensive subjects [10 cases, 6 males, 4 females; mean age: (53.7 ± 5.2) years]. The results were analyzed with the software of SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results: Though all of the rest renal function indexes from NOH were within the normal range, there were significant differences between most of those indexes from NOH and those from NON, e. g., t p and MTT from NOH were significantly delayed than those from NON; exercise made these differences more significant, and after exercise, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and RI were significantly lower, and 20/P was significantly higher. There were 4, 5, 2 cases showing abnormal exercise scintirenography in NOH, hypertensive parents and old non-hypertensive subjects, respectively, but none in NON group. Conclusions: There is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives. The kidney may play an important role in the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension

  11. Intentionality and Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierna, Carlo; Jacquette, Dale

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter I concentrate on the notion of intentionality and its relation to consciousness. Ever since its re-introduction into contemporary philosophy in the works of Franz Brentano, intentionality has been associated in various ways with consciousness. In the continental and analytic

  12. Perfil nutricional e cardiovascular de ratos normotensos e hipertensos sob dieta hiperlipídica Perfil nutricional y cardiovascular de ratas normotensas e hipertensos bajo dieta hiperlipídica Nutritional and cardiovascular profiles of normotensive and hypertensive rats kept on a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A. Oliveira Júnior

    2009-11-01

    contempló la presión arterial sistólica (PAS, evaluación cardiopulmonar anatómica, ecocardiograma e histología cardiaca. RESULTADOS: Las SHRs presentaron menor PC, adiposidad, glucosa, colesterol, triacilglicerol, leptina e insulina, cuando comparadas a las WKYs. En las SHR, la ingestión calórica aumentó con la DH. Sin embargo en las WKYs, la DH elevó la eficiencia energética, la adiposidad y la leptina y reduzco la glucemia. En la evaluación cardiovascular, las SHR presentaron mayor PAS, humedad pulmonar, hipertrofia y fibrosis intersticial miocárdica en cuanto a las WKYs (pBACKGROUND: Although a high fat diet (HFD promotes nutritional and heart disorders, few studies have assessed its influence in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the nutritional and cardiovascular profiles of WKY and SHR on a high fat diet. METHODS: 20 WKY and 20 SHR were divided into four groups: Control-WKY (C-WKY, HFD-WKY, Control-SHR (C-SHR and HFD-SHR. The C and HFD groups received, respectively, a normocaloric diet and a HFD for 20 weeks. The following features were evaluated: body weight (BW, adiposity, blood glucose, serum lipids, with measurements of total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, insulin and leptin. The cardiovascular study included the systolic blood pressure (SBP, a cardiopulmonary anatomical evaluation, an echocardiography and heart histology. RESULTS: The SHR had BW, adiposity, glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, leptin and insulin levels lower than the WKY. In SHR, the caloric intake increased with HFD. In WKY, the HFD increased energy efficiency, adiposity and blood leptin, and reduced glucose. In the cardiovascular assessment, the SHR had SBP, pulmonary moisture, myocardial hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis higher than the WKY (p <0.01; the cardiac function was similar in both strains. The HFD reduced the ventricular systolic diameter in the WKY and increased the mitral E

  13. Consciousness: function and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, E

    1994-07-01

    The term "consciousness" plays an enormous role in the clinical assessment of patients and also in psychophysiological considerations. It has often been said that consciousness is a term that defies definition. This lack of definability, however, might be more apparent than real. In the multitude of facets, three main components can be singled out: a) vigilance, b) mental contents and c) selective attention. Vigilance, not to be equated with consciousness, is most amenable to electrophysiological studies. The stages of sleep have fairly well standardized EEG correlates, unlike the comatose states. The overflowing wealth of mental contents is constantly adjusted to momentary needs by the mechanism of selective attention. Awareness is a subcomponent and differs from both vigilance and consciousness. Emotionality is particularly important among the variety of further subcomponents. The time factor must be taken into account in order to understand the dynamics and fluctuations of consciousness.

  14. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  15. Inner Consciousness Tindakan Nabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Helmi Umam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is written to examine deeds and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him within inner consciousness analysis of Husserl’s phenomenology. The article is formulated to explore the significance of phenomenology of religious study, Prophet’s deeds as well as his inner consciousness, and inner consciousness analysis of Prophet’s deeds. This article is written using phenomenological method, i.e. a comprehensive interpretation about the source of information or object’s phenomenon as long as it can be traced. Inner consciousness of Prophet’s actions sees that his deeds in deciding important religious pronouncements were results of long-term memory based on divine and social argumentations, which have came into Prophet’s consciousness as a human.

  16. The Labdane Ent-3-Acetoxy-Labda-8(17), 13-Dien-15-Oic Decreases Blood Pressure In Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simplicio, Janaina A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Simão, Marilia R.; Ambrosio, Sergio R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências e Tecnologia - Universidade de Franca (UNIFRAN), Franca, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas - Laboratório de Farmacologia - Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Labdane-type diterpenes induce lower blood pressure via relaxation of vascular smooth muscle; however, there are no studies describing the effects of labdanes in hypertensive rats. The present study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular actions of the labdane-type diterpene ent-3-acetoxy-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15-oic acid (labda-15-oic acid) in two-kidney 1 clip (2K-1C) renal hypertension. Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in aortic rings isolated from 2K-1C and normotensive (2K) male Wistar rats. Nitrate/nitrite (NOx) measurement was performed in aortas by colorimetric assay. Blood pressure measurements were performed in conscious rats. Labda-15-oic acid (0.1-300 µmol/l) and forskolin (0.1 nmol/l - 1 µmol/l) relaxed endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortas from both 2K-1C and 2K rats. Labda-15-oic acid was more effective at inducing relaxation in endothelium-intact aortas from 2K pre-contracted with phenylephrine when compared to the endothelium-denuded ones. Forskolin was more potent than labda-15-oic acid at inducing vascular relaxation in arteries from both 2K and 2K-1C rats. Labda-15-oic acid-induced increase in NOx levels was lower in arteries from 2K-1C rats when compared to 2K rats. Intravenous administration of labda-15-oic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg) or forskolin (0.1-1 mg/kg) induced hypotension in conscious 2K-1C and 2K rats. The present findings show that labda-15-oic acid induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in hypertensive rats.

  17. Science, conscience, consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Descartes' metaphysics lays the foundation for the special sciences, and the notion of consciousness ("conscientia") belongs to metaphysics rather than to psychology. I argue that as a metaphysical notion, "consciousness" refers to an epistemic version of moral conscience. As a consequence, the activity on which science is based turns out to be conscientious thought. The consciousness that makes science possible is a double awareness: the awareness of what one is thinking, of what one should be doing, and of the possibility of a gap between the two.

  18. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  19. Baseline brain energy supports the state of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L

    2009-07-07

    An individual, human or animal, is defined to be in a conscious state empirically by the behavioral ability to respond meaningfully to stimuli, whereas the loss of consciousness is defined by unresponsiveness. PET measurements of glucose or oxygen consumption show a widespread approximately 45% reduction in cerebral energy consumption with anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness. Because baseline brain energy consumption has been shown by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be almost exclusively dedicated to neuronal signaling, we propose that the high level of brain energy is a necessary property of the conscious state. Two additional neuronal properties of the conscious state change with anesthesia. The delocalized fMRI activity patterns in rat brain during sensory stimulation at a higher energy state (close to the awake) collapse to a contralateral somatosensory response at lower energy state (deep anesthesia). Firing rates of an ensemble of neurons in the rat somatosensory cortex shift from the gamma-band range (20-40 Hz) at higher energy state to energy state. With the conscious state defined by the individual's behavior and maintained by high cerebral energy, measurable properties of that state are the widespread fMRI patterns and high frequency neuronal activity, both of which support the extensive interregional communication characteristic of consciousness. This usage of high brain energies when the person is in the "state" of consciousness differs from most studies, which attend the smaller energy increments observed during the stimulations that form the "contents" of that state.

  20. Homing in on consciousness: Why is a dream conscious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Helene Sophrin

    2016-01-01

    Morsella et al. argue convincingly that consciousness is for adaptive voluntary action. What, then, is consciousness in a dream for? Two prior questions present themselves. In a dream, how do contents get into the conscious field? What are the properties of consciousness in a dream?

  1. Essential hypertensive controlled and normotensive patients. If there are differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Syvolap

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is a modern method of blood pressure (BP investigation recommended by international scientific associations for diagnostics of essential hypertension (EH. However, there are some methodological aspects which are not regulated. Particularly, ABPM parameters have not yet established for those patients in different age groups and pathologies. The aim of the study was to determine peculiarities of ABPM parameters in treated controlled hypertensive and normotensive patients. Materials and methods. 71 patients were included into the study and divided into two groups according to the level of 24-h systolic BP (SBP and 24-h diastolic BP (DBP. There were 50 controlled patients with EH in the first group and 21 normotensive individuals without EH in the second group. Results. In EH patients and normotensive individuals we had statistician difference of such parameters, like the hypertension time index (TI of day SBP parameters (20 (8–31 % vs. 8 (4–18 %; р=0.040; of the square index (SI of hypertension (24 (11–41 mm2/h vs. 8 (2–23 mm2/h; р=0.021; of the square index normalized (SIN of hypertension (1.4 (0.6–2.4 U vs. 0.4 (0.1–1.2 U; р=0.018, and the morning surge of SBP (45±14 mm Hg vs. 37±14 mm Hg; р=0.028, respectively. There is no different in other ABPM parameters. Conclusion. The present data shows that treated controlled hypertensive patients and individuals without EH have statistician difference only in daily SBP of hypertensive indexes (TI, SI, SIN and the morning surge of SBP. The other ABPM parameters, included new one, such as the arterial stiffness index, did not represent statistical difference between groups.

  2. Phentolamine tests and catecholamine levels in normotensive CVA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R

    1974-11-01

    Ten normotensive patients diagnosed as having a CVA had Regitine tests and urinary VMA and catecholamine determinations during the first day of hospitalization. The VMA and catecholamine levels were all within normal limits (except for one elevated VMA level) but did not correlate well with each other. The average response to phentolamine was an average drop in blood pressure of 30mm. Hg systolic and 19 mm. Hg diastolic. Mechanisms by which hypertensive states or cerebral damage might effect blood pressure are discussed. It is suggested that CNS damage might induce a vasolabile or hypersensitive state via connections and consequent alterations in the autonomic vasomotor system.

  3. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  4. Logical Evaluation of Consciousness: For Incorporating Consciousness into Machine Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy, C. N.; Panda, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Machine Consciousness is the study of consciousness in a biological, philosophical, mathematical and physical perspective and designing a model that can fit into a programmable system architecture. Prime objective of the study is to make the system architecture behave consciously like a biological model does. Present work has developed a feasible definition of consciousness, that characterizes consciousness with four parameters i.e., parasitic, symbiotic, self referral and reproduction. Prese...

  5. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  6. [Consciousness and the electroencephalogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Vladyka, V; Subrt, O

    1991-08-01

    In the course of 12 years the authors subjected to clinical EEG and stereo-EEG (SEEG) 72 patients (66 epileptics with the diagnosis of psychomotor epilepsy and grand mal) and six psychotic patients suffering from schizophrenia. With the exception of five epileptics and two psychotic patients all subjects had epileptic foci in the amygdalohippocampal complex (AHK). After coagulation of these foci marked improvement of the fits and the mental state occurred in half the patients. During EEG and SEEG recording the authors used different activation methods (hyperventilation through the nose and mouth, sleep, listening to music) and above all direct electric stimulation (ES) of one of the AHK. Secondary epileptic foci had, as a rule, more spikes and a lower threshold for ES than primary ones which contained more delta and slow theta waves. The ES led as a rule to an emotional response, such as anxiety and fear, more rarely to illusions, depersonalization and oneiroid hallucinations and twice to a hedonic response of non-sexual character. The purpose of ES was to assess the site from where it is possible to start the original aura or typical parox. The authors considered these foci, consistent with data in the literature, as the leading focus and it was subsequently coagulated. The authors investigated the reactivity and vigility by the patient's response to sound (the patient had to press a button) and by an interview with the patient. It was revealed that in isolated discharges of the spikes and waves in the scalp electrodes, i.e. in the neocortex, reactivity is lacking. In isolated discharges in the AHK the reactivity was satisfactory, but as a rule anxiety developed. It is thus possible to divide consciousness into emotional consciousness with its site in the AHK, i.e. in the limbic system, and rational consciousness which is a function of the neocrotical system. Congenital changes of consciousness such as vigility or sleep are described as "states" of consciousness

  7. Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Max

    1996-01-01

    Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...

  8. Cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in normotensive and hypertensive man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tominaga, S; Strandgaard, S; Uemura, K

    1976-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 inhalation and voluntary hyperventilation was studied in seven normotensive subjects and nine hypertensive patients without clinical or angiographical signs of arteriosclerosis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the intracarotid 133Xe clearance method...... and calculated as the initial slope index. Three to five CBF measurements were made in each patient in the PaCO2 range of 20 to 55 mm Hg. No difference was observed in reactivity between hypertensive and normotensive patients, either during CO2 inhalation or during hyperventilation. The shape of the CBF:PaCO2...... curve suggested a decrease in reactivity below a PaCO2 of 30 to 35 mm Hg in both groups. Above a PaCO2 of 35 mm Hg, exponential regression analysis yielded a mean reactivity of 6 +/- 2%, whereas below a PaCO2 of 30 mm Hg it was about 2%. The rise in CBF during CO2 inhalation was not influenced...

  9. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  10. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; UCL Institute of Neurology, London; Nani, Andrea; Blumenfeld, Hal; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  11. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  12. Cajal and consciousness. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuán, P C

    2001-04-01

    One hundred years after Santiago Ramón Cajal established the bases of modern neuroscience in his masterpiece Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados, the question is stated again: What is the status of consciousness today? The responses in this book, by contemporary leading figures of neuroscience, evolution, molecular biology, computer science, and quantum physics, collectively compose a fascinating conceptual landscape. Both the evolutionary emergence of consciousness and its development towards the highest level may be analyzed by a wealth of new theories and hypotheses, including Cajal's prescient ones. Some noticeable gaps remain, however. Celebrating the centennial of Textura is a timely occasion to reassess how close--and how far--our system of the sciences is to explaining consciousness.

  13. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  14. Consciousness in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Chamcham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far we can identify at least three concepts within modern cosmology that bring into debate the question of consciousness in the universe: 1 Fine Tuning; 2 The Anthropic Principle and 3 The Multiverse. This does not exclude the question of the role of observer (i.e. consciousness in cosmology as developed within Quantum Physics: we observe the universe through quanta and any breakthrough in understanding the origin and nature of the universe will come only through a quantum theory of gravity […

  15. A framework for consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    2003-02-01

    Here we summarize our present approach to the problem of consciousness. After an introduction outlining our general strategy, we describe what is meant by the term 'framework' and set it out under ten headings. This framework offers a coherent scheme for explaining the neural correlates of (visual) consciousness in terms of competing cellular assemblies. Most of the ideas we favor have been suggested before, but their combination is original. We also outline some general experimental approaches to the problem and, finally, acknowledge some relevant aspects of the brain that have been left out of the proposed framework.

  16. EFFECTS OF RAMADAN FASTING ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN NORMOTENSIVE MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Fatima; Qazi, Fahd; Pervaiz, Mohammad B; Kella, Danesh K; Mansoor, Maryah; Osmani, Bushra Z; Mir, Fazia; Kadir, Muhammad Masood

    2015-01-01

    Research has been done to investigate the effect of intermittent complete fasting on human physiological parameters but the effect of fasting on blood pressure remains relatively unexplored. Research in animal models suggests a hypotensive effect with an undetermined mechanism. Muslims worldwide fast daily from dawn to dusk throughout the Islamic month of Ramadan. This study was to investigate the proposed hypotensive effect of Ramadan fasting in males over A period of 20 days and to study the relationship of the pattern of blood pressure variation with body mass index change. A repeated measures observational study design was implemented with convenient sampling. Study group included 40 normotensive, non-smoker males with no known comorbidities between the ages of 18-40 who fasted daily in the month of Ramadan. One set of BP readings, each, was taken one week before the start of Ramadan and on the 7th, 14th and 21st day of Ramadan which included pre and post Iftar measurements along with other variables. Data was analysed by repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS. The differences were compared with critical values generated by Tukey's Method. There was a significant drop in systolic BP of 7.61 mmHg before Iftar, 2.72 mm-Hg after Iftar (peffect of Ramadan on diastolic BP (p<0.005), the drop being 3.19 mmHg. The drop in body mass index was significant only before Iftar at 0.3 kg/m2 (p<0.005). Pulse rate showed a significant drop of 7.79 bpm before Iftar and a significant rise of 3.96 bpm (p<0.005). Intermittent fasting causes a drop in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normotensive males.

  17. Neural correlates of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neural cells.1 Under this approach, consciousness is believed to be a product of the ... possible only when the 40 Hz electrical hum is sustained among the brain circuits, ... expect the brain stem ascending reticular activating system. (ARAS) and the ... related synchrony of cortical neurons.11 Indeed, stimulation of brainstem ...

  18. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  19. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  20. Cybernetics and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabka, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a review of hypotheses of consciousness which arose from application of the theory of information and regulation and the cybernetic theory of mathematical machines in medicine. The author presents these hypotheses on the examples of his own works.

  1. Consciousness and biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, B I

    1997-08-21

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  2. Effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on local cerebral glucose utilization, by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy [14C] glucose method, in conscious and pentobarbitalized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Y.; Narumi, S.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakurada, O.; Ueno, H.; Ishii, S.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of TRH and pentobarbital alone, and in combination, on local cerebral glucose utilization of rats were studied by the autoradiographic 2-deoxy[ 14 C] glucose method. TRH (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced the rate of cerebral glucose utilization slightly in the whole brain. Locally, significant depression was observed in the following structures: frontal and visual cortices, hippocampus Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, medial and lateral geniculate bodies, nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, pontine gray matter, superior colliculus, superior olivary nucleus, vestibular nucleus, lateral lemniscus and cerebellar cortex. Pentobarbital (30 mg/kg i.v.) produced a marked and diffuse reduction in the rate of glucose utilization throughout the brain. TRH given 15 min after the administration of pentobarbital markedly shortened the pentobarbital sleeping time and caused some reversal of the depression in local cerebral glucose utilization produced by pentobarbital., These effects were almost completely abolished by pretreatment with intracerebroventricular injection of atropine methyl bromide (20 μg/rat). These results indicate that although TRH acts to cause a reduction in the rate of cerebral glucose utilization, it reverses the depression induced by pentobarbital, via a cholinergic mechanism, in a number of structures, some of which are related to monoaminergic systems and the reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system. (author)

  3. Pain and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Bastuji, Hélène

    2017-10-12

    The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain. Expectations and beliefs can still modulate the conscious experience via activity in supramodal regions with widespread cortical projections such as the ventral tegmental area. Intracortical EEG responses in humans show that nociceptive cortical processing is initiated in parallel in sensory, motor and limbic areas; it progresses rapidly to the recruitment of anterior insular and fronto-parietal networks, and finally to the activation of perigenual, posterior cingulate and hippocampal structures. Functional connectivity between sensory and high-level networks increases during the first second post-stimulus, which may be determinant for access to consciousness. A model is described, progressing from unconscious sensori-motor and limbic processing of spinothalamic and spino-parabrachial input, to an immediate sense of awareness supported by coordinated activity in sensorimotor and fronto-parieto-insular networks, and leading to full declarative consciousness through integration with autobiographical memories and self-awareness, involving posterior cingulate and medial temporal areas. This complete sequence is only present during full vigilance states. We contend, however, that even in unconscious subjects, repeated limbic and vegetative activation by painful stimuli via spino-amygdalar pathways can generate implicit memory traces and

  4. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals

  5. [Effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (Acupuncture Technique for Restoring Consciousness) Combined with Rehabilitation Training on Nerve Repair and Expression of Growth-associated Protein-43 of Peri-ischemic Cortex in Ischemic Stroke Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yan, Xing-Zhou; Li, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Min

    2017-06-25

    To observe the effect of "Xingnao Kaiqiao Zhenfa" (acupuncture technique for restoring consciousness) combined with enriched rehabilitation training on motor function and expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) of peri-ischemic cortex in ischemic stroke rats, so as to investigate its mechanism underlying improvement of ischemic stroke. SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups, which were further divided into 3 time-points:7, 14 and 21 d ( n =6 in each). Cerebral ischemia(CI) model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with heat-coagulation. The rehabilitation group was treated by enriched rehabilitation training, once a day. The comprehensive rehabilitation group was treated by acupuncture combined with enriched rehabilitation training. Acupuncture was applied to bilateral "Neiguan"(PC 6) and "Shuigou"(GV 26) for 30 min, once a day. The neurological function score, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were evaluated at the end of the corresponding treatment time. The expression of GAP-43 in peri-ischemic cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry. In comparison with the sham operation group, the scores of neurological function, beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly higher in the model group ( P beam walking and rotating-rod walking tests in the rehabilitation group compared with the model group on day 7 ( P >0.05). Compared with the model group at the other time points, the scores of neurological function, balance-beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the rehabilitation and comprehensive rehabilitation groups ( P beam walking test and rotating-rod walking test were significantly lower in the comprehensive rehabilitation group ( P <0.05). In comparison with the sham operation group, the number of GAP-43 positive cells of peri-ischemic cortex was significantly higher in the

  6. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  7. Strain differences in baroceptor reflex in adult Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A subset of normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats show lower baroreflex sensitivity; however, no previous study investigated whether there are differences in baroreflex sensitivity within this subset. Our study compared baroreflex sensitivity among conscious rats of this specific subtype. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats (16 weeks old were studied. Cannulas were inserted into the abdominal aortic artery through the right femoral artery to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR. Baroreflex gain was calculated as the ratio between change in HR and MAP variation (ΔHR/ΔMAP in response to a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 50 µg/kg, i.v. and a pressor dose of phenylephrine (PE, 8 µg/kg, i.v.. Rats were divided into four groups: 1 low bradycardic baroreflex (LB, baroreflex gain (BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 2 high bradycardic baroreflex (HB, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with PE; 3 low tachycardic baroreflex (LT, BG between -1 and -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP and; 4 high tachycardic baroreflex (HT, BG < -2 bpm/mmHg tested with SNP. Significant differences were considered for p < 0.05. RESULTS: Approximately 37% of the rats showed a reduced bradycardic peak, bradycardic reflex and decreased bradycardic gain of baroreflex while roughly 23% had a decreased basal HR, tachycardic peak, tachycardic reflex and reduced sympathetic baroreflex gain. No significant alterations were noted with regard to basal MAP. CONCLUSION: There is variability regarding baroreflex sensitivity among WKY rats from the same laboratory.

  8. Psychotherapy, consciousness, and brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCollerton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purely psychological treatments for emotional distress produce lasting, measureable, and reproducible changes in cognitive and emotional consciousness and brain function. How these changes come about illustrates the interplay between brain and consciousness. Studies of the effects of psychotherapy highlight the holistic nature of consciousness. Pre and post treatment functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging localises the brain changes following psychotherapy to frontal, cingulate, and limbic circuits, but emphasise that these areas support a wide range of conscious experiences. Multivoxel Pattern Analysis of distributed changes in function across these brain areas may be able to provide the ability to distinguish between different states of consciousness.

  9. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  10. Concomitant inhibition of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and stimulation of prolactin release by prostacyclin (PGI2) in ovariectomized (OVX) conscious rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottlecz, A.; McCann, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) or its stable metabolite, 6-keto-PGF/sub 1 alpha/ in 2.5 μl 0.05 M phosphate buffer, was injected into the third ventricle (3 V) of ovariectomized (OVX), freely moving rats. Control animals received 2.5 μl of buffer. In the initial experiments a control blood sample was taken and then the PGI 2 was injected and frequent samples taken thereafter. With this protocol injection of 2 μg of PGI 2 produced a significant decrease in mean plasma LH only at 60 min after its injection, while the higher dose decreased plasma LH concentration at 30 and 60 min. In subsequent experiments, blood was removed from indwelling external jugular vein cannulae every 5-6 min during 2 hours and plasma LH and PRL levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. LH pulses were monitored and several parameters of LH pulsation were calculated during the hour before and after injection of phosphate buffer, PGI 2 or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1a/. Intraventricular injection of phosphate buffer failed to modify the characteristic pulsatile release of LH and did not alter plasma PRL levels. The amplitude of LH pulses was significantly reduced by PGI 2 and the inhibitory effect was dose-related. Even a dose of 1 μg produced a significant reduction in pulse height and the response was graded with maximal reduction occurring with the 5 μg dose which essentially abolished the LH pulses

  11. Electroencephalography in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies and subsequent quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Brussé (Ingrid); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); I. Meester (Ivette); G. Jansen (Gerard); D. Rizopoulos (Dimitris); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.H. Visser (Gerhard H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To compare electroencephalography (EEG) findings during pregnancy and postpartum in women with normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. Also the health related quality of life postpartum was related to these EEG findings. Materials and

  12. Abnormal endothelium-dependent microvascular dilator reactivity in pregnancies complicated by normotensive intrauterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.M.; Blaauw, Judith; van Pampus, Maria; Rakhorst, G.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon

  13. Acute and transient activation of pituitary-thyroid axis during unforced restriction in rats: component of nonshivering thermogenesis in conscious animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Földes, O; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 6-8 male Wistar Olac SPF rats weighing about 300 g were subjected to unforced restriction (UR) in small cages with a metallic bottom and a Plexiglas cover for various intervals from 2 min to 72 h. An acute activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis was found which was manifested by an increase of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels at 2-5 min of UR. This was presumably due to the emotional effect of a rapid transfer and to the placing of the animals into restriction cages. Later, between 3 and 6 h of UR, another, and more pronounced period of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and of the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism was repeatedly observed which lasted until about 36-48 h and was manifested by a highly significant increase of TSH, T4, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. It was concluded that this phenomenon presumably may be a component of nonshivering thermogenesis resulting from a decreased muscular activity and resembling the conditions occurring under cold stress. Such a view was supported by findings of highly increased nonesterified fatty acid levels in plasma in restricted animals, by unchanged levels of TSH and thyroid hormones found in unrestricted animals kept individually in regular group cages and, finally, by a preventive effect of ambient temperature of 32 degrees C on the pituitary-thyroid activation at 6 h of UR. In some experiments, no substantial differences in hormone levels were found between the animals kept in Plexiglas or stainless wire-mesh restriction cages. Finally, a multifold increase of prolactin level in plasma was found as early as 2 min of UR, the peak being observed between 5 and 20 min and a decrease to about the initial level at about 360 min.

  14. Modulation of mGlu2 Receptors, but Not PDE10A Inhibition Normalizes Pharmacologically-Induced Deviance in Auditory Evoked Potentials and Oscillations in Conscious Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahnaou

    Full Text Available Improvement of cognitive impairments represents a high medical need in the development of new antipsychotics. Aberrant EEG gamma oscillations and reductions in the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude of the auditory evoked potential (AEP are neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia that indicate disruption in sensory information processing. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (i.e. PDE10A and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2 signaling are believed to provide antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this occurs with cognition-enhancing potential. The present study used the auditory paired click paradigm in passive awake Sprague Dawley rats to 1 model disruption of AEP waveforms and oscillations as observed in schizophrenia by peripheral administration of amphetamine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP; 2 confirm the potential of the antipsychotics risperidone and olanzapine to attenuate these disruptions; 3 evaluate the potential of mGluR2 agonist LY404039 and PDE10 inhibitor PQ-10 to improve AEP deficits in both the amphetamine and PCP models. PCP and amphetamine disrupted auditory information processing to the first click, associated with suppression of the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude, and increased cortical gamma oscillations. Risperidone and olanzapine normalized PCP and amphetamine-induced abnormalities in AEP waveforms and aberrant gamma/alpha oscillations, respectively. LY404039 increased P1/N1 complex peak amplitudes and potently attenuated the disruptive effects of both PCP and amphetamine on AEPs amplitudes and oscillations. However, PQ-10 failed to show such effect in either models. These outcomes indicate that modulation of the mGluR2 results in effective restoration of abnormalities in AEP components in two widely used animal models of psychosis, whereas PDE10A inhibition does not.

  15. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blo...

