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Sample records for normalized integrated intensities

  1. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanto, Ulrich; Frija, Erik K.; Lii, MingFwu J.; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment increases the total integral dose of nontarget tissue relative to the conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique for high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with 3D-CRT for glioblastoma multiforme were selected for a comparative dosimetric evaluation with IMRT. Original target volumes, organs at risk (OAR), and dose-volume constraints were used for replanning with IMRT. Predicted isodose distributions, cumulative dose-volume histograms of target volumes and OAR, normal tissue integral dose, target coverage, dose conformity, and normal tissue sparing with 3D-CRT and IMRT planning were compared. Statistical analyses were performed to determine differences. Results: In all 20 patients, IMRT maintained equivalent target coverage, improved target conformity (conformity index [CI] 95% 1.52 vs. 1.38, p mean by 19.8% and D max by 10.7%), optic chiasm (D mean by 25.3% and D max by 22.6%), right optic nerve (D mean by 37.3% and D max by 28.5%), and left optic nerve (D mean by 40.6% and D max by 36.7%), p ≤ 0.01. This was achieved without increasing the total nontarget integral dose by greater than 0.5%. Overall, total integral dose was reduced by 7-10% with IMRT, p < 0.001, without significantly increasing the 0.5-5 Gy low-dose volume. Conclusions: These results indicate that IMRT treatment for high-grade gliomas allows for improved target conformity, better critical tissue sparing, and importantly does so without increasing integral dose and the volume of normal tissue exposed to low doses of radiation

  2. Power curve report - with turbulence intensity normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn; Vesth, Allan

    , additional shear and turbulence intensitity filters are applied on the measured data. Secondly, the method for normalization to a given reference turbulence intensity level (as described in Annex M of the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [3]) is applied. The measurements have been performed using DTU...

  3. Normal tissue complication probability: Does simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy score over other techniques in treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothy Basu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyze the radiobiological effect of different treatment strategies on high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ten cases of high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma were selected for this dosimetric study. Four different treatment strategies used for treating prostate cancer were compared. Conventional four-field box technique covering prostate and nodal volumes followed by three-field conformal boost (3D + 3DCRT, four-field box technique followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT boost (3D + IMRT, IMRT followed by IMRT boost (IMRT + IMRT, and simultaneous integrated boost IMRT (SIBIMRT were compared in terms of tumor control probability (TCP and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP. The dose prescription except for SIBIMRT was 45 Gy in 25 fractions for the prostate and nodal volumes in the initial phase and 27 Gy in 15 fractions for the prostate in the boost phase. For SIBIMRT, equivalent doses were calculated using biologically equivalent dose assuming the α/β ratio of 1.5 Gy with a dose prescription of 60.75 Gy for the gross tumor volume (GTV and 45 Gy for the clinical target volume in 25 fractions. IMRT plans were made with 15-MV equispaced seven coplanar fields. NTCP was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB model. Results: An NTCP of 10.7 ± 0.99%, 8.36 ± 0.66%, 6.72 ± 0.85%, and 1.45 ± 0.11% for the bladder and 14.9 ± 0.99%, 14.04 ± 0.66%, 11.38 ± 0.85%, 5.12 ± 0.11% for the rectum was seen with 3D + 3DCRT, 3D + IMRT, IMRT + IMRT, and SIBIMRT respectively. Conclusions: SIBIMRT had the least NTCP over all other strategies with a reduced treatment time (3 weeks less. It should be the technique of choice for dose escalation in prostate carcinoma.

  4. Suitable Image Intensity Normalization for Arterial Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Omran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic imaging is a widely used non-invasivemedical imaging procedure since it is economical, comparativelysafe, portable and adaptable. However, one of its main weaknessesis the poor quality of images, which makes the enhancementof image quality an important issue in order to have a moreaccurate diagnose of the disease, or for the transformation of theimage through telemedicine channel and in many other imageprocessing tasks [1]. The purpose of this paper is to automaticallyenhance the image quality after the automatic detection of theartery wall. This step is essential before subsequent measurementsof arterial parameters [9]. This was performed automaticallyby applying linear normalization, where results showedthat normalization of ultra sound images is an important step inenhancing the image quality for later processing. In comparisonwith other methods, our method is automatic. The evaluationof image quality was done mathematically by comparing pixelintensities of images before and after enhancement, in additionto a visual evaluation.

  5. Data-Intensive Science and Research Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C; Soranno, Patricia A; Smith, Elise M

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we consider questions related to research integrity in data-intensive science and argue that there is no need to create a distinct category of misconduct that applies to deception related to processing, analyzing, or interpreting data. The best way to promote integrity in data-intensive science is to maintain a firm commitment to epistemological and ethical values, such as honesty, openness, transparency, and objectivity, which apply to all types of research, and to promote education, policy development, and scholarly debate concerning appropriate uses of statistics.

  6. Parser Adaptation for Social Media by Integrating Normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, Rob; van Noord, Gerardus

    This work explores normalization for parser adaptation. Traditionally, normalization is used as separate pre-processing step. We show that integrating the normalization model into the parsing algorithm is beneficial. This way, multiple normalization candidates can be leveraged, which improves

  7. Statistics of spatially integrated speckle intensity difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Yura, Harold

    2009-01-01

    We consider the statistics of the spatially integrated speckle intensity difference obtained from two separated finite collecting apertures. For fully developed speckle, closed-form analytic solutions for both the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function are derived...... here for both arbitrary values of the mean number of speckles contained within an aperture and the degree of coherence of the optical field. Additionally, closed-form expressions are obtained for the corresponding nth statistical moments....

  8. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The macro- and microvascular burden of type 2 diabetes is well established. A number of recent single risk factor intervention trials targeting hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulation, microalbumuria, and existing cardiovascular disorders have, however, shown major beneficial...... effects on long-term outcome. The results from these studies are anticipated to change the future management of type 2 diabetes, and most of the updated national guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes recommend a multipronged approach driven by ambitious treatment targets. The outcome...... of this intensive integrated therapy has, however, only been investigated in a few studies of patients with type 2 diabetes. One of these trials, the Steno-2 Study, showed that intensive intervention for an average of 7.8 years cuts cardiovascular events as well as nephropathy, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy...

  9. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...

  10. Integral relations for the asymptotic normalization of the triton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Sander, C.; Tubis, A.

    1976-01-01

    Lehman and Gibson have recently derived an integral relation for C/sub t/, the normalization of the n-d tail of the triton wave function. We give (1) a concise alternative derivation of the Lehman-Gibson result, and (2) an explicit evaluation of C/sub t/ in momentum space for the case in which the two-body interaction is not purely local or purely separable. This evaluation in general involves a five dimensional integration

  11. Increased intensity discrimination thresholds in tinnitus subjects with a normal audiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Hots, J.; Verhey, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent auditory brain stem response measurements in tinnitus subjects with normal audiograms indicate the presence of hidden hearing loss that manifests as reduced neural output from the cochlea at high sound intensities, and results from mice suggest a link to deafferentation of auditory nerve...... fibers. As deafferentation would lead to deficits in hearing performance, the present study investigates whether tinnitus patients with normal hearing thresholds show impairment in intensity discrimination compared to an audiometrically matched control group. Intensity discrimination thresholds were...... significantly increased in the tinnitus frequency range, consistent with the hypothesis that auditory nerve fiber deafferentation is associated with tinnitus....

  12. An Integrated Approach for RNA-seq Data Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengping; Mercante, Donald E; Zhang, Kun; Fang, Zhide

    2016-01-01

    DNA copy number alteration is common in many cancers. Studies have shown that insertion or deletion of DNA sequences can directly alter gene expression, and significant correlation exists between DNA copy number and gene expression. Data normalization is a critical step in the analysis of gene expression generated by RNA-seq technology. Successful normalization reduces/removes unwanted nonbiological variations in the data, while keeping meaningful information intact. However, as far as we know, no attempt has been made to adjust for the variation due to DNA copy number changes in RNA-seq data normalization. In this article, we propose an integrated approach for RNA-seq data normalization. Comparisons show that the proposed normalization can improve power for downstream differentially expressed gene detection and generate more biologically meaningful results in gene profiling. In addition, our findings show that due to the effects of copy number changes, some housekeeping genes are not always suitable internal controls for studying gene expression. Using information from DNA copy number, integrated approach is successful in reducing noises due to both biological and nonbiological causes in RNA-seq data, thus increasing the accuracy of gene profiling.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  14. A Note on the First Integrals of Vector Fields with Integrating Factors and Normalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Llibre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We prove a sufficient condition for the existence of explicit first integrals for vector fields which admit an integrating factor. This theorem recovers and extends previous results in the literature on the integrability of vector fields which are volume preserving and possess nontrivial normalizers. Our approach is geometric and coordinate-free and hence it works on any smooth orientable manifold.

  15. MR imaging of the bone marrow using short TI IR, 1. Normal and pathological intensity distribution of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mikiko; Tomioka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sato, Noriko; Nagai, Teruo; Heshiki, Atsuko; Amanuma, Makoto; Mizuno, Hitomi.

    1989-02-01

    Normal vertebral bone marrow intensity distribution and its alteration in various anemias were evaluated on short TI IR sequences. Material consists of 73 individuals, 48 normals and 25 anemic patients excluding neoplastic conditions. All normal and reactive hypercellular bone marrow revealed characteristic intensity distribution; marginal high intensity and central low intensity, corresponding well to normal distribution of red and yellow marrows and their physiological or reactive conversion between red and yellow marrows. Aplastic anemia did not reveal normal intensity distribution, presumably due to autonomous condition.

  16. A Study of Spectral Integration and Normalization in NMR-based Metabonomic Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Lowry, David F.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Harbo, Sam J.; Meng, Quanxin; Fuciarelli, Alfred F.; Pounds, Joel G.; Lee, Monica T.

    2005-09-15

    Metabonomics involves the quantitation of the dynamic multivariate metabolic response of an organism to a pathological event or genetic modification (Nicholson, Lindon and Holmes, 1999). The analysis of these data involves the use of appropriate multivariate statistical methods. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) linear projection methods, primarily Principal Component Analysis (PCA), have been documented as a valuable pattern recognition technique for 1H NMR spectral data (Brindle et al., 2002, Potts et al., 2001, Robertson et al., 2000, Robosky et al., 2002). Prior to PCA the raw data is typically processed through four steps; (1) baseline correction, (2) endogenous peak removal, (3) integration over spectral regions to reduce the number of variables, and (4) normalization. The effect of the size of spectral integration regions and normalization has not been well studied. We assess the variability structure and classification accuracy on two distinctly different datasets via PCA and a leave-one-out cross-validation approach under two normalization approaches and an array of spectral integration regions. This study indicates that independent of the normalization method the classification accuracy achieved from metabonomic studies is not highly sensitive to the size of the spectral integration region. Additionally, both datasets scaled to mean zero and unity variance (auto-scaled) has higher variability within classification accuracy over spectral integration window widths than data scaled to the total intensity of the spectrum.

  17. Effects of Different LiDAR Intensity Normalization Methods on Scotch Pine Forest Leaf Area Index Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Haotian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intensity data of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR are affected by many factors during the acquisition process. It is of great significance for the normalization and application of LiDAR intensity data to study the effective quantification and normalization of the effect from each factor. In this paper, the LiDAR data were normalized with range, angel of incidence, range and angle of incidence based on radar equation, respectively. Then two metrics, including canopy intensity sum and ratio of intensity, were extracted and used to estimate forest LAI, which was aimed at quantifying the effects of intensity normalization on forest LAI estimation. It was found that the range intensity normalization could improve the accuracy of forest LAI estimation. While the angle of incidence intensity normalization did not improve the accuracy and made the results worse. Although the range and incidence angle normalized intensity data could improve the accuracy, the improvement was less than the result of range intensity normalization. Meanwhile, the differences between the results of forest LAI estimation from raw intensity data and normalized intensity data were relatively big for canopy intensity sum metrics. However, the differences were relatively small for the ratio of intensity metrics. The results demonstrated that the effects of intensity normalization on forest LAI estimation were depended on the choice of affecting factor, and the influential level is closely related to the characteristics of metrics used. Therefore, the appropriate method of intensity normalization should be chosen according to the characteristics of metrics used in the future research, which could avoid the waste of cost and the reduction of estimation accuracy caused by the introduction of inappropriate affecting factors into intensity normalization.

  18. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  19. SIR-2 Data Normalization and Integration with M3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumpe, A.; Felder, M. P.; Wöhler, C.; Mall, U.

    2013-09-01

    The point spectrometer SIR-2 on Chandrayaan-1 provided radiance spectra integrated over circular footprints of 200 m diameter in the wavelength range 934-2410.8 nm in 256 channels [1]. To analyze SIR-2 reflectance spectra in their spatial context, a coregistration to Chandrayaan-1 M³ hyperspectral images [2] as well as a correction for topography and thermal emission are inevitable. The thermal and topographic correction procedure is based on the surface temperature and a digital elevation model (DEM) inferred from M³ data. The corrected reflectance spectra are then normalized to a standard illumination and viewing geometry.

  20. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, H J; Sterk, P J; Vanderschoot, J; van Klink, H C; van Vollenhoven, E; Dijkman, J H

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in normal and emphysematous subjects in relation to airflow. METHODS: Eight normal men (45-63 years, FEV1 79-126% predicted) and nine men with severe emphysema (50-70 years, FEV1 14-63% predicted) participated in the study. Emphysema was diagnosed according to pulmonary history, results of lung function tests, and radiographic criteria. All subjects underwent phonopneumography during standardised breathing manoeuvres between 0.5 and 2 1 below total lung capacity with inspiratory and expiratory target airflows of 2 and 1 l/s respectively during 50 seconds. The synchronous measurements included airflow at the mouth and lung volume changes, and lung sounds at four locations on the right chest wall. For each microphone airflow dependent power spectra were computed by using fast Fourier transformation. Lung sound intensity was expressed as log power (in dB) at 200 Hz at inspiratory flow rates of 1 and 2 l/s and at an expiratory flow rate of 1 l/s. RESULTS: Lung sound intensity was well repeatable on two separate days, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.77 to 0.94 between the four microphones. The intensity was strongly influenced by microphone location and airflow. There was, however, no significant difference in lung sound intensity at any flow rate between the normal and the emphysema group. CONCLUSION: Airflow standardised lung sound intensity does not differ between normal and emphysematous subjects. This suggests that the auscultatory finding of diminished breath sounds during the regular physical examination in patients with emphysema is due predominantly to airflow limitation. Images PMID:1440459

  1. From Intensity Profile to Surface Normal: Photometric Stereo for Unknown Light Sources and Isotropic Reflectances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi

    2015-10-01

    We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.

  2. Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, O.; Sereti, V.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses nutrient conversions, which are taking place in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. In these systems fish is cultured next to other organisms, which are converting otherwise discharged nutrients into valuable products. These conversions are analyzed based on nitrogen and

  3. Normalization of white matter intensity on T1-weighted images of patients with acquired central nervous system demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Rezwan; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Sridar; Banwell, Brenda; Nakamura, Kunio; Arnold, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    Intensity variation between magnetic resonance images (MRI) hinders comparison of tissue intensity distributions in multicenter MRI studies of brain diseases. The available intensity normalization techniques generally work well in healthy subjects but not in the presence of pathologies that affect tissue intensity. One such disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), which is associated with lesions that prominently affect white matter (WM). To develop a T1-weighted (T1w) image intensity normalization method that is independent of WM intensity, and to quantitatively evaluate its performance. We calculated median intensity of grey matter and intraconal orbital fat on T1w images. Using these two reference tissue intensities we calculated a linear normalization function and applied this to the T1w images to produce normalized T1w (NT1) images. We assessed performance of our normalization method for interscanner, interprotocol, and longitudinal normalization variability, and calculated the utility of the normalization method for lesion analyses in clinical trials. Statistical modeling showed marked decreases in T1w intensity differences after normalization (P < .0001). We developed a WM-independent T1w MRI normalization method and tested its performance. This method is suitable for longitudinal multicenter clinical studies for the assessment of the recovery or progression of disease affecting WM. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. Integrated intensities in inverse time-of-flight technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    In traditional data analysis a model function, convoluted with the resolution, is fitted to the measured data. In case that integrated intensities of signals are of main interest, one can use an approach which does not require a model function for the signal nor detailed knowledge of the resolution. For inverse TOF technique, this approach consists of two steps: (i) Normalisation of the measured spectrum with the help of a monitor, with 1/k sensitivity, which is positioned in front of the sample. This means at the same time a conversion of the data from time of flight to energy transfer. (ii) A Jacobian [I. Waller, P.O. Froeman, Ark. Phys. 4 (1952) 183] transforms data collected at constant scattering angle into data as if measured at constant momentum transfer Q. This Jacobian works correctly for signals which have a constant width at different Q along the trajectory of constant scattering angle. The approach has been tested on spectra of Compton scattering with neutrons, having epithermal energies, obtained on the inverse TOF spectrometer VESUVIO/ISIS. In this case the width of the signal is increasing proportional to Q and in consequence the application of the Jacobian leads to integrated intensities slightly too high. The resulting integrated intensities agree very well with results derived in the traditional way. Thus this completely different approach confirms the observation that signals from recoil by H-atoms at large momentum transfers are weaker than expected

  5. Review of intense irradiation data and discussion on structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Jitsukawa, S.; Okubo, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Mechanical property data on austenitic stainless steels and F82H have been reviewed to discuss for developing structural integrity methodologies of intensely irradiated components such as first walls. The following have been already clarified: (1) Fracture ductility is still high even though tensile rupture elongation is reduced remarkably. (2) Strain-hardening occurs in true stress-logarithmic strain (true strain) relationship. Work-softening behavior observed in nominal stress-nominal strain curves is simply resulted from a reduction of work hardening rate accompanied by the increase of flow stress level by irradiation. The review lead to an innovative design concept for application to intensely irradiated components. A special consideration is given to unique feature of bending moment in developing design methodology for preventing ductile fracture of intensely irradiated materials. Another discussion is also made on how to simulate mechanical behavior of intensely irradiated components, because mechanical testing of component-wise specimens after intense irradiation is inevitable for the development of design concepts, although irradiation on such a large scale specimen seems to be almost impossible with current irradiation facilities. (authors)

  6. Normal liver tissue sparing by intensity-modulated proton stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Joergen B. B.; Hansen, Anders T.; Lassen, Yasmin; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often the preferred treatment for the advanced liver tumours which owing to tumour distribution, size and multi-focality are out of range of surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. However, only a minority of patients with liver tumours may be candidates for conventional SBRT because of the limited radiation tolerance of normal liver, intestine and other normal tissues. Due to the favourable depth-dose characteristics of protons, intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may be a superior alternative to photon-based SBRT. The purpose of this treatment planning study was therefore to investigate the potential sparing of normal liver by IMPT compared to photon-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for solitary liver tumours. Material and methods. Ten patients with solitary liver metastasis treated at our institution with multi-field SBRT were retrospectively re-planned with IMRT and proton pencil beam scanning techniques. For the proton plans, two to three coplanar fields were used in contrast to five to six coplanar and non-coplanar photon fields. The same planning objectives were used for both techniques. A risk adapted dose prescription to the PTV surface of 12.5-16.75 Gy x 3 was used. Results. The spared liver volume for IMPT was higher compared to IMRT in all 10 patients. At the highest prescription dose level, the median liver volume receiving less than 15 Gy was 1411 cm 3 for IMPT and 955 cm 3 for IMRT (p D 15 Gy > 700 cm 3 constraint. For the D mean = 15 Gy constraint, nine of 10 cases could be treated at the highest dose level using IMPT whereas with IMRT, only two cases met this constraint at the highest dose level and six at the lowest dose level. Conclusion. A considerable sparing of normal liver tissue can be obtained using proton-based SBRT for solitary liver tumours

  7. Arterial spin-labeling assessment of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity as a predictor of histologic grade of astrocytic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtner, J; Schöpf, V; Schewzow, K; Kasprian, G; Weber, M; Woitek, R; Asenbaum, U; Preusser, M; Marosi, C; Hainfellner, J A; Widhalm, G; Wolfsberger, S; Prayer, D

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed arterial spin-labeling is a noninvasive MR imaging perfusion method performed with the use of water in the arterial blood as an endogenous contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to determine the inversion time with the largest difference in normalized intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. Thirty-three patients with gliomas, histologically classified as low-grade (n = 7) or high-grade astrocytomas (n = 26) according to the World Health Organization brain tumor classification, were included. A 3T MR scanner was used to perform pulsed arterial spin-labeling measurements at 8 different inversion times (370 ms, 614 ms, 864 ms, 1114 ms, 1364 ms, 1614 ms, 1864 ms, and 2114 ms). Normalized intratumoral signal intensity was calculated, which was defined by the signal intensity ratio of the tumor and the contralateral normal brain tissue for all fixed inversion times. A 3-way mixed ANOVA was used to reveal potential differences in the normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas. The difference in normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity between high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas obtained the most statistically significant results at 370 ms (P = .003, other P values ranged from .012-.955). The inversion time by which to differentiate high-grade and low-grade astrocytomas by use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity was 370 ms in our study. The normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values at this inversion time mainly reflect the labeled intra-arterial blood bolus and therefore could be referred to as normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity. Our data indicate that the use of normalized vascular intratumoral signal intensity values allows differentiation between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas and thus may serve as a new, noninvasive marker for astrocytoma grading.

  8. Determination of beam polarization from integrated Borrmann intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Horning, R.D.; Murphy, W.J.; Chapman, L.D.; Liedl, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Borrmann effect can be used to determine the extent of beam polarization of any x-ray beam. The method is applicable, without any modification, to any diffractometer equipped with a partial or full Eulerian cradle. It consists of rocking a perfect crystal, in a thick crystal Laue transmission geometry, through the Bragg angle at various values of the azimuthal angle /sub chi/. If the thickness of the perfect crystal is such that μT/sub 0/>10, then it measures directly the polarization of the incident beam. Three different Ge perfect crystals were used to study the amount of polarization of x-rays produced by a MO and a W source, followed by a double crystal graphite monochromator. A 180 0 periodicity in the integrated intensity, as a function of /sub chi/, is observed; the periodic extremes show the extent of beam polarization. Anomalously transmitted integrated intensity ratios between parallel (σ-component) and perpendicular (π-component) scanning directions, with respect to the scattering plane, are used to characterize the polarization since they are quite insensitive to beam divergences, whereas the corresponding peak height radius show very important beam divergence effects. Also, the polarization properties of graphite monochromators can be related to those of a perfect crystal if the (002) lattice planes are used for any excitation line of the W-anode. This is due to the polarization contribution of the intense white radiation spectrum superimposed on that of the line. On the other hand, the same spectrum impinging on the (004) lattice planes produce polarization properties closer to that of the ideally mosaic crystal

  9. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  10. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  11. Normalizations of Eisenstein integrals for reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ban, E.P.; Kuit, Job

    2017-01-01

    We construct minimal Eisenstein integrals for a reductive symmetric space G/H as matrix coefficients of the minimal principal series of G. The Eisenstein integrals thus obtained include those from the \\sigma-minimal principal series. In addition, we obtain related Eisenstein integrals, but with

  12. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-07-14

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  13. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Juan Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc. vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs. In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  14. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  16. Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator in the measurement of the laser scattering light energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Yu Xiaoqi; Hu Yuanfeng

    2005-01-01

    With the method of integration in a limited time, a Multi-channel normal speed gated integrator based on VXI system has been developed for measuring the signals with changeable pulse width in laser scattering light experiment. It has been tested with signal sources in ICF experiment. In tests, the integral nonlinearity between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of an oscilloscope is less than 1%. In the ICF experiments the maximum error between the integral results of the gated integrator and that of oscilloscope is less than 3% of the full scale range of the gated integrator. (authors)

  17. Obtaining Normal Tissue Constraints Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in Patients with Oral Cavity, Oropharnygeal, and Laryngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, William K.J.; Muse, Evan D.; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Guha, Chandan; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal tissue dose constraints while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) prescription without reducing PTV margins. Sixteen patients with oral cavity carcinoma (group I), 27 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (group II), and 28 patients with laryngeal carcinoma (group III) were reviewed. Parotid constraints were a mean dose to either parotid < 26 Gy (PP1), 50% of either parotid < 30 Gy (PP2), or 20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy (PP3). Treatment was intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). All patients met constraints for cord and brain stem. The mandibular constraints were met in 66%, 29%, and 57% of patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers, respectively. Mean dose of 26 Gy (PP1) was achieved in 44%, 41%, and 38% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients. PP2 (parotid constraint of 30 Gy to less than 50% of one parotid) was the easiest to achieve (group I, II, and III: 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively). PP3 (20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy) was difficult, and was achieved in 25%, 17%, and 35% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients, respectively. Mean parotid dose of 26 Gy was met 40% of the time. However, a combination of constraints allowed for sparing of the parotid based on different criteria and was met in high numbers. This was accomplished without reducing PTV-parotid overlap. What dose constraint best correlates with subjective and objective functional outcomes remains a focus for future study.

  18. Measurement and evaluation of EDM bearing currents by the normalized Joule integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, Gregor; Miljavec, Damijan; Agrež, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Apparent current density is the most common criterion used in literature to estimate bearing endangerment due to bearing currents. In the paper, a new criterion called the normalized Joule integral is proposed as a more reliable and accurate one. This approach is more general and gives good correlation between current in the bypass bridge and bearing current. Furthermore, it considers the whole current that causes bearing damage, not just its peak value. The choice of the normalized Joule integral is theoretically explained and supported by measurements and simulations. The levels of bearing endangerment related to the normalized Joule integral of bearing currents are estimated. (paper)

  19. Integral dose delivered to normal brain with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy IMRT during partial brain radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas with and without selective sparing of the hippocampus, limbic circuit and neural stem cell compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, James C.; Ziel, Ellis G; Diaz, Aidnag Z; Turian, Julius V; Wendt, Julie A.; Gobole, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    We compared integral dose with uninvolved brain (ID brain ) during partial brain radiotherapy (PBRT) for high-grade glioma patients using helical tomotherapy (HT) and seven field traditional inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with and without selective sparing (SPA) of contralateral hippocampus, neural stem cell compartment (NSC) and limbic circuit. We prepared four PBRT treatment plans for four patients with high-grade gliomas (60Gy in 30 fractions delivered to planning treatment volume (PTV60Gy)). For all plans, a structure denoted 'uninvolved brain' was created, which included all brain tissue not part of PTV or standard (STD) organs at risk (OAR). No dosimetric constraints were included for uninvolved brain. Selective SPA plans were prepared with IMRT and HT; contralateral hippocampus, NSC and limbic circuit were contoured; and dosimetric constraints were entered for these structures without compromising dose to PTV or STD OAR. We compared V100 and D95 for PTV46Gy and PTV60Gy, and ID brain for all plans. There were no significant differences in V100 and D95 for PTV46Gy and PTV60Gy. ID brain was lower in traditional IMRT versus HT plans for STD and SPA plans (mean ID brain 23.64Gy vs. 28Gy and 18.7Gy vs. 24.5Gy, respectively) and in SPA versus STD plans both with IMRT and HT (18.7Gy vs. 23.64Gy and 24.5Gy vs. 28Gy, respectively). n the setting of PBRT for high-grade gliomas, IMRT reduces ID brain compared with HT with or without selective SPA of contralateral hippocampus, limbic circuit and NSC, and the use of selective SPA reduces ID brain compared with STD PBRT delivered with either traditional IMRT or HT.

  20. [Structure and functional organization of integrated cardiac intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherillo, Marino; Miceli, Domenico; Tubaro, Marco; Guiducci, Umberto

    2007-05-01

    The early invasive strategy for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and the increasing number of older and sicker patients requiring prolonged and more complex intensive care have induced many changes in the function of the intensive care units. These changes include the statement that specially trained cardiologists and cardiac nurses who can manage patients with acute cardiac conditions should staff the intensive care units. This document indicates the structure of the units and specific recommendations for the number of beds, monitoring system, respirators, pacemaker/defibrillators and additional equipment.

  1. A Neural Signature of Divisive Normalization at the Level of Multisensory Integration in Primate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Tomokazu; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2017-07-19

    Studies of multisensory integration by single neurons have traditionally emphasized empirical principles that describe nonlinear interactions between inputs from two sensory modalities. We previously proposed that many of these empirical principles could be explained by a divisive normalization mechanism operating in brain regions where multisensory integration occurs. This normalization model makes a critical diagnostic prediction: a non-preferred sensory input from one modality, which activates the neuron on its own, should suppress the response to a preferred input from another modality. We tested this prediction by recording from neurons in macaque area MSTd that integrate visual and vestibular cues regarding self-motion. We show that many MSTd neurons exhibit the diagnostic form of cross-modal suppression, whereas unisensory neurons in area MT do not. The normalization model also fits population responses better than a model based on subtractive inhibition. These findings provide strong support for a divisive normalization mechanism in multisensory integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotional Intensity Modulates the Integration of Bimodal Angry Expressions: ERP Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Pan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of information from face and voice plays a central role in social interactions. The present study investigated the modulation of emotional intensity on the integration of facial-vocal emotional cues by recording EEG for participants while they were performing emotion identification task on facial, vocal, and bimodal angry expressions varying in emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed the rates of anger and reaction speed increased as emotional intensity across modalities. Critically, the P2 amplitudes were larger for bimodal expressions than for the sum of facial and vocal expressions for low emotional intensity stimuli, but not for middle and high emotional intensity stimuli. These findings suggested that emotional intensity modulates the integration of facial-vocal angry expressions, following the principle of Inverse Effectiveness (IE in multimodal sensory integration.

  3. Left and right reaction time differences to the sound intensity in normal and AD/HD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Rostami, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Right hemisphere, which is attributed to the sound intensity discrimination, has abnormality in people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). However, it is not studied whether the defect in the right hemisphere has influenced on the intensity sensation of AD/HD subjects or not. In this study, the sensitivity of normal and AD/HD children to the sound intensity was investigated. Nineteen normal and fourteen AD/HD children participated in the study and performed a simple auditory reaction time task. Using the regression analysis, the sensitivity of right and left ears to various sound intensity levels was examined. The statistical results showed that the sensitivity of AD/HD subjects to the intensity was lower than the normal group (p Left and right pathways of the auditory system had the same pattern of response in AD/HD subjects (p > 0.05). However, in control group the left pathway was more sensitive to the sound intensity level than the right one (p = 0.0156). It can be probable that the deficit of the right hemisphere has influenced on the auditory sensitivity of AD/HD children. The possible existent deficits of other auditory system components such as middle ear, inner ear, or involved brain stem nucleuses may also lead to the observed results. The development of new biomarkers based on the sensitivity of the brain hemispheres to the sound intensity has been suggested to estimate the risk of AD/HD. Designing new technique to correct the auditory feedback has been also proposed in behavioral treatment sessions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  5. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Li-bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land, improper village and town construction, and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction. In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration, it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout, practically exploring connotation, and improving land intensification in many ways. Based on these, it presents countermeasures for intensive use of lan...

  6. Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.

    1976-01-01

    Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)

  7. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  8. Lung sound intensity in patients with emphysema and in normal subjects at standardised airflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreur, H. J.; Sterk, P. J.; Vanderschoot, J.; van Klink, H. C.; van Vollenhoven, E.; Dijkman, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A common auscultatory finding in pulmonary emphysema is a reduction of lung sounds. This might be due to a reduction in the generation of sounds due to the accompanying airflow limitation or to poor transmission of sounds due to destruction of parenchyma. Lung sound intensity was investigated in

  9. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  10. Normal coordinate treatment and Raman intensity analysis of yttrium vanadate and calcium tungstate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budha Addepalli, V; Kumar, S P; Padma, V A; Rajeswara Rao, N [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-09-01

    Raman scattering tensors of crystalline YVO/sub 4/ and CaWO/sub 4/ are derived. Using the spectra of YVO/sub 4/, the intensities are substituted in the formulae. They are used to determine the polarizability derivatives of V-O bond. Substituting them back into the intensity formulae, a number of equations involving the L elements are obtained. Supplementing them with the matrix equation LL' = G, and using L'FL = ..gamma.., a-l the F-elements are determined. It is observed that the force constants relating to the translations of the group YVO/sub 4/ are quite high, explaining the high melting point of the crystal.

  11. Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

  12. Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F; Watson, David

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

  13. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  14. Normalization of prostate specific antigen in patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Matthew D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the expected time to prostate specific antigen (PSA normalization with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD therapy after treatment with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort research design was used. A total of 133 patients with clinical stage T1c to T3b prostate cancer (2002 AJCC staging treated in a community setting between January 2002 and July 2005 were reviewed for time to PSA normalization using 1 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL as criteria. All patients received IMRT as part of their management. Times to PSA normalization were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significance was assessed at p Results Fifty-six of the 133 patients received NAAD (42.1%. Thirty-one patients (23.8% received radiation to a limited pelvic field followed by an IMRT boost, while 99 patients received IMRT alone (76.2%. The times to serum PSA normalization 0.05, and 303 ± 24 and 405 ± 46 days, respectively, for PSA Conclusions Use of NAAD in conjunction with IMRT leads to a significantly shortened time to normalization of serum PSA

  15. High signal intensity of anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR imaging in normal postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Yang, Hak Seok; Chung, In Bai

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal intensity and size of anterior pituitary gland in postpartum women, and to compare with those of control group. In 34 postpartum women (18-43 years, mean: 27 years) and another 35 control nonpregnant women (20-29 years, mean: 24 years), midsagittal T1-weighted MR images were obtained. The signal intensity and height of the anterior pituitary gland were compared between the post-partum and normal control groups. In postpartum women, the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary gland relative to the pons was higher than that of the control group. Pituitary gland height of postpartum women was higher (5-11. 8mm, mean 8.18 ± 1.8mm) than that of control group (2-9mm, mean: 6.2 ± 1.7mm). It is concluded that the hyperintensity of the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted image is a normal finding in postpartum women, which is useful in differentiation from pituitary abnormality

  16. High signal intensity of anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR imaging in normal postpartum women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Yang, Hak Seok; Chung, In Bai [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal intensity and size of anterior pituitary gland in postpartum women, and to compare with those of control group. In 34 postpartum women (18-43 years, mean: 27 years) and another 35 control nonpregnant women (20-29 years, mean: 24 years), midsagittal T1-weighted MR images were obtained. The signal intensity and height of the anterior pituitary gland were compared between the post-partum and normal control groups. In postpartum women, the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary gland relative to the pons was higher than that of the control group. Pituitary gland height of postpartum women was higher (5-11. 8mm, mean 8.18 {+-} 1.8mm) than that of control group (2-9mm, mean: 6.2 {+-} 1.7mm). It is concluded that the hyperintensity of the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted image is a normal finding in postpartum women, which is useful in differentiation from pituitary abnormality.