  16. [Self-consciousness, consciousness of the other and dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Roger

    2007-06-01

    Studies of self-consciousness in dementia concern essentially anosognosia or the loss of insight. However, Self-consciousness is multifaceted: it includes awareness of the body, perceptions, one's own history, identity, and one's own projects. Self-consciousness is linked to consciousness of others i.e. to social cognition supported by identification of others, but also by comprehension of facial expression of emotions, comprehension and expression of emotional prosody, pragmatic abilities, ability to infer other's people's mental states, thoughts, and feelings (theory of mind and empathy), knowledge of social norms and rules, social reasoning. The subtypes of dementias (and namely Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia) affect heterogeneously the different aspects of the self-and other-consciousness. Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of the complex relationship between Self-consciousness, social cognition, decision making and neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances occurring in demented patients.

  17. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2016-01-01

    Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG.......0001)) and to show preserved functional cortical connectivity during passive paradigms (55% vs 26%; OR 3.53 (95% CI 2.49 to 4.99; ppreserved consciousness more often than active paradigms (38% vs 24%; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.54; p... were insufficient for statistical evaluation. In conclusion, active paradigms may underestimate the degree of consciousness as compared to passive paradigms. While MCS patients show signs of preserved consciousness more frequently in both paradigms, roughly 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis...

  18. The biological function of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eEarl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one’s ongoing experience—influences one’s behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1 contrary to one’s intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2 consciousness does have a biological function; and (3 consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc., is incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness.

  19. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  20. The Neurogenetic Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, John K.

    2013-09-01

    The neurogenetic correlates of consciousness (NgCC) is a new field of consciousness studies that focuses on genes that have an effect on or are involved in the continuum of neuron-based consciousness. A framework of consciousness based on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has already been established by Francis Crick and Christof Kock. In this work I propose that there are NgCC underlying the NCC which are both active during the conscious experience. So how are genes involved? There are two significant connections between DNA and neurons that are involved in the conscious experience. First, any brain system can be adversely affected by underlying genetic abnormalities which can be expressed in an individual at birth, in adulthood, or later in life. Second, the DNA molecule does not lay dormant while the neuron runs on autopilot. DNA is active in translating and transcribing RNA and protein products that are utilized during neuron functioning. Without these products being continuously produced by the DNA during a conscious experience the neurons would cease to function correctly and be rendered unable to provide a continuum of human consciousness. Consequently, in addition to NCC, NgCC must be factored in when appreciating a conscious event. In this work I will discuss and explain some NgCC citing several examples.

  1. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  2. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  3. Animal Mind and Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Richterová, Klaudie

    2017-01-01

    Název diplomové práce: Mysl a vědomí u zvířat Vedoucí práce: prof. Karel Thein, Ph.D. Vypracovala: Bc. Klaudie Richterová Abstract This thesis examines the issue of cognition, mind and consciousness of living beings other than humans. It starts with the attitudes of two contemporary thinkers: Thomas Nagel and Daniel C. Dennett. In connection with their opinions, this thesis examines a certain number of questions: Might there be something like a subjective experience of life or being? How can ...

  4. Study of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a powerful organ that controls most of the body. Researchers around the world have long tried to uncover how the brain operates, how memories are formed and stored. Our understanding of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease has been rapidly improving, yet much remains to be done. In this work, we attempt to study changes in intracranial pressure (ICP for a 12-hour period and discuss whether the resulting estimates could be used as a measure of consciousness.

  5. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion...... and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced......-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results...

  6. Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Recent evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) lends support to two central theses in Lamme's theory. The earliest ERP correlate of visual consciousness appears over posterior visual cortex around 100-200 ms after stimulus onset. Its scalp topography and time window are consistent with recurrent processing in the visual cortex. This electrophysiological correlate of visual consciousness is mostly independent of later ERPs reflecting selective attention and working memory functions. Overall, the ERP evidence supports the view that phenomenal consciousness of a visual stimulus emerges earlier than access consciousness, and that attention and awareness are served by distinct neural processes.

  7. Muscular strength and incident hypertension in normotensive and prehypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N

    2010-02-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Participants were 4147 men (age = 20-82 yr) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a one-repetition maximal leg and a one-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. During a mean follow-up of 19 yr, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in normotensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HR of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle- and high-strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (P = 0.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (P = 0.26). The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF.

  8. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  9. Placental oxidative stress and maternal endothelial function in pregnant women with normotensive fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Atsumi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between placental oxidative stress and maternal endothelial function in pregnant women with normotensive fetal growth restriction (FGR). We examined serum concentrations of oxygen free radicals (d-ROMs), maternal angiogenic factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1, placental oxidative DNA damage, and maternal endothelial function in 17 women with early-onset preeclampsia (PE), 18 with late-onset PE, 14 with normotensive FGR, and 21 controls. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed as a marker of maternal endothelial function. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure the proportion of placental trophoblast cell nuclei staining positive for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Maternal serum d-ROM, sFlt-1 concentrations, and FMD did not significantly differ between the control and normotensive FGR groups. The proportion of nuclei staining positive for 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the normotensive FGR group relative to the control group. Our findings demonstrate that, despite the presence of placental oxidative DNA damage as observed in PE patients, pregnant women with normotensive FGR show no increase in the concentrations of sFlt-1 and d-ROMs, or a decrease in FMD.

  10. Serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D Level In Preeclamptic And Normotensive Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, N.; Shahzad, F.; Akmal, A.; Tauseef, A.; Sabir, S.; Shumaela Kanwal, S.; Zulfiqar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute, Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, in collaboration with Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from March 2012 to April 2012. Methodology: Thirty registered preeclamptic patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg on more than two occasions, 6 hours apart, and proteinuria at least 300 mg in 24-hour urine collection; and 30 normotensive uncomplicated pregnant women matched for age, gestational age, parity and BMI were included by convenient sampling technique. Vitamin D levels of less than 50 n mol/l (< 20 ng/ml) was the cutoff point. Spearman's rank correlation of vitamin D with systolic blood pressure and arterial pressure in both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women was presented in a tabulated form. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was found in 95 percent of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. The difference of vitamin D level between the two groups was not found significant. Although there was an inverse correlation between serum vitamin D and systolic blood pressure and arterial pressure in preeclamptic group, but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency does not seem to be affected by the state of preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancy. The correlation of systolic blood pressure and arterial pressure and vitamin D needs to be explored further by increasing the sample size. (author)

  11. Conscience and consciousness: a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, G; Muresanu, D F

    2014-03-15

    While consciousness has been examined extensively in its different aspects, like in philosophy, psychiatry, neurophysiology, neuroplasticity, etc., conscience though it is an equal important aspect of the human existence, which remains an unknown to a great degree as an almost transcendental aspect of the human mind. It has not been examined as thoroughly as consciousness and largely remains a "terra incognita" for its neurophysiology, brain topography, etc. Conscience and consciousness are part of a system of information that governs our experience and decision making process. The intent of this paper is to define these terms, to discuss about consciousness from both neurological and quantum physics point of view, the relationship between the dynamics of consciousness and neuroplasticity and to highlight the relationship between conscience, stress and health.

  12. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszynski, Jack A

    2006-01-01

    Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...

  13. Perceptual consciousness overflows cognitive access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Ned

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important issues concerning the foundations of conscious perception centers on the question of whether perceptual consciousness is rich or sparse. The overflow argument uses a form of 'iconic memory' to argue that perceptual consciousness is richer (i.e., has a higher capacity) than cognitive access: when observing a complex scene we are conscious of more than we can report or think about. Recently, the overflow argument has been challenged both empirically and conceptually. This paper reviews the controversy, arguing that proponents of sparse perception are committed to the postulation of (i) a peculiar kind of generic conscious representation that has no independent rationale and (ii) an unmotivated form of unconscious representation that in some cases conflicts with what we know about unconscious representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptual integration without conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J; van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N L; Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2017-04-04

    The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input. However, despite conscious access being impaired, the ability to decode the presence of integrated percepts remains intact, as shown through multivariate classification analyses of electroencephalogram (EEG) data. In contrast, when disrupting perception through masking, decisions about integrated percepts and decoding of integrated percepts are impaired in tandem, while leaving feedforward representations intact. Together, these data show that access consciousness and perceptual integration can be dissociated.

  15. Unprovoked atrial tachyarrhythmias in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scridon, Alina; Gallet, Clément; Arisha, Moussa M; Oréa, Valérie; Chapuis, Bruno; Li, Na; Tabib, Alain; Christé, Georges; Barrès, Christian; Julien, Claude; Chevalier, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Experimental models of unprovoked atrial tachyarrhythmias (AT) in conscious, ambulatory animals are lacking. We hypothesized that the aging, spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) may provide such a model. Baseline ECG recordings were acquired with radiotelemetry in eight young (14-wk-old) and eight aging (55-wk-old) SHRs and in two groups of four age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Quantification of AT and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis were performed based on 24-h ECG recordings in unrestrained rats. All animals were submitted to an emotional stress protocol (air-jet). In SHRs, carbamylcholine injections were also performed. Spontaneous AT episodes were observed in all eight aging SHRs (median, 91.5; range, 4-444 episodes/24 h), but not in young SHRs or WKY rats. HRV analysis demonstrated significantly decreased low frequency components in aging SHRs compared with age-matched WKY rats (P aging (P = 0.01) SHRs compared with normotensive controls. In aging SHRs, emotional stress significantly reduced the number of arrhythmic events, whereas carbamylcholine triggered AT and significantly increased atrial electrical instability. This study reports the occurrence of unprovoked episodes of atrial arrhythmia in hypertensive rats, and their increased incidence with aging. Our results suggest that autonomic imbalance with relative vagal hyperactivity may be responsible for the increased atrial arrhythmogenicity observed in this model. We also provide evidence that, in this model, the sympatho-vagal imbalance preceded the occurrence of arrhythmia. These results indicate that aging SHRs may provide valuable insight into the understanding of atrial arrhythmias.

  16. Uric acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance and birthweight in normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughon, S Katherine; Catov, Janet; Roberts, James M

    2009-12-01

    We sought to investigate whether uric acid concentrations are increased in pregnant women with insulin resistance and to correlate both with fetal growth. Uric acid, glucose, and insulin were measured in plasma at 20.4 (+/-2.0) weeks' gestation in 263 women. The association between uric acid and insulin resistance, as estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), was analyzed and related to birthweights. In 212 (80.6%) women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy, HOMA increased 1.23 U per 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.42; P=.003). Infants born to normotensive women in the upper quartile of uric acid and lowest HOMA quartile weighed 435.6 g less than infants of women with highest uric acid and HOMA quartiles (Pinsulin resistance in midpregnancy. Hyperuricemia was associated with lower birthweight in normotensive women, and this effect was attenuated by insulin resistance.

  17. Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of etomidate between hypertensive and normotensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Daşkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparison of the hemodynamic effect of ethomidate induction in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Methods: Forty ASA 1-2 patients were included. After informed consent were obtained, patients were divided into two group; Group H: Hypertensive patients, Group N: Normotensive patients. Fentanile and midazolam were administrated for premedication. Anesthesia induction was performed by etomidate 0.3 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Arterial pressures and heart rates were measured at certain intervals: control, pre-intubation and 1, 3 and 5 min post-intubation. Myoclonic movements and hemodynamic parameters were noted by an anesthetist who was masked to the groups. Results: Hemodynamic parameters were higher in hypertensive patients but were in clinically tolerable limits. Conclusion: No hemodynamic instability was observed in anesthesia induction with ethomidate in neither hypertensive nor normotensive patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 164-168

  18. Sodium homeostasis in lymphocytes and blood pressure alterations before and during salt restriction in normotensives and in essential hypertensives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jest, P; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, lymphocytic sodium content and sodium efflux were studied in hypertensive and normotensive subjects during salt restriction. Diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups. In essential hypertension the initial high lymphocyte sodium content decreased during salt...... mechanisms with regard to lymphocyte sodium metabolism differs between hypertensive and normotensive subjects....

  19. Elevated levels of protein AMBP in cerebrospinal fluid of women with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Van Den Berg (Caroline); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); C. Güzel (Coşkun); Hansson, S.R. (Stefan R.); T.G. de Leeuw (Tom); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Versendaal, J. (Johannes); T.M. Luider (Theo); M.P. Stoop (Marcel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To investigate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome of patients with preeclampsia (PE) and normotensive pregnant women, in order to provide a better understanding of brain involvement in PE. Experimental design: Ninety-eight CSF samples (43 women with PE and 55 normotensive

  20. Consciousness: The flipside of anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    This option includes “perfect” simulation of conscious- ness, without it actually ... in particular, the search for molecular mechanisms has been greatly hindered by our .... q-bits in a distributed array of cytoskeletal proteins through- out the cell.

  1. Neurobiology of consciousness: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, J

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this review is to connect the phenomenology of consciousness to its neurobiology. A survey of the recent literature revealed the following points. (1) Comprehensive descriptions of consciousness, of its subjective as well as of its objective aspects, are both possible and necessary for its scientific study. An intentionality-modeling structure (an unified and stable ego refers to objects or to itself in the framework of a stable, reproducible, predictable world) accounts for the main features. (2) The material basis of consciousness can be clarified without recourse to new properties of matter or to quantum physics. Current neurobiology appears to be able to handle the problem. In fact, the neurobiology of consciousness is already in progress, and has achieved substantial results. At the system level, its main sources of data are: the neurophysiology of sleep-wakefulness, brain imaging of mental representations, attention and working memory, the neuropsychology of frontal syndrome, and awareness-unawareness dissociations in global amnesia and different forms of agnosia. At an intermediate level of organization, the mechanisms of consciousness may be the formation of a certain kind of neural assembly. (3) Further research may focus on neuropsychology and neurophysiology of object perception and recognition as a natural model of intentionality, perception of time, body schema, interhemispheric communications, 'voluntary' acts and mental images. The synthetic and dynamic views provided by brain imaging may be decisive for discovering the neural correlates of the integrative aspects of consciousness. (4) The neurobiological approach may, beyond the finding of cellular and molecular mechanisms, improve the general concepts of consciousness, overcome their antinomies and, against epiphenomenalism, definitely establish the reality of consciousness.

  2. Electroacupuncture Delays Hypertension Development through Enhancing NO/NOS Activity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suk Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, this study investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA could reduce early stage hypertension by examining nitric oxide (NO levels in plasma and nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels in the mesenteric resistance artery. EA was applied to the acupuncture point Governor Vessel 20 (GV20 or to a non-acupuncture point in the tail twice weekly for 3 weeks under anesthesia. In conscious SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, blood pressure was determined the day after EA treatment by the tail-cuff method. We measured plasma NO concentration, and evaluated endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower after 3 weeks of GV20 treatment than EA at non-acupuncture point and no treatment control in SHR. nNOS expression by EA was significantly different between both WKY and no treatment SHR control, and EA at GV20 in SHR. eNOS expression was significantly high in EA at GV 20 compared with no treatment control. In conclusion, EA could attenuate the blood pressure elevation of SHR, along with enhancing NO/NOS activity in the mesenteric artery in SHR.

  3. Consciousness, Psychology, and Education: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980

    This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other…

  4. Continuous measurement of the blood pressure response of normotensives and hypertensives during reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, G.W.B.; Schaap, C.; DeMey, H.; Staak, C. van der

    1996-01-01

    Experiments on the response of blood pressure (BP) to speech were critically reviewed. Based on this review, it was concluded that evidence to support the assumption that the BP response to speech is higher for hypertensives than for normotensives is insufficient. The present investigation addressed

  5. Detection of acute myocardial infarction in spontaneously hypertensive rats by /sup 99m/Tc-Pyrrolidino methyl tetracycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmbova, B; Tadzer, I; Stakic, D; Bogdanova, V; Stojanova, D

    1983-01-01

    The myocardial infarct induced by isoproterenol in spontaneously hypertensive rats accumulates higher activities of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-PM tetracycline compared with the cardiac infarct in normotensive rats caused by the same method. The isoproterenol model of the myocardial necrosis was induced in intact rats without opening the thorax and is a convenient method for experimental radioisotope studies.

  6. Artificial consciousness and the consciousness-attention dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Artificial Intelligence is at a turning point, with a substantial increase in projects aiming to implement sophisticated forms of human intelligence in machines. This research attempts to model specific forms of intelligence through brute-force search heuristics and also reproduce features of human perception and cognition, including emotions. Such goals have implications for artificial consciousness, with some arguing that it will be achievable once we overcome short-term engineering challenges. We believe, however, that phenomenal consciousness cannot be implemented in machines. This becomes clear when considering emotions and examining the dissociation between consciousness and attention in humans. While we may be able to program ethical behavior based on rules and machine learning, we will never be able to reproduce emotions or empathy by programming such control systems-these will be merely simulations. Arguments in favor of this claim include considerations about evolution, the neuropsychological aspects of emotions, and the dissociation between attention and consciousness found in humans. Ultimately, we are far from achieving artificial consciousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What Explains Consciousness? Or…What Consciousness Explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E.

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand—and shout—on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an “explanation of consciousness” in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious “vocabulary”, and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining “what consciousness explains”—metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming—as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls—a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions. PMID:24891796

  8. Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisley, Ron

    2008-10-01

    Consciousness is often thought to be that aspect of mind that is least amenable to being understood or replicated by artificial intelligence (AI). The first-personal, subjective, what-it-is-like-to-be-something nature of consciousness is thought to be untouchable by the computations, algorithms, processing and functions of AI method. Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference. The results are achieved by means of conceptual analysis and argumentation. It is shown that pessimism concerning the theoretical possibility of artificial consciousness is unfounded, based as it is on misunderstandings of AI, and a lack of awareness of the possible roles AI might play in accounting for or reproducing consciousness. This is done by making some foundational distinctions relevant to AC, and using them to show that some common reasons given for AC scepticism do not touch some of the (usually neglected) possibilities for AC, such as prosthetic, discriminative, practically necessary, and lagom (necessary-but-not-sufficient) AC. Along the way three strands of the author's work in AC--interactive empiricism, synthetic phenomenology, and ontologically conservative heterophenomenology--are used to illustrate and motivate the distinctions and the defences of AC they make possible.

  9. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J; Edelman, David B

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is "a difference that makes a difference" at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  10. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Edelman, David B.

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is “a difference that makes a difference” at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  11. Esteróide anabolizante inibe a angiogênese induzida pelo treinamento físico de natação em músculo sóleo de ratos normotensos Anabolic steroid impairs the angiogenesis induced by swimming training in soleus muscle of normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Paula Reno Soci

    2009-09-01

    damaging. To study the effects of EAA on the cardiovascular system, Wistar rats were randomized into Sedentary Control (SC, Sedentary Steroid (SA, Trained Control (TC and Trained Steroid (TA groups. We evaluated the effects of swimming training (60min/day, 5x/week during 10 week and AAS (nandrolone decanoate - 5 mg/kg sc, 2x/week on cardiac output, basal blood flow (Qb, DC basal and after injection of a vasodilator to observe the endothelium dependent vasodilatation (acetylcholine - Q Ach(Q Ach, DC Ach, capillary to fiber ratio (r c/f and vascular-endothelial growth factor expression (VEGF in soleus muscle (oxidative fibers. Serum testosterone increased in SA and TA. Exercise training significantly decreased resting heart rate. Qb was not different among groups, and QAch was higher in TC group, however in TA group this beneficial effect of swimming exercise training was lost by association with EAA. Rc/f and VEGF were higher only in TC group. These results suggest that swimming training associated with EAA inhibit angiogenesis and arteriogenesis observed as effects of aerobic training, and impairs the red skeletal muscle blood flow which predispose physically active AAS users to vascular diseases.

  12. Magnetic correlates in electromagnetic consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboff, A R

    2016-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that consciousness is a manifestation of the electromagnetic field, finding supportive factors not previously considered. It is not likely that traditional electrophysiological signaling modes can be readily transmitted throughout the brain to properly enable this field because of electric field screening arising from the ubiquitous distribution of high dielectric lipid membranes, a problem that vanishes for low-frequency magnetic fields. Many reports over the last few decades have provided evidence that living tissue is robustly sensitive to ultrasmall (1-100 nT) ELF magnetic fields overlapping the γ-frequency range often associated with awareness. An example taken from animal behavior (coherent bird flocking) lends support to the possibility of a disembodied electromagnetic consciousness. In contrast to quantum consciousness hypotheses, the present approach is open to experimental trial.

  13. Reading embodied consciousness in "Emma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbus, Antonina

    2011-01-01

    The language of Emma (1815) reflects Jane Austen's developing view of embodied consciousness and her particular interest in this novel in the physical manifestations of emotions, such as blushes and nervous responses. The discursive exploration of the inner life in Emma is the product of a cultural context that features emerging brain science and Austen's own conceptualization of the psychophysical nature of emotions. This article analyzes the language of mind and emotion in Emma, to contend that Austen grapples with the implications of the idea of embodied consciousness in a narrative that contrasts mind reading with interpreting the body.

  14. Interactive communication and political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikula Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the new communication technologies’ influence on the political consciousness formation. According to the author, today the Internet has become a kind of environment where people spend a lot of time and where the huge flow of information streams, unlimited with national borders and language barriers. This gives the Internet communication a mediating role in the display of the real world in people's minds. Such forms of interactive communication like social networks, blogs, forums and chats have a particularly important role in development of the society political consciousness.

  15. "Conscious Consumption": Ecocapitalism as Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.

  16. Ultrafine Particulate Matter Combined With Ozone Exacerbates Lung Injury in Mature Adult Rats With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily M; Walby, William F; Wilson, Dennis W; Tablin, Fern; Schelegle, Edward S

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) are dominant air pollutants that contribute to development and exacerbation of multiple cardiopulmonary diseases. Mature adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are particularly susceptible to air pollution-related cardiopulmonary morbidities and mortalities. The aim was to investigate the biologic potency of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) combined with O3 in the lungs of mature adult normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) Wistar-Kyoto rats. Conscious, mature adult male normal Wistar-Kyoto (NW) and SH rats were exposed to one of the following atmospheres: filtered air (FA); UFPM (∼ 250 μg/m3); O3 (1.0 ppm); or UFPM + O3 (∼ 250 μg/m3 + 1.0 ppm) combined for 6 h, followed by an 8 h FA recovery period. Lung sections were evaluated for lesions in the large airways, terminal bronchiolar/alveolar duct regions, alveolar parenchyma, and vasculature. NW and SH rats were similarly affected by the combined-pollutant exposure, displaying severe injury in both large and small airways. SH rats were particularly susceptible to O3 exposure, exhibiting increased injury scores in terminal bronchioles and epithelial degeneration in large airways. UFPM-exposure groups had minimal histologic changes. The chemical composition of UFPM was altered by the addition of O3, indicating that ozonolysis promoted compound degradation. O3 increased the biologic potency of UFPM, resulting in greater lung injury following exposure. Pathologic manifestations of CVD may confer susceptibility to air pollution by impairing normal lung defenses and responses to exposure.

  17. Increased left ventricular mass in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, A; Tarnow, L; Parving, H H

    1998-01-01

    in normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in 17 type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (albuminuria [median (range)], 345 (135-2,846) mg/24 h) and compared with 34 normotensive, normoalbuminuric (10 [3......-30] mg/24 h) type 1 diabetic patients matched for arterial blood pressure (mean +/- SD) ([134/77] +/- [13/7] vs. [129/78] +/- [12/7] mmHg), age (40 +/- 11 vs. 42 +/- 10 years), duration of diabetes (28 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 6 years), and BMI (24.2 +/- 4.2 vs. 24.6 +/- 2.4 kg/m2). RESULTS: Left ventricular......OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy increases the risk of premature cardiovascular disease and sudden death, particularly in type 1 diabetic patients. One possible mechanism for this risk may be left ventricular hypertrophy. In our study, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular structure and function...

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and microalbuminuria in normotensive subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Cesar Nissan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between microalbuminuria with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients underwent determination of the rate of urinary excretion of albumin through radioimmunoassay and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Their mean age was 26.5±6.7 years, and the mean duration of their disease was 8 (1-34 years. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary excretion of albumin > or = 20 and 50% and diastolic pressure load > 30% during sleep was associated with microalbuminuria (p=0.008. The pressure drop during sleep did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Microalbuminuric normotensive insulin-dependent diabetic patients show greater mean pressure value and pressure load during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these variables correlate with urinary excretion of albumin.

  19. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by 3H-labeled dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using 3 H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and 3 H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma

  20. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  1. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...

  2. Perceptual integration without conscious access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Olivers, Christian N.L.; Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2017-01-01

    The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is

  3. Cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with hypertensive and normotensive parents: A gender based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential hypertension begins due to mutation of specific genes that contribute to the risk of developing hypertension. Genetic contribution was recognized 25 years ago, now formulated from time to time. Some studies have also proven that the hypertension in father had strong contribution in their individual than mother. The aim of the study is to compare the cardiovascular reactivity in male and female subjects with hypertensive and normotensive parents. Materials and methods: This comparative study was conducted in physiology department of Teerthanker Mahaveer medical college and research center, Moradabad. The research work was initiated after taken the ethical clearance from the ethical committee of the college. Three different stressors: cold pressor task, cycling and videogame were used. Total 120 subjects were taken for the study in which 77 were male and 43 were female. Result: Male subjects of normotensive parents had slightly higher HR rate (mean: 76.73/min compared to the female subjects (mean: 75/min with p value >0.05. Female subjects of hypertensive parents had higher HR rate (mean: 82.72/min compared to the male subjects (mean: 73.95/min with p value <0.001. Conclusion: Male subjects with normotensive parents had higher resting HR, SBP &DBP than Female subjects with normotensive parents, but the difference was significant only in SBP. Female subjects with hypertensive parents group was showing higher resting HR than male subjects with hypertensive parents group, remains higher after stress also with insignificant difference. Thus, subjects with hypertensive parents showing increased CVR to stress are more likely to develop future hypertension, and the risk is greater for male subjects.

  4. Nocturnal blood pressure in normotensive subjects and those with white coat, primary, and secondary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Middeke, M.; Schrader, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mean nocturnal blood pressure of patients with various forms of renal and endocrine hypertension with that in patients with primary and white coat hypertension, and normal blood pressure. DESIGN--Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure over 24 hours in a prospective study. SETTING--Two German centres for outpatients with hypertension and kidney diseases. SUBJECTS--176 normotensive subjects, 490 patients with primary hypertension including mild and severe forms, 42 wi...

  5. Arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: Frequency in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla Sala, Enrique; Adell Alegre, Manuel; Giner Galvañ, Vicente; Perseguer Torregrosa, Zeneida; Pascual Izuel, Jose Maria; Climent Catalá, María Teresa

    2017-12-07

    Arterial stiffness (AS) is a well-recognized target organ lesion. This study aims to determine: 1) the frequency of AS in community pharmacies; 2) if stiffened subjects identified by brachial oscillometry have more CV risk factors than normal subjects, and 3) the dependence of stiffness on using either age-adjusted values or a fixed threshold. Observational, cross-sectional study in 32 community pharmacies of the Valencia Community, between November/2015 and April/2016. Stiffness was as pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured with a semi-automatic, validated device (Mobil-O-Graph ® , IEM), followed by a 10-item questionnaire. Mean age of the 1,427 consecutive recruited patients was 56.6 years. Overall proportion of patients with AS was 17.4% with age-adjusted PWV (9.4% in normotensives, 28.3% in hypertensives). Multivariate logistic regression showed independent association of stiffness in normotensives with male gender, obesity, higher pulse pressure and heart rate, in hypertensives, with higher pulse pressure and lower age. AS was globally found in 20.5% of subjects, defining stiffness by PWV>10m/s (6.2% in normotensives, 40.2% in hypertensives). It was associated with higher age and pulse pressure in both groups. Concordance in classifying stiffness was 74.6%. Frequency of AS varied between 17.4-20.5%. Age-adjusted stiffness is associated in normotensives with male gender, pulse pressure, obesity and heart rate, in hypertensives with pulse pressure and inversely to age. Stiffness by 10m/s is determined by higher pulse pressure and higher age. Both definitions of PWV are not interchangeable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Perinatal L-arginine and antioxidant supplements reduce adult blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racasan, S; Braam, B; van der Giezen, DM; Goldschmeding, R; Boer, P; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA

    Embryo cross-transplantation and cross-fostering between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) suggest that perinatal environment modulates the genetically determined phenotype. In SHR the balance between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed. We hypothesized

  7. Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in vasculature from hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Yang, Dachun; He, Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels are increased in vascular smooth muscle cells and aortic tissue from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. Expression of TRPC3 was analyzed by immunohistochem...

  8. Exercise blood pressure and the risk for future hypertension among normotensive middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle-aged adults. We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77 ± 12/7 mm Hg. During a follow-up of 5 ± 3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new-onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. In normotensive middle-aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Exercise Blood Pressure and the Risk for Future Hypertension Among Normotensive Middle‐Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle‐aged adults. Methods and Results We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48±9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77±12/7 mm Hg. During a follow‐up of 5±3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new‐onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. Conclusions In normotensive middle‐aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. PMID:25904593

  10. Changes in maternal serum thioredoxin (TRX) levels after delivery in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoratos, Nicolaos; Vlahos, Nikos F; Economou, Emanuel; Panoulis, Konstatninos; Creatsas, George

    2012-01-01

    To investigate changes of maternal plasma thioredoxin (TRX) levels after delivery in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. Ten normotensive women (group A) were compared to 17 women with severe preeclampsia (group B). TRX levels were assessed in maternal plasma, immediately after delivery and 12-16 weeks postpartum. There were no differences in plasma TRX levels between the two groups immediately antepartum (p = 0.095). A significant reduction in plasma TRX levels was found immediately following delivery only in normotensive group (117.76 ± 37.19 ng/mL vs. 43.45 ± 21.11 ng/mL, p = 0.002), but not in women with preeclampsia (80.42 ± 59.95 ng/mL vs. 53.82 ± 44.34 ng/mL, p = 0.12). Plasma TRX levels remained unchanged in women with preeclampsia (80.42 ± 59.95 ng/mL vs. 55.37 ± 52.23 ng/mL, p = 0.2) at 12-14 weeks postpartum.

  11. A mathematical model of embodied consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudrauf, D.; Bennequin, D.; Granic, I.; Landini, G.; Friston, K.; Williford, K.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical model of embodied consciousness, the Projective Consciousness Model (PCM), which is based on the hypothesis that the spatial field of consciousness (FoC) is structured by a projective geometry and under the control of a process of active inference. The FoC in the PCM

  12. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  13. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  14. Consciousness without a cortex, but what kind of consciousness is this? [Open Peer Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Merker suggests that the thalamocortical system is not an essential system for consciousness, but, instead, that the midbrain reticular system is responsible for consciousness. Indeed, the latter is a crucial system for consciousness, when consciousness is regarded as the waking state. However, when

  15. Internephron coupling by conducted vasomotor responses in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, A J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1997-01-01

    strains. Mechanical length constants were similar in SD and SHR (approximately 325 microm), indicating that the signal responsible for the effect decays at the same rate in both strains. We conclude that internephron coupling strength is significantly greater in SHR and that internephron coupling is due...

  16. Vascular Response of Ruthenium Tetraamines in Aortic Ring from Normotensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Conceição-Vertamatti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ruthenium (Ru tetraamines are being increasingly used as nitric oxide (NO carriers. In this context, pharmacological studies have become highly relevant to better understand the mechanism of action involved. Objective: To evaluate the vascular response of the tetraamines trans-[RuII(NH34(Py(NO]3+, trans-[RuII(Cl(NO (cyclan](PF62, and trans-[RuII(NH34(4-acPy(NO]3+. Methods: Aortic rings were contracted with noradrenaline (10−6 M. After voltage stabilization, a single concentration (10−6 M of the compounds was added to the assay medium. The responses were recorded during 120 min. Vascular integrity was assessed functionally using acetylcholine at 10−6 M and sodium nitroprusside at 10−6 M as well as by histological examination. Results: Histological analysis confirmed the presence or absence of endothelial cells in those tissues. All tetraamine complexes altered the contractile response induced by norepinephrine, resulting in increased tone followed by relaxation. In rings with endothelium, the inhibition of endothelial NO caused a reduction of the contractile effect caused by pyridine NO. No significant responses were observed in rings with endothelium after treatment with cyclan NO. In contrast, in rings without endothelium, the inhibition of guanylate cyclase significantly reduced the contractile response caused by the pyridine NO and cyclan NO complexes, and both complexes caused a relaxing effect. Conclusion: The results indicate that the vascular effect of the evaluated complexes involved a decrease in the vascular tone induced by norepinephrine (10−6 M at the end of the incubation period in aortic rings with and without endothelium, indicating the slow release of NO from these complexes and suggesting that the ligands promoted chemical stability to the molecule. Moreover, we demonstrated that the association of Ru with NO is more stable when the ligands pyridine and cyclan are used in the formulation of the compound.

  17. Impact of gonadectomy on sympatho-vagal balance in male and female normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Walas, Dawid; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex

  18. Dynamics of TGF-initiated nephron-nephron interactions in normotensive rats and SHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, K P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1992-01-01

    furosemide perfusion diminished the oscillation in both the perfused and the coupled nephron; total autospectral power in each of the nephrons and cross-spectral power were reduced to 45% of control. The correlation between noncoupled nephrons was not significant, and intratubular furosemide perfused in one...... nephron had no effect on adjacent but noncoupled nephrons. In SHR, the correlation coefficient of tubular pressure records was high from coupled nephrons only; furosemide diminished the autospectral power of pressure fluctuations to approximately 60-75% of control in both perfused and coupled nephrons...

  19. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  20. Value definitions and consumer consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Wakenshaw, Susan Y. L.; Phillips, Laura; Ng, Irene C. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of value within the service science and management literature, a literature that currently defines and measures value in various ways, making assumptions about how value is created and judged. We present this paper in two parts: in the first, we reprise six core themes of value understanding in the management literature, highlighting their implicit philosophical, chronological and consciousness assumptions; in the second, we elaborate on consciousne...

  1. Consciousness in non-epileptic attack disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuber, Markus; Kurthen, M

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consciousness should not only distinguish between the 'level' and `content' of consciousness but also between 'phenomenal consciousness' (consciousness of states it somehow "feels to be like") and 'access consciousness' (having certain 'higher' cognitive processes at one's disposal). The existing evidence shows that there is a great intra- and interindividual variability of NEA experience. However, in most NEAs phenomenal experience - and, as a precondition for that experience, vigilance or wakefulness - is reduced to a lesser degree than in those epileptic seizures involving impairment of consciousness. In fact, complete loss of "consciousness" is the exception rather than the rule in NEAs. Patients, as well as external observers, may have a tendency to overestimate impairments of consciousness during the seizures.

  2. Consistency between recognition and behavior creates consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Inaba

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available What is consciousness? Is it possible to create consciousness mechanically? Various studies have been performed in the fields of psychology and cerebral science to answer these questions. As of yet, however, no researchers have proposed a model capable of explaining the mind-body problem described by Descartes or replicating a consciousness as advanced as that of human beings. Ancient people believed that the consciousness resided in a Homunculus, a human in miniature who lived in the brain. It is no mystery that the ancients came up with such an idea; for consciousness has always been veiled in mystery, beyond the reach of our explorative powers. We can assert, however, that consciousness does not "live" in us, but "exists" in us. Insofar as the processes occurring inside the human brain are a product of the physical activity of the neurons that reside there, we believe that it should be possible to define consciousness systematically.

  3. Relationship of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 Level with Onset and Severity in Normotensive Pregnancy and Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Johannes Wantania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia still becomes a major problem in pregnancies. Various evidences showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is very important in pregnancy. This study aims to understand the relationship of heme oxygenase-1 level with onset and severity in normotensive pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods: This is a cross sectional analytic comparative study, the subjects consisted of 26 patients with normotensive pregnancies and 26 patients with severe preeclampsia. Blood samples from women with < 34 / ≥ 34 weeks’ normotensive pregnancies and women with severe preeclampsia were taken. HO-1 ELISA kit used to quantitate heme oxygenase-1 level in samples. Results: The level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women < 34 weeks lower than severe preeclampsia pregnant women < 34 weeks (3.28 ± 0.46 ng/mL vs 4.20 ± 0.64 ng/mL, p=0.003, respectively. The median level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women ≥ 34 weeks was 2.96 (2.41–4.39 ng/mL, while severe preeclampsia pregnant women ≥ 34 weeks was 3.52 (2.88–5.43 ng/mL, (p=0.040. The median level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women was 3.04 (2.41–4.39 ng/mL, while severe preeclampsia pregnant women was 3.68 (2.88–5.67 ng/mL, (p=0.001. Conclusions: There is correlation between the incidence of severe preeclampsia with heme oxygenase-1 level in < 34 and ≥ 34 weeks of pregnancy. There is a significant difference between the level of heme oxygenase-1 in pregnant women with severe preeclampsia and in women with normotensive pregnancy. 

  4. Hypertension, Prehypertension and Normotension among Police Personnel in a District of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Debabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti; Kumar, Pranav; Sinhababu, Apurba

    2014-11-01

    We conducted the present study to assess the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension, normotension and the associated factors along with awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among police personnel in Bankura, West Bengal, India. We collected information on individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics of 1817 police personnel. We also measured blood pressure (BP) and plasma glucose level of the participants. Individuals were classified as hypertensive (BP ≥ 140/ 90 mmHg), prehypertensive (BP 120-139/ 80-89 mmHg) and normotensive (BP < 120/ 80 mmHg) on the basis of BP and their prevalence were expressed in percentages. Relation of individual, lifestyle, service-related and anthropometric characteristics with hypertension and/or prehypertension was examined with binary logistic regression. Prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and normotension are 41.9%, 42.9% and 15.2% respectively. Even one-quarter of below 40 years subjects have hypertension. Mean BP remains in the prehypertensive range. Prevalence of hypertension and mean BP increases with age. Cardiovascular risk factors show clustering in higher age and with hypertension. Older age group, male gender, abdominal obesity, diabetes and service length are positively associated with hypertension and/or prehypertension. Around 40% of hypertensive knew their status, three-quarter of aware subjects received treatment and only one-third of treated subjects have controlled BP (< 140/ 90 mmHg). High prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension, high mean BP, mean age above 40 years and clustering of other risk factors pose a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity in the current study population.

  5. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Serum oxidized low density lipoprotein levels in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, A; Yildirmak, S Turkmen; Mihmanli, V; Ayabakan, H; Cicek, Y G; Kalaslioglu, V; Doean, S; Cebeci, H Cerci

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/AIM: The aim of the study was to determine serum lipids and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels in preeclamptic pregnants and compare with those of normotensives. Ox-LDL levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); total cholesterol, hight density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay in 26 normotensive and 27 preeclamptic pregnants. LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula. Serum levels of Ox-LDL (U/L), total-cholesterol (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), triglyceride (mg/dL), and VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnants were found as 130±60 and 133±69; 248±49 and 248±81; 67±14 and 61±16; 147±61 and 135±59; 207±76 and 256±87; 41±15 and 50±17, respectively. Mean values of Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters were higher than the upper limits of their reference ranges in both of groups. However no significant differences were found in Ox-LDL, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels between two groups. However, the levels of triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia group. The present results suggest that the levels of serum Ox-LDL and other lipid parameters rise as a result of pregnancy rather than as a result of preeclampsia.

  7. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Aitkenhead, M; Caldwell, C; McCracken, G; Wilson, D; McClure, N

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was first to determine if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a vascular permeability agent, is increased in the serum of women with preclinical and clinical preclampsia (PE), and second to determine how these levels change after delivery. Twenty preeclamptic and 25 normotensive women at term consented to have blood taken pre- and post-delivery. Ten preeclamptic, 10 gestational hypertensive, and 28 normotensive women had blood collected respectively at 12, 20, and 30 weeks gestation and predelivery. Serum was extracted from all samples, and VEGF concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Predelivery, the median serum VEGF concentration in the preeclamptic group was 51.7 ng/mL, and in the control group the concentration was 13.9 ng/mL (P<0.0001). Serum VEGF concentrations fell within 24 hours of delivery in both groups, which resulted in median values of 3.8 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL respectively (P<0.3). At 12 and 20 weeks, there was no significant difference between the serum VEGF concentrations in the 3 groups (P<0.3, 0.052 respectively). At 30 weeks, prior to the onset of clinical PE, the serum VEGF levels in the eventual preeclamptic group were elevated significantly compared with the gestational hypertensive and normotensive groups (P<0.001). Predelivery serum VEGF concentrations were significantly elevated in the preeclamptic group and were similar to those in the first study (P<0.0001). These findings suggest that VEGF may be important in the pathophysiology of PE and has the potential to act as a preclinical marker for the condition.

  8. Spot urine protein measurements in normotensive pregnancies, pregnancies with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattah, Andrea; Milic, Natasa; White, Wendy; Garovic, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant women presenting to their first obstetrics visits to characterize the changes in spot urine protein-to-creatinine (UPCR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) in normotensive pregnancies, as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia. We measured spot urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine at the first prenatal visit, end of the second trimester, and at delivery. In the normotensive pregnancies ( n = 142), we found that from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery, UACR increased by a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 14.7 mg/g Cr (3.74-51.8) and UPCR by 60 mg/g Cr (30-130) ( P 300 mg/g Cr in the absence of hypertension) was identified in 19/142 (13.4%) normotensive pregnancies. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from early pregnancy to delivery and increases in UACR from early to midpregnancy were associated with isolated proteinuria at delivery. Twelve women developed preeclampsia. Nulliparity, early, and midpregnancy diastolic blood pressures were strongly associated with the development of preeclampsia, but early changes in UACR were not. In conclusion, women who develop isolated proteinuria at delivery have a larger increase in blood pressure than women without proteinuria and have a "microalbuminuric" phase earlier in gestation, unlike women who develop preeclampsia. These findings suggest a different mechanism of urine protein excretion in women with isolated proteinuria as compared with women with preeclampsia, where proteinuria has a more abrupt onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Characterization of Human Torso Vascular Morphometry in Normotensive and Hypotensive Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    20454 CT  THORAX  W  IV  CONTRAST 5/1/11  19:10 49 American  IndianF 120 73 DOD  normotensive 20455 CT  THORAX  W  IV  CONTRAST 5...70. Muscle Health/Sarcopenia Bone Health 6 0 o   72. Obesity  –  Fat  Characteriza4on   unroll   unroll   CT  images   SubQ...one of the following: American Indian (4), Asian (33), African American (145), Hispanic (30), Other (39), Pacific Islander (1), Caucasian (1395), or

  10. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg......Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... vascular conductance (LVC) were lower in the hypertensive individuals (P Training lowered blood pressure in the hypertensive individuals (P

  11. Cold-Induced Thermogenesis and Inflammation-Associated Cold-Seeking Behavior Are Represented by Different Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Sites: A Three-Dimensional Functional Topography Study in Conscious Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel P; Almeida, M Camila; Shimansky, Yury P; Oliveira, Daniela L; Eales, Justin R; Coimbra, Cândido C; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2017-07-19

    In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and thus to understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis. DMH-lesioned rats also could not develop fever autonomically: they did not increase thermogenesis in response to a low, pyrogenic dose of LPS (10 μg/kg, i.v.). In contrast, changes in thermogenesis were uninvolved in the attenuation of the hypothermic response to a high, shock-inducing dose of LPS (5000 μg/kg, i.v.); this attenuation was due to a blockade of cold-seeking behavior. To compile DMH maps for the autonomic cold defense and for the cold-seeking response to LPS, we studied rats with small thermal lesions in different parts of the DMH. Cold thermogenesis had the highest representation in the dorsal hypothalamic area. Cold seeking was represented by a site at the ventral border of the dorsomedial nucleus. Because LPS causes both fever and hypothermia, we originally thought that the DMH contained a single thermoregulatory site that worked as a fever-hypothermia switch. Instead, we have found two separate sites: one that drives thermogenesis and the other, previously unknown, that drives inflammation-associated cold seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cold-seeking behavior is a life-saving response that occurs in severe systemic inflammation. We studied this behavior in rats with lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) challenged with a shock-inducing dose of bacterial endotoxin. We built functional maps of the DMH and found the strongest

  12. Phenomenal and access consciousness in olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary literature on consciousness, with some exceptions, rarely considers the olfactory system. In this article the characteristics of olfactory consciousness, viewed from the standpoint of the phenomenal (P)/access (A) distinction, are examined relative to the major senses. The review details several qualitative differences in both olfactory P consciousness (shifts in the felt location, universal synesthesia-like and affect-rich experiences, and misperceptions) and A consciousness (recovery from habituation, capacity for conscious processing, access to semantic and episodic memory, learning, attention, and in the serial-unitary nature of olfactory percepts). The basis for these differences is argued to arise from the functions that the olfactory system performs and from the unique neural architecture needed to instantiate them. These data suggest, at a minimum, that P and A consciousness are uniquely configured in olfaction and an argument can be made that the P and A distinction may not hold for this sensory system.

  13. Consciousness cannot be separated from function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Dennett, Daniel C

    2011-08-01

    Numerous theories of consciousness hold that there are separate neural correlates of conscious experience and cognitive function, aligning with the assumption that there are 'hard' and 'easy' problems of consciousness. Here, we argue that any neurobiological theory based on an experience/function division cannot be empirically confirmed or falsified and is thus outside the scope of science. A 'perfect experiment' illustrates this point, highlighting the unbreachable boundaries of the scientific study of consciousness. We describe a more nuanced notion of cognitive access that captures personal experience without positing the existence of inaccessible conscious states. Finally, we discuss the criteria necessary for forming and testing a falsifiable theory of consciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  15. On the evolution of conscious attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between consciousness and attention through theoretical considerations about evolution. Specifically, we will argue that the empirical findings on attention and the basic considerations concerning the evolution of the different forms of attention demonstrate that consciousness and attention must be dissociated regardless of which definition of these terms one uses. To the best of our knowledge, no extant view on the relationship between consciousness and attention has this advantage. Because of this characteristic, this paper presents a principled and neutral way to settle debates concerning the relationship between consciousness and attention, without falling into disputes about the meaning of these terms. A decisive conclusion of this approach is that extreme views on the relationship between consciousness and attention must be rejected, including identity and full dissociation views. There is an overlap between the two within conscious attention, but developing a full understanding of this mechanism requires further empirical investigations.

  16. Is Phenomenal Consciousness a Complex Structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Stieg, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary explanations of psychological phenomena have become widespread. This paper examines a recent attempt by Nichols and Grantham (2000) to circumvent the problem of epiphenomenalism in establishing the selective status of consciousness. Nichols and Grantham (2000) argue that a case can be made for the view that consciousness is an adaptation based on its complexity. I set out this argument and argue that it fails to establish that phenomenal consciousness is a complex system. It ...

  17. Consciousness in Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Reuber, M.; Kurthen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) is one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. Impairment of\\ud consciousness is the key feature of non-epileptic attacks (NEAs). The first half of this review summarises the clinical research\\ud literature featuring observations relating to consciousness in NEAD. The second half places this evidence in the wider context\\ud of the recent discourse on consciousness in neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. We argue that studies of consci...

  18. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel; Naotsugu Tsuchiya; Naotsugu Tsuchiya; Christof Koch; Christof Koch; Christof Koch

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the...

  19. Brain, conscious experience and the observing self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Ramsøy, Thomas; Laureys, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Conscious perception, like the sight of a coffee cup, seems to involve the brain identifying a stimulus. But conscious input activates more brain regions than are needed to identify coffee cups and faces. It spreads beyond sensory cortex to frontoparietal association areas, which do not serve...... as properties of the subject, rather than the object, of experience - the 'observing self' that appears to be needed to maintain the conscious state...

  20. A framework for investigating animal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Paula; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of consciousness in nonverbal animals requires a framework for research that extends testing methods beyond subjective report. This chapter proposes a working definition of consciousness in terms of temporal representation that provides the critical link between internal phenomenology and external behavior and neural structure. Our claim is that consciousness represents the present moment as distinct from the past and the future in order to flexibly respond to stimuli. We discuss behavioral and neural evidence that indicates the capacity for both flexible response and temporal representation, and we illustrate these capacities in fish, a taxonomic group that challenges human intuitions about consciousness.

  1. Consciousness Is a Thing, Not a Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pockett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of cognitive psychology is ‘consciousness is a process, not a thing’. Hence, the main task of cognitive neuroscientists is generally seen as working out what kinds of neural processing are conscious and what kinds are not. I argue here that the central dogma is simply wrong. All neural processing is unconscious. The illusion that some of it is conscious results largely from a failure to separate consciousness per se from a number of unconscious processes that normally accompany it—most particularly focal attention. Conscious sensory experiences are not processes at all. They are things: specifically, spatial electromagnetic (EM patterns, which are presently generated only by ongoing unconscious processing at certain times and places in the mammalian brain, but which in principle could be generated by hardware rather than wetware. The neurophysiological mechanisms by which putatively conscious EM patterns are generated, the features that may distinguish conscious from unconscious patterns, the general principles that distinguish the conscious patterns of different sensory modalities and the general features that distinguish the conscious patterns of different experiences within any given sensory modality are all described. Suggestions for further development of this paradigm are provided.

  2. Science of consciousness and the hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-05-22

    Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experimential events into the physical universe in a manner that: (1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, (2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, (3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and (4) explains how the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} can direct human behaviour.

  3. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  4. Music in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dieter Rollnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS or minimally conscious state (MCS. There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening – as part of an enriched environment setting – may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS, duration (rather weeks to months than days and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic of DOC, a standardised intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months, monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients` brains.

  5. Music in disorders of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC) such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS). There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening—as part of an enriched environment setting—may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS), duration (rather weeks to months than days) and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic) of DOC, a standardized intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months), monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients' brains. PMID:25071434

  6. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  7. Embodied mind and phenomenal consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VENIERI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a central debate in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science concerns the role of the body in perception and cognition. For many contemporary philosophers, not only cognition but also perception is connected mainly with the brain, where the processing of input from the senses takes place; whereas for the proponents of ‘embodied cognition’ other aspects of the body beyond the brain, including the environment, play a constitutive role in cognitive processes. In terms of perception, a new theory has emerged which stresses percep‑ tion’s active character and claims that the embodied subject and the environment, with which it interacts, form a dynamic system. Supporters of ‘enactive perception’ such as Susan Hurley and Alva Noë maintain that the physical substrate or the supervenience basis of perceptual experience and phenomenal consciousness may include besides the brain and the nervous system other bodily and environmental features. Yet, it will be argued in this paper that the interaction between the subject and the environment forms a system of causal relations, so we can theoretically interfere in the causal chains and create hallucinations, which cannot be distinguished from veridical perception, or a virtual reality as in the film Matrix (1999. This kind of argument and its related thought experiments aim to stress the primacy of the brain in determining phenomenal states, and show that the body and certain interactions with the environment have a causal, but not a constitutive or essential role, in forming phenomenal consciousness.

  8. Cortisol level and hemodynamic changes during tooth extraction at hypertensive and normotensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-04-01

    The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic. There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups.

  9. Electroencephalography in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnancies and Subsequent Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussé, Ingrid A; Duvekot, Johannes J; Meester, Ivette; Jansen, Gerard; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Gerhard H

    2016-01-01

    To compare electroencephalography (EEG) findings during pregnancy and postpartum in women with normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. Also the health related quality of life postpartum was related to these EEG findings. An observational case-control study in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Twenty-nine normotensive and 58 hypertensive pregnant women were included. EEG's were recorded on several occasions during pregnancy and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Postpartum, the women filled out health related quality of life questionnaires. Main outcome measures were qualitative and quantitative assessments on EEG, multidimensional fatigue inventory, Short Form (36) Health Survey and EuroQoL visual analogue scale. In women with severe preeclampsia significantly lower alpha peak frequency, more delta and theta activity bilaterally and a higher EEG Sum Score were seen. Postpartum, these women showed impaired mental health, mental fatigue and social functioning, which could not be related to the EEG findings. Severe preeclamptic patients show more EEG abnormalities and have impaired mental wellbeing postpartum, but these findings are not correlated.

  10. Electroencephalography in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnancies and Subsequent Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid A Brussé

    Full Text Available To compare electroencephalography (EEG findings during pregnancy and postpartum in women with normotensive pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders. Also the health related quality of life postpartum was related to these EEG findings.An observational case-control study in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Twenty-nine normotensive and 58 hypertensive pregnant women were included. EEG's were recorded on several occasions during pregnancy and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Postpartum, the women filled out health related quality of life questionnaires. Main outcome measures were qualitative and quantitative assessments on EEG, multidimensional fatigue inventory, Short Form (36 Health Survey and EuroQoL visual analogue scale.In women with severe preeclampsia significantly lower alpha peak frequency, more delta and theta activity bilaterally and a higher EEG Sum Score were seen. Postpartum, these women showed impaired mental health, mental fatigue and social functioning, which could not be related to the EEG findings.Severe preeclamptic patients show more EEG abnormalities and have impaired mental wellbeing postpartum, but these findings are not correlated.

  11. Normotensive blood pressure in pregnancy: the role of salt and aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari-Moser, Carine; Escher, Geneviève; Kramer, Simea; Dick, Bernhard; Eisele, Nicole; Baumann, Marc; Raio, Luigi; Frey, Felix J; Surbek, Daniel; Mohaupt, Markus G

    2014-02-01

    A successful pregnancy requires an accommodating environment. Salt and water availability are critical for plasma volume expansion. Any changes in sodium intake would alter aldosterone, a hormone previously described beneficial in pregnancy. To date, it remains ambiguous whether high aldosterone or high salt intake is preferable. We hypothesized that increased aldosterone is a rescue mechanism and appropriate salt availability is equally effective in maintaining a normotensive blood pressure (BP) phenotype in pregnancy. We compared normotensive pregnant women (n=31) throughout pregnancy with young healthy female individuals (n=31-62) and performed salt sensitivity testing within the first trimester. Suppression of urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone levels by salt intake as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and urinary sodium excretion corrected for creatinine, respectively, was shifted toward a higher salt intake in pregnancy (Ppregnancy, neither high urinary tetrahydro-aldosterone nor sodium excretion was correlated with higher BP. In contrast, in nonpregnant women, systolic BP rose with aldosterone (Ppregnancy without causing aldosterone-induced hypertension. Second, salt seems to aid in BP lowering in pregnancy for reasons incompletely elucidated, yet involving renin suppression and potentially placental sensing mechanisms. Further research should identify susceptible individuals and clarify effector mechanisms.

  12. A prospective validation of the Bova score in normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bova, Carlo; Vanni, Simone; Prandoni, Paolo; Morello, Fulvio; Dentali, Francesco; Bernardi, Enrico; Mumoli, Nicola; Bucherini, Eugenio; Barbar, Sofia; Picariello, Claudio; Enea, Iolanda; Pesavento, Raffaele; Bottino, Fabrizio; Jiménez, David

    2018-05-01

    The Bova score has shown usefulness in the identification of intermediate-high risk patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but lacks prospective validation. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the Bova score in different settings from the original derivation cohort. Consecutive, normotensive patients with acute PE recruited at 13 academic or general hospitals were stratified, using their baseline data, into the three Bova risk stages (I-III). The primary outcome was the 30-day composite of PE-related mortality, hemodynamic collapse and non-fatal PE recurrences in the three risk categories. In the study period, 639 patients were enrolled. The primary end point occurred in 45 patients (7.0%; 95% Confidence Intervals, 5.2%-9.3%). Risk stage correlated with the PE-related complication rate (stage I, 2.9%; stage II, 17%; stage III, 27%). Patients classified as stage III by the Bova score had a 6.5-fold increased risk for adverse outcomes (3.1-13.5, p < 0.001) compared with stages I and II combined. Rescue thrombolysis increased from stage I to stage III (0.6%, 12% and 15% respectively). All-cause mortality (5.3%) did not substantially differ among the stages. The Bova score accurately stratifies normotensive patients with acute PE into stages of increasing risk of 30-day PE-related complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  14. Interference Control Modulations Over Conscious Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsaso Colás

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attention and consciousness has been a controversial topic over the last decade. Although there seems to be an agreement on their distinction at the functional level, no consensus has been reached about attentional processes being or not necessary for conscious perception. Previous studies have explored the relation of alerting and orienting systems of attention and conscious perception, but the impact of the anterior executive attention system on conscious access remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral interaction between executive attention and conscious perception, testing control mechanisms both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission. We presented a classical Stroop task, manipulating the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials, and analyzed the effect of reactive and proactive control on the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. Reactive control elicited under high proportion congruent conditions influenced participants’ decision criterion, whereas proactive control elicited under low proportion congruent conditions was ineffective in modulating conscious perception. In addition, error commission affected both perceptual sensitivity to detect near-threshold information and response criterion. These results suggest that reactivation of task goals through reactive control strategies in conflict situations impacts decision stages of conscious processing, whereas interference control elicited by error commission impacts both perceptual sensitivity and decision stages of conscious processing. We discuss the implications of our results for the gateway hypothesis about attention and consciousness, as they showed that interference control (both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission can modulate the conscious access of near-threshold stimuli.