  17. Normalization of prostate specific antigen in patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Matthew D; Padula, Gilbert DA; Chun, Patrick Y; Davis, Alan T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expected time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) normalization with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) therapy after treatment with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. A retrospective cohort research design was used. A total of 133 patients with clinical stage T1c to T3b prostate cancer (2002 AJCC staging) treated in a community setting between January 2002 and July 2005 were reviewed for time to PSA normalization using 1 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL as criteria. All patients received IMRT as part of their management. Times to PSA normalization were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Significance was assessed at p < 0.05. Fifty-six of the 133 patients received NAAD (42.1%). Thirty-one patients (23.8%) received radiation to a limited pelvic field followed by an IMRT boost, while 99 patients received IMRT alone (76.2%). The times to serum PSA normalization < 2 ng/mL when treated with or without NAAD were 298 ± 24 and 302 ± 33 days (mean ± SEM), respectively (p > 0.05), and 303 ± 24 and 405 ± 46 days, respectively, for PSA < 1 ng/mL (p < 0.05). Stage T1 and T2 tumors had significantly increased time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL in comparison to Stage T3 tumors. Also, higher Gleason scores were significantly correlated with a faster time to PSA normalization < 1 ng/mL. Use of NAAD in conjunction with IMRT leads to a significantly shortened time to normalization of serum PSA < 1 ng/mL in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer

  18. Data-driven identification of intensity normalization region based on longitudinal coherency of 18F-FDG metabolism in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiwei; Wu, Ping; Ziegler, Sibylle I; Guan, Yihui; Wang, Yuetao; Ge, Jingjie; Schwaiger, Markus; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Zuo, Chuantao; Förster, Stefan; Shi, Kuangyu

    2017-02-01

    In brain 18 F-FDG PET data intensity normalization is usually applied to control for unwanted factors confounding brain metabolism. However, it can be difficult to determine a proper intensity normalization region as a reference for the identification of abnormal metabolism in diseased brains. In neurodegenerative disorders, differentiating disease-related changes in brain metabolism from age-associated natural changes remains challenging. This study proposes a new data-driven method to identify proper intensity normalization regions in order to improve separation of age-associated natural changes from disease related changes in brain metabolism. 127 female and 128 male healthy subjects (age: 20 to 79) with brain 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the course of a whole body cancer screening were included. Brain PET images were processed using SPM8 and were parcellated into 116 anatomical regions according to the AAL template. It is assumed that normal brain 18 F-FDG metabolism has longitudinal coherency and this coherency leads to better model fitting. The coefficient of determination R 2 was proposed as the coherence coefficient, and the total coherence coefficient (overall fitting quality) was employed as an index to assess proper intensity normalization strategies on single subjects and age-cohort averaged data. Age-associated longitudinal changes of normal subjects were derived using the identified intensity normalization method correspondingly. In addition, 15 subjects with clinically diagnosed Parkinson's disease were assessed to evaluate the clinical potential of the proposed new method. Intensity normalizations by paracentral lobule and cerebellar tonsil, both regions derived from the new data-driven coherency method, showed significantly better coherence coefficients than other intensity normalization regions, and especially better than the most widely used global mean normalization. Intensity normalization by paracentral lobule was the most consistent method within both

  19. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.  Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  20. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity.Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described.Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  1. Second-order domain derivative of normal-dependent boundary integrals

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2010-03-17

    Numerous reconstruction tasks in (optical) surface metrology allow for a variational formulation. The occurring boundary integrals may be interpreted as shape functions. The paper is concerned with the second-order analysis of such functions. Shape Hessians of boundary integrals are considered difficult to find analytically because they correspond to third-order derivatives of an, in a sense equivalent, domain integral. We complement previous results by considering cost functions depending explicitly on the surface normal. The correctness and practicability of our calculations are verified in the context of a Newton-type shape reconstruction method. © 2010 Birkhäuser / Springer Basel AG.

  2. Shape from specular reflection in calibrated environments and the integration of spatial normal fields

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    having the remarkable property that it equally changes in all spatial directions, unlike normal maps occurring, e.g., in Shape from Shading. Its integration into a zero-order reconstruction of the surface thus deserves special attention. We develop a

  3. French Contribution to the Specialists' Meeting on Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Fault Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulat, P.; Tavassoli, A.

    1981-01-01

    The following is a summary of a few selected programmes in France on the structural integrity of fast reactor components under normal and faulted conditions. The scope of the programmes selected is limited to that suggested by the specialists Meeting organisers

  4. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  5. ProNormz--an integrated approach for human proteins and protein kinases normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Suresh; Raja, Kalpana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2014-02-01

    The task of recognizing and normalizing protein name mentions in biomedical literature is a challenging task and important for text mining applications such as protein-protein interactions, pathway reconstruction and many more. In this paper, we present ProNormz, an integrated approach for human proteins (HPs) tagging and normalization. In Homo sapiens, a greater number of biological processes are regulated by a large human gene family called protein kinases by post translational phosphorylation. Recognition and normalization of human protein kinases (HPKs) is considered to be important for the extraction of the underlying information on its regulatory mechanism from biomedical literature. ProNormz distinguishes HPKs from other HPs besides tagging and normalization. To our knowledge, ProNormz is the first normalization system available to distinguish HPKs from other HPs in addition to gene normalization task. ProNormz incorporates a specialized synonyms dictionary for human proteins and protein kinases, a set of 15 string matching rules and a disambiguation module to achieve the normalization. Experimental results on benchmark BioCreative II training and test datasets show that our integrated approach achieve a fairly good performance and outperforms more sophisticated semantic similarity and disambiguation systems presented in BioCreative II GN task. As a freely available web tool, ProNormz is useful to developers as extensible gene normalization implementation, to researchers as a standard for comparing their innovative techniques, and to biologists for normalization and categorization of HPs and HPKs mentions in biomedical literature. URL: http://www.biominingbu.org/pronormz. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  7. Evaluation of intensity drift correction strategies using MetaboDrift, a normalization tool for multi-batch metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonusin, Chanisa; IglayReger, Heidi B; Soni, Tanu; Rothberg, Amy E; Burant, Charles F; Evans, Charles R

    2017-11-10

    In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has increasingly been applied to large-scale epidemiological studies of human subjects. However, the successful use of metabolomics in this context is subject to the challenge of detecting biologically significant effects despite substantial intensity drift that often occurs when data are acquired over a long period or in multiple batches. Numerous computational strategies and software tools have been developed to aid in correcting for intensity drift in metabolomics data, but most of these techniques are implemented using command-line driven software and custom scripts which are not accessible to all end users of metabolomics data. Further, it has not yet become routine practice to assess the quantitative accuracy of drift correction against techniques which enable true absolute quantitation such as isotope dilution mass spectrometry. We developed an Excel-based tool, MetaboDrift, to visually evaluate and correct for intensity drift in a multi-batch liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics dataset. The tool enables drift correction based on either quality control (QC) samples analyzed throughout the batches or using QC-sample independent methods. We applied MetaboDrift to an original set of clinical metabolomics data from a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT). The performance of the method was evaluated for multiple classes of metabolites by comparison with normalization using isotope-labeled internal standards. QC sample-based intensity drift correction significantly improved correlation with IS-normalized data, and resulted in detection of additional metabolites with significant physiological response to the MMTT. The relative merits of different QC-sample curve fitting strategies are discussed in the context of batch size and drift pattern complexity. Our drift correction tool offers a practical, simplified approach to drift correction and batch combination in large metabolomics studies

  8. Enhanced target normal sheath acceleration of protons from intense laser interaction with a cone-tube target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser driven proton acceleration is proposed to be greatly enhanced by using a cone-tube target, which can be easily manufactured by current 3D-print technology. It is observed that energetic electron bunches are generated along the tube and accelerated to a much higher temperature by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal electric field which is induced by the optical confinement of the laser field. As a result, a localized and enhanced sheath field is produced at the rear of the target and the maximum proton energy is about three-fold increased based on the two-dimentional particle-in-cell simulation results. It is demonstrated that by employing this advanced target scheme, the scaling of the proton energy versus the laser intensity is much beyond the normal target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA case.

  9. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  10. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-10-19

    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  11. High-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy and inverse optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen W.; Meijer, Gert J.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Sangen, Maurice J. van der; Cassee, Jorien

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recently a Phase III randomized trial has started comparing a boost of 16 Gy as part of whole-breast irradiation to a high boost of 26 Gy in young women. Our main aim was to develop an efficient simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) technique for the high-dose arm of the trial. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning was performed for 5 left-sided and 5 right-sided tumors. A tangential field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique added to a sequentially planned 3-field boost (SEQ) was compared with a simultaneously planned technique (SIB) using inverse optimization. Normalized total dose (NTD)-corrected dose volume histogram parameters were calculated and compared. Results: The intended NTD was produced by 31 fractions of 1.66 Gy to the whole breast and 2.38 Gy to the boost volume. The average volume of the PTV-breast and PTV-boost receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose was 97% or more for both techniques. Also, the mean lung dose and mean heart dose did not differ much between the techniques, with on average 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SEQ and 3.8 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SIB, respectively. However, the SIB resulted in a significantly more conformal irradiation of the PTV-boost. The volume of the PTV-breast, excluding the PTV-boost, receiving a dose higher than 95% of the boost dose could be reduced considerably using the SIB as compared with the SEQ from 129 cc (range, 48-262 cc) to 58 cc (range, 30-102 cc). Conclusions: A high-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost technique has been developed. The unwanted excessive dose to the breast was significantly reduced

  12. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros; Juana Isabel Contreras; Rafael Baeza; Maria Luz Segura; Maria Teresa Lao

    2017-01-01

    The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of gr...

  13. Integrated NDVI images for Niger 1986-1987. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tucker, Compton J.

    1988-01-01

    Two NOAA AVHRR images are presented which provide a comparison of the geographic distribution of an integration of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the Sahel zone in Niger for the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. The production of the images and the application of the images for resource management are discussed. Daily large area coverage with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km at nadir were transformed to the NDVI and geographically registered to produce the images.

  14. The normal tissue sparing obtained with simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and bladder using intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Hoeyer, Morten; Wright, Pauliina; Grau, Cai; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Petersen, Joergen B.

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) protocol for simultaneous irradiation of bladder and lymph nodes. In this report, doses to normal tissue from IMRT and our previous conformal sequential boost technique are compared. Material and methods. Sixteen patients with urinary bladder cancer were treated using a six-field dynamic IMRT beam arrangement delivering 60 Gy to the bladder and 48 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for relevant normal tissues (bowel, bowel cavity, rectum and femoral heads) for the IMRT plans were compared with corresponding DVHs from our previous conformal sequential boost technique. Calculations of the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) were performed for the bowel, with a reference volume of 200 cm 3 and a volume effect parameter k = 4, as well as for the rectum, using k = 12. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) RTOG toxicity was recorded. Results. Statistical significant normal tissue sparing was obtained by IMRT. For the bowel, a significant reduction was obtained at all dose levels between 20 and 50 Gy (p 3 at 50 Gy, while the gEUD was reduced from 58 to 53 Gy (p 3 at 50 Gy. The rectum gEUD was reduced from 55 to 53 Gy (p < 0.05). For the femoral heads, IMRT reduced the maximum dose as well as the volumes above all dose levels. The rate of acute peak Grade 2 GI RTOG complications was 38% after IMRT. Conclusion. IMRT to the urinary bladder and elective lymph nodes result in considerable normal tissue sparing compared to conformal sequential boost technique. This has paved the way for further studies combining IMRT with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in bladder cancer

  15. The Economic Determinants of Bioenergy Trade Intensity in the EU-28: A Co-Integration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Alsaleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamic effect of the economic determinants on bilateral trade intensity of the European Union (EU region’s bioenergy industry outputs. The authors adopt the panel co-integration model approach to estimate annual trade intensity data of the EU-28 countries’ bioenergy industry outputs from 1990 to 2013. This study investigated the long-term influence of the rate of real exchange, gross domestic product (GDP, and export price on the trade intensity of bioenergy industry applying fully modified oriented least square (FMOLS, dummy oriented least square (DOLS, and pooled mean group (PMG models. In the current study, the findings boost the empirical validity of the panel co-integration model through FMOLS, indicating that depreciation has improved the trade intensity. This study has further investigated, through the causality test, a distinct set of countries. FMOLS estimation does find proof of the long run improvement of trade intensity. Thus, the result shows that the gross domestic product (GDP and the real exchange rate have a positive and noteworthy influence on the EU-28 region trade intensity of the bioenergy industry. Moreover, the export price affects negatively and significantly the trade intensity of the bioenergy industry in the EU-28 countries.

  16. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  17. Dose reduction to normal tissues as compared to the gross tumor by using intensity modulated radiotherapy in thoracic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalla NK

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT is a powerful tool, which might go a long way in reducing radiation doses to critical structures and thereby reduce long term morbidities. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of IMRT in reducing the dose to the critical normal tissues while maintaining the desired dose to the volume of interest for thoracic malignancies. Materials and methods During the period January 2002 to March 2004, 12 patients of various sites of malignancies in the thoracic region were treated using physical intensity modulator based IMRT. Plans of these patients treated with IMRT were analyzed using dose volume histograms. Results An average dose reduction of the mean values by 73% to the heart, 69% to the right lung and 74% to the left lung, with respect to the GTV could be achieved with IMRT. The 2 year disease free survival was 59% and 2 year overall survival was 59%. The average number of IMRT fields used was 6. Conclusion IMRT with inverse planning enabled us to achieve desired dose distribution, due to its ability to provide sharp dose gradients at the junction of tumor and the adjacent critical organs.

  18. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  19. Limited benefit of inversely optimised intensity modulation in breast conserving radiotherapy with simultaneously integrated boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Hans Paul van der; Dolsma, Wil V.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Korevaar, Erik W.; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Maduro, John H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine whether in breast-conserving radiotherapy (RT) with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB), application of inversely planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT-SIB) instead of three-dimensional RT (3D-CRT-SIB) has benefits that justify the additional costs, and to evaluate whether a potential benefit of IMRT-SIB depends on specific patient characteristics. Material and methods: 3D-CRT-SIB and various IMRT-SIB treatment plans were constructed and optimised for 30 patients with early stage left-sided breast cancer. Coverage of planning target volumes (PTVs) and dose delivered to organs at risk (OARs) were determined for each plan. Overlap between heart and breast PTV (OHB), size of breast and boost PTVs and boost location were examined in their ability to identify patients that might benefit from IMRT-SIB. Results: All plans had adequate PTV coverage. IMRT-SIB generally reduced dose levels delivered to heart, lungs, and normal breast tissue relative to 3D-CRT-SIB. However, IMRT-SIB benefit differed per patient. For many patients, comparable results were obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB, while patients with OHB > 1.4 cm and a relatively large boost PTV volume (>125 cm 3 ) gained most from the use of IMRT-SIB. Conclusions: In breast-conserving RT, results obtained with 3D-CRT-SIB and IMRT-SIB are generally comparable. Patient characteristics could be used to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from IMRT-SIB.

  20. Moderate-intensity endurance training improves endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P  0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  1. Specialists’ Meeting on Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Faulted Conditions. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Demonstration of Structural Integrity under Normal and Faulted Conditions'' was held at Chester, United Kingdom on 3-5 June 1980. The meeting was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Past Reactors (IWGFR). Twenty-one participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and two international organizations, CEC and IAEA, attended. The purpose of the meeting was to review and discuss methods for assessing the integrity of the LMFBR safety-related structures during normal and abnormal operation, especially in the presence of defects, and to recommend future development. The technical sessions were divided into four topical sessions as follows: 1. National Review Presentations on Demonstration of Structural Integrity; 2. Material Properties; 3. Structural Analysis; 4. Design Approaches and Assessment Experience. During the meeting papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their countries or organizations. Each presentation was followed by an open discussion in the subject covered by the paper and subsequently, session summaries were drafted. After the formal sessions were completed, a final discussion session was held and general conclusions and recommendations were reached by consensus. Session summaries, general conclusions and recommendations, national review papers presented during the first session as well as the agenda of the meeting and the list of participants are given

  2. Applying fuzzy integral for evaluating intensity of knowledge work in jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Heidary Dahooie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a framework is proposed to define and identify knowledge work intensity in jobs, quantitatively. For determining the Knowledge Work Intensity Score (KWIS of a job, it is supposed that the job comprises some tasks and KWIS of the job is determined based on knowledge intensity of these tasks. Functional Job Analysis (FJA method is applied to determine tasks of jobs and then Task’s Knowledge Intensity Score (TKIS is computed by using Fuzzy integral method. Besides, importance weight and time weight of tasks are determined by utilizing appropriate methods. Finally, KWIS is calculated by a formula composed of tasks’ TKISs and the weights. For evaluating applicability of the framework, it is applied to calculate KWISs of two jobs (Deputy of Finance and service, Laboratory technician.