  15. Feminist consciousness and assertiveness in Ifeoma Okoye's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okoye is an African feminist who advocates feminist consciousness as a concept through which women can be enlightened for consciousness-raising, empowerment and assertiveness in her novels, Behind the Clouds and Chimere, while emphasizing education, economic independence and sisterhood as avenues for ...

  16. Unitary and Dual Models of Phenomenal Consciousness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš; Polák, M.

    -, č. 56 (2017), s. 1-12 ISSN 1053-8100 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : phenomenal consciousness * David Rosenthal * what it is like * unconscious mind * theories fo consciousness Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2016

  17. Toward a computational theory of conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Charles, Lucie; King, Jean-Rémi; Marti, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    The study of the mechanisms of conscious processing has become a productive area of cognitive neuroscience. Here we review some of the recent behavioral and neuroscience data, with the specific goal of constraining present and future theories of the computations underlying conscious processing. Experimental findings imply that most of the brain's computations can be performed in a non-conscious mode, but that conscious perception is characterized by an amplification, global propagation and integration of brain signals. A comparison of these data with major theoretical proposals suggests that firstly, conscious access must be carefully distinguished from selective attention; secondly, conscious perception may be likened to a non-linear decision that 'ignites' a network of distributed areas; thirdly, information which is selected for conscious perception gains access to additional computations, including temporary maintenance, global sharing, and flexible routing; and finally, measures of the complexity, long-distance correlation and integration of brain signals provide reliable indices of conscious processing, clinically relevant to patients recovering from coma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena eDemertzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain’s integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state /unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states. This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain’s plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions, suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain’s plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness.

  19. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, J.D.I.; Post, R.A.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness:Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are

  20. An integrative view on consciousness and introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The relation between first and higher order mental states is currently unknown. In particular, the relation between conscious experience and introspection is difficult as the same methods are used to investigate them. In order to make progress in the scientific understanding of consciousness...

  1. Music and Consciousness: A Continuing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Clarke, Eric

    2014-01-01

    If there is a topic on which the humanities might make a distinctive claim, it is that of consciousness--an essential aspect of human being. And within the humanities, music might make its own claims in relation to both consciousness and being human. To investigate this connection, David Clarke and Eric Clarke brought together a wide variety of…

  2. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  3. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose......Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  4. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  5. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Portela

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. Objective: To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. Methods: The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®, forearm blood flow (Hokanson®, and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®. Results: At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96, heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18, forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16, and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21, respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86, heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86, and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25, respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03. Conclusion: Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise.

  6. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  7. A model of physical factors in the structural adaptation of microvascular networks in normotension and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2003-01-01

    Adequate function of the microcirculation is vital to any tissue. To maintain an optimal function, microvascular networks must be able to adapt structurally to changes in the physical environment. Here we present a mathematical network model based on vessel wall mechanics. We assume based...... diameter, until equilibrium is restored. The model explains several of the key features observed experimentally in the microcirculation in normotension and hypertension. Most importantly, it suggests a scenario where overall network structure and network hemodynamics depend on adaptation to local...... hemodynamic stimuli in the individual vessel. Simulated results show emanating microvascular networks with properties similar to those observed in vivo. The model points to an altered endothelial function as a key factor in the development of vascular changes characteristic of hypertension....

  8. Ocular pulse amplitude after panretinal photocoagulation in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Marija M; Karadzic, Jelena B; Kovacevic, Igor M; Marjanovic, Ivan S

    2017-06-26

    To assess the effect of panretinal laser photocoagulation on ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Prospectively, we performed unilateral argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in 30 patients with diabetes mellitus type II and previously untreated bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Before and 7 and 30 days after the treatment, OPA was measured using dynamic contour tonometer. Compared with the untreated contralateral eyes, laser photocoagulation led to a reduction of OPA. Ocular pulse amplitude did not significantly differ in photocoagulated eyes 7 days after the treatment, but there was a significant difference in OPA 30 days after the treatment. The decrease in OPA values was 15% 7 days after PRP and 40% 30 days after PRP. Ocular pulse amplitude reduction after PRP indirectly informs us about choriocapillary closure, already reported in previous studies.

  9. Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium: Association with autonomic cardiovascular function in normotensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2017-12-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day -1 ) and 1week of low (20mmol·day -1 ) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS. Participants returned to the lab under habitual sodium conditions for testing. Forty-two participants are presented in this analysis, 19 of which successful MSNA recordings were obtained (n=42: age 39±2yrs., BMI 24.3±0.5kg·(m 2 ) -1 , MAP 83±1mmHg, habitual urine sodium 93±7mmol·24h -1 ; n=19: MSNA burst frequency 20±2 bursts·min -1 ). The variables of interest were linearly regressed over the magnitude of SS. Higher SS was associated with increased MSNA (burst frequency: r=0.469, p=0.041), decreased HF-HRV (r=-0.349, p=0.046), and increased LF/HF-HRV (r=0.363, p=0.034). SS was not associated with sympathetic or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (p>0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounting for age found that age, not SS, independently predicted HF-HRV (age adjusted no longer significant; p=0.369) and LF/HF-HRV (age adjusted p=0.273). These data suggest that age-related salt sensitivity of blood pressure in response to dietary sodium is associated with altered resting autonomic cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation model for habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium excretion using simple questionnaires from normotensive Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sook Kong

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set. The best model consisted of age, body weight, dietary behavior ('eating salty food', 'Kimchi consumption', 'Korean soup or stew consumption', 'soy sauce or red pepper paste consumption', and smoking status in men, and age, body weight, dietary behavior ('salt preference', 'eating salty food', 'checking sodium content for processed foods', 'nut consumption', and smoking status in women, respectively. When this model was tested in the external validation set, the mean bias between the measured and estimated 24-h urinary-sodium excretion from Bland-Altman plots was -1.92 (95% CI: -113, 110 mmol/d for men and -1.51 (95% CI: -90.6, 87.6 mmol/d for women. The cut-points of sodium intake calculated based on the equations were ≥4,000 mg/d for men and ≥3,500 mg/d for women, with 89.8 and 76.6% sensitivity and 29.3 and 64.2% specificity, respectively. In this study, a habitual 24-hour urinary-sodium-excretion-estimation model of normotensive Korean adults based on anthropometric and lifestyle factors was developed and showed feasibility for an asymptomatic population.

  11. Noninvasive assessment of cardiomyopathy in normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Sanz, N.; Botvinick, E.H.; Phillips, N.; Heilbron, D.; Byrd, B.F. III; Karam, J.H.; Schiller, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    To further the understanding of diabetic heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that an asymptomatic group of normotensive diabetic patients between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy independent of clinically significant coronary artery disease. Quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were performed to detect and characterize the cardiac abnormalities in this study group comprising 88 patients with rigorously classified diabetes and 65 volunteer control subjects. Diabetic patients were shown to have a mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume index: 50.1 +/- 8.2 and 52.1 +/- 14.7 mL/m2 for patients with type I and type II diabetes, respectively, versus 58.9 +/- 11.7 mL/m2 for control subjects. The left ventricular diastolic filling was also impaired in diabetic patients as reflected by a lower atrial emptying index: 0.73 +/- 0.24 and 0.76 +/- 0.3 for type I and type II diabetics, respectively, compared with 1.14 +/- 0.24 for control subjects. Exercise tolerance was normal in subjects with type I diabetes and slightly reduced in subjects with type II diabetes. Only one patient developed regional ischemia on thallium exercise testing. Using a comprehensive, noninvasive approach, we have shown that asymptomatic normotensive patients with type I or type II diabetes who were between 20 and 50 years old had a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by mildly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume and altered left ventricular compliance independent of critical coronary artery disease

  12. Body mass index predicts aldosterone production in normotensive adults on a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Adler, Gail K; Perlstein, Todd; Seely, Ellen W; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Garg, Rajesh

    2007-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying obesity-mediated cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. Aldosterone and insulin resistance both are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to test the hypotheses that aldosterone production is elevated and associated with insulin resistance in overweight adults on a high-sodium diet. Healthy normotensive adults were categorized as lean body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 63) or overweight BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 57). After 7 d of a high-sodium diet, participants fasted overnight and remained supine throughout hemodynamic and laboratory assessments and angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. The overweight group, compared with the lean group, had higher 24-h urinary aldosterone (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.5 microg per 24 h; P = 0.003) and higher AngII-stimulated serum aldosterone (11.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 ng/dl; P = 0.04). There were no differences in 24-h urinary cortisol or sodium or supine measurements of plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone, or serum potassium. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was predicted by urinary aldosterone excretion (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and serum aldosterone response to AngII stimulation (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) independent of age and BMI. Urinary aldosterone excretion and AngII-stimulated aldosterone are increased in overweight, compared with lean, normotensive adults. The correlation of these measures of aldosterone production with insulin resistance suggests a potential role for aldosterone in the pathophysiology of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.

  13. Low-dose esmolol: hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients

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    Suresh Lakshmanappa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Endotracheal intubation is a frequently utilized and highly invasive component of anesthesia that is often accompanied by potentially harmful hemodynamic pressor responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a single pre-induction 1 mg/kg bolus injection of esmolol for attenuating these hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients. Material and methods: The study was composed of 100 randomly selected male and female patients between the ages of 18 and 60 that were scheduled for elective surgery and belonged to ASA grade I or II. Two minutes prior to intubation the control group received 10 mL of saline (n=50 and the experimental group received an injection of esmolol 1 mg/kg diluted to 10 mL (n=50. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and rate pressure product (RPP were compared to basal values before receiving medication (T-0, during pre-induction (T-1, induction (T-2, intubation (T-3, and post-intubation at 1 (T-4, 3 (T-6, 5 (T-8, and 10 (T-13 minutes. Results: Esmolol significantly attenuated the hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation at the majority of measured points. Attenuation of HR (10.8%, SBP (7.04%, DBP (3.99%, MAP (5%, and RPP (16.9% was observed in the esmolol group when compared to the control group values. Conclusions: A single pre-induction 1 mg/kg bolus injection of esmolol successfully attenuated the hemodynamic pressor response in normotensive patients. A significant attenuation of heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure was observed at the majority of measured time points in the esmolol administered group compared to the control group. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 69-76

  14. Leg blood pressure measured in orthostatic posture is associated with left ventricular mass in normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Tiago; Matos-Souza, José R; Franchini, Kleber G; Nadruz, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    Changing from a supine to an orthostatic posture is associated with substantial increments in leg blood pressure (BP) levels, which could ultimately influence the hemodynamic burden imposed on the heart. This study investigated the relationship between brachial and leg BP measurements and the left cardiac chamber's structure and assessed the role of body posture changes in this regard. One hundred and thirty normotensive, nondiabetic, nonsmoking, normolipemic subjects were evaluated by a clinical history, anthropometry, the analysis of metabolic parameters, echocardiography, and the measurement of BP in the arm and the calf in both supine and orthostatic positions. Significant correlation coefficients between the leg BP measurements and the cardiac structure were detected, especially between the orthostatic pulse pressure (PP) and the left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (r = 0.38; P < 0.001), the orthostatic PP and the LV mass (r = 0.37; P < 0.001), and the orthostatic systolic BP (SBP) and the left atrial size (r = 0.35; P < 0.001). Stepwise and standard regression analysis adjusted for brachial BP and anthropometric and metabolic variables confirmed that the leg orthostatic PP was independently related to the LV wall thickness and mass. Moreover, the leg orthostatic SBP was associated with the left atrial dimension even after adding the LV mass to the statistical models. Finally, triglyceride levels and body surface area showed significant relationship with leg orthostatic PP and SBP, whereas brachial orthostatic PP and SBP were only associated with age and anthropometric variables. Orthostatic leg BP is independently associated with the cardiac structure in normotensive subjects.

  15. Carotid intima-media thickness and elastic properties of aortas in normotensive children of hypertensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Kosger, Pelin; Ozdemir, Gokmen; Sahin, Fezan Mutlu; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    A significant correlation between hypertension history and high blood pressure has been observed with regard to age, race and gender. Investigating carotid intima-media thickness and aortic stiffness prior to the development of hypertension in children of hypertensive parents enabled us to evaluate these patients for subclinical atherosclerosis. We compared carotid intima-media thickness, aortic strain, distensibility, stiffness indices and elastic modulus in 67 normotensive children whose parents had a diagnosis of essential hypertension and 39 normotensive children with no parental history of hypertension. Although there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, average blood pressure and pulse pressure (P>0.05), systolic blood pressures were higher among patients 15 years and older in the study group. No significant differences were noted between the control and study groups regarding interventricular septal thickness, left-ventricular posterior wall thickness, left-ventricular systolic and diastolic diameter and aortic annulus diameter (P>0.05). The left atrium diameter was larger in the study group compared with that in the control group, mainly because of the values of the 15-year-old and older children (P=0.01). The mean, maximum and minimum values of carotid intima-media thickness were significantly different in the study group compared with the control group among all age groups (Pchildren of hypertensive parents compared with the control group (P=0.014, P=0.001, respectively). Although there were no differences between the study and control groups regarding aortic strain, aortic distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness indices (P>0.05), aortic distensibility was lower, and aortic stiffness indices were higher among children 15 years and older in the study group. An increase in the carotid intima-media thickness in all age groups and a decrease in aortic elastic properties in

  16. Autonomic abnormalities demonstrable in young normotensive subjects who are children of hypertensive parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a slightly elevated office blood pressure (BP has been reported in several studies, little is known about the prolonged resting blood pressure, heart rate (HR and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS of prehypertensive subjects with a family history of hypertension. Office blood pressure, prolonged resting (1 h BP and HR were measured in 25 young normotensives with a positive family history of hypertension (FH+ and 25 young normotensives with a negative family history of hypertension (FH-, matched for age, sex, and body mass index. After BP and HR measurements, blood samples were collected for the determination of norepinephrine, plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels, and baroreflex sensitivity was then tested. Casual BP, prolonged resting BP and heart rate were significantly higher in the FH+ group (119.9 ± 11.7/78.5 ± 8.6 mmHg, 137.3 ± 12.3/74.4 ± 7.9 mmHg, 68.5 ± 8.4 bpm compared to the FH- group (112.9 ± 11.4/71.2 ± 8.3 mmHg, 128.0 ± 11.8/66.5 ± 7.4 mmHg, 62.1 ± 6.0 bpm. Plasma norepinephrine level was significantly higher in the FH+ group (220.1 ± 104.5 pg/ml than in the FH- group (169.1 ± 63.3 pg/ml. Baroreflex sensitivity to tachycardia (0.7 ± 0.3 vs 1.0 ± 0.5 bpm/mmHg was depressed in the FH+ group (P<0.05. The FH+ group exhibited higher casual blood pressure, prolonged resting blood pressure, heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels than the FH- group (P<0.05, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone in these subjects. The reflex tachycardia was depressed in the FH+ group.

  17. Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, A.S.; López-Rodríguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Saavedra-Alanís, V.M. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Llamazares-Azuara, L. [Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Renal Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rodríguez-Martínez, M. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2013-10-02

    This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP−LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi≥10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ∼50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P≤0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT.

  18. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. INTERACTION OF EUROPEAN AND RUSSIAN LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyrtyshny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of certain ideologemes of Western (European and Russian legal consciousness – prominent works of Ivan Ilyin and Duncan Kennedy are taken as examples. The article analyzes the tabula rasa principle and its place in legal consciousness. We use legal scholarship, judicial practice and opinion polls to examine the relationship between legal consciousness and the lack of trust in Russian courts, as well as their inefficiency from the point of view of public opinion. There are a number of shocking cases of torture of innocent people by the Russian police. Why is this so? The answer lies in the legal consciousness of police officers and of judges. This is something that has been inherited from the Soviet period. It is completely different from the Western legal consciousness, one of the key features of which is denial of authority. The critical legal studies branch of American legal realism almost denies the very existence of law, and, perhaps for this reason, American culture is less open to abuses like torture. At the same time, there is no possibility to shift legal consciousness immediately, the tabula rasa principle does not work. The final objective of the article is to provide a perspective on the reform of higher legal education and its relation to legal consciousness and legal anthropology. We propose that a greater part of the university curriculum is devoted to legal anthropology.

  20. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools

  1. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  2. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  3. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  4. Conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness: two dimensions of personality that influence laparoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neha; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying personality factors that account for individual differences in surgical training and performance has practical implications for surgical education. Movement-specific reinvestment is a potentially relevant personality factor that has a moderating effect on laparoscopic performance under time pressure. Movement-specific reinvestment has 2 dimensions, which represent an individual's propensity to consciously control movements (conscious motor processing) or to consciously monitor their 'style' of movement (movement self-consciousness). This study aimed at investigating the moderating effects of the 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment in the learning and updating (cross-handed technique) of laparoscopic skills. Medical students completed the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale, a psychometric assessment tool that evaluates the conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment. They were then trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a fundamental laparoscopic skills task and were tested on a novel cross-handed technique. Completion times were recorded for early-learning, late-learning, and cross-handed trials. Propensity for movement self-consciousness but not conscious motor processing was a significant predictor of task completion times both early (p = 0.036) and late (p = 0.002) in learning, but completion times during the cross-handed trials were predicted by the propensity for conscious motor processing (p = 0.04) rather than movement self-consciousness (p = 0.21). Higher propensity for movement self-consciousness is associated with slower performance times on novel and well-practiced laparoscopic tasks. For complex surgical techniques, however, conscious motor processing plays a more influential role in performance than movement self-consciousness. The findings imply that these 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment have a differential influence in the learning and updating

  5. Tubulo-glomerular feedback response: enhancement in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats and effects of anaesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1989-01-01

    . Maximum TGF pressure response was 28.6% greater in SHR than in the normotensive rats (13.3 vs. 9.5 mm Hg; p less than 0.025). The sensitivity, as estimated from the slope of the feedback curve at the Tp [f'(Tp)] was 87% greater in SHR than in WKY. There was no significant difference between...

  6. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... into their product development processes. This starts with motivation, leading to widening communication and information flows and finally to whole-life thinking....

  7. The cognitive approach to conscious machines

    CERN Document Server

    Haikonen, Pentti O

    2003-01-01

    Could a machine have an immaterial mind? The author argues that true conscious machines can be built, but rejects artificial intelligence and classical neural networks in favour of the emulation of the cognitive processes of the brain-the flow of inner speech, inner imagery and emotions. This results in a non-numeric meaning-processing machine with distributed information representation and system reactions. It is argued that this machine would be conscious; it would be aware of its own existence and its mental content and perceive this as immaterial. Novel views on consciousness and the mind-

  8. Nabokov's impressionistic expression of free consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most interesting thing about Nabokov's narrative technique is the way in which he always manages to impress the presence of the implied author on the reader's consciousness without making direct intrusion intonation. Narration through the confined consciousness of an individual is really, it seems, only a springboard for Nabokov. He takes an impressionistic device (consciously or unconsciously, it makes no difference and pushes it to its limits without technically violating the point of view to which he has committed himself.

  9. Science of the conscious mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Samsonovich, Alexei V

    2008-12-01

    Human beings have direct access to their own mental states, but can only indirectly observe cosmic radiation and enzyme kinetics. Why then can we measure the temperature of far away galaxies and the activation constant of kinases to the third digit, yet we only gauge our happiness on a scale from 1 to 7? Here we propose a radical research paradigm shift to embrace the subjective conscious mind into the realm of objective empirical science. Key steps are the axiomatic acceptance of first-person experiences as scientific observables; the definition of a quantitative, reliable metric system based on natural language; and the careful distinction of subjective mental states (e.g., interpretation and intent) from physically measurable sensory and motor behaviors (input and output). Using this approach, we propose a series of reproducible experiments that may help define a still largely unexplored branch of science. We speculate that the development of this new discipline will be initially parallel to, and eventually converging with, neurobiology and physics.

  10. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

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    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  11. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  12. The schizophrenias as disorders of self consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-12-29

    Dec 29, 2004 ... across cultures, and the variations in outcome corresponding with these differences, are proposed ... The problem of consciousness, autonomy and the self ..... prognosis in more individualist, materialist, free-enterprise socio-.

  13. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core...... function of consciousness. Seven normal volunteers were asked to think intensely on how they would describe the personality traits and physical appearance of themselves and a neutral reference person known to all the subjects (the Danish Queen). During each of the four conditions cerebral blood flow...... during reflective self-awareness. The commonality between the neural networks of the resting conscious state and self-awareness reflects the phenomenological concept of a fundamental contribution of reflective self-awareness to the contents and coherence of the conscious state....

  14. Converging intracranial markers of conscious access.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Gaillard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared conscious and nonconscious processing of briefly flashed words using a visual masking procedure while recording intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG in ten patients. Nonconscious processing of masked words was observed in multiple cortical areas, mostly within an early time window (<300 ms, accompanied by induced gamma-band activity, but without coherent long-distance neural activity, suggesting a quickly dissipating feedforward wave. In contrast, conscious processing of unmasked words was characterized by the convergence of four distinct neurophysiological markers: sustained voltage changes, particularly in prefrontal cortex, large increases in spectral power in the gamma band, increases in long-distance phase synchrony in the beta range, and increases in long-range Granger causality. We argue that all of those measures provide distinct windows into the same distributed state of conscious processing. These results have a direct impact on current theoretical discussions concerning the neural correlates of conscious access.

  15. Concepts are not represented by conscious imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); S. van Dantzig (Saskia); H.N.J. Schifferstien (Hendrik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAccording to theories of grounded cognition, conceptual representation and perception share processing mechanisms. We investigated whether this overlap is due to conscious perceptual imagery. Participants filled out questionnaires to assess the vividness of their imagery (Questionnaire

  16. Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    dependent on the previous state of their interaction domain. We also explain complex processes occurring below the threshold of awareness as those that deploy the brain’s computational resources, although without producing resonant states of sufficient magnitude to determine the individual´s overt...... acknowledgment. Finally, our model affords a plausible account of phenomenal and self-consciousness which, by resting at the outskirts of reportable cognitive activity, traditionally compound the 'hard problem' of consciousness....

  17. The Measurement of Consciousness: A Framework for the Scientific Study of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGamez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientists studying consciousness are attempting to identify correlations between measurements of consciousness and the physical world. Consciousness can only be measured through first-person reports, which raises problems about the accuracy of first-person reports, the possibility of non-reportable consciousness and the causal closure of the physical world. Many of these issues could be resolved by assuming that consciousness is entirely physical or functional. However, this would sacrifice the theory-neutrality that is a key attraction of a correlates-based approach to the study of consciousness. This paper puts forward a different solution that uses a framework of definitions and assumptions to explain how consciousness can be measured. This addresses the problems associated with first-person reports and avoids the issues with the causal closure of the physical world. This framework is compatible with most of the current theories of consciousness and it leads to a distinction between two types of correlates of consciousness.

  18. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  19. Environmentalism and typological characteristics of globalistion consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman M. Kolisnichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed anthropo-saving and environmental-depth approaches to understanding the essence environmentalism. The definition of environmentalism as global environmental trends that recognizes the intrinsic value of the natural world, all its elements and aims to rescue mankind from global environmental threats by achieving a sustainable balance of planetary ecosystems, the proper state of the environment and harmonious development of man and nature. Developed the typology of globalization consciousness attitude to solving global problems in the relationship between man and nature. The main types globalistion consciousness, as the growth of thrift in relation to nature, located in the following sequence: ecodestructive, anthropocentric, ecoconsumerist, ecotraditional, environmental, sacred-ethical, naturecentric and antropofobiastic. Developing a typology of globalistion consciousness above criteria also highlighted its neutral type. Proved that environmental globalistion consciousness is environmentally oriented system of ideas that reflect solutions to global environmental problems in accordance with the principles environmentalism. This type of consciousness globalistion a high degree of awareness of global environmental problems, persistent desire to implement effective methods of humane solution, the optimal it is due, the need to maximize the spread of population. It is concluded that the formation environmental globalistion consciousness as a prerequisite for saving humanity from self created global environmental threats can be greatly accelerated by the terms of the assistance of governments, the media, educational institutions, political parties, public organizations and other institutions of political socialization.

  20. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  1. [Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarova, S B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy.

  2. Proximal-tubule-like epithelium in Bowman's capsule in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Changes with age.

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, W. E.; Granger, H. J.; Morris, A. C.; Cioffe, C.

    1982-01-01

    Kidneys were samples from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) in four groups. Renal tissues were examined in 64 rats: 6 SHR and 6 WKY rats 8 and 16 weeks of age and 10 SHR and 10 WKY rats 32 and 64 weeks of age. Tissue samples were fixed, processed, and stained by routine histologic procedures. The parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in 100-115 renal corpuscles from right to left kidney sections was classified as squamous or cuboidal epithelium. The cuboidal ...

  3. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...... experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes......-inspired psychology makes the third consciousness aspect all-important. Within Mead's framework for a darwinistically inspired psycholgy, it becomes theoretically insignificant....

  4. Significant differences in parameters of glucose metabolism in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Anna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Płudowska, Katarzyna; Smithson, W Henry; Owłasiuk, Anna; Żelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Wojtkielewicz, Katarzyna; Milewski, Robert; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism, including insulin resistance, are considered as risk factors in the development of hypertension and its complications in young age. Hypertension is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The onset of pathology responsible for the development of hypertension, as well as levels of biomarkers specific for early stages of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To compare a group of children whose parents have a history of hypertension (study group) with a group of children with normotensive parents (reference group), with consideration of typical risk factors for atherosclerosis, parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, anthropometric data and new biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease (hsCRP, adiponectin, sICAM-1). The study population consists of 84 children. Of these, 40 children (mean age 13.6±2.7 years) had a parental history of hypertension, and 44 aged 13.1±3.7 yrs were children of normotensive parents. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and measurements of blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were carried out. The insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) was calculated. Levels of hsCRP, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM) and adiponectin were measured. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric parameters (body mass, SDS BMI, skin folds) between groups. Values of systolic blood pressure were statistically significantly higher in the study group (Me 108 vs. 100 mmHg, p= 0.031), as were glycaemia (Me 80 vs. 67 mg/dl pchildren of hypertensive parents) (Me 1.68 vs. 0.80 mmol/l × mU/l, p=0.007). Lower adiponectin levels (Me 13959.45 vs. 16822 ng/ml, p=0.020) were found in children with a family history of hypertension. No significant differences were found in the levels of sICAM, hsCRP, and parameters of lipid metabolism. Family history of hypertension is correlated with higher values of systolic blood

  5. Does perceptual learning require consciousness or attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; Post, Ruben A G; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that visual attention and consciousness are separate [Koch, C., & Tsuchiya, N. Attention and consciousness: Two distinct brain processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 16-22, 2007] and possibly even orthogonal processes [Lamme, V. A. F. Why visual attention and awareness are different. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 12-18, 2003]. Attention and consciousness converge when conscious visual percepts are attended and hence become available for conscious report. In such a view, a lack of reportability can have two causes: the absence of attention or the absence of a conscious percept. This raises an important question in the field of perceptual learning. It is known that learning can occur in the absence of reportability [Gutnisky, D. A., Hansen, B. J., Iliescu, B. F., & Dragoi, V. Attention alters visual plasticity during exposure-based learning. Current Biology, 19, 555-560, 2009; Seitz, A. R., Kim, D., & Watanabe, T. Rewards evoke learning of unconsciously processed visual stimuli in adult humans. Neuron, 61, 700-707, 2009; Seitz, A. R., & Watanabe, T. Is subliminal learning really passive? Nature, 422, 36, 2003; Watanabe, T., Náñez, J. E., & Sasaki, Y. Perceptual learning without perception. Nature, 413, 844-848, 2001], but it is unclear which of the two ingredients-consciousness or attention-is not necessary for learning. We presented textured figure-ground stimuli and manipulated reportability either by masking (which only interferes with consciousness) or with an inattention paradigm (which only interferes with attention). During the second session (24 hr later), learning was assessed neurally and behaviorally, via differences in figure-ground ERPs and via a detection task. Behavioral and neural learning effects were found for stimuli presented in the inattention paradigm and not for masked stimuli. Interestingly, the behavioral learning effect only became apparent when performance feedback was given on the task to measure learning

  6. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Obese Hypertensive Men Have Plasma Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein Similar to That of Obese Normotensive Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic feature of obesity, the most important lifestyle risk factor for hypertension. Elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, but elevated...... plasma CRP concentrations are also closely associated with obesity. It is uncertain whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension or is only a marker of other pathogenic processes closely related to obesity. METHODS: We studied 103 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2......)); 63 of these men had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130/80 mm Hg and comprised the obese hypertensive (OHT) group. The 40 remaining obese men had 24-hour ABP obese normotensive (ONT) group. Our control group comprised 27 lean normotensive (LNT) men. All...

  8. Soluble CD30 in normotensive pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction: a comparison with preeclamptic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the serum concentration of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction, in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without accompanying intrauterine growth restriction, and in normotensive healthy pregnant controls. Lower serum concentrations of sCD30 were observed in the group of normotensive pregnant women with a growth-restricted fetus in comparison with the group of healthy pregnant controls, and also in comparison with both preeclamptic groups of pregnant women with and without fetal growth restriction. The concentration of sCD30 in maternal serum from preeclamptic women did not differ in comparison with values from healthy controls or pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  10. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  11. Mechanisms of phytoestrogen biochanin A-induced vasorelaxation in renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Choi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the enhanced relaxation caused by biochanin A in aortic rings from hypertensive rats is endothelium dependent. Vascular smooth muscle K+ channels may be involved in biochanin A-induced relaxation in aortae from hypertensive and normotensive rats. In addition, an endothelium-derived activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels contributes, at least in part, to the relaxant effect of biochanin A in renovascular hypertension.

  12. Phenomenology without conscious access is a form of consciousness without top-down attention

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christof; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2007-01-01

    We agree with Block's basic hypothesis postulating the existence of phenomenal consciousness without cognitive access. We explain such states in terms of consciousness without top-down, endogenous attention and speculate that their correlates may be a coalition of neurons that are consigned to the back of cortex, without access to working memory and planning in frontal cortex.

  13. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    . In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory...

  14. The neurochemical correlate of consciousness: exploring neurotransmitter systems underlying conscious vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    How and where does our brain integrated the information that we get into our eyes into a unifying percept and into a conscious experience? Although different neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been proposed, depending on the kind of neural signals recorded, the type of manipulation used,

  15. Effect of low-dose valsartan on proteinuria in normotensive immunoglobulin A nephropathy with minimal proteinuria: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Il; Na, Ha-Young; Moon, Ju-Young; Han, Sang-Woong; Yang, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Hyeong-Cheon; Choi, Hoon-Young; Lim, So-Dug; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Yong-Kyu; Shin, Sug-Kyun

    2016-03-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a generally progressive disease, even in patients with favorable prognostic features. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antiproteinuric effect and tolerability of low-dose valsartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker) therapy in normotensive IgAN patients with minimal proteinuria of less than 0.5 to 1.0 g/day. Normotensive IgAN patients, who had persistent proteinuria with a spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 0.3 to 1.0 mg/mg creatinine, were recruited from five hospitals and randomly assigned to either 40 mg of valsartan as the low-dose group or 80 mg of valsartan as the regular-dose group. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after valsartan therapy. Forty-three patients (low-dose group, n = 23; regular-dose group, n = 20) were enrolled in the study. Proteinuria decreased significantly not only in the regular-dose group but also in the low-dose group. The change in urine protein-to-creatinine ratio at week 24 was -41.3% ± 26.1% (p valsartan can significantly reduce proteinuria without causing any intolerability in normotensive IgAN patients with minimal proteinuria.

  16. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, but not with aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of hypertensive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel; Trojar, Andrej; Zeljko, Tadej

    2008-01-01

    We investigated left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in association with insulin level/insulin resistance (IR) and aldosterone level in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait, FT). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotensive with FT (aged 28-39 years) and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and function were measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. LV diastolic function was reported as peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) in tissue Doppler imaging. Fasting insulin and aldosterone were determined. In subjects with FT, the LV mass was higher than in controls (92.14 +/- 24.02 vs. 70.08 +/- 20.58 g; p < 0.001). The study group had a worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p < 0.001). In subjects with FT, the E(m)/A(m) ratio was independently associated with IR (partial p = 0.029 in multivariate model, R(2) = 0.51), but not with LV mass. The aldosterone level was comparable in both groups. In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional abnormalities were found. LV dysfunction but not an increase in LV mass is associated with IR. The aldosterone level is probably not responsible for the development of early hypertensive heart disease. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Correlation of CRP Levels in Third Trimester with Fetal Birth Weight in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.; Bukhari, F. A.; Zargham, U.; Khakan, S.; Zaki, S.; Tauseef, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women and to determine its correlation with fetal birth weight. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Unit of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Gynaecological Unit II of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: The participants included 60 cases with preeclampsia and 60 normotensive pregnant women, all in their third trimester. All the participants were in the age group of 20 - 40 years and had a BMI range of 18 - 25. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 15). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: C-reactive protein levels were significantly high (p < 0.001) in the preeclamptic group with a median value of 8.8 (0.3 - 25.5) as compared to 5.4 (0.24 - 9.8) mg/l in the normotensive women. The birth weight of babies was also significantly low in the preeclamptic group. The high CRP levels were negatively correlated with fetal birth weight in preeclamptic group. Conclusion: Elevated C-reactive protein levels in the preeclamptic pregnant women is a part of an exaggerated maternal systemic inflammatory response, and correlates with low fetal birth weight. (author)

  18. Association between Salt Intake and Albuminuria in Normotensive and Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Khaledifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a little published data regarding the association between salt intake and albuminuria as an important alarm for progression of cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. We aimed to assess this relationship to emphasize the major role of restricting salt intake to minimize albuminuria and prevent these life-threatening events. Methods. The study population comprised 820 individuals. Participants were assigned to groups as follows: normal albuminuria, slight albuminuria, and clinical albuminuria. Daily salt intake was assessed on the basis of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, since urinary sodium excretion largely equals sodium intake. Results. In normotensive participants, the mean level of urine albumin was higher in those who had higher amounts of salt intake with a significantly upward trend (the mean urinary albumin level in low-salt-diet group, in medium-salt-intake group, and in high-salt-intake group was 42.70±36.42, 46.89±38.91, and 53.38±48.23, resp., (P=0.017. There was a significant positive correlation between 24-hour urinary sodium secretion and the level of urine albumin (beta = 0.130, P<0.001. The amount of salt intake was significantly associated with urine albumin concentration (beta = 3.969, SE = 1.671, P=0.018. Conclusion. High salt intake was shown to be associated with higher level of microalbuminuria even adjusted for potential underlying risk factors.

  19. A clinical audit of thrombolytic therapy in patients with normotensive pulmonary embolism and intermediate risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carla; Mesquita, Dinis; Thomas, Boban; Ponte, Teresinha; Santos, Luis; Tavares, João

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with pulmonary embolism, normal blood pressure and intermediate clinical risk, as defined by right ventricular dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography or elevated serum markers of cardiac necrosis. A clinical audit of normotensive patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism using multi- detector computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (MDCTPA) and intermediate risk, was conducted to determine clinical outcomes at 30 days. The specific role played by imaging findings and clinical severity, on the decision to thrombolyse, was assessed. The two cohorts who did (n = 15) and did not receive thrombolysis (n = 20) were compared for age, heart rate, blood pressure and oxyhemoglobin saturation at presentation, and the simplified PESI score was calculated in each patient. MDCTPA findings suggestive of adverse clinical outcome including central PE and an increased RV/LV diameter were determined for each patient. RV dysfunction on echocardiography was compared to clinical scoring, and findings on MDCTPA. The patients who received thrombolytic therapy were younger (48.6 ± 19.11 years versus 64.2 ± 13.83 years) (P audit revealed a predilection to use thrombolysis in younger patients with clinical severity and imaging findings on MDCTPA being the key drivers. A perception of a fragile hemodynamic status, as implied by a higher heart rate and shock index, despite a normal BP probably inclined us to thrombolyse.

  20. Gender differences in left vantricular diastolic dysfunction in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameedullah, A.; Khan, S.S.; Khan, S.S.; Shah, I.; Hifizullah, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern and severity of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in normotensive type 2 diabetic males and females patients. Methodology: This descriptive study was performed in Department of Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from March 2007 to February 2008. Total of 60 patients were enrolled. Glycemic status was defined on the basis of HbA1c level. Detailed history and physical examination was performed on every patient. Exercise tolerance test was performed on every patient to exclude major ischemia. Echocardiography was performed in left lateral position. Main outcome measure was left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Results: We enrolled 60 normotesive type 2 diabetic patients in the study that fulfills the inclusion criteria. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was found in 50% (30/60). There were 12 males (40%) and 18 females (60%) among subjects presenting with diastolic dysfunction. In male gender impaired relaxation was found in 75% (9 males) and in female gender it was found in 66.6% (12 females) (p=0.58). Pseudonormal pattern was found in 25% in male gender (3 males) and in 33.3% in female gender (6 females) (p=0.003). Males subjects with diastolic dysfunction the mean age were 54 +- 8.8 and mean age of females' subject were 60+-13.2 (p=0.17). Conclusion: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is more common in female gender and is more severely impaired in female gender than in male gender. (author)

  1. Changes of Aldosterone Secretion Rate Following Furosemide Administration in Normotensive Subjects with High Sodium Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Hwan

    1976-01-01

    Marked augmentation of urinary aldosterone excretion following furosemide administration was observed in previous experiment. In this study, author measured the changes of aldosterone secretion after furosemide administration in normotensive young volunteers with high sodium intake. After intravenous injection of 1.2- 3 H-aldosterone, urine samples were collected in course of time until 24 hours after the injection. Furosemide administration was done at 30 minutes prior to aldosterone injection. Specific activities of 3H-aldosterone during and after diuresis were measured and aldosterone secretion rates were calculated dividing the doses by specific activities. Results were as followed. 1) Furosemide resulted in a marked increase in urinary aldosterone excretion. 2) Furosemide lead to an increase in both sodium and potassium excretion. 3) Aldosterone secretion rate was also increase d during furosemide diuresis, but the rate was smaller than that of urinary excretion. 4) Continuous modest increase in aldosterone secretion rate was shown after diuresis and total excess amount of aldosterone secretion for 24 hrs was equivalent to the amount of aldosterone excretion produced by diruesis. 5) Abrupt marked loss of circulating aldosterone produced by diuresis was supplemented by long lasting increase in secretion for over twenty four hours.

  2. Hypertensive response to exercise in dipper and non-dipper normotensive diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukdurmaz, Zekeriya; Karavelioglu, Yusuf; Karapinar, Hekim; Gul, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Akpek, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet Gungor

    2014-01-01

    Non-dipper blood pressure (NDP) as an indicator of autonomic dysfunction could be associated with hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) in diabetic patients. HRE was determined as a predictor of development of unborn hypertension. We aimed to investigate if any correlation among NDP and HRE in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without history of hypertension and with normal blood pressure (BP) on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were enrolled to the study. We divided the study population in to two groups depending on their BP on ABPM as dipper (group 1) or non-dipper (group 2). There were 22 patients (mean age 49.5 ± 7 and 10 male) in group 1 and 37 patients (mean age 53.1 ± 10 and 14 male) in group 2. Daytime diastolic and mean BP of dippers and night time systolic and mean BP of non-dippers were significantly higher. HRE was not significantly different between groups (59% vs. 62%, p = 0.820). Hemodynamic parameters during the exercise test were similar. At multivariate linear regression analysis, resting office systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.611, p HRE. This study revealed that HRE is not related with non-dipper BP in diabetic patients. This study could inspire to further studies to explore the main reasons of HRE in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Changes in blood pressure indices in normotensive adults after the consumption of lemongrass tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ekpenyong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To accurately evaluate the effect of lemongrasses tea (LGT on blood pressure (BP indices in normal humans. Methods: A total of 105 participants were sub-divided into 3 groups with 35 in each group and they were administered with LGT prepared from 2, 4 or 8 g of the lemongrass leaf powder (LP for 30 days, respectively. They were evaluated for various BP indices and other clinical and biochemical parameters at days 0, 10 and 30 after the administration of LGT using standard methods. Results: At day 10, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower than baseline levels. The mean arterial pressure was slightly reduced, while pulse pressure and heart rate (HR significantly increased in subjects administered with LGT prepared from 4 or 8 g of the LP. At day 30, systolic blood pressure and DBP remained decreased in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. DBP normalized in participants administered with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. The mean arterial pressure and HR decreased further in participants administered with LGT prepared from 8 g of the LP, but HR normalized in subjects treated with LGT prepared from 4 g of the LP. Pulse pressure almost returned to baseline level. Conclusions: Ingestion of LGT may be associated with decreased BP indices in normotensive humans due to its varied bioactive constituents and their activities.

  4. Cardiovascular reactivity to stressors in Indian young adults with normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Kumar, Manoj; Saxena, Indu; Kumar, Jayballabh

    2013-10-01

    Stress-induced increase in heart-rate and blood pressure is termed cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). Various studies are designed to monitor the CVR and use different types of experimental stressors. We have compared the CVR to three different stressors used in CVR based studies (cold pressor task, hand grip test, and video game) to identify the best suited stressor for any study design. The study was conducted on 82 (38 female) young Indian adults with normal resting basal parameters and normotensive parents. Each volunteer was subjected to three stressors: cold pressor task (CPT), hand grip test (HGT), and video game (VG). The CVR to the three stressors was compared amongst female subjects and amongst male subjects by ANOVA, and between female and male subjects by unpaired Student's t-test. Maximum CVR was obtained to HGT, while maximum gender difference in CVR was obtained in case of CPT. Heart rate and blood pressure changes obtained on playing VG were not statistically significant. When the purpose of research is to generate maximum possible CVR, we suggest the use of HGT; while if the purpose of the research is to study gender related differences, the use of CPT would be more appropriate. Unlike young adults of Western countries, VG is not perceived as a challenging task or stressor by young Indian adults and produces little change in heart rate and blood pressure.

  5. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F

    2008-07-01

    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  6. Consciousness: physiological dependence on rapid memory access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Arthur J

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness develops from birth during the early months as the senses and other nervous system functions mature sufficiently to receive, process and store information. Among these is the ascending reticular activating (arousal) system in the brain stem that is responsible for wakefulness and was proposed by Penfield and Jasper more than 50 years ago as the "controlling mechanism for states of consciousness". This concept has remained the most advanced physiological interpretation of consciousness although recent developments offer greater insights into its nature. The ascending arousal system is the source of activation of the thalamocortical and cortical mechanisms for sensory input and facilitates the rapid matching of sensory input and the binding of memory during cognitive processing. Nonetheless, it is proposed that memory is the critical element through which our connection with the world exists without which, despite a fully functional arousal system, consciousness as we know it could not exist. Evidence is presented in support of this concept in addition to the physiological difficulties that must be resolved if consciousness is to be understood.

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Perri, Carol; Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven; Gosseries, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be a multifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in a widespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area. Despite ongoing efforts, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of consciousness after severe brain injury are not thoroughly understood. Important questions remain unanswered: What triggers the connectivity impairment leading to disorders of consciousness? Why do some patients recover from coma, while others with apparently similar brain injuries do not? Understanding these mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of brain function and, hopefully, lead to new therapeutic strategies in this challenging patient population. © 2013.

  8. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  9. Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuffie, Katherine; Mashour, George A

    2010-01-01

    Understanding dreams has long been considered fundamental to the development of a theory of consciousness. Evidence from neurobiology and neuroimaging research has paved the way for new theories of dreaming that are empirically supported. In this article we argue that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future. The temporal complexity of dreams is made possible in part by the unique neurobiological environment of sleep, in which stimuli are internally generated and many of the restrictions associated with waking thought are absent. Because dream consciousness is not determined by sensory stimuli, a flexible integration of past experiences and the forging of novel connections are possible. We argue that disparate dream theories may not be mutually exclusive but rather relate to different temporal domains of the dream state.

  10. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  11. Disruption of Conscious Access in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, Lucie; Dehaene, Stanislas; Gaillard, Raphaël

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification. This proposal is compatible with the neurophysiological disturbances observed in schizophrenia, including dysconnectivity, abnormal neural oscillations, and glutamatergic and cholinergic dysregulation. Therefore, placing impaired conscious access as a central feature of schizophrenia can help researchers develop a coherent and parsimonious pathophysiological framework of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bosman and self-conscious fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meihuizen

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Bosman, in a number of ways, underlines his fascination with his medium. In this article, an attempt is made to indicate some of the ways in which he does this. Particular attention is paid to Bosman’s use of commentary, his own self-conscious reflections on the text before the reader. Using two stories, “Unto Dust”, and “Old Transvaal Story”, I present the ways in which Bosman’s self-consciousness manifests itself in his art. If he is so adept at undermining illusion, what yet entertains us in the most self-conscious of his texts? It is argued that his fascination with his medium is buttressed by his ability to delude us, which displaces our reliance on illusion.

  13. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  14. Dietary Sodium Consumption Predicts Future Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension in the Japanese Normotensive General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2015-07-29

    Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Post-plyometric exercise hypotension and heart rate in normotensive individuals: influence of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40(th)-70(th) min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10(th)-50(th) min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension.

  16. Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahal

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg over 30 min and enalaprilat infusion (0.02 mg kg-1 min-1 for 60 min in randomized groups. The following groups were studied: controls (fluid infusion, N = 4, E1 (enalaprilat infusion followed by fluid infusion, N = 5 and E2 (fluid infusion followed by enalaprilat infusion, N = 5. All animals were observed for a 120 min after bacterial infusion. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO, portal vein blood flow (PVBF, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, and lactate levels were measured. Rapid and progressive reductions in CO and PVBF were induced by the infusion of live bacteria, while minor changes were observed in mean arterial pressure. Systemic and regional territories showed a significant increase in oxygen extraction and lactate levels. Widening venous-arterial and portal-arterial pCO2 gradients were also detected. Fluid replacement promoted transient benefits in CO and PVBF. Enalaprilat after fluid resuscitation did not affect systemic or regional hemodynamic variables. We conclude that in this model of normotensive sepsis inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme did not interfere with the course of systemic or regional hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables.

  17. The influence of recovery posture on post-exercise hypotension in normotensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, N M; Cable, N T; George, K P; Campbell, I G

    2001-03-01

    Postexercise hypotension may be the result of an impaired vasoconstrictor response. This hypothesis was investigated by examining the central and peripheral hemodynamic responses during supine and seated recovery after maximal upright exercise. After supine or seated baseline measurements, seven normotensive male volunteers completed a graded upright cycling protocol to volitional exhaustion. This was immediately followed by either supine or seated recovery. Measurements of pulsatile arterial blood pressure and central and peripheral hemodynamic variables recorded 30 min before exercise were compared with those taken throughout 60 min of recovery. Compared with baseline, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced after exercise (P different between the supine (-9 +/- 4 mm Hg) and seated positions (-6 +/- 2 mm Hg). This change in MAP was associated with a reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P pressure (APP) (P positions, respectively. The reduction in APP during seated recovery was accompanied by a decline in stroke volume (SV) (P position, that limited the contribution of cardiac output (CO) to the maintenance of MAP. This effect of seated recovery was compensated by greater systemic (SVR) and regional vascular resistances in the forearm (FVR) and the forearm skin (SkVRA). There was also evidence of an augmented return of FVR and SkVRA to resting levels in the seated position after exercise. The lower peripheral resistance in the supine compared with seated recovery position suggests there is potential for greater vasoconstriction, although this is not evoked to increase blood pressure. This further suggests that the arterial baroreceptor reflex is reset to a lower operating pressure after exercise.

  18. Peripheral Vascular Resistance Impairment during Isometric Physical Exercise in Normotensive Offspring of Hypertensive Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Natália; Amaral, Josária Ferraz; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-07-10

    A family history of hypertension is associated with vascular and autonomic abnormalities, as well as an impaired neurohemodynamic response to exercise. To test the hypothesis that normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. The study included 37 normotensive volunteers of both sexes who were sedentary, eutrophic, and nonsmokers, comprising 23 with (FH+; 24 ± 3 years) and 14 without (FH-; 27 ± 5 years) a family history of hypertension. Blood pressure, heart rate (DIXTAL®), forearm blood flow (Hokanson®), and peripheral vascular resistance were simultaneously measured for 3 minutes during rest and, subsequently, for 3 minutes during an isometric exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (Jamar®). At rest, the FH+ and FH- groups present similar mean blood pressure (83 ± 7 versus 83 ± 5 mmHg, p = 0.96), heart rate (69 ± 8 bpm versus 66 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.18), forearm blood flow (3 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL versus 2.7 ± 1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.16), and peripheral vascular resistance (30 ± 9 units versus 34±9 units, p = 0.21), respectively. Both groups showed a significant and similar increase in mean blood pressure (∆ = 15 ± 7 mmHg versus 14 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.86), heart rate (∆ = 12 ± 8 bpm versus 13 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.86), and forearm blood flow (∆ = 0.8 ± 1.2 mL/min/100 mL versus 1.4 ± 1.1 mL/min/100 mL, p = 0.25), respectively, during exercise. However, individuals in the FH+ group showed no reduction in peripheral vascular resistance during exercise, which was observed in the FH- group (∆ = -0.4 ± 8.6 units versus -7.2 ± 6.3 units, p = 0.03). Normotensive individuals with a family history of hypertension present an impaired peripheral vascular resistance response to exercise. O histórico familiar para hipertensão arterial está relacionado a anormalidades vasculares e autonômicas, bem como disfunções no comportamento neuro-hemodinâmico durante o exerc

  19. Mysterianism about Consciousness and the Trinity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohánka, Vlastimil

    -, č. 14 (2013), s. 69-90 ISSN 1212-9038 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : mysterianism * the hard problem of consciousness * the logical problem of the Trinity * McGinn * Colin (*1950) * Šanda, Vojtěch (1873–1953) Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  20. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  1. Conscious visual memory with minimal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R; Otten, Marte; Sligte, Ilja G; Seth, Anil K; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-02-01

    Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask or a new scene), so that subjects have to rely on working memory (WM), which has limited capacity, to detect the change. Before such interference, however, a much larger capacity store, called fragile memory (FM), which is easily overwritten by newly presented visual information, is present. Whether these different stores depend equally on spatial attention is central to the debate on the role of attention in conscious vision. In 2 experiments, we found that minimizing spatial attention almost entirely erases visual WM, as expected. Critically, FM remains largely intact. Moreover, minimally attended FM responses yield accurate metacognition, suggesting that conscious memory persists with limited spatial attention. Together, our findings help resolve the fundamental issue of how attention affects perception: Both visual consciousness and memory can be supported by only minimal attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of

  3. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  4. Anthropomorphic Networks as Representatives of Global Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Yahodzinskyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been analyzed a phenomenon of global consciousness, and its cultural and historical, civilizational dimensions have been substantiated. There has been demonstrated that the concept of planetary consciousness, global thinking, noosphere was described for the first time in the philosophy of cosmism. However, in modern conditions ideas of representatives of the naturalistic philosophical direction of cosmism have not lost their heuristic potential. They can be reconsidered in a new fashion within the context of emerging anthropomorphic (human dimension networks. There has been proved that global consciousness is a component of the social and cultural potential of global information networks defining vectors to prospects of humanity progress in the 21st century. Relying on methodology of the structural and functional analysis, the author arrives at a conclusion about global networks obtaining the status of representatives of global consciousness. This is the area of networks where all relevant information is concentrated – from statistical data to scientific and technical information. Access to these data is limited by human abilities and is realized in the form of discrete requests with using heuristic algorithms of information procession. A suggestion is introduced considering the fact that modern society being a self-organized system seeks to gain stable condition. Anthropomorphic networks are means of decreasing social entropy, which is growing as a result of any kind of human intervention into social processes. Thus, for the first time a human is challenged by their intellect, ability to create, discover and control.

  5. Postmodern consumers' consciousness of climate change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postmodern consumers' consciousness of climate change and actions that could mitigate unsustainable consumption. ... This is believed to be due to consumers experiencing a deficit of adequate knowledge, skills and/or access to possible avenues that could assist them in being more sustainable, which is often a result of ...

  6. Women's Feminist Consciousness, Anger, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ann R.; Good, Glenn E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to bring together several lines of research and theory on women's feminist consciousness from psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Past literatures had suggested bivariate links between feminist identity development and psychological distress, feminist identity and anger, feminist identity and interpersonal conflict,…

  7. Inflight loss of consciousness : a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-09-01

    A case of inflight vertigo and loss of consciousness in a private pilot, flying alone, is presented. The differential diagnosis and the significance of the findings of 5-7 per second theta waves in his resting EEG and high voltage slow waves during c...

  8. Self-conscious emotions and social functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, de I.E.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Have you ever felt guilty about hurting a loved one, or been proud after achieving something that you always dreamed of? These emotions, but also embarrassment, shame, and hubris, are called self-conscious emotions. They are a special kind of emotions that cannot be described solely by

  9. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  10. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  11. Review: Neural correlates of consciousness | Negrao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper it is shown that consciousness is dependent on the brainstem and thalamus for arousal; that basic cognition is supported by recurrent electrical activity between the cortex and the thalamus at gamma band frequencies; and that some kind of working memory must, at least fleetingly, be present for awareness to ...

  12. Conscious visual memory with minimal attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Vandenbroucke, A.R.; Otten, M.; Sligte, I.G.; Seth, A.K.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Is conscious visual perception limited to the locations that a person attends? The remarkable phenomenon of change blindness, which shows that people miss nearly all unattended changes in a visual scene, suggests the answer is yes. However, change blindness is found after visual interference (a mask

  13. Body consciousness and somaesthetics in music education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer aspekter af Richard Shusterman (2008) Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics herunder bogens relevans for musikpædagogik og specielt Shustermans læsning af Merleau-Pontys fænomenologi. Shustermans definitioner af fire former for intentionalitet samme...

  14. Consciousness, Representation, Action : The Importance of Being Goal-Directed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute

  15. Disorders of consciousness and communication. Ethical motivations and communication-enabling attributes of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, Guglielmo; Mattia, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    Envisaged extensions of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique allowing communication with patients affected by disorders of consciousness are here examined in connection with subjective symptom reporting, informed consent, and continued medical care decision-making. The principles of medical beneficence, personal autonomy protection, and the right to participate in social life are isolated as appropriate sources of ethical motivations for the use of fMRI-enabled communication. Consciousness requirements for each communication context are identified on the basis of qualitative distinctions between the access, phenomenal, and narrative varieties of consciousness. Ethically motivated uses of fMRI-enabled communication are hierarchically organized in terms of progressively more demanding consciousness requirements for successful communication. The outcomes of this analysis can be used to curb unrealistic expectations of these new scientific developments, and to promote mutual trust between medical doctors, patient surrogates and families.

  16. Is Consciousness Reality or Illusion ? A Non-Dualist Interpretation of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eric

    2004-08-01

    This paper proposes a way to approach the "hard problem" of consciousness. First, we present a typology of the main models developed in the litterature to understand consciousness. Most of them adopt a physicalist ontology and a functionalist epistemology. We then present the main features of a metamodel we have elaborated to interpret nonlinear systems evolving toward complexity and autonomy. This systemic metamodel is a general framework that can later be used to make models of specific systems. As an extension of the mechanist paradigm, it is based on three primordial categories objects, relations and wholes or systems. In the last part, we apply it to the cases of the logic of life and the nature of consciousness. Both can be interpreted by the metamodel, in particular, by the autopoiesis proposed by Maturana and Varela for life and self-reference for consciousness.

  17. Understanding visual consciousness in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatziv, Tal; Jacobson, Hilla

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the question of what the (visual) perceptual differences are between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals. We argue against the view that autistic subjects have a deficiency in the most basic form of perceptual consciousness-namely, phenomenal consciousness. Instead, we maintain, the perceptual atypicality of individuals with autism is of a more conceptual and cognitive sort-their perceptual experiences share crucial aspects with TD individuals. Our starting point is Ben Shalom's (2005, 2009) three-level processing framework for explaining atypicality in several domains of processing among autistics, which we compare with two other tripartite models of perception-Jackendoff's (1987) and Prinz's (2000, 2005a, 2007) Intermediate Level Hypothesis and Lamme's (2004, 2006, 2010) neural account of consciousness. According to these models, whereas the second level of processing is concerned with viewer-centered visual representations of basic visual properties and incorporates some early forms of integration, the third level is more cognitive and conceptual. We argue that the data suggest that the atypicality in autism is restricted mainly to the third level. More specifically, second-level integration, which is the mark of phenomenal consciousness, is typical, yet third-level integration of perceptual objects and concepts is atypical. Thus, the basic experiences of individuals with autism are likely to be similar to typical subjects' experiences; the main difference lies in the sort of cognitive access the subjects have to their experiences. We conclude by discussing implications of the suggested analysis of experience in autism for conceptions of phenomenal consciousness.