  3. Shape from specular reflection in calibrated environments and the integration of spatial normal fields

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Reflections of a scene in a mirror surface contain information on its shape. This information is accessible by measurement through an optical metrology technique called deflectometry. The result is a field of normal vectors to the unknown surface having the remarkable property that it equally changes in all spatial directions, unlike normal maps occurring, e.g., in Shape from Shading. Its integration into a zero-order reconstruction of the surface thus deserves special attention. We develop a novel algorithm for this purpose which is relatively straightforward to implement yet outperforms existing ones in terms of efficiency and robustness. Experimental results on synthetic and real data complement the theoretical discussion. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Review of the Effects of Normal Conditions of Transport on Spent Fuel Integrity in Transportation Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junggoo; Yoo, Youngik; Lee, Seongki; Lim, Chaejoon [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Spent fuel(SF) storage capacity of each domestic nuclear power plant will reach a saturated state in the near future. Although there are several methods of SF disposal, interim storage is suggested as the most realistic and promising alternative. SF integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in Part 71 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 of the U..S. NRC licensing requirement. In this paper, the report is reviewed written by EPRI in US and it is helpful to a development of domestic SF integrity evaluation technology. EPRI report about integrity evaluation method on normal conditions of high burn-up spent fuel transport is reviewed. First, dynamic forces occurred in one-foot side drop are calculated. And deformation patterns and fuel rods responses by dynamic forces calculated from spent fuel and cask model are analyzed. It is shown that the damage of fuel rods is not occurred by the dynamic forces on normal conditions. Assembly distortion is not predicted, by virtue of the facts that the spacer grids do not experience significant permanent deformation. Axial forces, bending moments and pinch forces of fuel rods are calculated and compared with the results under the hypothetical accident conditions. No occurrence of transverse tearing mode that is the most serious damage mode in side drop case is predicted. Till now, in Korea, regulatory requirements related with structural integrity of spent fuel are not specified such as 10CFR71. To establish own regulation standards, producing and analyzing sufficient experimental data must be performed preferentially. Based on this, failure analysis and criteria establishment are necessary through modeling and analyzing of spent fuel.

  5. Drosophila Sld5 is essential for normal cell cycle progression and maintenance of genomic integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, Catherine A. [Department of Biology, East Carolina University East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Christensen, Tim W., E-mail: christensent@ecu.edu [Department of Biology, East Carolina University East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, PPsf2, and Mcm10. {yields} Haploinsufficiency of Sld5 leads to M-phase delay and genomic instability. {yields} Sld5 is also required for normal S phase progression. -- Abstract: Essential for the normal functioning of a cell is the maintenance of genomic integrity. Failure in this process is often catastrophic for the organism, leading to cell death or mis-proliferation. Central to genomic integrity is the faithful replication of DNA during S phase. The GINS complex has recently come to light as a critical player in DNA replication through stabilization of MCM2-7 and Cdc45 as a member of the CMG complex which is likely responsible for the processivity of helicase activity during S phase. The GINS complex is made up of 4 members in a 1:1:1:1 ratio: Psf1, Psf2, Psf3, And Sld5. Here we present the first analysis of the function of the Sld5 subunit in a multicellular organism. We show that Drosophila Sld5 interacts with Psf1, Psf2, and Mcm10 and that mutations in Sld5 lead to M and S phase delays with chromosomes exhibiting hallmarks of genomic instability.

  6. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The impact of normal saline on the incidence of exposure keratopathy in patients hospitalized in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Davoodabady

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS and the other eye to control group (standard care. In each patient, one eye (control group randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended.

  8. Tunable integration of absorption-membrane-adsorption for efficiently separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huang; Pan, Yong; Liu, Bei; Sun, Changyu; Guo, Ping; Gao, Xueteng; Yang, Lanying; Ma, Qinglan; Chen, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Separation of low boiling gas mixtures is widely concerned in process industries. Now their separations heavily rely upon energy-intensive cryogenic processes. Here, we report a pseudo-absorption process for separating low boiling gas mixtures near normal temperature. In this process, absorption-membrane-adsorption is integrated by suspending suitable porous ZIF material in suitable solvent and forming selectively permeable liquid membrane around ZIF particles. Green solvents like water and glycol were used to form ZIF-8 slurry and tune the permeability of liquid membrane surrounding ZIF-8 particles. We found glycol molecules form tighter membrane while water molecules form looser membrane because of the hydrophobicity of ZIF-8. When using mixing solvents composed of glycol and water, the permeability of liquid membrane becomes tunable. It is shown that ZIF-8/water slurry always manifests remarkable higher separation selectivity than solid ZIF-8 and it could be tuned to further enhance the capture of light hydrocarbons by adding suitable quantity of glycol to water. Because of its lower viscosity and higher sorption/desorption rate, tunable ZIF-8/water-glycol slurry could be readily used as liquid absorbent to separate different kinds of low boiling gas mixtures by applying a multistage separation process in one traditional absorption tower, especially for the capture of light hydrocarbons. PMID:26892255

  9. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of groundwater for the irrigation of horticultural crops in the greenhouses presents a high degree of overexploitation of the aquifers, but due to the continuous search for alternative water resources, such as desalinated and reclaimed water, as well as in-depth knowledge of the integral management of water irrigation through automated fertigation and localized irrigation systems, the current status of the water resources could be sustainable. Moreover, being conscious of the pollution generated by agricultural leachates, the horticultural system of Almería is implementing complementary sustainable systems such as recirculation, cascade cropping systems and phytodepuration for the reuse of the leachate. Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the intensive horticultural system is on the right path towards respecting the environment and being sustainable in terms of water use.

  10. Two-year outcome of normal-birth-weight infants admitted to a Singapore neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, W B; Yeo, C L; Ho, L Y

    2002-03-01

    To describe the characteristics, the immediate and short-term outcome and predictors of mortality in normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants admitted to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Singapore. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 137 consecutive NBW infants admitted to the NICU of the Singapore General Hospital from January 1991 to December 1992. Data on the diagnoses, clinical presentation of illness, intervention received, complications and outcome as well as follow-up patterns for the first 2 years of life, were collected and analysed. NBW NICU infants comprised 1.8% of births in our hospital and 40.8% of all NICU admissions. The main reasons for NICU admissions were respiratory disorders (61.3%), congenital anomalies (15.3%) and asphyxia neonatorum (11.7%). Respiratory support was necessary in 81.8%. Among those ventilated, the only predictive factor contributing to mortality was the mean inspired oxygen concentration. The mortality rate was 11.7%. Causes of death included congenital anomalies (43.75%), asphyxia neonatorum (31.25%) and pulmonary failure secondary to meconium aspiration syndrome (12.5%). The median hospital stay among survivors (88.3%) was 11.0 (range, 4 to 70) days. Of 42 patients (out of 117 survivors) who received follow-up for at least 6 months, 39 infants did not have evidence of any major neurodevelopmental abnormalities at their last follow-up visit, prior to or at 2 years of age. Despite their short hospital stay (compared to very-low-birth-weight infants), the high volume of NBW admissions make the care of this population an important area for review to enhance advances in and hence, reduce the cost of NICU care. With improved antenatal diagnostic techniques (allowing earlier and more accurate diagnosis of congenital malformations) and better antenatal and perinatal care (allowing better management of at-risk pregnancies), it is anticipated that there should be a reduction in such admissions with better

  11. 3D-conformal-intensity modulated radiotherapy with compensators for head and neck cancer: clinical results of normal tissue sparing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koscielny Sven

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the potential of parotic gland sparing of intensity modulated radiotherapy (3D-c-IMRT performed with metallic compensators for head and neck cancer in a clinical series by analysis of dose distributions and clinical measures. Materials and methods 39 patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck irradiated using 3D-c-IMRT were evaluable for dose distribution within PTVs and at one parotid gland and 38 patients for toxicity analysis. 10 patients were treated primarily, 29 postoperatively, 19 received concomittant cis-platin based chemotherapy, 20 3D-c-IMRT alone. Initially the dose distribution was calculated with Helax ® and photon fluence was modulated using metallic compensators made of tin-granulate (n = 22. Later the dose distribution was calculated with KonRad ® and fluence was modified by MCP 96 alloy compensators (n = 17. Gross tumor/tumor bed (PTV 1 was irradiated up to 60–70 Gy, [5 fractions/week, single fraction dose: 2.0–2.2 (simultaneously integrated boost], adjuvantly irradiated bilateral cervical lymph nodes (PTV 2 with 48–54 Gy [single dose: 1.5–1.8]. Toxicity was scored according the RTOG scale and patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ. Results Mean of the median doses at the parotid glands to be spared was 25.9 (16.3–46.8 Gy, for tin graulate 26 Gy, for MCP alloy 24.2 Gy. Tin-granulate compensators resulted in a median parotid dose above 26 Gy in 10/22, MCP 96 alloy in 0/17 patients. Following acute toxicities were seen (°0–2/3: xerostomia: 87%/13%, dysphagia: 84%/16%, mucositis: 89%/11%, dermatitis: 100%/0%. No grade 4 reaction was encountered. During therapy the XQ forms showed °0–2/3: 88%/12%. 6 months postRT chronic xerostomia °0–2/3 was observed in 85%/15% of patients, none with °4 xerostomia. Conclusion 3D-c-IMRT using metallic compensators along with inverse calculation algorithm achieves sufficient parotid gland sparing in virtually all advanced

  12. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intensive care unit nurses' information needs and recommendations for integrated displays to improve nurses' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sven H; Weir, Charlene; Haar, Maral; Staggers, Nancy; Agutter, Jim; Görges, Matthias; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Fatal errors can occur in intensive care units (ICUs). Researchers claim that information integration at the bedside may improve nurses' situation awareness (SA) of patients and decrease errors. However, it is unclear which information should be integrated and in what form. Our research uses the theory of SA to analyze the type of tasks, and their associated information gaps. We aimed to provide recommendations for integrated, consolidated information displays to improve nurses' SA. Systematic observations methods were used to follow 19 ICU nurses for 38 hours in 3 clinical practice settings. Storyboard methods and concept mapping helped to categorize the observed tasks, the associated information needs, and the information gaps of the most frequent tasks by SA level. Consensus and discussion of the research team was used to propose recommendations to improve information displays at the bedside based on information deficits. Nurses performed 46 different tasks at a rate of 23.4 tasks per hour. The information needed to perform the most common tasks was often inaccessible, difficult to see at a distance or located on multiple monitoring devices. Current devices at the ICU bedside do not adequately support a nurse's information-gathering activities. Medication management was the most frequent category of tasks. Information gaps were present at all levels of SA and across most of the tasks. Using a theoretical model to understand information gaps can aid in designing functional requirements. Integrated information that enhances nurses' Situation Awareness may decrease errors and improve patient safety in the future.

  14. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyannikov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under considering loading conditions. As a result distributions of elastic and plastic stress intensity factors along crack front in slot fillet of key of turbine disk depending on surface crack form are defined. An engineering approach to the prediction of carrying capacity of cracked turbine disk which is sensitive to the loading history at maintenance is proposed. The predictions of the rate of crack growth and residual lifetime of steam turbine disk are compared for elastic and elastic-plastic solutions. It is shown that the previously proposed elastic crack growth models provide overestimate the lifetime with respect to the present one. An advantage to use the plastic stress intensity factor to characterize the fracture resistance as the self-dependent unified parameter for a variety of turbine disk configurations rather than the magnitude of the elastic stress intensity factors alone is discussed.

  15. Nationwide Buildings Energy Research enabled through an integrated Data Intensive Scientific Workflow and Advanced Analysis Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hathaway, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guillen, Zoe C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dirks, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Yan [Concordia Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    Modern workflow systems enable scientists to run ensemble simulations at unprecedented scales and levels of complexity, allowing them to study system sizes previously impossible to achieve, due to the inherent resource requirements needed for the modeling work. However as a result of these new capabilities the science teams suddenly also face unprecedented data volumes that they are unable to analyze with their existing tools and methodologies in a timely fashion. In this paper we will describe the ongoing development work to create an integrated data intensive scientific workflow and analysis environment that offers researchers the ability to easily create and execute complex simulation studies and provides them with different scalable methods to analyze the resulting data volumes. The integration of simulation and analysis environments is hereby not only a question of ease of use, but supports fundamental functions in the correlated analysis of simulation input, execution details and derived results for multi-variant, complex studies. To this end the team extended and integrated the existing capabilities of the Velo data management and analysis infrastructure, the MeDICi data intensive workflow system and RHIPE the R for Hadoop version of the well-known statistics package, as well as developing a new visual analytics interface for the result exploitation by multi-domain users. The capabilities of the new environment are demonstrated on a use case that focusses on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) building energy team, showing how they were able to take their previously local scale simulations to a nationwide level by utilizing data intensive computing techniques not only for their modeling work, but also for the subsequent analysis of their modeling results. As part of the PNNL research initiative PRIMA (Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis) the team performed an initial 3 year study of building energy demands for the US Eastern

  16. Increase in tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities in advanced head-and-neck cancer for dose-escalated intensity-modulated photon and proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eJakobi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Presently used radio-chemotherapy regimens result in moderate local control rates for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Dose escalation (DE may be an option to improve patient outcome, but may also increase the risk of toxicities in healthy tissue. The presented treatment planning study evaluated the feasibility of two DE levels for advanced HNSCC patients, planned with either intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMXT or proton therapy (IMPT.Materials and Methods:For 45 HNSCC patients, IMXT and IMPT treatment plans were created including DE via a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB in the high-risk volume, while maintaining standard fractionation with 2 Gy per fraction in the remaining target volume. Two DE levels for the SIB were compared: 2.3 Gy and 2.6 Gy. Treatment plan evaluation included assessment of tumor control probabilities (TCP and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP.Results:An increase of approximately 10% in TCP was estimated between the DE levels. A pronounced high-dose rim surrounding the SIB volume was identified in IMXT treatment. Compared to IMPT, this extra dose slightly increased the TCP values and to a larger extent the NTCP values. For both modalities, the higher DE level led only to a small increase in NTCP values (mean differences < 2% in all models, except for the risk of aspiration, which increased on average by 8% and 6% with IMXT and IMPT, respectively, but showed a considerable patient dependence. Conclusions:Both DE levels appear applicable to patients with IMXT and IMPT since all calculated NTCP values, except for one, increased only little for the higher DE level. The estimated TCP increase is of relevant magnitude. The higher DE schedule needs to be investigated carefully in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, especially regarding toxicities caused by high local doses that lack a sound dose response description, e.g., ulcers.