  18. Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength as Related to Dream Recall, Content and Vividness

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, David

    1980-01-01

    Subjects' reported dream recall frequency, dream content and vividness or recall were discussed and examined in relation to sex of the subject and MMPI Conscious Anxiety, Conscious Repression and Ego-strength scores. Fifty-three Utah State University students, who volunteered to participate in a study of dreaming behavior, were administered the MMPI and asked to complete a dream log diary. The dream log required a daily recording of total number of dreams recalled, the number of vividly an...

  19. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, John D.; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E. Dale; Pereira, Troy J.; Dolinsky, Vernon W.; Symons, J. David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-...

  20. Results of Research about Consciousness of Foodstuff Consumers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolya Bravacz

    2013-10-01

    How self-restrictive and self-conscious are we when purchasing and consuming foodstuff? – with every foodstuff purchase we make decisions about our environment, which indirectly has an effect on the producers, manufacturers and dealers. I will briefly review the foodstuff consumers segments in Hungary, which first have been identified using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. I have identified the following consumer groups based on health consciousness: Conscious majority, Conscious by commitment, Economist “housewife”, Youthfully eclectic and Passives.

  1. Plasmatic levels of N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Mayner-Tresol, Gabriel; Herrera-Moya, Pedro; Fernández-Ramírez, Andreina; Rondón-Tapía, Marta

    2018-05-11

    To compare plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in preeclamptic patients and healthy normotensive pregnant women. A cases-controls study was done with 180 patients at Hospital Central Dr. Urquinaona, Maracaibo, Venezuela, that included 90 preeclamptic patients (group A; cases) and 90 healthy normotensive pregnant women selected with the same age and body mass index similar to group A (group B; controls). Blood samples were collected one hour after admission and prior to administration of any medication in group A to determine plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and other laboratory parameters. Plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations in group A (mean 1.01 [0.26] pg/mL) showed a significant difference when compared with patients in group B (mean 0.55 [0.07] pg/mL; P<.001]. There was no significant correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic patients (P=ns). A cut-off value of 0.66ng/mL had an area under the curve of 0.93, sensitivity of 87.8%, specificity of 83.3%, a positive predictive value of 84.0% and a negative predictive value of 87.2%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 85.6%. Preeclamptic patients have significantly higher concentrations of plasma N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide compared with healthy normotensive pregnant women, with high predictive values for diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. How neuroscience will change our view on consciousness: discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Is there consciousness in machines? Or in animals? What happens to consciousness when we are asleep, or in vegetative state? These are just a few examples of the many questions about consciousness that are troubling scientists and laypersons alike. Moreover, these questions share a striking feature:

  3. Serum Leptin Measured in Early Pregnancy Is Higher in Women With Preeclampsia Compared With Normotensive Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Brandie; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, plays an important role in reproduction and angiogenesis. Studies examining leptin in preeclampsia are inconsistent, possibly because of small sample sizes and variability in sampling and outcome. We conducted a nested case-control study to examine associations...... between serum leptin (measured: 9-26 weeks gestation) and preeclampsia among 430 primiparous preeclamptic women and 316 primiparous normotensive controls from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Median (interquartile range) leptin concentrations were calculated. Associations between leptin and preeclampsia...... (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg), term preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery ≥37 weeks gestation), or preterm preeclampsia (preeclampsia and delivery

  4. Mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers in women with preeclampsia and normotensive controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brandie D; Tang, Gong; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Jørn; Hougaard, David M; Skogstrand, Kristin; Roberts, James M; Haggerty, Catherine L

    2016-01-01

    To determine if mid-pregnancy circulating immune biomarkers are associated with preeclampsia. Nested case-control study of 410 preeclamptic women and 297 normotensive controls with primiparous singleton pregnancies enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The mean gestational age in our cohort is 16 weeks (range 9-26). Preeclampsia was defined by blood pressure ⩾140/90 mmHg and proteinuria ⩾3 g/24 h. Serum immune biomarkers included interleukin (IL)-6, IL-6 receptor, IL-4, IL-4 receptor, IL-5, IL-12, IL-2, TNF-α, TNF-β, TNF-receptor, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-18, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and RANTES. Associations with preeclampsia, term preeclampsia and preterm preeclampsia were determined using two logistic regression models; (1) biomarkers were dichotomized by the limit of detection (LOD); (2) on the continuous scale, non-detectable values were imputed by LOD/2 and transformed (base 2). All models were adjusted for body mass index and smoking. IL1β was significantly associated with a decrease in the log odds of preeclampsia (p=0.0065), term preeclampsia (p=0.0230) and preterm preeclampsia (p=0.0068). Results were similar for IL4r and preeclampsia (p=0.0383). In the dichotomized models, detectable TNF-β was significantly associated with preeclampsia (ORadj 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and term preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) but not preterm preeclampsia. Detectable IL6 was significantly with term preeclampsia only (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). Mid-pregnancy circulating IL1β, IL4r, IL6, and TNFβ were associated with preeclampsia. However, results were not consistent across statistical models. As the relationship is complex, future studies should explore cytokine clusters in preeclampsia risk. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A single exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness and increases cardiac arrhythmias in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background – Short-term exposure to air pollutants has been linked to acute cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even in the absence of overt symptoms, pollutants can cause subtle disruptions of internal regulatory mechanisms, which maintain homeostatic balance, thereby reduci...

  6. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hattori, T.; Murakami, K.; Suemaru, S.; Kawada, Y.; Kageyama, J.; Ota, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of 125 I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR

  7. Predicting the conscious experience of other people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota

    it has not been shown possible to generalize the decoding of brain signals from one individual to another. This limits the potential utility of such approaches. Here we used a different approach that circumvented these difficulties by using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals to decode the contents......There has been considerable interest recently in using multivariate decoding techniques applied to functional MRI signals in order to decode the contents of a person’s consciousness. The use of such signals has inherent disadvantages due to the delay of the hemodynamic response. Moreover to date...... of consciousness, and to test whether such correlates generalized reliably across individuals. We used a 274 channel MEG system to record signals from 8 healthy participants while they viewed an intermittently presented binocular rivalry stimulus consisting of a face and a grating. Using a leave-one-out cross...

  8. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.

  9. Akratic Feelings, Empathy and Self-Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.

  10. Theoretical Controversies—Terminological Biases: Consciousness Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondor Zsuzsanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although scientific practice sometimes encounters philosophical difficulties, it cannot shoulder the burden of resolving them. This can lead to controversies. An unavoidable difficulty is rooted in the linguistic attitude, i.e., in the fact that to a considerable extent we express our thoughts in words. I will attempt to illuminate some important characteristics of linguistic expression which lead to paradoxical situations, identifiable thanks to philosophy. In my argument, I will investigate how the notion of consciousness has altered over the course of philosophical investigation and how it relates to recent scientific practice. In conclusion, I will focus on a few recent so-called radical positions in philosophy with regard to a framework within which consciousness and more generally mental phenomena can be regarded in a new light, as well as on the barriers we face when trying to unify scientific results.

  11. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  12. Mass culture and manipulation with consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Simukanova Guldariga Serikovna

    2015-01-01

    The article gives the definition of such concepts as mass society, mass culture and mass consciousness. Specific examples indicate positive and negative effects of globalization on national culture. Particular attention is paid to the interest of independent states for the conservation, protection and development of national values in the context of globalization. The conclusion about the relevance of stability provision and protection of the state raised by globalization has been drawn.

  13. The changing consciousness of the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, G.

    1989-01-01

    There has been a growing world-wide shift in consumer consciousness during the 1980s. More and more, consumers are challenging the conclusions and assurances of authorities and demanding to be better informed so that they can draw their own conclusions and make their choices accordingly. The viewpoint of these consumers is articulated, so that the specialists involved in the radurization of food can have a better understanding of what they are dealing with

  14. Recognition of an Independent Self-Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2009-01-01

    Hegel's concept in the Phenomenology of the Spirit of the "recognition of an independent self-consciousness" is investigated as a point of separation for contemporary philosophy of recognition. I claim that multiculturalism and the theories of recognition (such as Axel Honneth's) based on empiric...... psychology neglect or deny crucial metaphysical aspects of the Hegelian legacy. Instead, I seek to point at an additional, "spiritual", level of recognition, based on the concept of the subject in Lacanian psychoanalysis....

  15. The neural correlates of consciousness: new experimental approaches needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwy, Jakob

    2009-06-01

    It appears that consciousness science is progressing soundly, in particular in its search for the neural correlates of consciousness. There are two main approaches to this search, one is content-based (focusing on the contrast between conscious perception of, e.g., faces vs. houses), the other is state-based (focusing on overall conscious states, e.g., the contrast between dreamless sleep vs. the awake state). Methodological and conceptual considerations of a number of concrete studies show that both approaches are problematic: the content-based approach seems to set aside crucial aspects of consciousness; and the state-based approach seems over-inclusive in a way that is hard to rectify without losing sight of the crucial conscious-unconscious contrast. Consequently, the search for the neural correlates of consciousness is in need of new experimental paradigms.

  16. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse. Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  17. Using Brain Stimulation to Disentangle Neural Correlates of Conscious Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Alexander de Graaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as fMRI or EEG do not always afford inference on the role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical neural correlates of consciousness could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical neural correlates of consciousness.

  18. Safety of Conscious Sedation In Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arepally, Aravind; Oechsle, Denise; Kirkwood, Sharon; Savader, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To identify rates of adverse events associated with the use of conscious sedation in interventional radiology.Methods: In a 5-month period, prospective data were collected on patients undergoing conscious sedation for interventional radiology procedures (n = 594). Adverse events were categorized as respiratory, sedative, or major adverse events. Respiratory adverse events were those that required oral airway placement, ambu bag, or jaw thrust. Sedation adverse events were unresponsiveness, oxygen saturation less than 90%, use of flumazenil/naloxone, or agitation. Major adverse events were hypotension, intubation, CPR, or cardiac arrest. The frequency of adverse events for the five most common radiology procedures were determined.Results: The five most common procedures (total n = 541) were biliary tube placement/exchange (n = 182), tunneled catheter placement (n 135), diagnostic arteriography (n = 125), vascular interventions (n = 52), and other catheter insertions (n = 46). Rates for respiratory, sedation, and major adverse events were 4.7%, 4.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. The most frequent major adverse event was hypotension (2.0%). Biliary procedures had the highest rate of total adverse events (p < .05) and respiratory adverse events (p < .05).Conclusion: The frequency of adverse events is low with the use of conscious sedation during interventional procedures. The highest rates occurred during biliary interventions

  19. Narrating consciousness: language, media and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayles, N Katherine; Pulizzi, James J

    2010-01-01

    Although there has long been a division in studies of consciousness between a focus on neuronal processes or conversely an emphasis on the ruminations of a conscious self, the long-standing split between mechanism and meaning within the brain was mirrored by a split without, between information as a technical term and the meanings that messages are commonly thought to convey. How to heal this breach has posed formidable problems to researchers. Working through the history of cybernetics, one of the historical sites where Claude Shannon's information theory quickly became received doctrine, we argue that the cybernetic program as it developed through second-order cybernetics and autopoietic theory remains incomplete. In this article, we return to fundamental questions about pattern and noise, context and meaning, to forge connections between consciousness, narrative and media. The thrust of our project is to reintroduce context and narrative as crucial factors in the processes of meaning-making. The project proceeds along two fronts: advancing a theoretical framework within which context plays its property central role; and demonstrating the importance of context by analyzing two fictions, Stanislaw Lem's "His Master's Voice" and Joseph McElroy's "Plus," in which context has been deformed by being wrenched away from normal human environments, with radical consequences for processes of meaning-making.

  20. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-05-01

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Renal, metabolic, and hormonal responses to proteins of different origin in normotensive, nonproteinuric type I diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontessis, P A; Bossinakou, I; Sarika, L; Iliopoulou, E; Papantoniou, A; Trevisan, R; Roussi, D; Stipsanelli, K; Grigorakis, S; Souvatzoglou, A

    1995-09-01

    Whether the differences in renal function found in vegetarian compared with omnivorous subjects are related to quantity or quality of the protein is unknown. We have studied the renal function of nine normotensive, nonproteinuric type I diabetic patients who were fed in random order for 4 weeks either an animal protein diet (APD) (protein intake 1.1 g . kg-1 . day-1) or a vegetable protein diet VPD (protein intake 0.95 g . kg-1 . day-1). The two diets were isocaloric. In a crossover study, we measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (inulin clearance), renal plasma flow (RPF) (p-aminohippurate clearance), plasma amino acids, growth hormone, glucagon, insulin-like growth factor I-(IGF-I), and microalbuminuria. GFR and RPF were lower with the VPD than with the APD (89.9 +/- 4.1 vs. 105.6 +/- 5.1 ml . min-1 . 1.73 m-2, P protein intake in normotensive type I diabetic patients. This could be explained partly by differences in plasma concentrations of amino acids and IGF-I.

  2. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  3. Philosophy Iceberg of the Universe Consciousness Energy (The Theory of the Universe Consciousness Energy Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii Chuzhyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We offer an evolutionary and alternative solution to the problem of the Universe. The theory involves the formation of the Universe by means of all the sequences of energies and energy of consciousness with gradual structural wrapping by energy shells recording and accumulating them; formation of the core dispatch centers performing energetic and informational communication with a single rhythm among all space objects that form civilizations. We outline a way of human consciousness formation. The theory explains how the first objectively appeared sparks of human consciousness energy were evolving, accumulating and being recorded, formed the Earth’s noosphere in its core dispatch center. The consciousness energy structure has not yet been discovered and that inhibits the science, which is wary of those who define it as a stream of multi-super large reflection objectively reflecting the highest degree of manifestation of civilization collective creativity, named by John Wheeler as a substance of the information — “It from Bit.” Core dispatching centers of all cosmic objects consciousness energies such as the Earth are combined into the Universe core dispatcher center of which called the Cosmic Consciousness. Many hundreds of billions of years the Cosmic Consciousness absorbed and only recorded the sequences, experience of which ended strictly following the laws of nature, formed a unique quality — for each new sequence by its energetic and informational signal it can highlight, express from its archive the evolution of similar Roadmap, which had been already passed by a similar sequence. The Cosmic Consciousness indirectly provides the most important thing in the Universe — not interfering, it retains all its evolutionary integrity and harmony. All of them constantly and continuously follow and check it through bioinformational communication, without deviation move toward their goal. Life of the Earth civilization is also moving

  4. Distorted temporal consciousness and preserved knowing consciousness in confabulation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; George, Nathalie; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla

    2011-01-01

    In this study we describe a patient, TA, who developed a chronic amnesic-confabulatory syndrome, following rupture of a right internal carotid siphon aneurysm. Our aim was to elucidate as fully as possible the nature of TA's impairment and to test the hypothesis of confabulation as reflecting a dysfunction of Temporal Consciousness, i.e., to become aware of something as part of a personal past, present or future. TA's confabulations were present in answers to questions tapping Temporal Consciousness, i.e., autobiographical episodic memory, orientation in time and place, and foresight of personal future. In contrast, confabulations were not observed in answers to questions tapping Knowing Consciousness, i.e., to become aware of something as a meaning or as an element of impersonal knowledge. In fact, he had normal access to semantic knowledge, including foresight of impersonal future. TA's brain MRI showed lesions involving the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fornix, mammillary bodies, and thalamus. Moreover TA showed sub-cortical lesions involving the caudate and putamen nuclei bilaterally, a lesion site not commonly described in amnesic-confabulatory syndrome. We suggest that this pattern of results is better accounted for within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory and reflects a specific distortion of Temporal Consciousness.

  5. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parameters of Blood Flow in Great Arteries in Hypertensive ISIAH Rats with Stress-Dependent Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel', A L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography was used to examine blood flow in great arteries of hypertensive ISIAH and normotensive Wistar rats. In hypertensive ISIAH rats, increased vascular resistance in the basin of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries as well as reduced fraction of total renal blood flow were found. In contrast, blood flow through both carotid arteries in ISIAH rats was enhanced, which in suggests more intensive blood supply to brain regulatory centers providing enhanced stress reactivity of these rats characterized by stress-dependent arterial hypertension.

  7. Role of Renal Nerves in the Treatment of Renovascular Hypertensive Rats with L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alves Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the role of renal nerves in mediating the effects of antihypertensive treatment with L-arginine in a renovascular hypertension model. The 2K1C (two-kidney one-clip model hypertensive rats were submitted to bilateral surgical-pharmacological renal denervation. The animals were subdivided into six experimental groups: normotensive control rats (SHAM, 2K1C rats, 2K1C rats treated with L-arginine (2K1C + L-arg, denervated normotensive (DN rats, denervated 2K1C (2K1C + DN rats, and denervated 2K1C + L-arg (2K1C + DN + L-arg rats. Arterial blood pressure, water intake, urine volume, and sodium excretion were measured. The 2K1C rats exhibited an increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP (from 106 ± 3 to 183 ± 5.8 mmHg, P<0.01, whereas L-arg treatment induced a reduction in the MAP (143 ± 3.4 mmHg without lowering it to the control level. Renal nerve denervation reduced the MAP to normotensive levels in 2K1C rats with or without chronic L-arg treatment. L-arg and denervation induced increases in water intake and urine volume, and L-arg caused a significant natriuretic effect. Our results suggest that renal sympathetic activity participates in the genesis and the maintenance of the hypertension and also demonstrate that treatment with L-arg alone is incapable of normalizing the MAP and that the effect of such treatment is not additive with the effect of kidney denervation.

  8. EVALUATIN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF SONCHUS ASPER L. IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Alamgeer; Ahmad, Taseer; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Ahsan, Haseeb; Naz, Huma; Asif, Hira; Younis, Waqas; Tabassum, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of aerial parts of Sonchus asper L. in normotensive, glucose and egg feed diet induced hypertensive rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive and glucose induced hypertensive rats using the non-invasive technique. The results obtained showed that the extract has significantly (p < 0.5 - p < 0.001) decreased the blood pressure and heart rate in dose dependent manner. The dose 1000 mg/kg of the extract produced the maximum antihypertensive effect and was selected for further experiments. The extract was found to prevent the rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The LD50 of the plant extract was 3500 mg/kg b.w. in mice and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alteration in the blood chemistry of the extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that the aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity in rats and has duly supported traditional medicinal use of plant in hypertension.

  9. Increased atrial natriuretic factor receptor density in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.; Fine, B.; Kuriyama, S.; Hatori, N.; Nakamura, A.; Nakamura, M.; Aviv, A.

    1987-01-01

    To explore the role of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) system in the pathophysiology of hypertension we examined the binding kinetics of synthetic ANF to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and two normotensive controls-the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and American Wistar (W). The number of maximal binding sites (Bmax) per cell (mean +/- SEM; X10(3] were: SHR = 278.0 +/- 33.0, WKY = 28.3 +/- 7.1 and W = 26.6 +/- 4.2. The differences between the SHR and normotensive strains were significant at p less than 0.001. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd; X 10(-9)M) was higher in SHR VSMCs (0.94 +/- 0.14) than in WKY (0.22 +/- 0.09; p less than 0.01) and W (0.39 +/- 0.14; p less than 0.02) cells. The plasma levels of the immunoreactive ANF were higher in SHR than the normotensive controls. We suggest that the relatively greater ANF receptor density in cultured VSMCs of the SHR represents a response to the in vitro environment which is relatively more deficient in ANF for VSMCs of the SHR as compared with the normotensive rats. Thus, the capacity of the SHR VSMC to regulate ANF receptor density appears to be independent of the blood pressure level

  10. Reduction of microalbuminuria by using losartan in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Adnan; Amer, Wasim; Anwar, Eram; Bashir, Kaukab

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide pandemic that may lead to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a complication which is the single most important and globally prevalent cause of chronic kidney disease. Microalbuminuria has been shown to be an early indicator of DKD and data suggest that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce urinary albumin excretion and retard the progression of renal disease in hypertensive T2DM patients. However, the effects of ARBs on preventing microalbuminuria and ensuing DKD in normotensive patients with T2DM is yet to be fully established. The objective of this study is to assess the anti-microalbuminuric effects of losartan therapy versus placebo in normotensive T2DM patients. This randomized single blinded controlled trial was performed at the Diabetic Clinic, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore over a period of 10 months. A total of 361 normotensive patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria were selected; of them, 171 patients were randomly allocated to the test group and 190 enrolled into the control group. The patients in the test group were started on losartan 50 mg/day for a six month period while those in the control group were put on vitamin B-12 500 mcg/day. The patients as well as the primary attending physicians/lab evaluators were blinded to the study. All study patients were followed up on a monthly basis. Quantitative microalbuminuria was tested at the beginning and at the end of the study. Out of the 171 patients in the test group, 149 (87.1%) had significant reduction of albuminuria by > 30% of their baseline (mean 101.9 +- 21.7 baseline and, 47.5 + - 12.9 post-therapy). The corresponding values for albuminuria in the 190 patients in the control group was mean 104.7 +- 26.3 baseline and post 6-month mean 103.9 +- 22.9, with P< 0.0001. The anti-albuminuric effect of losartan was reversible as seen on re-checking the urinary albumin two months after discontinuation of treatment. Our study shows that losartan was well tolerated

  11. Can Digital Computers Support Ancient Mathematical Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sloman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses, discusses, but does not definitively answer, the following questions: What sorts of reasoning machinery could the ancient mathematicians, and other intelligent animals, be using for spatial reasoning, before the discovery of modern logical mechanisms? “Diagrams in minds” perhaps? How and why did natural selection produce such machinery? Is there a single package of biological abilities for spatial reasoning, or did different sorts of mathematical competence evolve at different times, forming a “layered” system? Do the layers develop in individuals at different stages? Which components are shared with other intelligent species? Does some or all of the machinery exist at or before birth in humans and if not how and when does it develop, and what is the role of experience in its development? How do brains implement such machinery? Could similar machines be implemented as virtual machines on digital computers, and if not what sorts of non-digital “Super Turing” mechanisms could replicate the required functionality, including discovery of impossibility and necessity? How are impossibility and necessity represented in brains? Are chemical mechanisms required? How could such mechanisms be specified in a genome? Are some not specified in the genome but products of interaction between genome and environment? Does Turing’s work on chemical morphogenesis published shortly before he died indicate that he was interested in this problem? Will the answers to these questions vindicate Immanuel Kant’s claims about the nature of mathematical knowledge, including his claim that mathematical truths are non-empirical, synthetic and necessary? Perhaps it’s time for discussions of consciousness to return to the nature of ancient mathematical consciousness, and related aspects of everyday human and non-human intelligence, usually ignored by consciousness theorists.

  12. The Cosmologic continuum from physics to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S; Miller, William B

    2018-04-13

    Reduction of developmental biology to self-referential cell-cell communication offers a portal for understanding fundamental mechanisms of physiology as derived from physics through quantum mechanics. It is argued that self-referential organization is implicit to the Big Bang and its further expression is a recoil reaction to that Singularity. When such a frame is considered, in combination with experimental evidence for the importance of epigenetic inheritance, the unicellular state can be reappraised as the primary object of selection. This framework provides a significant shift in understanding the relationship between physics and biology, providing novel insights to the nature and origin of consciousness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Natural Fabrications Science, Emergence and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, William

    2012-01-01

    The spectacular success of the scientific enterprise over the last four hundred years has led to the promise of an all encompassing vision of the natural world. In this elegant picture, everything we observe is based upon just a few fundamental processes and entities. The almost infinite variety and complexity of the world is thus the product of emergence. But the concept of emergence is fraught with controversy and confusion. This book ponders the question of how emergence should be understood within the scientific picture, and whether a complete vision of the world can be attained that includes consciousness.

  14. Impaired cardiac ischemic tolerance in spontaneously hypertensive rats is attenuated by adaptation to chronic and acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravingerová, T; Bernátová, I; Matejíková, J; Ledvényiová, V; Nemčeková, M; Pecháňová, O; Tribulová, N; Slezák, J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hypertension may have a negative impact on the myocardial response to ischemia. On the other hand, intrinsic ischemic tolerance may persist even in the pathologically altered hearts of hypertensive animals, and may be modified by short- or long-term adaptation to different stressful conditions. The effects of long-term limitation of living space (ie, crowding stress [CS]) and brief ischemia-induced stress on cardiac response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are not yet fully characterized in hypertensive subjects. The present study was designed to test the influence of chronic and acute stress on the myocardial response to I/R in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with their effects in normotensive counterparts. In both groups, chronic, eight-week CS was induced by caging five rats per cage in cages designed for two rats (200 cm(2)/rat), while controls (C) were housed four to a cage in cages designed for six animals (480 cm(2)/rat). Acute stress was evoked by one cycle of I/R (5 min each, ischemic preconditioning) before sustained I/R in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts of normotensive and SHR rats. At baseline conditions, the effects of CS were manifested only as a further increase in blood pressure in SHR, and by marked limitation of coronary perfusion in normotensive animals, while no changes in heart mechanical function were observed in any of the groups. Postischemic recovery of contractile function, severity of ventricular arrhythmias and lethal injury (infarction size) were worsened in the hypertrophied hearts of C-SHR compared with normotensive C. However, myo-cardial stunning and reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias were attenuated by CS in SHR, which was different from deterioration of I/R injury in the hearts of normotensive animals. In contrast, ischemic preconditioning conferred an effective protection against I/R in both groups, although the extent of anti-infarct and anti-arrhythmic effects was lower in SHR. Both

  15. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-10-01

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: from theory to bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2013-05-01

    The exploration of the neural bases of consciousness (both conscious states and conscious mental contents) has progressed significantly over the last 15 years, in particular concerning the investigation of conscious access during perception. These advancements stem both from original neuropsychological studies, and from the rapid development of functional brain-imaging tools and methods. Only since recently these discoveries lead to medical applications aiming at improving the evaluation and follow-up of patients suffering from impairments of functional communication and/or of consciousness (comatose, vegetative, minimally conscious states, or paralyzed patients such as the "locked in" syndrome or similar conditions). By contributing to possible improvements of diagnosis and prognosis evaluations of these complex medical situations, these new tools open new perspectives associated with noteworthy ethical, social and philosophic implications.

  17. A global workspace model for phenomenal and access consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; Pantani, Martina

    2010-06-01

    Both the global workspace theory and Block's distinction between phenomenal and access consciousness, are central in the current debates about consciousness and the neural correlates of consciousness. In this article, a unifying global workspace model for phenomenal and access consciousness is proposed. In the model, recurrent neural interactions take place in distinct yet interacting access and phenomenal brain loops. The effectiveness of feedback signaling onto sensory cortical maps is emphasized for the neural correlates of phenomenal consciousness. Two forms of top-down attention, attention for perception and attention for access, play differential roles for phenomenal and access consciousness. The model is implemented in a neural network form, with the simulation of single and multiple visual object processing, and of the attentional blink. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Opposing effects of attention and consciousness on afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2010-05-11

    The brain's ability to handle sensory information is influenced by both selective attention and consciousness. There is no consensus on the exact relationship between these two processes and whether they are distinct. So far, no experiment has simultaneously manipulated both. We carried out a full factorial 2 x 2 study of the simultaneous influences of attention and consciousness (as assayed by visibility) on perception, correcting for possible concurrent changes in attention and consciousness. We investigated the duration of afterimages for all four combinations of high versus low attention and visible versus invisible. We show that selective attention and visual consciousness have opposite effects: paying attention to the grating decreases the duration of its afterimage, whereas consciously seeing the grating increases the afterimage duration. These findings provide clear evidence for distinctive influences of selective attention and consciousness on visual perception.

  19. Association Analysis of Arg16Gly Polymorphism of the Beta2-adreneric Receptor Gene in Offspring from Hypertensive and Normotensive Families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindra, A.; Horký, K.; Peleška, Jan; Jáchymová, M.; Bultas, J.; Umnerová, V.; Heller, S.; Hlubocká, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2002), s. 213-217 ISSN 0803-7051 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA5615 Keywords : Arg16Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene * normotensive offspring * essential hypertension Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2002

  20. Multilocus analyses of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene variants on blood pressure at rest and during behavioral stress in young normotensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, Dongliang; Zhu, Haidong; Huang, Ying; Treiber, Frank A.; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Snieder, Harold; Dong, Yanbin

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a proteolytic cascade that regulates and maintains blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to explore the interactive and integrative effects of multiple RAAS polymorphisms on BP at rest and during behavioral stress in a normotensive population. A

  1. Comparison of the effects of sodium bicarbonate jet prophylaxis on blood pressure in normotensive individuals and patients with controlled hypertension: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila Lopes; De Marco, Andrea Carvalho; Lazzari, Thiago Rodrigues; Amorim, José Benedito Oliveira; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Jardini, Maria Aparecida Neves

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the blood pressure (BP) of normotensive subjects and subjects with pharmacologically controlled hypertension after sodium bicarbonate jet prophylaxis. Forty subjects were divided into 2 groups: a normotensive control group (n = 20) and a hypertensive group (n = 20). Blood pressure measurements were conducted at 4 timepoints: prior to the dental prophylaxis (T0), immediately after treatment (Ti), 15 minutes after treatment (T15), and 30 minutes after treatment (T30). The systolic BP (SBP) values for both groups were significantly increased at Ti (P < 0.05) and returned to their initial state at T15. Both groups also showed a significant increase in diastolic BP (DBP) values at Ti (P < 0.05); however, the basal conditions in hypertensive subjects were not restored until T30, whereas the values for normotensive subjects were restored at T15. The results indicated that systemic BP changed significantly after sodium bicarbonate jet prophylaxis in both study groups; while initial SBP values were restored by 15 minutes in both groups, the return to initial DBP values took longer in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group.

  2. The learning organization and the level of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Chiva Gómez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze learning organization by comparing with other types of organizations. This typology is based on the levels of consciousness and relates each type of organization with a level of learning and an organizational structure. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper based on the concept of levels of consciousness. Findings – The paper proposes that learning organization requires the highest level of consciousness. O...

  3. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community.

  4. On the neural mechanisms subserving consciousness and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eTallon-Baudry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness, as described in the experimental literature, is a multi-faceted phenomenon, that impinges on other well-studied concepts such as attention and control. Do consciousness and attention refer to different aspects of the same core phenomenon, or do they correspond to distinct functions? One possibility to address this question is to examine the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness and attention. If consciousness and attention pertain to the same concept, they should rely on shared neural mechanisms. Conversely, if their underlying mechanisms are distinct, then consciousness and attention should be considered as distinct entities. This paper therefore reviews neurophysiological facts arguing in favor or against a tight relationship between consciousness and attention. Three neural mechanisms that have been associated with both attention and consciousness are examined (neural amplification, involvement of the fronto-parietal network, and oscillatory synchrony, to conclude that the commonalities between attention and consciousness at the neural level may have been overestimated. Last but not least, experiments in which both attention and consciousness were probed at the neural level point toward a dissociation between the two concepts. It therefore appears from this review that consciousness and attention rely on distinct neural properties, although they can interact at the behavioral level. It is proposed that a "cumulative influence model", in which attention and consciousness correspond to distinct neural mechanisms feeding a single decisional process leading to behavior, fits best with available neural and behavioral data. In this view, consciousness should not be considered as a top-level executive function but should rather be defined by its experiential properties.

  5. Characteristics of environmentally conscious production behaviour in agricultural waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Kormosne-Koch, Krisztina

    2008-01-01

    When measuring environmentally conscious behaviour and determining its variables, focus often lies only on consumers, but environmental conservation requires not only the consumers’ but also the producers’ input. After defining environmentally conscious behaviour, I utilized the market research method to determine how participating in agri-environmental programs and subsidies affects producers’ environmental consciousness and waste management behaviour. The research result indicates tha...

  6. A Neural Marker of Perceptual Consciousness in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouider, Sid; Stahlhut, Carsten; Gelskov, Sofie V.

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness Arrives Neurophysiological measures in human adults correspond to the transition between very brief, “unnoticeable,” and slightly longer-lived visual stimuli that penetrate deeply enough to leave a conscious imprint that subjects report they can “see.” Kouider et al. (p. 376) have...... performed parallel behavioral and neurophysiological studies in infants to identify a similar neural signal that appears to mark the development of visual consciousness....

  7. Effects of Dietary l-Arginine on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Giam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity related hypertension is a major risk factor for resistant hypertension. We do not completely understand the mechanism(s underlying the development of obesity related hypertension which hinders the development of novel treatment strategies for this condition. Data from experimental studies and small clinical trials indicate that transport of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide (NO, and subsequent NO production are reduced in obesity induced hypertension. Reduced NO bioavailability can induce hypertension via multiple mechanisms. Mirmiran et al. recently analyzed data from a large population study and found that the association between dietary l-arginine and serum nitrate and nitrite was weakened in obese hypertensive subjects compared to obese normotensives. These data suggest that l-arginine dependent NO production is impaired in the former group compared to the latter which may represent a novel mechanism contributing to hypertension in the setting of obesity.

  8. Comparison of demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters between patients with sustained normotension, white coat hypertension, masked hypertension, and sustained hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris

    2013-03-01

    After measurement of office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), 4 groups of patients were identified namely: (i) sustained normotensive patients (BPs are normal both clinically and by ABPM); (ii) white coat hypertensive patients (clinical BP were above limits, but ABPM were normal); (iii) masked hypertensive patients (clinical BP were normal, but ABPM were high); (iv) sustained hypertensive patients (both office and ABPM were high). The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of these conditions are not exactly known. Besides in the literature there are only few studies that compare the 4 groups of patients together. Thus the study was carried out to compare patients with sustained normotension (SNT), white coat hypertension (WCHT), masked hypertension (MHT), and sustained hypertension (SHT). All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and ABPM. They were referred to the cardiology department for echocardiographic evaluation. In total 85 patients with SNT, 112 patients with WCHT, 31 patients with MHT, and 81 patients with SHT were included. Going from SNT to SHT, body mass index (p<0.0001), waist circumference (p<0.0001), fasting blood glucose (p=0.002), and uric acid (p=0.029) rose progressively. Presence of metabolic syndrome was also highest in SHT and lowest in SNT (p<0.0001). Most of the metabolic risk factors were higher in patients with MHT and SHT when compared to SNT and WCHT. Studies are needed to determine whether metabolic risk factors play a causative role for the development of MHT and SHT. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between ambulatory blood pressure values and central aortic pressure in a large population of normotensive and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol-Dias, Ana; Araújo, Sara; Silva, José A; Barbosa, Loide; Polónia, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and central blood pressure (CBP) data in a large set of normotensive and hypertensive patients and its relation with pulse wave velocity (PWV). This cross-sectional study was carried out in a single centre and included 2864 individuals who carried out an ABPM, measurement of CBP from the aortic waveform (SphygmoCor) and carotid-femoral PWV (Complior). In our study, 26.6% of the normotensive individuals and 32.5% of controlled hypertensive patients had abnormal values of at least one or of both ABPM and CBP values, compared with 96.6% of uncontrolled hypertensive patients. In the overall population, normal ABPM and CBP occurred in 25.3% (group 1), abnormal ABPM and CBP occurred in 44.4% (group 4), abnormal ABPM and normal CBP occurred in 10.5% (group 3) and normal ABPM and abnormal CBP occurred in 19.8% (group 2). PWV was significantly superior in group 4 versus group 3; group 4 versus group 1 and group 3 versus group 2 and group 2 versus group 1 (Mann-Whitney U-test; PABPM or CBP associated with target organ damages. When abnormal values of ABPM and CBP coexist, target organ damage (aortic stiffness) is greater than that occurring when only one abnormal ABPM or CBP is present in the absence of the other. Isolated central hypertension entails greater organ damage than both normal ABPM and CBP. These patients may be at higher risk of further target organ damage because of unawareness of their central hypertension.

  10. Increased left ventricular mass and diastolic dysfunction are associated with endothelial dysfunction in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, Bogomir; Poredos, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension (familial trait - FT), and to determine the association between LV mass and determinants of LV diastolic function and endothelium-dependent (NO-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA). The study encompassed 76 volunteers of whom 44 were normotonics with FT aged 28-39 (mean 33) years and 32 age-matched controls without FT. LV mass and LV diastolic function was measured using conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). LV diastolic filling properties were assessed and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and peak septal annular velocities (E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio) on TDI. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (flow-mediated dilation--FMD) were measured. In subjects with FT, the LV mass index was higher than in controls (92.14+/-24.02 vs 70.08+/-20.58); p<0.001). Offspring of hypertensive families had worse LV diastolic function than control subjects (lower E/A ratio, lower E(m) and E(m)/A(m) ratio; p<0.001). In subjects with FT, FMD was decreased compared with the controls (6.11+/-3.28% vs 10.20+/-2.07%; p<0.001). LV mass index and E(m)/A(m) ratio were associated with FMD (p<0.001). In normotensive individuals with FT, LV morphological and functional changes were found. We demonstrated that an increase in LV mass and alterations in LV diastolic function are related to endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  12. Increased level of morning surge in blood pressure in normotensives: A cross-sectional study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Sultan, F. T.; Kazmi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the mean morning surge (MS) in blood pressure, the frequency of increased morning surge in normotensive subjects, and to compare those with morning surge with those without MS. Study Design: A cross-sectional, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: Adult normotensive healthy volunteers aged 35 to 65 years were inducted. Their ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured over a 24-hour period, using digital ambulatory blood pressure monitors. Morning surge was calculated as the average of four readings after waking minus the lowest three nocturnal readings. Increased morning surge was defined as > 11 mm Hg in systolic (SBP) or > 12 mm Hg in diastolic (DBP). Dipping was defined as > 10% dipping in blood pressure. Results: Eighty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Their mean age was 36.9 ± 1.2 years; 74.4 (61%) were men, and 58.5 (48%) woke up for morning prayers. Mean overall SBP was 113 ± 1.6 mm Hg, overall DBP was 73.9 ± 0.7 mm Hg, and overall heart rate was 75 (10) beats/minute. Mean morning surge was 17.6 ± 1.0 mm Hg in SBP and 16.0 ± 0.8 mm Hg in DBP. The frequency of increased morning surge was 66 (80.5%) in SBP, and 57 (69%) in DBP. On comparison of participants with normal morning surge and increased morning surge in SBP, there was a significant difference in non-dipping status (13.4% in normal vs. 18.3% in increased morning surge, p= 0.001). Conclusion: Mean morning surge in SBP and DBP are relatively higher in this subset population in a tertiary care center in Pakistan. These values are higher than those reported in the literature. (author)

  13. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  14. Analysis of Mental Processes Represented in Models of Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Folchini da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Artificial Consciousness concept has been used in the engineering area as being an evolution of the Artificial Intelligence. However, consciousness is a complex subject and often used without formalism. As a main contribution, in this work one proposes an analysis of four recent models of artificial consciousness published in the engineering area. The mental processes represented by these models are highlighted and correlations with the theoretical perspective of cognitive psychology are made. Finally, considerations about consciousness in such models are discussed.

  15. The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of consciousness is examined in the article. It is argued that all the existing approaches to consciousness do not explain the role consciousness plays in human life. An attempt of revealing and describing the principles of the mind’s work is made. Experimental phenomena observed by the author and his followers, particularly, the tendency of previously non-realized ideas not to be realized subsequently, are reviewed. The discussion of these phenomena allows to formulate a novel view on the nature of consciousness.

  16. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gil da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This text address the phenomenon of consciousness of individuals, performing a brief overview of the key elements to understand the process of political consciousness of Physical Education teachers. This is a larger study, which analyzes how is the teachers formation and political engagement, and in the limits of this article, we present the elements for the understanding of expressions of their political consciousness. It seeks to recover the "movement" of consciousness, since it believes that this is not something given and gravel, which can be seen without relating it to their development process, embedded in the history of its formation.

  17. The consciousness state space (CSS – a unifying model for consciousness and self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eBerkovich-Ohana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience.Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively. CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature.The CSS dynamics includes two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlaying several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  18. The consciousness state space (CSS)-a unifying model for consciousness and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS) model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience. Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively). CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature. The CSS dynamics include two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlining several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  19. Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, N; Abe, K; Komuro, K; Oda, M

    1972-11-01

    The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

  20. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consciousness, cognition and brain networks: New perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, E M; Valverde, J L; Fábregas, N

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex. This requires an integrated model, formed by neural networks and their interactions with highly specialized regions, through large-scale networks, which are distributed throughout the brain collecting information flow of these perceptions. Functional and effective connectivity between large-scale networks, are essential for consciousness, unconsciousness and cognition. It is what is called the "human connectome" or map neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Conscious experience and episodic memory: hippocampus at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Ralf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory - a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex) with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula) and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream), the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception, creating the spatially and temporally extending world that we perceive around us, is likely to be evolutionarily related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing to

  3. Conscious Experience and Episodic Memory: Hippocampus at the Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf-Peter eBehrendt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory – a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream, the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception is likely to be related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing to an important contribution of the hippocampus to these conscious phenomena will

  4. How neuroscience will change our view on consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-09-01

    Is there consciousness in machines? Or in animals? What happens to consciousness when we are asleep, or in vegetative state? These are just a few examples of the many questions about consciousness that are troubling scientists and laypersons alike. Moreover, these questions share a striking feature: They seem to have been around forever, yet neither science nor philosophy has been able to provide an answer. Why is that? In my view, the main reason is that the study of consciousness is dominated by what we know from introspection and behavior. This has fooled us into thinking that we know what we are conscious of. The scientific equivalent of this is Global Workspace theory. But in fact we don't know what we are conscious of, as I will explain from a simple experiment in visual perception. Once we acknowledge that, it is clear that we need other evidence about the presence or absence of a conscious sensation than introspection or behavior. Assuming the brain has something to do with it, I will demonstrate how arguments from neuroscience, together with theoretical and ontological arguments, can help us resolve what the exact nature of our conscious sensation is. It turns out that we see much more than we think, and that Global Workspace theory is all about access but not about seeing. The exercise is an example of how neuroscience will move us away from psychological intuitions about consciousness, and hence depict a notion of consciousness that may go against our deepest conviction: "My consciousness is mine, and mine alone." It's not.

  5. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-01-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation

  6. Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, T.A.; Sack, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But

  7. How Consciousness-Raising Affects Intonation and Facilitates Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation about the relation between a student's conscious awareness of the structure of a sentence and the degree of his/her intonation accuracy as well as his/her reading comprehension. The research was done based on the hypothesis that: "if the students are made conscious of the infrastructure of lengthy…

  8. The role of instruction for spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Hasselman, F.W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role of instruction for spelling performance and spelling consciousness in the Dutch language. Spelling consciousness is the ability to reflect on one's spelling and correct errors. A sample of 115 third-grade spellers was assigned to a strategy-instruction,

  9. The Role of Instruction for Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Hasselman, Fred; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role of instruction for spelling performance and spelling consciousness in the Dutch language. Spelling consciousness is the ability to reflect on one's spelling and correct errors. A sample of 115 third-grade spellers was assigned to a strategy-instruction, strategic-monitoring, self-monitoring, or control condition…

  10. The possibility of a science of consciousness Critical reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The opposite goes for Merleau-Ponty whose first-person ontology does not account for third-person epistemology. The question is ultimately how far a science of consciousness is really possible. This paper enquires about the possibility of an approach that allows a scientific account of consciousness, specifically qualia, ...

  11. Ethical consciousness in auditing : a comparison of students and employees

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Stine Mari Hilmarsen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to examine the difference in the level of consciousness towards ethics in auditing between students and employees, and further examine if the level of ethical consciousness comply with auditing standards. To examine the level of the different groups, a survey was conducted and distributed. The survey ...

  12. Simulation and Representation of Body, Emotion, and Core Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Henderson-Sellers, B.; Winikoff, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes an analysis and formalisation of Damasio's theory on core consciousness. Three important concepts in this theory are 'emotion', 'feeling', and 'feeling a feeling' (or core consciousness). In particular, a simulation model is described of the neural dynamics leading via emotion

  13. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  14. Myth in the structure of national consciousness | Gizatova | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... multiethnic state, the problem of scientific definition of nations, ethnic groups, national and ethnic consciousness has a special practical significance. In Russia and the post-Soviet space, the activation of mythological thinking has its own specifics. Keywords: Nations, Ethnicity, National consciousness, Myth, Globalization ...

  15. Consciousness as a global property of brain dynamic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Guevara, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions. Having found maximal entropy in conscious states, we then inspected the microscopic nature of the configurations of connections using an adequate complexity measure and found higher complexity in states characterized not only by conscious awareness but also by subconscious cognitive processing, such as sleep stages. Our observations indicate that conscious awareness is associated with maximal global (macroscopic) entropy and with the short time scale (microscopic) complexity of the configurations of connected brain networks in pathological unconscious states (seizures and coma), but the microscopic view captures the high complexity in physiological unconscious states (sleep) where there is information processing. As such, our results support the global nature of conscious awareness, as advocated by several theories of cognition. We thus hope that our studies represent preliminary steps to reveal aspects of the structure of cognition that leads to conscious awareness.

  16. Gender Consciousness among Urban Adolescents in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to find out whether adolescents express their consciousness about the two dimensions of gender (public and private) and to determine the level ofmanifestations of gender consciousness among early and late adolescents. For the purpose of this study, 100(M=56, F=44) were randomly selected from ...

  17. Experience with Conscious sedation for Oocyte Retrieval in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    The aim of this study was to assess clients' pain experience, acceptance of conscious sedation and correlates of pain during oocyte retrieval ... Conscious sedation and analgesia are one of several methods used to relieve pain during oocyte retrieval in. IVF procedures. .... relieves anxiety and reduces the patient's memory.

  18. Functional brain imaging in the clinical assessment of consciousness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rafii

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that functional brain imaging might be used to identify consciousness in patients diagnosed with persistent vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Michael Rafii and James Brewer discuss the potential for fMRI's wider implementation in clinical practice, and associated caveats.

  19. The Role of Gender Consciousness in Challenging Patriarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    In an action research project, eight women explored their development of gender consciousness, finding that a hidden curriculum taught subordination to the patriarchal system. Connected learning fostered gender consciousness and led to connected action. Action included teaching others about gender issues, making the invisible visible, and adopting…

  20. Mental states, processes, and conscious intent in Libet's experiments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning and significance of Benjamin Libet's studies on the timing of conscious will have been widely discussed, especially by those wishing to draw sceptical conclusions about conscious agency and free will. However, certain important correctives for thinking about mental states and processes undermine the ...

  1. Solar energy conscious allotting and building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, R.; Winter, R.

    1992-10-01

    In order to use solar energy now and in the future several measures should be taken in the field of urban development and housing construction. A number of policy instruments is available to the local governments to stimulate the use of solar energy. However, little use is made of these possibilities so far. In many municipalities there are uncertainties about the financial consequences of solar energy conscious building. In practice it appears that there are hardly any extra costs for the infrastructure if building blocks and roofs are designed and built with south orientation. Also possibilities to minimize the investment barrier for the occupants of the houses are available. An overview is presented of the policy instruments and practical examples are given for the Dutch municipalities Gouda, Schiedam, Heerhugowaard, Delft and Haarlemmermeer. 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 6 refs

  2. Sharatchandra’s Caste and Gender Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasingha Sil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sharatchandra Chattopadhyay’s attitude to the prevalent caste system and social ethos, especially concerning sex, love, and marriage and chastity of married as well as widowed women, shows a marked ambivalence. On one hand, his work demonstrates his progressive and liberal ideas emanating from Western contact and impact on late colonial India, and on Bengal in particular. On the other hand, and by the same token, his attitude to love, marriage, and sex shows marked affinity with the Victorian morality emanating from the society of colonial India’s metropolitan masters. The upshot of this historical and social context is that Sharatchandra was basically a caste conscious Hindu Brahmin and a firm believer in the patriarchal ethos of his contemporary society, his reputation as a compassionate (daradī or maramī writer exposing the ills of his society notwithstanding.

  3. Fashion design solutions for environmentally conscious consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Chen, Y.; Curteza, A.; Thomassey, S.; Perwuelz, A.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    This paper intends to give an overview of the design solutions in fashion for environmentally conscious consumers, presenting green and ethical practices in contemporary clothing design. The results introduce the concept of slow fashion and discuss available fashion design solutions, giving most prominent examples of sustainable products and brands, these contain one or more design features. By this, the discussion extracts the main contemporary ideas. The presented examples of current offers are all envisioning less impact on the environment and society. Sustainable design solutions use more environmentally friendly materials such as organic cotton, incorporate circular design or design for recycling, e.g., replacing button closures with alternative closing possibilities or leather labels with printed versions, or ensure long product life through durability, among other methods. There are differing designs due to creators’ individuality. This overview can be beneficial for the future development of new solutions for more environmentally friendly fashion.

  4. The posthuman condition consciousness beyond the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Pepperell, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic creativity, organic computers, genetic modification, intelligent machines &endash; such ideas are deeply challenging to many of our traditional assumptions about human uniqueness and superiority. But, ironically, it is our very capacity for technological invention that has secured us so dominant a position in the world which may lead ultimately to (as some have put it) 'The End of Man'. If we are really capable of creating entities that exceed our own skills and intellect then the consequences for humanity are almost inconceivable. Nevertheless, we must now face up to the possibility that attributes like intelligence and consciousness may be synthesised in non-human entities &endash; perhaps within our lifetime. Would such entities have human-like emotions; would they have a sense of their own being? The Posthuman Condition argues that such questions are difficult to tackle given the concepts of human existence that we have inherited from humanism, many of which can no longer be sustained. N...

  5. Epileptic consciousness: concept and meaning of aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Silva, Sergio; Alvarez-Silva, Iria; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Javier; Perez-Echeverria, M J; Campayo-Martinez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, F L

    2006-05-01

    This research is based on previous publications that have analyzed certain neuropsychological phenomena that always have the same characteristic clinical features: a vivid experience of sudden onset and automatic development, accompanied by an intense sensation of strangeness. When these automatisms are accompanied by only mental symptoms, the designation paroxysmal psychic automatisms (PPAs) is proposed, and they should be interpreted as partial seizures (PSs) with a psychic content whenever they clearly exhibit the four features of suddenness, passivity, intensity, and strangeness. This interpretation is based on the existence of a wealth of scientific literature indicating an overlap between PPAs and PSs; moreover, bibliographic reviews indicate that the clinical signs just defined as characterizing PPAs are precisely those defining the epileptic consciousness.

  6. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magee, Wendy L.; O'Kelly, Julian

    , evidence-based therapeutic methods are developed from an understanding of music perception and cognition. However, there are several key challenges. First, developing a theory-based clinical and research approach is necessary to deepen understandings of the complex interactions between music stimulus......Music therapy is a clinical healthcare discipline that draws its evidence base from a number of theoretical frameworks, including psychology and music neuroscience to improve the health and well-being in individuals from varied clinical populations. Working with individuals across the lifespan...... is to present the latest developments in music therapy intervention and measurement with people with disorders of consciousness stemming from acquired profound brain injury. We will share a standardized clinical protocol and examine recent research findings that illustrate the benefits of music-based methods...

  7. On human consciousness: A mathematical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grindrod

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the implications of the mathematical modeling and analysis of large modular neuron-to-neuron dynamical networks. We explain how the dynamical behavior of relatively small-scale strongly connected networks leads naturally to nonbinary information processing and thus to multiple hypothesis decision-making, even at the very lowest level of the brain’s architecture. In turn we build on these ideas to address some aspects of the hard problem of consciousness. These include how feelings might arise within an architecture with a foundational decision-making and classification layer of unit processors. We discuss how a proposed “dual hierarchy model,” made up from both externally perceived, physical elements of increasing complexity, and internally experienced, mental elements (which we argue are equivalent to feelings, may support aspects of a learning and evolving consciousness. We introduce the idea that a human brain ought to be able to reconjure subjective mental feelings at will, and thus these feelings cannot depend on internal chatter or internal instability-driven activity (patterns. An immediate consequence of this model, grounded in dynamical systems and nonbinary information processing, is that finite human brains must always be learning and forgetting and that any possible subjective internal feeling that might be fully idealized with a countable infinity of facets could never be learned completely a priori by zombies or automata. It may be experienced more and more fully by an evolving human brain (yet never in totality, not even in a lifetime. We argue that, within our model, the mental elements and thus internal modes (feelings play a role akin to latent variables in processing and decision-making, and thus confer an evolutionary “fast-thinking” advantage.

  8. Social Media Users’ Legal Consciousness About Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Sarikakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the concept of privacy is understood in the context of social media and with regard to users’ awareness of privacy policies and laws in the ‘Post-Snowden’ era. In the light of presumably increased public exposure to privacy debates, generated partly due to the European “Right to be Forgotten” ruling and the Snowden revelations on mass surveillance, this article explores users’ meaning-making of privacy as a matter of legal dimension in terms of its violations and threats online and users’ ways of negotiating their Internet use, in particular social networking sites. Drawing on the concept of legal consciousness, this article explores through focus group interviews the ways in which social media users negotiate privacy violations and what role their understanding of privacy laws (or lack thereof might play in their strategies of negotiation. The findings are threefold: first, privacy is understood almost universally as a matter of controlling one’s own data, including information disclosure even to friends, and is strongly connected to issues about personal autonomy; second, a form of resignation with respect to control over personal data appears to coexist with a recognized need to protect one’s private data, while respondents describe conscious attempts to circumvent systems of monitoring or violation of privacy, and third, despite widespread coverage of privacy legal issues in the press, respondents’ concerns about and engagement in “self-protecting” tactics derive largely from being personally affected by violations of law and privacy.

  9. How rich is consciousness? The partial awareness hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouider, Sid; de Gardelle, Vincent; Sackur, Jérôme; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2010-07-01

    Current theories of consciousness posit a dissociation between 'phenomenal' consciousness (rich) and 'access' consciousness (limited). Here, we argue that the empirical evidence for phenomenal consciousness without access is equivocal, resulting either from a confusion between phenomenal and unconscious contents, or from an impression of phenomenally rich experiences arising from illusory contents. We propose a refined account of access that relies on a hierarchy of representational levels and on the notion of partial awareness, whereby lower and higher levels are accessed independently. Reframing of the issue of dissociable forms of consciousness into dissociable levels of access provides a more parsimonious account of the existing evidence. In addition, the rich phenomenology illusion can be studied and described in terms of testable cognitive mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using brain stimulation to disentangle neural correlates of conscious vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-01-01

    Research into the neural correlates of consciousness (NCCs) has blossomed, due to the advent of new and increasingly sophisticated brain research tools. Neuroimaging has uncovered a variety of brain processes that relate to conscious perception, obtained in a range of experimental paradigms. But methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalography do not always afford inference on the functional role these brain processes play in conscious vision. Such empirical NCCs could reflect neural prerequisites, neural consequences, or neural substrates of a conscious experience. Here, we take a closer look at the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques in this context. We discuss and review how NIBS methodology can enlighten our understanding of brain mechanisms underlying conscious vision by disentangling the empirical NCCs.

  11. The benefits of endurance training in cardiomyocyte function in hypertensive rats are reversed within four weeks of detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel Araujo; Quintão-Júnior, Judson Fonseca; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Lavorato, Victor Neiva; Drummond, Filipe Rios; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Amadeu, Marco Aurélio; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Cruz, Jader Santos; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Mill, José Geraldo; Natali, Antonio José

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of low-intensity endurance training and detraining on the mechanical and molecular properties of cardiomyocytes from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs and normotensive control Wistar rats at 16-weeks of age were randomly divided into eight groups of eight animals: NC8 and HC8 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 8weeks); NT8 and HT8 (normotensive and hypertensive trained at 50-60% of maximal exercise capacity for 8weeks); NC12 and HC12 (normotensive and hypertensive control for 12weeks); NDT and HDT (normotensive and hypertensive trained for 8weeks and detrained for 4weeks). The total exercise time until fatigue (TTF) was determined by a maximal exercise capacity test. Resting heart rate (RHR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured. After the treatments, animals were killed by cervical dislocation and left ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dispersion. Isolated cells were used to determine intracellular global Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transient and cardiomyocyte contractility (1Hz; ~25°C). [Ca(2+)]i regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot, and the markers of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Exercise training augmented the TTF (NC8, 11.4±1.5min vs. NT8, 22.5±1.4min; HC8, 11.7±1.4min vs. HT8, 24.5±1.3min; Pendurance training induces positive benefits to left ventricular myocyte mechanical and molecular properties, which are reversed within 4weeks of detraining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hippocampus is place of interaction between unconscious and conscious memories.