  17. Investigation of integral normal emmissivity of materials in the high temperature range with the aid of reflection furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rain, Eh.Eh.; Peletskij, V.Eh.; Kostanovskij, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    A special experimental procedure for investigating integral radiation capacity of a wide class of solids with the aid of a reverberatory furnace ''URAN-1'' has been developed. The description of the set-up is presented. For the range of 1300-2100 K, data are provided on the integral normal radiation capacity of niobium. The investigation results are compared with the data published in the literature

  18. Cooperation of pedagogical assistant during integration of a child with behavioural disturbances in a normal class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kolařík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks into the problem which is really topical nowadays. There are more and more requests for the assignments of pedagogical assistants to children with behavioural disturbances in a normal class. Nevertheless there is no provement that this assignment of pedagogical assistant is really effective and if the given wherewithal suits the purpose. The article describes the influence of pedagogical assistant´s cooperation upon a child integrated because of his behavioural disturbances in a normal class. For data acquisition the semistructured interviews and focused groups were used. Those data were obtained from responsible employee from county council Olomouc region, from Pedagogical - psychological counselling employees Bruntál and from Pedagogical - psychological counselling employees from Olomouc and also from so-called "families" made out of intergrated child´s parents, integrated child because of his behavioural disturbances, class master and pedagogical assistant. For a selection of research sample the simple intended selection was used. As good things of pedagogical assistant allotment can be considered for example improving of child´s school evaluations, behaviour or the possition of intergrated child in the class. There is also a problem of the raising the teaching effectiveness in the whole class, active support of pedagogical assistents from the school director´s side as well as great relationships between pedagogical assistents and class children. As weaker sides of this we can consider the disunity of the way of pedagogical assistant allotment in different regions in the Czech Republic, the not participating of class master in the process of choosing pedagogical assistant, the pedagogical assistant ´s child teaching out of the class, poly-duties by a plenty of pedagogical assistant and the different demands from the parent´s and class master´s side. Very important is also the fact that there is still confusion about

  19. Integrated intensities and flipping ratios in neutron diffraction by perfect magnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigay, J.P.; Schlenker, M.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study of neutron diffraction by perfect magnetic crystals is presented which shows that when the magnetization is perpendicular to the diffraction vector (β- π/2), the dispersion surface is made up of two hyperbolic surfaces corresponding to simple polarization states and the results of the two-beam dynamical theory for non-magnetic crystals can be directly applied. The asymptotic properties of the dispersion surface are of the dispersion surface are also discussed in the more general case (β is not equal to π/2) and an analytical treatment of the kinematical limit is presented. Integrated intensities and flipping ratios outside this limit can only be calculated numerically. It is shown that the wave fields defined by the different points of the dispersion surface are polarized in the (g, B 0 ) plane; this is a generalization of the fact that they are (+-) states with respect to B 0 in the simple case (β=π/2). (UK)

  20. Investigation of singularities of integral intensity of the relativistic particle bremsstrahlung radiation in a diamond crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Armaganyan, A.A.; Arutyunyan, L.G.; Iskandaryan, A.G.; Taroyan, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    The results are given of the theoretical processing of experimental data on the investigation of orientational dependences of integral intensity of coherent bremsstrahlung radiation (CBR) of superfast electrons in a diamond crystal. It is shown that in the case of ''point effect'' right up to the electrons incident angle, which is 0.1 mrad with respect to the crystallographic plane, the CBR theory gives a good description of experimental data. In the case of ''row effect'', in order to account for the divergence between the theory and experiment at small incident angles of electrons with respect to the crystallographic axis, it is assumed that the multiple scattering angle has an orientational dependence. By fitting the theoretical curve to experimental points the dependences are obtained of the multiple scattering angle change on the crystal orientation with respect to the electron beam

  1. Normalization of sensorimotor integration by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittel, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Demiralay, C.; Munchau, A.; Baumer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that sensorimotor integration and plasticity of the sensorimotor system are impaired in dystonia patients. We investigated motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition to examine corticospinal excitability and cortical sensorimotor integration,

  2. Building Damage Estimation by Integration of Seismic Intensity Information and Satellite L-band SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuoto Nojima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For a quick and stable estimation of earthquake damaged buildings worldwide, using Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR loaded on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS satellite, a model combining the usage of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-scale seismic intensity is proposed. In order to expand the existing C-band SAR based damage estimation model into L-band SAR, this paper rebuilds a likelihood function for severe damage ratio, on the basis of dataset from Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/SAR (L-band SAR images observed during the 1995 Kobe earthquake and its detailed ground truth data. The model which integrates the fragility functions of building damage in terms of seismic intensity and the proposed likelihood function is then applied to PALSAR images taken over the areas affected by the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. The accuracy of the proposed damage estimation model is examined by comparing the results of the analyses with field investigations and/or interpretation of high-resolution satellite images.

  3. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Meethale Veettil; Sheeba Damodar; Jayadevan Sreedharan; Vimal Rohan K; Jayasree Ananda Bhavan Kumaran

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychia...

  4. Contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound for prediction of prostate cancer aggressiveness: The role of normal peripheral zone time-intensity curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-Guo; Chen, Ling-Shan; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Hong-Bo; Yin, Li-Ping

    2016-12-08

    To assess the role of time-intensity curves (TICs) of the normal peripheral zone (PZ) in the identification of biopsy-proven prostate nodules using contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS). This study included 132 patients with 134 prostate PZ nodules. Arrival time (AT), peak intensity (PI), mean transit time (MTT), area under the curve (AUC), time from peak to one half (TPH), wash in slope (WIS) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed using multivariate linear logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to assess whether combining nodule TICs with normal PZ TICs improved the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. The PI, AUC (p < 0.001 for both), MTT and TPH (p = 0.011 and 0.040 respectively) values of the malignant nodules were significantly higher than those of the benign nodules. Incorporating the PI and AUC values (both, p < 0.001) of the normal PZ TIC, but not the MTT and TPH values (p = 0.076 and 0.159 respectively), significantly improved the AUC for prediction of malignancy (PI: 0.784-0.923; AUC: 0.758-0.891) and assessment of cancer aggressiveness (p < 0.001). Thus, all these findings indicate that incorporating normal PZ TICs with nodule TICs in CETRUS readings can improve the diagnostic accuracy for PCa and cancer aggressiveness assessment.

  5. Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Kellie; Lin, Frances; Mitchell, Marion L; White, Hayden

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to appraise current research which examines the impact of early rehabilitation practices on functional outcomes and quality of life in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. A systematic literature search was undertaken; retrieved data was evaluated against a recognised evaluation tool; research findings were analysed and categorised into themes; and a synthesis of conclusions from each theme was presented as an integrated summation of the topic. Electronic databases of PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Ovid Medline and Google Scholar were searched using key search terms 'ICU acquired weakness', 'early rehabilitation' 'early mobility' and 'functional outcomes' combined with 'intensive care' and 'critical illness'. Additional literature was sourced from reference lists of relevant original publications. Five major themes related to the review objectives emerged from the analysis. These themes included: critically ill patients do not always receive physical therapy as a standard of care; ICU culture and resources determine early rehabilitation success; successful respiratory and physical rehabilitation interventions are tailored according to individual patient impairment; early exercise in the ICU prevents the neuromuscular complications of critical illness and improves functional status; early exercise in the ICU is effective, safe and feasible. A limited body of research supports early rehabilitation interventions to optimise the short term outcomes and long term quality of life for ICU survivors. Critical care nurses are in an excellent position to drive change within their departments ensuring that early rehabilitation practices are adopted and implemented. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integral test phantom for dosimetric quality assurance of image guided and intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Daniel; Keller, Harald; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dosimetric phantom quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators capable of cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guided and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT). This phantom is to be used in an integral test to quantify in real-time both the performance of the image guidance and the dose delivery systems in terms of dose localization. The prototype IG-IMRT QA phantom consisted of a cylindrical imaging phantom (CatPhan) combined with an array of 11 radiation diodes mounted on a 10 cm diameter disk, oriented perpendicular to the phantom axis. Basic diode response characterization was performed for 6 and 18 MV photons. The diode response was compared to planning system calculations in the open and penumbrae regions of simple and complex beam arrangements. The clinical use of the QA phantom was illustrated in an integral test of an IG-IMRT treatment designed for a clinical spinal radiosurgery case. The sensitivity of the phantom to multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and setup errors in the clinical setting was assessed by introducing errors in the IMRT plan or by displacing the phantom. The diodes offered good response linearity and long-term reproducibility for both 6 and 18 MV. Axial dosimetry of coplanar beams (in a plane containing the beam axes) was made possible with the nearly isoplanatic response of the diodes over 360 deg. of gantry (usually within ±1%). For single beam geometry, errors in phantom placement as small as 0.5 mm could be accurately detected (in gradient ≥1%/mm). In clinical setting, MLC systematic errors of 1 mm on a single MLC bank introduced in the IMRT plan were easily detectable with the QA phantom. The QA phantom demonstrated also sufficient sensitivity for the detection of setup errors as small as 1 mm for the IMRT delivery. These results demonstrated that the prototype can accurately and efficiently verify the entire IG-IMRT process. This tool, in conjunction with image guidance capabilities

  7. Integral test phantom for dosimetric quality assurance of image guided and intensity modulated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Keller, Harald; Sharpe, Michael B; Jaffray, David A

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dosimetric phantom quality assurance (QA) of linear accelerators capable of cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guided and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT). This phantom is to be used in an integral test to quantify in real-time both the performance of the image guidance and the dose delivery systems in terms of dose localization. The prototype IG-IMRT QA phantom consisted of a cylindrical imaging phantom (CatPhan) combined with an array of 11 radiation diodes mounted on a 10 cm diameter disk, oriented perpendicular to the phantom axis. Basic diode response characterization was performed for 6 and 18 MV photons. The diode response was compared to planning system calculations in the open and penumbrae regions of simple and complex beam arrangements. The clinical use of the QA phantom was illustrated in an integral test of an IG-IMRT treatment designed for a clinical spinal radiosurgery case. The sensitivity of the phantom to multileaf collimator (MLC) calibration and setup errors in the clinical setting was assessed by introducing errors in the IMRT plan or by displacing the phantom. The diodes offered good response linearity and long-term reproducibility for both 6 and 18 MV. Axial dosimetry of coplanar beams (in a plane containing the beam axes) was made possible with the nearly isoplanatic response of the diodes over 360 degrees of gantry (usually within +/-1%). For single beam geometry, errors in phantom placement as small as 0.5 mm could be accurately detected (in gradient > or = 1% /mm). In clinical setting, MLC systematic errors of 1 mm on a single MLC bank introduced in the IMRT plan were easily detectable with the QA phantom. The QA phantom demonstrated also sufficient sensitivity for the detection of setup errors as small as 1 mm for the IMRT delivery. These results demonstrated that the prototype can accurately and efficiently verify the entire IG-IMRT process. This tool, in conjunction with image guidance

  8. An Integrated Framework for Effective and Efficient Communication with Families in the Adult Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jennifer B; Arnold, Robert M; Scheunemann, Leslie P; White, Douglas B

    2017-06-01

    The increased focus on patient and family-centered care in adult intensive care units (ICUs) has generated multiple platforms for clinician-family communication beyond traditional interdisciplinary family meetings (family meetings)-including family-centered rounds, bedside or telephone updates, and electronic family portals. Some clinicians and administrators are now using these platforms instead of conducting family meetings. For example, some institutions are moving toward using family-centered rounds as the main platform for clinician-family communication, and some physicians rely on brief daily updates to the family at the bedside or by phone, in lieu of family meetings. We argue that although each of these platforms is useful in some circumstances, there remains an important role for family meetings. We outline five goals of clinician-family communication-establishing trust, providing emotional support, conveying clinical information, understanding the patient as a person, and facilitating careful decision making-and we examine the extent to which various communication platforms are likely to achieve the goals. We argue that because no single platform can achieve all communication goals, an integrated strategy is needed. We present a model that integrates multiple communication platforms to effectively and efficiently support families across the arc of an ICU stay. Our framework employs bedside/telephone conversations and family-centered rounds throughout the admission to address high informational needs, along with well-timed family meetings that attend to families' emotions as well as patients' values and goals. This flexible model uses various communication platforms to achieve consistent, efficient communication throughout the ICU stay.

  9. Elevated intrabolus pressure identifies obstructive processes when integrated relaxation pressure is normal on esophageal high-resolution manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Farhan; Reddy, Chanakyaram; Patel, Amit; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-07-01

    Elevated integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) identifies obstructive processes at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Our aim was to determine whether intrabolus pressure (IBP) can identify structural EGJ processes when IRP is normal. In this observational cohort study, adult patients with dysphagia and undergoing HRM were evaluated for endoscopic evidence of structural EGJ processes (strictures, rings, hiatus hernia) in the setting of normal IRP. HRM metrics [IRP, distal contractile integral (DCI), distal latency (DL), IBP, and EGJ contractile integral (EGJ-CI)] were compared among 74 patients with structural EGJ findings (62.8 ± 1.6 yr, 67.6% women), 27 patients with normal EGD (52.9 ± 3.2 yr, 70.3% women), and 21 healthy controls (27.6 ± 0.6 yr, 52.4% women). Findings were validated in 85 consecutive symptomatic patients to address clinical utility. In the primary cohort, mean IBP (18.4 ± 0.9 mmHg) was higher with structural EGJ findings compared with dysphagia with normal EGD (13.5 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = 0.002) and healthy controls (10.9 ± 0.9 mmHg, P 0.05 for each comparison). During multiple rapid swallows, IBP remained higher in the structural findings group compared with controls ( P = 0.02). Similar analysis of the prospective validation cohort confirmed IBP elevation in structural EGJ processes, but correlation with dysphagia could not be demonstrated. We conclude that elevated IBP predicts the presence of structural EGJ processes even when IRP is normal, but correlation with dysphagia is suboptimal. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) above the upper limit of normal defines esophageal outflow obstruction using high-resolution manometry. In patients with normal IRP, elevated intrabolus pressure (IBP) can be a surrogate marker for a structural restrictive or obstructive process at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). This has the potential to augment the clinical value of

  10. Second-order domain derivative of normal-dependent boundary integrals

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous reconstruction tasks in (optical) surface metrology allow for a variational formulation. The occurring boundary integrals may be interpreted as shape functions. The paper is concerned with the second-order analysis of such functions. Shape

  11. SU-F-T-187: Quantifying Normal Tissue Sparing with 4D Robust Optimization of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newpower, M; Ge, S; Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To report an approach to quantify the normal tissue sparing for 4D robustly-optimized versus PTV-optimized IMPT plans. Methods: We generated two sets of 90 DVHs from a patient’s 10-phase 4D CT set; one by conventional PTV-based optimization done in the Eclipse treatment planning system, and the other by an in-house robust optimization algorithm. The 90 DVHs were created for the following scenarios in each of the ten phases of the 4DCT: ± 5mm shift along x, y, z; ± 3.5% range uncertainty and a nominal scenario. A Matlab function written by Gay and Niemierko was modified to calculate EUD for each DVH for the following structures: esophagus, heart, ipsilateral lung and spinal cord. An F-test determined whether or not the variances of each structure’s DVHs were statistically different. Then a t-test determined if the average EUDs for each optimization algorithm were statistically significantly different. Results: T-test results showed each structure had a statistically significant difference in average EUD when comparing robust optimization versus PTV-based optimization. Under robust optimization all structures except the spinal cord received lower EUDs than PTV-based optimization. Using robust optimization the average EUDs decreased 1.45% for the esophagus, 1.54% for the heart and 5.45% for the ipsilateral lung. The average EUD to the spinal cord increased 24.86% but was still well below tolerance. Conclusion: This work has helped quantify a qualitative relationship noted earlier in our work: that robust optimization leads to plans with greater normal tissue sparing compared to PTV-based optimization. Except in the case of the spinal cord all structures received a lower EUD under robust optimization and these results are statistically significant. While the average EUD to the spinal cord increased to 25.06 Gy under robust optimization it is still well under the TD50 value of 66.5 Gy from Emami et al. Supported in part by the NCI U19 CA021239.

  12. Signal intensity changes of normal brain at varying high b-value diffusion-weighted images using 3.0T MR scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Sohn, Chul Ho; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    Using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), to evaluate the signal intensity characteristics of normal adult brain as diffusion gradient strength (b value) increases from 1,000 to 3,000 s/mm 2 . Twenty-one healthy volunteers with neither neurologic symptoms nor pathologic findings at axial and sagittal T2-weighted MR imaging were involved in this study. All images were obtained with a 3.0T MR scanner. Six sets of spin-echo echo-planar images were acquired in the axial plane using progressively increasing strengths of diffusion-sensitizing gradients (corresponding to b values of 0, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 s/mm 2 ). All imaging parameters other than TE remained constant. Changes in normal white-gray matter signal intensity observed at variable b-value DWI were qualitatively analysed, and the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in six anatomic regions (frontal and parietal white matter, genu and splenium corporis callosi, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the thalamus) quantitatively, and the ratios were averaged and compared with the average SNR of 1,000 s/mm DWI. As gradient strength increased from 1,000 to 3,000 s/mm 2 , both gray-and white-matter structures diminished in signal intensity, and images obtained at a b value of 3,000 s/mm 2 appeared very noisy. White matter became progressively hyperintense to gray matter as the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased, especially at the centrum semiovale, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the splenium corporis callosi, but the genu corporis callosi; showed exceptional intermediate low signal intensity. At quantitative assessment, the signal-to-noise ratio decreased as the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased. Relative to the images obtained at a b value of 1,000 s/mm 2 , average SNRs were 0.71 (b=1,500 s/mm 2 ), 0.52 (b=2,000 s/mm 2 ), 0.41 (b=2,500 s/mm 2 ), 0.33 (b=3,000 s/mm 2 ). As the diffusion sensitizing gradient increased, the signal-to-noise ratio of brain structures

  13. Face-body integration of intense emotional expressions of victory and defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    Full Text Available Human facial expressions can be recognized rapidly and effortlessly. However, for intense emotions from real life, positive and negative facial expressions are difficult to discriminate and the judgment of facial expressions is biased towards simultaneously perceived body expressions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural dynamics involved in the integration of emotional signals from facial and body expressions of victory and defeat. Emotional expressions of professional players were used to create pictures of face-body compounds, with either matched or mismatched emotional expressions in faces and bodies. Behavioral results showed that congruent emotional information of face and body facilitated the recognition of facial expressions. ERP data revealed larger P1 amplitudes for incongruent compared to congruent stimuli. Also, a main effect of body valence on the P1 was observed, with enhanced amplitudes for the stimuli with losing compared to winning bodies. The main effect of body expression was also observed in N170 and N2, with winning bodies producing larger N170/N2 amplitudes. In the later stage, a significant interaction of congruence by body valence was found on the P3 component. Winning bodies elicited lager P3 amplitudes than losing bodies did when face and body conveyed congruent emotional signals. Beyond the knowledge based on prototypical facial and body expressions, the results of this study facilitate us to understand the complexity of emotion evaluation and categorization out of laboratory.

  14. Salivary Cortisol Reactivity in Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more researchers have been using salivary cortisol reactivity to evaluate stress in preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. The aim of this integrative literature review was to summarize the evidence of interventions leading to a change in salivary cortisol from the baseline in preterm infants in the NICU. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant studies. The inclusion criteria were studies with preterm infants exposed to an intervention evaluated by salivary cortisol reactivity before discharge from the NICU, which were published in English. In total, 16 studies were included. Eye-screening examination and heel lance provoked an increase in the salivary cortisol level. Music, prone position, and co-bedding among twins decreased the salivary cortisol level. Several studies reported a low rate of successful saliva sampling or did not use control groups. Future studies need to focus on non-painful interventions in order to learn more about salivary cortisol regulation in preterm infants. Moreover, these studies should use study designs comprising homogenous gestational and postnatal age groups, control groups, and reliable analysis methods that are able to detect cortisol in small amounts of saliva.

  15. Acute high-intensity interval exercise induces comparable levels of circulating cell-free DNA and Interleukin-6 in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Peter J; Fico, Brandon G; Whitehurst, Michael; Zourdos, Michael C; Bao, Fanchen; Dodge, Katelyn M; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Pena, Gabriel; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute high-intensity interval Exercise (HIIE) on plasma cfDNA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Fourteen male subjects (7 obese and 7 normal-weight) participated in an acute HIIE protocol (30 min, 4x4min @ 80% - 90% of VO 2max ) on a treadmill. Between HIIE intervals, subjects performed 3 min of active recovery at 50-60% VO 2max . Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and one hour into recovery for measurements of plasma cfDNA and IL-6. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in plasma cfDNA immediately following acute HIIE in both obese and normal-weight subjects. A comparable elevation in the concentration of plasma IL-6 was also found between two groups in response to acute HIIE. Furthermore, the level of plasma cfDNA was not correlated with IL-6 either at baseline or in response to acute HIIE. These findings may support the utilization of HIIE as a time-efficient exercise protocol to understand the obesity-associated cfDNA and inflammatory responses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A comparison of normal versus low dietary carbohydrate intake on substrate oxidation during and after moderate intensity exercise in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rachel; Potteiger, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    We compared the effects of consuming a 2-day low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (low-CHO; 20% CHO, 40% protein, 40% fat) versus an isocaloric 2-day moderate-CHO diet (mod-CHO; 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat) on substrate oxidation during and after exercise in ten active, young women. Subjects were 24.9 ± 6.2% body fat with a VO(2max) of 68.8 ± 13.8 ml/kg FFM/min. For 2 days prior to exercise, subjects consumed either the mod-CHO or the low-CHO diet and then completed treadmill exercise at 55% of VO(2max) until 350 kcal of energy was expended. During exercise and for 2 h post-exercise, expired gases were analyzed to determine oxidation rates for CHO (CHO-OX) and fat (FAT-OX). Significant differences (p FAT-OX (mg/kg FFM/min) during exercise, 1 h post-ex, and 2 h post-ex. During exercise, FAT-OX was higher (low-CHO 8.7 ± 2.2 vs. mod-CHO 6.2 ± 2.2) and CHO-OX was lower (low-CHO 25.1 ± 5.6 vs. mod-CHO 31.1 ± 6.2) following the low-CHO diet. A similar trend was observed during 1 h post-ex for FAT-OX (low-CHO 2.2 ± 0.5 vs. mod-CHO 1.6 ± 0.5) and CHO-OX (low-CHO 2.5 ± 1.2 vs. mod-CHO 4.1 ± 1.9), as well as 2 h post-ex for FAT-OX (low-CHO vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 mod-CHO 1.7 ± 0.4) and CHO-OX (low-CHO 2.5 ± 0.9 vs. mod-CHO 3.1 ± 1.1). Significant positive correlations were observed between VO(2max) and CHO-OX during exercise and post-exercise, as well as significant negative correlations between VO(2max) and FAT-OX post-exercise in the low-CHO condition. Waist circumference and FAT-OX exhibited a significant negative correlation during exercise in the low-CHO condition. Dietary macronutrient intake influenced substrate oxidation in active young women during and after moderate intensity exercise.

  17. Carotid artery stiffness evaluated early by wave intensity in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Runlan; Tan, Bijun; Qian, Jing; Duan, Yanfang; Wang, Nan; Li, Guangsen

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to assess carotid elasticity early in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by wave intensity. Sixty-seven post-radiotherapy patients all with normal left ventricular function were classified into group NPC1 and group NPC2 based on their carotid intima-media thickness. Thirty age- and sex-matched NPC patients without any history of irradiation and chemotherapy were included as a control group. Carotid parameters, including stiffness constant (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), stiffness constant pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and wave intensity pulse wave velocity (PWVWI) were measured. There were no significant differences in conventional echocardiographic variables among the three groups. In comparison with the control group, β, Ep, PWVβ, and PWVWI were significantly increased, while AC was significantly decreased in the NPC1 and NPC2 groups, and there were differences between the NPC1 group and NPC2 group (all P < 0.05). This study suggested that carotid artery stiffness increased with reduced carotid compliance in post-RT with NPC.

  18. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy with Simultaneously Integrated Boost at University Hospital Centre Zagreb (KBC Zagreb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, L.; Bibic, J.; Grego, T.; Hrsak, H.; Kovacevic, N.

    2013-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy technique (IMRT) is state of art in modern radiotherapy for bilateral Head and Neck (H and N) malignancies. IMRT of real patients is implemented at KBC Zagreb since June 2012. Our method is inspired partly by Hull IMRT technique. It differs from standard IMRT beam layout (7 beams, gantry angles in 51° steps) and it avoids direct irradiation of OARs. We also use simultaneous integrated boost (SIB IMRT) fractionation. The aim of this paper is to present in some details the whole process of our SIB IMRT including plan quality assurance. Results for several patients together with comparison with ConPas and standard IMRT are presented. In our department, in last several years, routine method for H and N cancer RT was ConPas. During this period we (together with ConPas plans) produced standard IMRT plans with seven equidistant fields for actual patients. Our comparative analysis showed clear superiority of IMRT over ConPas for H and N radiotherapy. Since spring 2012 we have produced also non-standard IMRT plans that are based on Hull (U.K.) experience, with beam gantry angles at 0, 50, 80, 150, 210, 280 and 310 degrees. Also, in this method, direct irradiation of OARs (particularly spinal cord) is avoided by shielding as initial constraint. This approach proved to be better than standard IMRT in all analyzed cases. Having all this in mind, we decided to implement 'our' IMRT technique on real patients. Second essential point of our method is SIB fractionation. It has dosimetric, logistic and radiobiological advantages over standard fractionation. IMRT plan QA is routinely performed using Seven29 and Gamma index method. We take 3 mm/3 % Gamma index and 85 % of passed points as passing rate.(author)

  19. Three-Year Outcomes of Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Godette, Karen D.; Whitaker, Daisy J.; Davis, Lawrence W.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report our clinical experience using breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Retrospective review identified 354 Stage 0 to III breast cancer patients treated with SIB-IMRT after conservative surgery between 2003 and 2006. The most common fractionation (89%) simultaneously delivered 1.8 Gy to the ipsilateral breast tissue and 2.14 Gy to the resection cavity, yielding a breast dose of 45 Gy (25 fractions) and cavity dose 59.92 Gy (28 fractions), biologically equivalent for tumor control to 45 Gy to the breast with sequential 16-Gy boost (33 fractions). Results: A total of 356 breasts in 354 patients were treated: 282 with invasive breast cancer, and 74 with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For left breast radiation, median cardiac V 15 was 2.9% and left ventricular V 15 1.7%. Median follow-up was 33 months (range, 4-73 months). Acute toxicity was Grade 1 in 57% of cases, Grade 2 in 43%, and Grade 3 in <1%. For invasive breast cancer, the 3-year overall survival was 97.6% and risk of any locoregional recurrence was 2.8%. For ductal carcinoma in situ, 3-year overall survival was 98% and risk of locoregional recurrence 1.4%. In 142 cases at a minimum of 3 years follow-up, global breast cosmesis was judged by physicians as good or excellent in 96.5% and fair in 3.5%. Conclusions: Breast SIB-IMRT reduced treatment duration by five fractions with a favorable acute toxicity profile and low cardiac dose for left breast treatment. At 3 years, locoregional control was excellent, and initial assessment suggested good or excellent cosmesis in a high percentage of evaluable patients.

  20. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients

  1. A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Peter W; Clark, David WJ; Williams, Sheila M; Coulter, David M

    1999-01-01

    Aims Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. Methods A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme’s (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. Results 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. Conclusions In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin. PMID:10073746

  2. Development of a theory of implementation and integration: Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built. Methods Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model. Results Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory. Conclusion Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

  3. Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine eBosch-Bouju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor thalamus (Mthal is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG. The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarises anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily driven by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new super-integrator theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum, which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs

  4. Effects of endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Lam, Eddie T C; Shariat, Ardalan; Asle Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Afrasiabi, Saleh; Shaw, Ina; Shaw, Brandon S

    2016-09-01

    Obesity prevalence has increased in Iranian adolescents in recent years. However, few studies have examined the impact of intervention programs on this health issue. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8-week endurance training (ET) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) levels among obese and normal-weight male adolescents. Thirty obese and 30 normal-weight subjects were assigned to the ET, HIIT, or control group for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, body weight, BMI, VO2max, and blood pressures were measured. SPSS (Version 21) was used for data analysis, and the significance level was set at p HIIT (from 517 ± 72 ng/ml to 374 ± 50 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 1689 ± 119 ng/ml to 1282 ± 63 ng/ml). Similarly, normal weight participants significantly (p HIIT (from 289 ± 22 ng/ml to 202 ± 12 ng/ml), but their VCAM-1 level was significantly (p HIIT (from 895 ± 50 ng/ml to 673 ± 142 ng/ml). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressures of all the participants were significantly (p HIIT. While both the ET and HIIT were useful in lowering the SBP and DBP of the participants, HIIT was more effective than ET in reducing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 content in normal and obese adolescents.

  5. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents

  6. Knowledge-Intensive Gathering and Integration of Statistical Information on European Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkert, M.; Treur, J.; Verwaart, T.; Loganantharaj, R.; Palm, G.; Ali, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gathering, maintenance, integration and presentation of statistics are major activities of the Dutch Agricultural Economics Research Institute LEI. In this paper we explore how knowledge and agent technology can be exploited to support the information gathering and integration process. In

  7. Direct integration of intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays improves statistical power for robust reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnbull Arran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix GeneChips and Illumina BeadArrays are the most widely used commercial single channel gene expression microarrays. Public data repositories are an extremely valuable resource, providing array-derived gene expression measurements from many thousands of experiments. Unfortunately many of these studies are underpowered and it is desirable to improve power by combining data from more than one study; we sought to determine whether platform-specific bias precludes direct integration of probe intensity signals for combined reanalysis. Results Using Affymetrix and Illumina data from the microarray quality control project, from our own clinical samples, and from additional publicly available datasets we evaluated several approaches to directly integrate intensity level expression data from the two platforms. After mapping probe sequences to Ensembl genes we demonstrate that, ComBat and cross platform normalisation (XPN, significantly outperform mean-centering and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD in terms of minimising inter-platform variance. In particular we observed that DWD, a popular method used in a number of previous studies, removed systematic bias at the expense of genuine biological variability, potentially reducing legitimate biological differences from integrated datasets. Conclusion Normalised and batch-corrected intensity-level data from Affymetrix and Illumina microarrays can be directly combined to generate biologically meaningful results with improved statistical power for robust, integrated reanalysis.

  8. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, Gabriela [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Peponi, Evangelia; Glanzmann, Christoph; Kunz, Guntram; Renner, Christoph; Tomuschat, Katja

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of using simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) to treat nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in a Caucasian cohort. Outcome was analyzed with respect to dose-volume histogram (DVH) values. Patients and Methods: Between 03/2002 and 01/2008, 39 NPC patients underwent SIB-IMRT (37 Caucasians; 31 males; mean age 53 years [16-78 years]). 41% presented with WHO (World Health Organization) type 1 unfavorable histology, 85% with stage III/IV disease. 19 patients had total gross tumor volume (GTV) 16-70 cm{sup 3} (mean 36 cm{sup 3}), while 16 had GTV > 70 cm{sup 3} (73-217 cm{sup 3}; mean 115 cm{sup 3}). All patients with stage II-IV disease received concomitant cisplatin. The prescribed SIB dose delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) was 70 Gy (2.00 Gy/fraction) in 17, 69.6 Gy (2.11 Gy/fraction) in 19, and 66 Gy (2.20 Gy/fraction) in three patients. Results: 3-year local relapse-free, nodal relapse-free, distant metastases-free, disease-free rates and overall survival were 86%, 89%, 85%, 72%, and 85% (median follow-up 30 months [8-71 months]). Histology was a significant prognostic factor concerning overall survival, with worst prognosis in WHO type 1 compared to type 2/3 (75% vs. 93%; p = 0.03). There was a trend in favor of WHO type 2/3 regarding local control (74% vs. 94%; p = 0.052). The PTV DVHs showed a slight left shift compared to reported series. Three patients developed grade 3 late effects (xerostomia [n=2], dysphagia [n=1], hearing loss [n=1]). Conclusion: In comparison with predominantly Asian NPC IMRT series in the literature, chemo-IMRT in the own Caucasian cohort, characterized by less radioresponsive WHO type 1, was equally effective. Treatment tolerance was excellent. (orig.)

  9. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Wells, J.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-10-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  10. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, K [University of Texas at Arlington; Jha, S [Rutgers University; Klimentov, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Maeno, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nilsson, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oleynik, D [University of Texas at Arlington; Panitkin, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Wells, Jack C [ORNL; Wenaus, T [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), MIRA supercomputer at Argonne Leadership Computing Facilities (ALCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute , IT4 in Ostrava and others). Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation

  11. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers for ATLAS and Data Intensive Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Panitkin, S; Wenaus, T; De, K; Oleynik, D; Jha, S; Wells, J

    2016-01-01

    The.LHC, operating at CERN, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 150 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250,000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3 petaFLOPS, LHC data taking runs require more resources than grid can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility. Current approach utilizes modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on LCFs multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on several supercomputing platforms for ALICE and ATLAS experiments and it is in full pro duction for the ATLAS since September 2015. We will present our current accomplishments with running PanDA at supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the

  12. A Gauss-Newton method for the integration of spatial normal fields in shape Space

    KAUST Repository

    Balzer, Jonathan

    2011-08-09

    We address the task of adjusting a surface to a vector field of desired surface normals in space. The described method is entirely geometric in the sense, that it does not depend on a particular parametrization of the surface in question. It amounts to solving a nonlinear least-squares problem in shape space. Previously, the corresponding minimization has been performed by gradient descent, which suffers from slow convergence and susceptibility to local minima. Newton-type methods, although significantly more robust and efficient, have not been attempted as they require second-order Hadamard differentials. These are difficult to compute for the problem of interest and in general fail to be positive-definite symmetric. We propose a novel approximation of the shape Hessian, which is not only rigorously justified but also leads to excellent numerical performance of the actual optimization. Moreover, a remarkable connection to Sobolev flows is exposed. Three other established algorithms from image and geometry processing turn out to be special cases of ours. Our numerical implementation founds on a fast finite-elements formulation on the minimizing sequence of triangulated shapes. A series of examples from a wide range of different applications is discussed to underline flexibility and efficiency of the approach. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas

  15. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-04-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (˜ 3×10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ˜35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements.

  16. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-01-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (∼ 3x10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ∼35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements

  17. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT in obese and normal-weight subjects. Methods: Nine overweight/obese (OG and 9 normal-weight (NWG young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Results: Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052. Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03 and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04. There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06 and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09. However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p Conclusions: HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity.