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    Marc Alain Züst

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that humans can form and later retrieve new semantic relations unconsciously by way of hippocampus-the key structure also recruited for conscious relational (episodic memory. If the hippocampus subserves both conscious and unconscious relational encoding/retrieval, one would expect the hippocampus to be place of unconscious-conscious interactions during memory retrieval. We tested this hypothesis in an fMRI experiment probing the interaction between the unconscious and conscious retrieval of face-associated information. For the establishment of unconscious relational memories, we presented subliminal (masked combinations of unfamiliar faces and written occupations ("actor" or "politician". At test, we presented the former subliminal faces, but now supraliminally, as cues for the reactivation of the unconsciously associated occupations. We hypothesized that unconscious reactivation of the associated occupation-actor or politician-would facilitate or inhibit the subsequent conscious retrieval of a celebrity's occupation, which was also actor or politician. Depending on whether the reactivated unconscious occupation was congruent or incongruent to the celebrity's occupation, we expected either quicker or delayed conscious retrieval process. Conscious retrieval was quicker in the congruent relative to a neutral baseline condition but not delayed in the incongruent condition. fMRI data collected during subliminal face-occupation encoding confirmed previous evidence that the hippocampus was interacting with neocortical storage sites of semantic knowledge to support relational encoding. fMRI data collected at test revealed that the facilitated conscious retrieval was paralleled by deactivations in the hippocampus and neocortical storage sites of semantic knowledge. We assume that the unconscious reactivation has pre-activated overlapping relational representations in the hippocampus reducing the neural effort for conscious

  13. Human Development IX: A Model of the Wholeness of Man, His Consciousness, and Collective Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we look at the rational and the emotional interpretation of reality in the human brain and being, and discuss the representation of the brain-mind (ego, the body-mind (Id, and the outer world in the human wholeness (the I or “soul”. Based on this we discuss a number of factors including the coherence between perception, attention and consciousness, and the relation between thought, fantasies, visions and dreams. We discuss and explain concepts as intent, will, morals and ethics. The Jungian concept of the human collective conscious and unconscious is also analyzed. We also hypothesis on the nature of intuition and consider the source of religious experience of man. These phenomena are explained based on the concept of deep quantum chemistry and infinite dancing fractal spirals making up the energetic backbone of the world. In this paper we consider man as a real wholeness and debate the concepts of subjectivity, consciousness and intent that can be deduced from such a perspective.

  14. Consciousness Indexing and Outcome Prediction with Resting-State EEG in Severe Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Sabina; Schorr, Barbara; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Shock, Jonathan P; Rosenfelder, Martin; Heck, Suzette; Bender, Andreas

    2018-04-17

    We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model. We aimed subsequently to develop an automated system for outcome prediction in severe DOC by selecting an optimal subset of features using sequential floating forward selection (SFFS). The two outcome categories were defined as UWS or dead, and MCS or emerged from MCS. Percentage of time spent in microstate D in the alpha frequency band performed best at distinguishing MCS from UWS patients. The average clustering coefficient obtained from thresholding beta coherence performed best at predicting outcome. The optimal subset of features selected with SFFS consisted of the frequency of microstate A in the 2-20 Hz frequency band, path length obtained from thresholding alpha coherence, and average path length obtained from thresholding alpha coherence. Combining these features seemed to afford high prediction power. Python and MATLAB toolboxes for the above calculations are freely available under the GNU public license for non-commercial use ( https://qeeg.wordpress.com ).

  15. IN SEARCH OF SENSES (SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN WORKS OF G. A. KOTELNIKOV)

    OpenAIRE

    Oreshkina M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the recent past, class-consciousness was considered one of the expression forms of social consciousness and acted as its main form due to close interaction with interests of people. The class-consciousness and the consciousness of classes were two separate matters of consideration. It was supposed that the essence of class-consciousness and of the class-psychology concomitant with it could only be comprehended in consideration of structure of the social consciousness as a whole. The correl...

  16. In Situ Representations and Access Consciousness in Neural Blackboard or Workspace Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Frank van der Velde

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenal theories of consciousness assert that consciousness is based on specific neural correlates in the brain, which can be separated from all cognitive functions we can perform. If so, the search for robot consciousness seems to be doomed. By contrast, theories of functional or access consciousness assert that consciousness can be studied only with forms of cognitive access, given by cognitive processes. Consequently, consciousness and cognitive access cannot be fully dissociated. Here,...

  17. Social Construction of National Reality: Chinese Consciousness versus Hong Kong Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lai Tony Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The struggle to break away from the parent state and claim for independence often results in political unrest, terrorist activities and even ethnic cleansing. In East Asia, the hostilities between people from Hong Kong and mainland China also intensify rapidly in recent years. The late 2000s and early 2010s witness a surge in anti-Mainlander sentiment in Hong Kong and a call for self-determination, resulting in a series of political upheavals. In literatures, irredentist and secessionist advocators generally defend themselves in terms of common blood, race and culture. None of them regards the issue from human agency theory. This paper has two objectives. Firstly, based largely on the works of Max Weber, W.I. Thomas, Alfred Schutz and Peter Berger, this paper constructs a theoretical framework, namely, the social construction of national reality, which allows us to explain the origin of national identity and the reason for people to call for autonomy or secession. It will argue that collective consciousness originates from everyday life experience taken for granted during socialization. Individuals make sense of the external world. Experiences taken for granted become the actor’s stock of knowledge. A common scheme of knowledge shared by the community serves to differentiate in-group (nationals and out-group (foreigners. Collective consciousness thus defines national identity and hence a nation. Unless people (both in-group and out-group interact with and learn from each other, different stocks of knowledge taken for granted will create conflict. This theory is applied to explain growing Sinophobia in Hong Kong. The confrontation between traditional Chinese consciousness and emerging Hong Kong consciousness undermines the peaceful coexistence among Hongkongers and Mainlanders, unless both parties redefine their stock of knowledge via dynamic learning. The paper concludes that in order to reduce the conflicts in the regions, understanding the

  18. Assessment of endothelium: Dependent vasodilation with a non-invasive method in patients with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Allameh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the endothelial function via noninvasive method, in pregnant women with preeclampsia compared to to normotensive pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Brachial artery diameter was measured via ultrasound, in 28 women with preeclampcia in case group and normotensive pregnant women in control group, at rest, after inflation of sphygmomanometer cuff up to 250-300 mmHg, immediately after deflation of the cuff, 60-90 minutes later and 5 min after administration of sublingual trinitroglycerin (TNG. Results of these measurements as well as demographic characteristics of participants in both groups were recorded in special forms. Data were analyzed via Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16, using t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD. Results: The mean of brachial artery diameter at rest in the case and control groups was 4.49 ± 0.39 and 4.08 ± 0.38 mm, respectively (P = 0.1. Also the results showed that the brachial artery diameter, immediately after deflation of the cuff, was 4.84 ± 0.4 and 4.37 ± 0.30 mm in the case and control groups (P < 0.001, respectively. The mean brachial artery diameter, 60-90 s after deflation of the cuff, was 4.82 ± 0.41 and 4.42 ± 0.38 mm in the case and control groups (P < 0.00, respectively. The brachial artery diameter, 5 min after sublingual NO administration, was 4.95 ± 0.6 and 4.40 ± 0.45 mm in case and control groups (P < 0.001, respectively. Applying of repeated measures ANOVA showed that the mean difference between case and control groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Current study concluded that there is no difference in endothelium-dependent vasodilation between women with preeclampsia and pregnant women with normal blood pressure.

  19. Effect of hypertensive rat plasma on ion transport of cultured vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magargal, W.W.; Overbeck, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    We layered fresh, unprocessed plasma from healthy rats with early (less than or equal to 7 days) or benign, chronic (greater than 3 wk) one-kidney, one-clip hypertension and from paired one-kidney normotensive control rats over confluent primary-cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Plasma from all rats increased cellular ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and sodium content and decreased ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb + uptake compared with uptakes and content in the presence of balanced salt solution (P less than 0.01). Cells incubated in the presence of plasma from rats with early (P less than 0.02) or chronic hypertension (P less than 0.01) had significantly reduced ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake when compared with cells incubated in normotensive plasma, but their intracellular Na+ contents were not lower. We no longer detected this uptake difference when chronic hypertensives drank 0.9% NaCl instead of water. Plasma from hypertensive rats also altered ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb + uptake by the cultured cells. These findings of this new, reproducible, and specific assay system support the hypothesis that plasma factors inhibit the membrane sodium-potassium pump in vascular smooth muscle cells in this form of hypertension. The abnormality occurs in both early and chronic stages, but may not be related to sodium intake. The data also provide evidence for plasma factors in hypertension altering membrane K+ permeability

  20. Healing Through States of Consciousness: Animal Sacrifice and Christian Prayer Among the Kachin in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    Healing rituals can be understood in terms of configurations of two states of consciousness-a culturally elaborated everyday waking consciousness, and an enhanced and culturally elaborated state of consciousness. Two healing rituals performed by the ethnic Kachin in Southwest China differentiate these two states of consciousness in their theories of life and death. The first ritual, animal sacrifice, employs the ordinary consciousness, including will and expectation, of participants through the enhanced state of consciousness of the ritual officiant. The second, Christian prayer, utilizes the enhanced consciousness of Christian Congregation to achieve psychic transformation. These two rituals maneuver different configurations of the two states of consciousness in achieving healing efficacy.

  1. Neural correlates of processing "self-conscious" vs. "basic" emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira

    2016-01-29

    Self-conscious emotions are prevalent in our daily lives and play an important role in both normal and pathological behavior. Despite their immense significance, the neural substrates that are involved in the processing of such emotions are surprisingly under-studied. In light of this, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants thought of various personal events which elicited feelings of negative and positive self-conscious (i.e., guilt, pride) or basic (i.e., anger, joy) emotions. We performed a conjunction analysis to investigate the neural correlates associated with processing events that are related to self-conscious vs. basic emotions, irrespective of valence. The results show that processing self-conscious emotions resulted in activation within frontal areas associated with self-processing and self-control, namely, the mPFC extending to the dACC, and within the lateral-dorsal prefrontal cortex. Processing basic emotions resulted in activation throughout relatively phylogenetically-ancient regions of the cortex, namely in visual and tactile processing areas and in the insular cortex. Furthermore, self-conscious emotions differentially activated the mPFC such that the negative self-conscious emotion (guilt) was associated with a more dorsal activation, and the positive self-conscious emotion (pride) was associated with a more ventral activation. We discuss how these results shed light on the nature of mental representations and neural systems involved in self-reflective and affective processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reading comprehension and textual consciousness on primary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Wannmacher Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties on reading comprehension in the primary school are evidenced by several official exams applied. Given these statistics and the evidences obtained through academic research and observations on children’s performance during the school life, there is acknowledgment of the situation as a problem that requires further development and finding solutions. The Psycholinguistics is giving its contribution, especially regarding the role of linguistic consciousness on reading learning. Many studies have been conducted specifically focusing on phonological consciousness. Studies on syntactic consciousness are also found, although less than phonological ones. Regarding the role of textual consciousness, few initiatives considers the students of the primary school. This makes the author proposes as the heartland of this communication the textual consciousness with support predominantly on Gombert (1992, aiming to examine the relationship between this level of consciousness and learning to read. Based on recent studies (PEREIRA; SCLIAR-CABRAL, 2012, the author presents in this paper: a the analysis of the context of learning and teaching of reading; b a theoretical exposition about reading learning and textual consciousness; c the pedagogical referrals for education based on the interaction between these two topics; and d the development of reflections on the possibility of the proposed path contribute to the solution of the worrying problem on read learning by the primary schools students.

  3. Evidence that logical reasoning depends on conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Masicampo, E J

    2008-09-01

    Humans, unlike other animals, are equipped with a powerful brain that permits conscious awareness and reflection. A growing trend in psychological science has questioned the benefits of consciousness, however. Testing a hypothesis advanced by [Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflection and reflexion: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional inference. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 34, 199-249], four studies suggested that the conscious, reflective processing system is vital for logical reasoning. Substantial decrements in logical reasoning were found when a cognitive load manipulation preoccupied conscious processing, while hampering the nonconscious system with consciously suppressed thoughts failed to impair reasoning (Experiment 1). Nonconscious activation (priming) of the idea of logical reasoning increased the activation of logic-relevant concepts, but failed to improve logical reasoning performance (Experiments 2a-2c) unless the logical conclusions were largely intuitive and thus not reliant on logical reasoning (Experiment 3). Meanwhile, stimulating the conscious goal of reasoning well led to improvements in reasoning performance (Experiment 4). These findings offer evidence that logical reasoning is aided by the conscious, reflective processing system.

  4. Consciousness, accessibility, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Ned

    2007-12-01

    How can we disentangle the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness from the neural machinery of the cognitive access that underlies reports of phenomenal consciousness? We see the problem in stark form if we ask how we can tell whether representations inside a Fodorian module are phenomenally conscious. The methodology would seem straightforward: Find the neural natural kinds that are the basis of phenomenal consciousness in clear cases--when subjects are completely confident and we have no reason to doubt their authority--and look to see whether those neural natural kinds exist within Fodorian modules. But a puzzle arises: Do we include the machinery underlying reportability within the neural natural kinds of the clear cases? If the answer is "Yes," then there can be no phenomenally conscious representations in Fodorian modules. But how can we know if the answer is "Yes"? The suggested methodology requires an answer to the question it was supposed to answer! This target article argues for an abstract solution to the problem and exhibits a source of empirical data that is relevant, data that show that in a certain sense phenomenal consciousness overflows cognitive accessibility. I argue that we can find a neural realizer of this overflow if we assume that the neural basis of phenomenal consciousness does not include the neural basis of cognitive accessibility and that this assumption is justified (other things being equal) by the explanations it allows.

  5. Abnormal corticospinal excitability in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapitskaya, Natallia; Gosseries, Olivia; De Pasqua, Victor; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Nielsen, Joergen Feldbaek; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Laureys, Steven

    2013-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been frequently used to explore changes in the human motor cortex in different conditions, while the extent of motor cortex reorganization in patients in vegetative state (VS) (now known as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, UWS) and minimally conscious (MCS) states due to severe brain damage remains largely unknown. It was hypothesized that cortical motor excitability would be decreased and would correlate to the level of consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness. Corticospinal excitability was assessed in 47 patients (24 VS/UWS and 23 MCS) and 14 healthy controls. The test parameters included maximal peak-to-peak M-wave (Mmax), F-wave persistence, peripheral and central motor conduction times, sensory (SEP) and motor evoked (MEP) potential latencies and amplitudes, resting motor threshold (RMT), stimulus/response curves, and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). TMS measurements were correlated to the level of consciousness (assessed using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised). On average, the patient group had lower Mmax, lower MEP and SEP amplitudes, higher RMTs, narrower stimulus/response curves, and reduced SAI compared to the healthy controls (P < 0.05). The SAI alterations were correlated to the level of consciousness (P < 0.05). The findings demonstrated the impairment of the cortical inhibitory circuits in patients with disorders of consciousness. Moreover, the significant relationship was found between cortical inhibition and clinical consciousness dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chasing the Rainbow: The Non-conscious Nature of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Oakley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the compelling subjective experience of executive self-control, we argue that “consciousness” contains no top-down control processes and that “consciousness” involves no executive, causal, or controlling relationship with any of the familiar psychological processes conventionally attributed to it. In our view, psychological processing and psychological products are not under the control of consciousness. In particular, we argue that all “contents of consciousness” are generated by and within non-conscious brain systems in the form of a continuous self-referential personal narrative that is not directed or influenced in any way by the “experience of consciousness.” This continuously updated personal narrative arises from selective “internal broadcasting” of outputs from non-conscious executive systems that have access to all forms of cognitive processing, sensory information, and motor control. The personal narrative provides information for storage in autobiographical memory and is underpinned by constructs of self and agency, also created in non-conscious systems. The experience of consciousness is a passive accompaniment to the non-conscious processes of internal broadcasting and the creation of the personal narrative. In this sense, personal awareness is analogous to the rainbow which accompanies physical processes in the atmosphere but exerts no influence over them. Though it is an end-product created by non-conscious executive systems, the personal narrative serves the powerful evolutionary function of enabling individuals to communicate (externally broadcast the contents of internal broadcasting. This in turn allows recipients to generate potentially adaptive strategies, such as predicting the behavior of others and underlies the development of social and cultural structures, that promote species survival. Consequently, it is the capacity to communicate to others the contents of the personal narrative that

  7. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevrin, Howard; Snodgrass, Michael; Brakel, Linda A W; Kushwaha, Ramesh; Kalaida, Natalia L; Bazan, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual's unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning.

  8. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard eShevrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996. Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin, et al., 1992, 1996. We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual’s unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning.

  9. Loss of Consciousness Induced by a Single Dose Flurbiprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Yıldız

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of consciousness after the administration of flurbiprofen has not been reported. In this case report, we describe loss of consciousness due to the administration of one oral dosage of flurbiprofen. A 17 year-old girl without a remarkable neurologic and atopic medical history had an loss of consciousness after ingestion of flurbiprofen mg 100 mg tablet. Patient was treated successfully. This report emphasies that this complication may be seen with flurobiprofen and underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approach are discussed.

  10. Detection of circulating trophoblast particles in maternal blood using density gradient centrifugation in preeclampsia and in normotensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Zeillinger, Robert; Pateisky, Petra; Ott, Johannes; Zeisler, Harald; Birdir, Cahit

    2016-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a frequent pregnancy-related disease and a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, exact mechanisms of its pathophysiology remain largely unknown. In pregnancies complicated by PE, changes in the regulation of apoptosis seem to result in increased apoptotic shedding of trophoblast particles (TPs) into maternal circulation. Since the number of TP in peripheral blood is low, their detection necessitates pre-analytical enrichment. In this prospective multicenter pilot study we aimed to analyze TP in peripheral blood of 29 women with PE and of 13 unaffected controls using the OncoQuick®plus system for cell enrichment. Using immunocytochemistry, slides were evaluated microscopically for TP. Statistical analyses were performed using Welch's t-test or Fisher's exact test. TP were detected in 10 (34.5%) women with PE and in two (15.4%) of unaffected controls. More than one TP were only found in PE. Comparing the mean counts of TP between groups, we detected significantly more TP in PE (p = 0.046). The OncoQuick®plus system can be applied to detect TP in both women with PE and in normotensive pregnancies. Longitudinal studies investigating the role of TP as a screening method for patients at risk for PE are warranted.

  11. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Ditte A; Kaffa, Nedi; George, Trevor W; Methven, Lisa; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2012-12-14

    A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24 h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500 g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0 g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NO(x)) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24 h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P bread products enriched with 100 g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24 h (red beetroot-enriched bread, P varieties. Total urinary NO(x) significantly increased following the consumption of 100 g (P bread ingestion (P bread compared with the no-beetroot condition. These studies demonstrated significant hypotensive effects of a low dose (100 g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing or the presence of betacyanins. These data strengthen the evidence for cardioprotective BP-lowering effects of dietary nitrate-rich vegetables.

  12. Neurochemical enhancement of conscious error awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Nandam, L Sanjay; O'Connell, Redmond G; Wagner, Joe; Strudwick, Mark; Nathan, Pradeep J; Mattingley, Jason B; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2012-02-22

    How the brain monitors ongoing behavior for performance errors is a central question of cognitive neuroscience. Diminished awareness of performance errors limits the extent to which humans engage in corrective behavior and has been linked to loss of insight in a number of psychiatric syndromes (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction). These conditions share alterations in monoamine signaling that may influence the neural mechanisms underlying error processing, but our understanding of the neurochemical drivers of these processes is limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design of the influence of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and citalopram on error awareness in 27 healthy participants. The error awareness task, a go/no-go response inhibition paradigm, was administered to assess the influence of monoaminergic agents on performance errors during fMRI data acquisition. A single dose of methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine or citalopram, significantly improved the ability of healthy volunteers to consciously detect performance errors. Furthermore, this behavioral effect was associated with a strengthening of activation differences in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobe during the methylphenidate condition for errors made with versus without awareness. Our results have implications for the understanding of the neurochemical underpinnings of performance monitoring and for the pharmacological treatment of a range of disparate clinical conditions that are marked by poor awareness of errors.

  13. Development of european consciousness in Erasmus students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is the content analysis of 502 Erasmus students’ experiences published in the website www.20erasmus.eu. One of the main purposes of the Erasmus Student Exchange Program is to maintain a cross-cultural dialogue through student activity, to remove prejudices and thus to strengthen interaction and join EU citizens under such concepts as “European Consciousness” and “Being European”. The purpose of this study is to determine how successful the Erasmus Student Exchange Program is through the shared Erasmus experiences of the participating students. In conclusion, in this research, it is observed that the students talked highly positively about the Erasmus experience. The students described this process as enjoyable and productive. It could be argued that the Erasmus experience contributed to students’ “individual development” rather than “academic development”. It could also be maintained that one of the key purposes of the Erasmus exchange program is to remove prejudices by maintaining student mobility and cross-cultural dialogue and to unite societies under the European Consciousness and European People understanding via strengthening interactions between EU member citizens. Data collected in this research present evidence that the Erasmus programme has reached this aim

  14. Spreading Culture on Quantum Entanglement and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, G.; Teodorani, M.

    The subject of "quantum entanglement" in general doesn't seem to be particularly considered in Europe in the form of popularizing books or of educational physics projects. These authors have started to spread out this kind of scientific culture in both forms, including popularizing seminars too. Concerning the entanglement phenomenon, recently, new thought experiments have been outlined, new laboratory results have come out in the form of real discoveries in quantum optics, new studies on "bio-entanglement" and 'global consciousness effects' have been carried out, and very sophisticated new ideas have been developed in the fields of quantum physics, biophysics, cosmology and epistemology. These authors intend to show their effort of diffusing widely this growing scientific knowledge. Beyond all this there is a long-term strategy aimed at inculcating new concepts in physics in order to trigger the interest of scholars at all levels, in that which is probably the most innovative and interdisciplinary subject of the human knowledge of this new millennium.

  15. Time and Consciousness in Cognitive Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nannini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eliminative materialists argue that we can overcome the phenomenological gap between two different ways of referring to our subjective experiences – either as introspectively grasped in terms of folk psychology or as explained in neurological terms – by abandoning the pre-scientific concepts of folk psychology. However, unless these theorists can offer a plausible explanation for why the scientific view of the human mind proposed by cognitive neuroscience is so deeply counter-intuitive, this argument will remain unconvincing. In order to address the difficulties involved in making the paradigm shift from folk psychology to cognitive neuroscience I (a briefly review the theoretical revolution that marked the transition from classical mechanics to the theory of relativity at the beginning of 20th century; (b identify some similarities between this paradigm shift in physics and the birth of a new scientific view of the mind; (c explain by means of (a and (b why neurological theories that reduce consciousness and the Self to aspects of brain dynamics appear implausible from a common sense perspective despite being sound from a scientific point of view.

  16. Space, self, and the theater of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Arnold

    2007-06-01

    Over a decade ago, I introduced a large-scale theory of the cognitive brain which explained for the first time how the human brain is able to create internal models of its intimate world and invent models of a wider universe. An essential part of the theoretical model is an organization of neuronal mechanisms which I have named the Retinoid Model [Trehub, A. (1977). Neuronal models for cognitive processes: Networks for learning, perception and imagination. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 65, 141-169; Trehub, A. (1991). The Cognitive Brain: MIT Press]. This hypothesized brain system has structural and dynamic properties enabling it to register and appropriately integrate disparate foveal stimuli into a perspectival, egocentric representation of an extended 3D world scene including a neuronally tokened locus of the self which, in this theory, is the neuronal origin of retinoid space. As an integral part of the larger neuro-cognitive model, the retinoid system is able to perform many other useful perceptual and higher cognitive functions. In this paper, I draw on the hypothesized properties of this system to argue that neuronal activity within the retinoid structure constitutes the phenomenal content of consciousness and the unique sense of self that each of us experiences.

  17. DMN Operational Synchrony Relates to Self-Consciousness: Evidence from Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been consistently activated across a wide variety of self-related tasks, leading to a proposal of the DMN's role in self-related processing. Indeed, there is limited fMRI evidence that the functional connectivity within the DMN may underlie a phenomenon referred to as self-awareness. At the same time, none of the known studies have explicitly investigated neuronal functional interactions among brain areas that comprise the DMN as a function of self-consciousness loss. To fill this gap, EEG operational synchrony analysis [1, 2] was performed in patients with severe brain injuries in vegetative and minimally conscious states to study the strength of DMN operational synchrony as a function of self-consciousness expression. We demonstrated that the strength of DMN EEG operational synchrony was smallest or even absent in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and highest in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. At the same time the process of ecoupling of operations performed by neuronal assemblies that comprise the DMN was highest in patients in vegetative state, intermediate in patients in minimally conscious state and minimal in healthy fully self-conscious subjects. The DMN's frontal EEG operational module had the strongest decrease in operational synchrony strength as a function of selfconsciousness loss, when compared with the DMN's posterior modules. Based on these results it is suggested that the strength of DMN functional connectivity could mediate the strength of self-consciousness expression. The observed alterations similarly occurred across EEG alpha, beta1 and beta2 frequency oscillations. Presented results suggest that the EEG operational synchrony within DMN may provide an objective and accurate measure for the assessment of signs of self-(un)consciousness in these challenging patient populations. This method therefore, may complement the current diagnostic procedures for

  18. Spatial frequency tuning during the conscious and non-conscious perception of emotional facial expressions—an intracranial ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena eWillenbockel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as emotional facial expressions, can influence brain activity independently of the observers’ awareness. Little is known yet, however, about the informational correlates of consciousness—i.e., which low-level information correlates with brain activation during conscious vs. non-conscious perception. Here, we investigated this question in the spatial frequency (SF domain. We examined which SFs in disgusted and fearful facial expressions modulate activation in the insula and amygdala over time and as a function of awareness, using a combination of intracranial event-related potentials (ERPs, SF Bubbles (Willenbockel et al., 2010a, and Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS; Tsuchiya and Koch, 2005. Patients implanted with electrodes for epilepsy monitoring viewed face photographs (13° x 7° that were randomly SF filtered trial-by-trial. In the conscious condition, the faces were visible; in the non-conscious condition, they were rendered invisible using CFS. Data were analyzed by performing multiple linear regressions on the SF filters from each trial and the transformed ERP amplitudes across time. The resulting classification images suggest that many SFs are involved in the conscious and non-conscious perception of emotional expressions, with those between 6 and 10 cycles per face width being particularly important early on. The results also revealed qualitative differences between the awareness conditions for both regions. Non-conscious processing relied on low SFs more and was faster than conscious processing. Overall, our findings are consistent with the idea that different pathways are employed for the processing of emotional stimuli under different degrees of awareness. The present study represents a first step to mapping with a high temporal resolution how SF information flows through the emotion-processing network and to shedding light on the informational correlates of

  19. Concept of consciousness in the context of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menskii, Mikhail B

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual problems of the quantum theory of measurement are considered, which are embodied in well-known paradoxes and in Bell's inequalities. Arguments are advanced in favor of the viewpoint that these problems may hardly be solved without direct inclusion of the observer's consciousness in the theoretical description of a quantum measurement. Discussed in this connection is the so-called many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics proposed by Everett, as is the extension of Everett's concept, which consists in the assumption that separating the quantum state components corresponding to alternative measurements is not only associated with the observer's consciousness but is completely identified with it. This approach is shown to open up qualitatively new avenues for the unification of physics and psychology and, more broadly, of the sciences and the humanities. This may lead to an extension of the theory of consciousness and shed light on significant and previously misunderstood phenomena in the sphere of consciousness. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Structural qualia: a solution to the hard problem of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loorits, Kristjan

    2014-01-01

    The hard problem of consciousness has been often claimed to be unsolvable by the methods of traditional empirical sciences. It has been argued that all the objects of empirical sciences can be fully analyzed in structural terms but that consciousness is (or has) something over and above its structure. However, modern neuroscience has introduced a theoretical framework in which also the apparently non-structural aspects of consciousness, namely the so called qualia or qualitative properties, can be analyzed in structural terms. That framework allows us to see qualia as something compositional with internal structures that fully determine their qualitative nature. Moreover, those internal structures can be identified which certain neural patterns. Thus consciousness as a whole can be seen as a complex neural pattern that misperceives some of its own highly complex structural properties as monadic and qualitative. Such neural pattern is analyzable in fully structural terms and thereby the hard problem is solved.