  18. Quality assurance programmes and normalization for the Argentine-Brazilian integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Within the frame of the tasks developed by the Argentine-Brazilian Contractors Coordination Committee in the nuclear area, which was at the beginning promoted by the Contractor Committee of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Technology, a working team was created between both countries in order to analyze the existing regulations and the Quality Assurance systems applied in Brazil and Argentina for their nuclear projects. This paper describes the steps to be followed so as to fulfill the compatibility of the rules, quality assurance and firm certification, laboratories, personnel and materials, and the applicable quality assurance programmes. At first, the methodology applied was the collection of the information and the existing regulations in each one of the countries, to exchange them, analyze them and arrange joint meetings and organize a seminar with experts from both countries to develop and discuss the objectives of this working team. As a result of these activities, the criteria adopted will allow, together with another actions, that both Argentine and Brazilian firms make exchanges and integrations in the nuclear field to supply Atucha II and Angra II. (Author)

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  20. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  1. Simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Joong-Won; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Woo, Sang Myung; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Chang-Min [National Cancer Center, Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 53 patients with inoperable HCC underwent SIB-IMRT using two dose-fractionation schemes, depending on the proximity of gastrointestinal structures. The 41 patients in the low dose-fractionation (LD) group, with internal target volume (ITV) < 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 55 and 44 Gy in 22 fractions to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 2 (PTV2), respectively. The 12 patients in the high dose-fractionation (HD) group, with ITV ≥ 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 66 and 55 Gy in 22 fractions to the PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Overall, treatment was well tolerated, with no grade > 3 toxicity. The LD group had larger sized tumors (median: 6 vs. 3.4 cm) and greater frequencies of vascular invasion (80.6 vs. 16.7 %) than patients in the HD group (p < 0.05 each). The median overall survival (OS) was 25.1 months and the actuarial 2-year local progression-free survival (LPFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and OS rates were 67.3, 14.7, and 54.7 %, respectively. The HD group tended to show better tumor response (100 vs. 62.2 %, p = 0.039) and 2-year LPFS (85.7 vs. 59 %, p = 0.119), RFS (38.1 vs. 7.3 %, p = 0.063), and OS (83.3 vs. 44.3 %, p = 0.037) rates than the LD group. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor response was significantly associated with OS. SIB-IMRT is feasible and safe for patients with inoperable HCC. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die klinische Wirksamkeit und die Sicherheit der intensitaetsmodulierten Radiotherapie mit simultanem integriertem Boost (SIB-IMRT) fuer Patienten mit einem inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinom (HCC) zu evaluieren. Bei 53 Patienten mit inoperablem HCC wurden zwei unterschiedliche Dosierungskonzepte je nach Lagebeziehung des

  2. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  3. Comparison of dosimetry distribution between three-dimension conformal and intensity modulated plan integrated with breath motion in postoperative radiation of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjie; Zhang Zhen; Hu Weigang; Gu Weilie; Zhu Ji; Li Guichao; Cai Gang; Ma Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dose distribution of the target and normal tissues in gastric cancers between three-dimension conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan when respiratory motion factors integrated in the plan. Methods: From January 2005 to November 2006, 10 patients with post-operatively radiation of gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Planning CT were acquired conventionally with free-breath mode and the static treatment plans of the 3DCRT and IMRT were designed respectively. Probability distribution functions (PDF) were generated and convoluted with the static dose distributions from 3DCRT and IMRT plans to obtain the integrated plans. The dose distributions of the target and normal tissues were compared between 3DCRT and IMRT integration treatment plans, such as V 45 of clinical target volume, V 40 of liver and V 15 , V 18 of left and right kidney. Results: In the respiratory integrated treatment planning, the target volume coverage and homogeneity with IMRT are superior to those with 3DCRT ((V 45 98% : 87% (t = -3.35, P =0.010), mean dose 46.81 Gy ±0.75 Gy : 45.99 Gy ± 1.12 Gy (t = -0.31, P=0.020)). The V 40 of the liver in IMRT are smaller than those in 3DCRT ( 12% : 16%; t=3.75, P=0.010). For the left kidney, the V 15 and V 18 in IMRT are smaller than those in 3DCRT ((34% : 50% (t = 2.17, P = 0.050) and 27% : 46% (t = 3.11, P = 0.020) ),but for the right kidney, V 15 and V 18 in 3DCRT are smaller than those in IMRT ((15% : 21% (t = - 2.42, P=0.040) and 11% : 15% (t= -2.71, P=0.030)). Conclusions: When respiratory motion factor integrated in the treatment plan, IMRT showed advantage both in target coverage and normal tissue sparing in the high dose region of liver and left kidney. (authors)

  4. Comparison of Desertification Intensity in the Purified Wastewater Irrigated Lands with Normal Lands in Yazd Using of Soil Criterion of the IMDPA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yektafar

    2016-09-01

    integrated to prepare the final map that shows current status of desertification in the region by calculating geometric mean of all indices based on following formula: QS = [EC * STI * SDI* SGI]1/4 Where: QS: Soil criteria score; EC: Electrical Conductivity index; STI: Soil texture index; SDI: Soil depth index and SGI: Soil deep gravel percentage index. Integrating of thematic databases and spatial analyst and mapping were done using ESRI Arc GIS v.10 software. Statistical analyses such as Mann-Whitney and t-statistic were done using SPSS v.21 software for comparing land irrigated with wastewater and natural land area. Results and Discussion: Results show that in the land irrigated with wastewater, soil texture index with weighted average of 3.74 classified in severe desertification intensity class, and soil depth gravel percent, soil depth, and soil electrical conductivity indices with weighted average of 1.23, 1, and 1, respectively were classified in low desertification class. In general, soil criteria with weighted average of 1.21 classified in low desertification class. In natural lands of the area, soil depth gravel percent index (1 classified in low intensity class, soil depth index (3.06 grouped in severe class, and soil electrical conductivity (4 and soil texture (3.93 indices with were classified in very high desertification intensity classes. Conclusion: In natural lands, soil criteria with weighted average of 2.89 classified in severe desertification class. General results show that in the lands irrigated with sewages, soils tissue index and in the natural lands, soil electrical conductivity index are the most effective indices in increasing of desertification intensity. Totally, soil criteria with the weighted average of 2.8, which are grouped in the very high desertification intensity class, are the main factors affecting desertification in total study area. Totally, soils tissue index is the most effective index of increasing in intensity of desertification in

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/ obese and nine normal-weight men (control group aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ, counter-movement jump (CMJ, five-jump test (FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11 and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23 in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82, VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41, FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52, SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70 and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64 significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16. Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96, LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77 and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08 significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normalweight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  6. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    -to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend......The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn...... on the respective polar cap conductivities, which relate to the daily and seasonally varying solar illumination. The more illuminated hemisphere conveys up to three times more current from dawn to dusk than does the less illuminated....

  7. The footprint of bottom trawling in European waters: distribution, intensity, and seabed integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Bastardie, Francois; Hinzen, N.T.

    2017-01-01

    for 2010-2012 at a grid cell resolution of 1 x 1 min longitude and latitude. Trawling intensity profiles with seabed impact at the surface and subsurface level are presented for 14 management areas in the North-east Atlantic, Baltic Sea and Mediterranean Sea. The footprint of the management areas ranged...... between 53-99% and 6-94% for the depth zone from 0 to 200 m (Shallow) and from 201 to 1000 m (Deep), respectively. The footprint was estimated as the total area of all grid cells that were trawled fully or partially. Excluding the untrawled proportions reduced the footprint estimates to 28-85% and 2......-77%. Largest footprints per unit landings were observed off Portugal and in the Mediterranean Sea. Mean trawling intensity ranged between 0.5 and 8.5 times per year, but was less in the Deep zone with a maximum intensity of 6.4. Highest intensities were recorded in the Skagerrak-Kattegat, Iberian Portuguese...

  8. Inhibition of enteric pathogens using integrated high intensity 405 nm LED on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogates inoculated onto the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic light was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light emitting diodes (LED). Al...

  9. Integrating classification trees with local logistic regression in Intensive Care prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2003-01-01

    Health care effectiveness and efficiency are under constant scrutiny especially when treatment is quite costly as in the Intensive Care (IC). Currently there are various international quality of care programs for the evaluation of IC. At the heart of such quality of care programs lie prognostic

  10. SU-E-T-166: Evaluation of Integral Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Basheer, A; Hunag, J; Kaminski, J; Dasher, B; Howington, J; Stewart, J; Martin, D; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) usually achieves higher conformity of radiation doses to targets and less delivery time than Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). We hypothesized that VMAT will increase integral dose (ID) to patients which will decrease the count of white blood count (WBC) lymphocytes, and consequently has a subsequent impact on the immune system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ID to patients undergoing IMRT and VMAT for Head and Neck cancers and its impact on the immune system. Methods: As a pilot study, 30 head and neck patients who received 9-fields IMRT or 3-arcs Radip-Arcbased VMAT were included in this study. Ten of these patients who received the VMAT plans were re-planned using IMRT with the same objectives. ID was calculated for all cases. All patients also had a baseline WBC obtained prior to treatment, and 3 sets of labs drawn during the course of radiation treatment. Results: For the 10 re-planned patients, the mean ID was 13.3 Gy/voxel (range 10.2–17.5 Gy/voxel) for the 9-fields IMRT plans, and was 15.9 Gy/voxel (range 12.4-20.9 Gy/voxel) for the 3-Arc VMAT plan (p=0.01). The integral dose was significant correlated with reducing WBC count during RT even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy (R square =0.56, p=0.008). Conclusion: Although VMAT can deliver higher radiation dose conformality to targets, this benefit is achieved generally at the cost of greater integral doses to normal tissue outside the planning target volume (PTV). Lower WBC counts during RT were associated with higher Integral doses even when controlling for concurrent chemotherapy. This study is ongoing in our Institution to exam the impact of integral doses and WBC on overall survival.

  11. Energy Level Composite Curves-a new graphical methodology for the integration of energy intensive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantharaman, Rahul; Abbas, Own Syed; Gundersen, Truls

    2006-01-01

    Pinch Analysis, Exergy Analysis and Optimization have all been used independently or in combination for the energy integration of process plants. In order to address the issue of energy integration, taking into account composition and pressure effects, the concept of energy level as proposed by [X. Feng, X.X. Zhu, Combining pinch and exergy analysis for process modifications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 17 (1997) 249] has been modified and expanded in this work. We have developed a strategy for energy integration that uses process simulation tools to define the interaction between the various subsystems in the plant and a graphical technique to help the engineer interpret the results of the simulation with physical insights that point towards exploring possible integration schemes to increase energy efficiency. The proposed graphical representation of energy levels of processes is very similar to the Composite Curves of Pinch Analysis-the interpretation of the Energy Level Composite Curves reduces to the Pinch Analysis case when dealing with heat transfer. Other similarities and differences are detailed in this work. Energy integration of a methanol plant is taken as a case study to test the efficacy of this methodology. Potential integration schemes are identified that would have been difficult to visualize without the help of the new graphical representation

  12. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Further Reduces Normal Tissue Exposure During Definitive Therapy for Locally Advanced Distal Esophageal Tumors: A Dosimetric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gomez, Daniel; Palmer, Matthew B.; Riley, Beverly A.; Mayankkumar, Amin V.; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Likhacheva, Anna; Liao, Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hofstetter, Wayne L. [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: We have previously found that {<=} 75% of treatment failures after chemoradiotherapy for unresectable esophageal cancer appear within the gross tumor volume and that intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT) might allow dose escalation to the tumor without increasing normal tissue toxicity. Proton therapy might allow additional dose escalation, with even lower normal tissue toxicity. In the present study, we compared the dosimetric parameters for photon IMRT with that for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for unresectable, locally advanced, distal esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Four plans were created for each of 10 patients. IMPT was delivered using anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior beams, left posterior oblique/right posterior oblique (LPO/RPO) beams, or AP/LPO/RPO beams. IMRT was delivered with a concomitant boost to the gross tumor volume. The dose was 65.8 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 50.4 Gy to the planning target volume in 28 fractions. Results: Relative to IMRT, the IMPT (AP/posteroanterior) plan led to considerable reductions in the mean lung dose (3.18 vs. 8.27 Gy, p < .0001) and the percentage of lung volume receiving 5, 10, and 20 Gy (p {<=} .0006) but did not reduce the cardiac dose. The IMPT LPO/RPO plan also reduced the mean lung dose (4.9 Gy vs. 8.2 Gy, p < .001), the heart dose (mean cardiac dose and percentage of the cardiac volume receiving 10, 20, and 30 Gy, p {<=} .02), and the liver dose (mean hepatic dose 5 Gy vs. 14.9 Gy, p < .0001). The IMPT AP/LPO/RPO plan led to considerable reductions in the dose to the lung (p {<=} .005), heart (p {<=} .003), and liver (p {<=} .04). Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, IMPT for distal esophageal cancer lowered the dose to the heart, lung, and liver. The AP/LPO/RPO beam arrangement was optimal for sparing all three organs. The dosimetric benefits of protons will need to be tailored to each patient according to their specific cardiac and pulmonary risks. IMPT for

  13. Normal tissue complication probability modeling for cochlea constraints to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Chao, Pei-Ju; Chang, Liyun; Chiu, Chien-Liang; Ting, Hui-Min; Wang, Hung-Yu; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced tinnitus is a side effect of radiotherapy in the inner ear for cancers of the head and neck. Effective dose constraints for protecting the cochlea are under-reported. The aim of this study is to determine the cochlea dose limitation to avoid causing tinnitus after head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In total 211 patients with HNC were included; the side effects of radiotherapy were investigated for 422 inner ears in the cohort. Forty-nine of the four hundred and twenty-two samples (11.6 %) developed grade 2+ tinnitus symptoms after IMRT, as diagnosed by a clinician. The Late Effects of Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) criteria were used for tinnitus evaluation. The logistic and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were used for the analyses. The NTCP-fitted parameters were TD 50 = 46.31 Gy (95 % CI, 41.46–52.50), γ 50 = 1.27 (95 % CI, 1.02–1.55), and TD 50 = 46.52 Gy (95 % CI, 41.91–53.43), m = 0.35 (95 % CI, 0.30–0.42) for the logistic and LKB models, respectively. The suggested guideline TD 20 for the tolerance dose to produce a 20 % complication rate within a specific period of time was TD 20 = 33.62 Gy (95 % CI, 30.15–38.27) (logistic) and TD 20 = 32.82 Gy (95 % CI, 29.58–37.69) (LKB). To maintain the incidence of grade 2+ tinnitus toxicity <20 % in IMRT, we suggest that the mean dose to the cochlea should be <32 Gy. However, models should not be extrapolated to other patient populations without further verification and should first be confirmed before clinical implementation

  14. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Bezrati, Ikram; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese and normal-weight subjects. Nine overweight/obese (OG) and 9 normal-weight (NWG) young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052). Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04). There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06) and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09). However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p < 0.01) increased in OG (359 ± 138 to 455 ± 126 ng/ml) and NWG men (470 ± 114 to 572 ± 115 ng/ml). In parallel, the cardiometabolic profile has improved with a significant decrease of HOMA-IR in OG. HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Impact of electronic medical record integration of a handoff tool on sign-out in a newborn intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, JP; Sharek, PJ; Longhurst, CA

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of integrating a handoff tool into the electronic medical record (EMR) on sign-out accuracy, satisfaction and workflow in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Study Design Prospective surveys of neonatal care providers in an academic children’s hospital 1 month before and 6 months following EMR integration of a standalone Microsoft Access neonatal handoff tool. Result Providers perceived sign-out information to be somewhat or very accurate at a rate of 78% with the standalone handoff tool and 91% with the EMR-integrated tool (P < 0.01). Before integration of neonatal sign-out into the EMR, 35% of providers were satisfied with the process of updating sign-out information and 71% were satisfied with the printed sign-out document; following EMR integration, 92% of providers were satisfied with the process of updating sign-out information (P < 0.01) and 98% were satisfied with the printed sign-out document (P < 0.01). Neonatal care providers reported spending a median of 11 to 15 min/day updating the standalone sign-out and 16 to 20 min/day updating the EMR-integrated sign-out (P = 0.026). The median percentage of total sign-out preparation time dedicated to transcribing information from the EMR was 25 to 49% before and <25% after EMR integration of the handoff tool (P < 0.01). Conclusion Integration of a NICU-specific handoff tool into an EMR resulted in improvements in perceived sign-out accuracy, provider satisfaction and at least one aspect of workflow. PMID:21273990

  16. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X

    2014-10-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner.

  17. Conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation and integrated boost in the head and neck cancers: experience of the Curie Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Graff, P.; Serre, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Racadot, S.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.

    2009-01-01

    The modulated intensity radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) is used in the treatment of cancers in superior aero digestive tracts to reduce the irradiation of parotids and to reduce the delayed xerostomia. This retrospective study presents the results got on the fourteen first patients according an original technique of I.M.R.T. with integrated boost. It appears that this technique is feasible and allows to reduce the xerostomia rate without modifying the local control rate. To limit the average dose to the parotids under 30 Gy seems reduce the incidence of severe xerostomia. (N.C.)

  18. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  19. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratt, Karin [Faculty of Mathematics, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Scherrer, Alexander [Department of Optimization, Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.scherrer@itwm.fraunhofer.de

    2009-06-21

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  20. The integration of DVH-based planning aspects into a convex intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratt, Karin; Scherrer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The formulation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning aspects frequently uses the dose-volume histogram (DVH), whereas plan computations often happen in the more desirable convex IMRT optimization framework. Inspired by a recent publication of Zinchenko et al (2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 3231-50), this work addresses the integration of DVH-based planning aspects into this framework from a general point of view. It first provides the basic mathematical requirements on the evaluation functions in order to support such an incorporation. Then it introduces the condition number as a description for how precisely DVH-based planning aspects can be reformulated in terms of evaluation functions. Exemplary numerical studies for the generalized equivalent uniform dose and a physical constraint function show the influence of function parameter values and DVH approximation on the condition number. The work concludes by formulating the aspects that should be taken into account for an appropriate integration of DVH-based planning aspects. (note)

  1. Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

  2. The integration of corporate social responsibility into the strategy of technology-intensive firms: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Škerlavaj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new perspective which calls for an integration of ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR into the company strategy as a source of competitive advantages. The research question we pose is how a company can successfully carry out this integration of CSR into its strategic management, for which a model that includes three stages – introduction, implementation and generalization of CSR – is presented. Based on an exploratory case study within a Spanish technology-intensive firm (Indra, we show the way this company has developed and implemented an explicit plan for the integration of ethical values and CSR initiatives into its corporate and business strategies. Although this company has established its own methodology in order to develop and implement CSR plans, it fits in essence to our three-stage model of CSR integration. In general, our analyses show a beneficial impact of the development and implementation of CSR plan for this technology-intensive company. In particular, it seems that the CSR plan enables companies to improve its’ internal and external (competitive context through a better exploration and exploitation of knowledge, its stable relationships with stakeholders and the development and improvement of intangible resources such as reputation or social capital. It is also shown that there are important factors to consider in order this process can successfully carried out, such as organizational culture, human resource practices or knowledge management systems. Future research will need to engage in largerscale confirmatory as well as longitudinal studies of the impact of CSR implementation for company performance.

  3. A plastic stress intensity factor approach to turbine disk structural integrity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shlyannikov, V.; Zakharov, A.; Yarullin, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study based on a new fracture mechanics parameter is concerned with assessing the integrity of cracked steam turbine disk which operate under startup-shutdown cyclic loading conditions. Damage accumulation and growth in service have occurred on the inner surface of slot fillet of key. In order to determine elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters full-size stress-strain state analysis of turbine disk was performed for a quote-elliptical part-through cracks under consider...

  4. Impact of Chemotherapy on Normal Tissue Complication Probability Models of Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Patients Receiving Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Luxton, Gary; Kozak, Margaret M.; Anderson, Eric M.; Hancock, Steven L.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine how chemotherapy agents affect radiation dose parameters that correlate with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients treated with pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (P-IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We assessed HT in 141 patients who received P-IMRT for anal, gynecologic, rectal, or prostate cancers, 95 of whom received concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were separated into 4 groups: mitomycin (MMC) + 5-fluorouracil (5FU, 37 of 141), platinum ± 5FU (Cis, 32 of 141), 5FU (26 of 141), and P-IMRT alone (46 of 141). The pelvic bone was contoured as a surrogate for pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and divided into subsites: ilium, lower pelvis, and lumbosacral spine (LSS). The volumes of each region receiving 5-40 Gy were calculated. The endpoint for HT was grade ≥3 (HT3+) leukopenia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Normal tissue complication probability was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model. Logistic regression was used to analyze association between HT3+ and dosimetric parameters. Results: Twenty-six patients experienced HT3+: 10 of 37 (27%) MMC, 14 of 32 (44%) Cis, 2 of 26 (8%) 5FU, and 0 of 46 P-IMRT. PBM dosimetric parameters were correlated with HT3+ in the MMC group but not in the Cis group. LSS dosimetric parameters were well correlated with HT3+ in both the MMC and Cis groups. Constrained optimization (0normal tissue complication probability curve compared with treatment with Cis. Dose tolerance of PBM and the LSS subsite may be lower for

  5. ‘Something normal in a very, very abnormal environment’ – Nursing work to honour the life of dying infants and children in neonatal and paediatric intensive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, MJ; Endacott, R; Copnell, B; O’Connor, M

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: ‘Something normal in a very, very abnormal environment’ – Nursing work to honour the life of dying infants and children in neonatal and paediatric intensive care in Australia journaltitle: Intensive and Critical Care Nursing articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2015.09.001 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Daniel R.; Song, William Y.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Rose, Brent S.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mell, Loren K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V 45 ) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V 45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V 45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V 45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V 45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V 45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V 45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V 45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  7. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  8. Becoming a father in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Souza Lima Marski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ematurity and low birth weight are prevalent cases of children hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU in Brazil. The hospitalization of a child shortly after birth requires early separation from parents with ramifications for the development of maternity and paternity. This study has the objective to know the national and international scientific productions, published between 2007 and June 2012, addressing the aspects of becoming a father of a premature and/or low birth weight infant admitted in NICUs and to identify core promoters to the development of paternity in this situation. The results express lack of professional support to the father of the child born premature and/or with low birth weight hospitalized in NICUs, especially for disregarding the relationships with professionals. Such aspects were explored by the following thematic groups: Needs and contempt; Proximity; Transformation and every day life; Fathers and the NICU’s staff; and Paternity after hospital discharge. Relationships with professionals gain prominence as a hub for promoting fatherhood in this context with a view to comprehensive health care of children.

  9. Inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy: CDVH treatment prescription with integral cost function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, M.P.; Nash, R.; Campbell, R.C.; Huber, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Inverse planning is a required approach when dealing with the complexity of variables present in an intensity modulated plan. However, an inverse planning system is only as useful as it is 1) easy to use and 2) predictable in its result. This is especially the case when the target goals and structure limits specified by the user all cannot be achieved. We have previously developed two interfaces for specifying how such conflicts should be resolved when they occur, that, although allowing a range of results to be obtained, still require 'trial and error' on the part of the user and are case dependent. A new method is explored with goals of allowing the desired results to be specified in an intuitive manner and producing predictable results that are case independent. Materials and Methods: Target goals and structure limits are specified by entering partial volume data: goal/limit, % under/over goal/limit, minimum, maximum. This data is converted to a CDVH curve for each target/structure. During the simulated annealing process used to produce an optimized solution, the actual CDVHs are compared to the desired CDVHs after each iteration and a cost is computed for the difference between the curves. For each curve, the cost is proportional to the difference in area between the desired and actual curves. This cost is controlled by three variables: offset (amount of difference before there is any cost), scale (the range the cost can take) and shape (the shape of the curve for difference versus cost). A range of values were explored for these variables in order to determine if predictable trade-offs would be made automatically by the system. The cost function was tested against a range of cases: a highly irregularly shaped intracranial lesion, a head and neck case with three target volumes with different prescriptions, and a prostate cancer. Results: By varying the values assigned to the control variables, a variety of predictable results could be

  10. Integrating classification trees with local logistic regression in Intensive Care prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2003-01-01

    Health care effectiveness and efficiency are under constant scrutiny especially when treatment is quite costly as in the Intensive Care (IC). Currently there are various international quality of care programs for the evaluation of IC. At the heart of such quality of care programs lie prognostic models whose prediction of patient mortality can be used as a norm to which actual mortality is compared. The current generation of prognostic models in IC are statistical parametric models based on logistic regression. Given a description of a patient at admission, these models predict the probability of his or her survival. Typically, this patient description relies on an aggregate variable, called a score, that quantifies the severity of illness of the patient. The use of a parametric model and an aggregate score form adequate means to develop models when data is relatively scarce but it introduces the risk of bias. This paper motivates and suggests a method for studying and improving the performance behavior of current state-of-the-art IC prognostic models. Our method is based on machine learning and statistical ideas and relies on exploiting information that underlies a score variable. In particular, this underlying information is used to construct a classification tree whose nodes denote patient sub-populations. For these sub-populations, local models, most notably logistic regression ones, are developed using only the total score variable. We compare the performance of this hybrid model to that of a traditional global logistic regression model. We show that the hybrid model not only provides more insight into the data but also has a better performance. We pay special attention to the precision aspect of model performance and argue why precision is more important than discrimination ability.

  11. "Usability of data integration and visualization software for multidisciplinary pediatric intensive care: a human factors approach to assessing technology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying Ling; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Tomasi, Jessica; Laussen, Peter; Trbovich, Patricia

    2017-08-14

    Intensive care clinicians use several sources of data in order to inform decision-making. We set out to evaluate a new interactive data integration platform called T3™ made available for pediatric intensive care. Three primary functions are supported: tracking of physiologic signals, displaying trajectory, and triggering decisions, by highlighting data or estimating risk of patient instability. We designed a human factors study to identify interface usability issues, to measure ease of use, and to describe interface features that may enable or hinder clinical tasks. Twenty-two participants, consisting of bedside intensive care physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, tested the T3™ interface in a simulation laboratory setting. Twenty tasks were performed with a true-to-setting, fully functional, prototype, populated with physiological and therapeutic intervention patient data. Primary data visualization was time series and secondary visualizations were: 1) shading out-of-target values, 2) mini-trends with exaggerated maxima and minima (sparklines), and 3) bar graph of a 16-parameter indicator. Task completion was video recorded and assessed using a use error rating scale. Usability issues were classified in the context of task and type of clinician. A severity rating scale was used to rate potential clinical impact of usability issues. Time series supported tracking a single parameter but partially supported determining patient trajectory using multiple parameters. Visual pattern overload was observed with multiple parameter data streams. Automated data processing using shading and sparklines was often ignored but the 16-parameter data reduction algorithm, displayed as a persistent bar graph, was visually intuitive. However, by selecting or automatically processing data, triggering aids distorted the raw data that clinicians use regularly. Consequently, clinicians could not rely on new data representations because they did not know how they were

  12. SU-E-T-417: The Impact of Normal Tissue Constraints On PTV Dose Homogeneity for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Volume Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, J; McDonald, D; Ashenafi, M; Ellis, A; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Complex intensity modulated arc therapy tends to spread low dose to normal tissue(NT)regions to obtain improved target conformity and homogeneity and OAR sparing.This work evaluates the trade-offs between PTV homogeneity and reduction of the maximum dose(Dmax)spread to NT while planning of IMRT,VMAT and Tomotherapy. Methods: Ten prostate patients,previously planned with step-and-shoot IMRT,were selected.To fairly evaluate how PTV homogeneity was affected by NT Dmax constraints,original IMRT DVH objectives for PTV and OARs(femoral heads,and rectal and bladder wall)applied to 2 VMAT plans in Pinnacle(V9.0), and Tomotherapy(V4.2).The only constraint difference was the NT which was defined as body contours excluding targets,OARs and dose rings.NT Dmax constraint for 1st VMAT was set to the prescription dose(Dp).For 2nd VMAT(VMAT-NT)and Tomotherapy,it was set to the Dmax achieved in IMRT(~70-80% of Dp).All NT constraints were set to the lowest priority.Three common homogeneity indices(HI),RTOG-HI=Dmax/Dp,moderated-HI=D95%/D5% and complex-HI=(D2%-D98%)/Dp*100 were calculated. Results: All modalities with similar dosimetric endpoints for PTV and OARs.The complex-HI shows the most variability of indices,with average values of 5.9,4.9,9.3 and 6.1 for IMRT,VMAT,VMAT-NT and Tomotherapy,respectively.VMAT provided the best PTV homogeneity without compromising any OAR/NT sparing.Both VMAT-NT and Tomotherapy,planned with more restrictive NT constraints,showed reduced homogeneity,with VMAT-NT showing the worst homogeneity(P<0.0001)for all HI.Tomotherapy gave the lowest NT Dmax,with slightly decreased homogeneity compared to VMAT. Finally, there was no significant difference in NT Dmax or Dmean between VMAT and VMAT-NT. Conclusion: PTV HI is highly dependent on permitted NT constraints. Results demonstrated that VMAT-NT with more restrictive NT constraints does not reduce Dmax NT,but significantly receives higher Dmax and worse target homogeneity.Therefore, it is critical

  13. MRI of the normal brain from early childhood to middle age. Pt. 2. Age dependence of signal intensity changes on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Vanhanen, S.L.; Kallio, M.; Santavuori, P.

    1994-01-01

    We examined 66 healthy volunteers aged 4 to 50 years by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the signal intensity was measured on T2-weighted images in numerous sites and correlated with age and sex. Using distilled water and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as references on each slice, we calculated the signal intensities of the brain structures. Calculated ratios between structures did not change with age, except for those of the globus pallidus and thalamus, in which the signal intensities decreased more rapidly. The signal intensities of other brain structures changed equally but this could not be discerned visually and quantitative measurements were required. The signal intensities in the white and deep grey matter decreased rapidly in the first decade and then gradually to reach a plateau after the age of 18 years. Maturation of the brain thus seems to continue until near the end of the second decade of life. No sex differences were found. Quantitative analysis requires intensity references. The CSF in the tips of the frontal horns seems to be as reliable as an external fluid reference for intensity, and can be used in routine examinations provided the frontal horns are large enough to avoid partial volume effect. (orig.)

  14. SDN-NGenIA, a software defined next generation integrated architecture for HEP and data intensive science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Hendricks, T. W.; Kcira, D.; Mughal, A.; Newman, H.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.

    2017-10-01

    The SDN Next Generation Integrated Architecture (SDN-NGeNIA) project addresses some of the key challenges facing the present and next generations of science programs in HEP, astrophysics, and other fields, whose potential discoveries depend on their ability to distribute, process and analyze globally distributed Petascale to Exascale datasets. The SDN-NGenIA system under development by Caltech and partner HEP and network teams is focused on the coordinated use of network, computing and storage infrastructures, through a set of developments that build on the experience gained in recently completed and previous projects that use dynamic circuits with bandwidth guarantees to support major network flows, as demonstrated across LHC Open Network Environment [1] and in large scale demonstrations over the last three years, and recently integrated with PhEDEx and Asynchronous Stage Out data management applications of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. In addition to the general program goals of supporting the network needs of the LHC and other science programs with similar needs, a recent focus is the use of the Leadership HPC facility at Argonne National Lab (ALCF) for data intensive applications.

  15. Significant reduction of normal tissue dose by proton radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Stage I or Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Xiaochun; Kang Yixiu; Riley, Beverly C.; Bilton, Stephen C.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume histograms (DVH) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by photon or proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-volume histograms were compared between photon, including three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and proton plans at doses of 66 Gy, 87.5 Gy in Stage I (n = 10) and 60-63 Gy, and 74 Gy in Stage III (n 15). Results: For Stage I, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 31.8%, 24.6%, and 15.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 66 Gy, whereas they were 13.4%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively, with proton with dose escalation to 87.5 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) (p = 0.002). For Stage III, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 54.1%, 46.9%, and 34.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 63 Gy, whereas they were 39.7%, 36.6%, and 31.6%, respectively, for proton with dose escalation to 74 CGE (p = 0.002). In all cases, the doses to lung, spinal cord, heart, esophagus, and integral dose were lower with proton therapy even compared with IMRT. Conclusions: Proton treatment appears to reduce dose to normal tissues significantly, even with dose escalation, compared with standard-dose photon therapy, either 3D-CRT or IMRT

  16. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels.......Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  17. Integrating Environmental and Socio-Economic Indicators of a Linked Catchment-Coastal System Using Variable Environmental Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, John R.; Davie, Tim J. A.; Fenemor, Andrew D.; Ekanayake, Jagath C.; Knight, Ben R.; Cole, Anthony O.; de Oca Munguia, Oscar Montes; Allen, Will J.; Young, Roger G.; Basher, Les R.; Dresser, Marc; Batstone, Chris J.

    2010-09-01

    Can we develop land use policy that balances the conflicting views of stakeholders in a catchment while moving toward long term sustainability? Adaptive management provides a strategy for this whereby measures of catchment performance are compared against performance goals in order to progressively improve policy. However, the feedback loop of adaptive management is often slow and irreversible impacts may result before policy has been adapted. In contrast, integrated modelling of future land use policy provides rapid feedback and potentially improves the chance of avoiding unwanted collapse events. Replacing measures of catchment performance with modelled catchment performance has usually required the dynamic linking of many models, both biophysical and socio-economic—and this requires much effort in software development. As an alternative, we propose the use of variable environmental intensity (defined as the ratio of environmental impact over economic output) in a loose coupling of models to provide a sufficient level of integration while avoiding significant effort required for software development. This model construct was applied to the Motueka Catchment of New Zealand where several biophysical (riverine water quantity, sediment, E. coli faecal bacteria, trout numbers, nitrogen transport, marine productivity) models, a socio-economic (gross output, gross margin, job numbers) model, and an agent-based model were linked. An extreme set of land use scenarios (historic, present, and intensive) were applied to this modelling framework. Results suggest that the catchment is presently in a near optimal land use configuration that is unlikely to benefit from further intensification. This would quickly put stress on water quantity (at low flow) and water quality ( E. coli). To date, this model evaluation is based on a theoretical test that explores the logical implications of intensification at an unlikely extreme in order to assess the implications of likely growth

  18. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost vs. conventional radiotherapy with sequential boost for breast cancer - A preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Hua; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Huang, Ming-Yii; Tsuei, Le-Ping; Chen, Fang-Ming; Ou-Yang, Fu; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the acute dermatological adverse effect from two distinct RT techniques for breast cancer patients. We compared intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) and conventional radiotherapy followed by sequential boost (CRT-SB). The study population was composed of 126 consecutive female breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery. Sixty-six patients received IMRT-SIB to 2 dose levels simultaneously. They received 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the whole breast and 60.2 Gy at 2.15 Gy per fraction to the tumor bed by integral boost. Sixty patients in the CRT-SB group received 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast followed by a boost irradiation to tumor bed in 5-7 fractions to a total dose of 60-64 Gy. Acute skin toxicities were documented in agreement with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3 (CTCAE v.3.0). Ninety-eight patients had grade 1 radiation dermatitis while 14 patients had grade 2. Among those with grade 2, there were 3 patients in IMRT-SIB group (4.5%) while 11 in CRT-SB group (18.3%). (P = 0.048) There was no patient with higher than grade 2 toxicity. Three year local control was 99.2%, 3-year disease free survival was 97.5% and 3-year overall survival was 99.2%. A significant reduction in the severity of acute radiation dermatitis from IMRT-SIB comparing with CRT-SB is demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM BASED ON INTEGRATED RANGE AND INTENSITY IMAGES FOR TRAFFIC SIGNS LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahbazi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in positioning techniques have made it possible to develop Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS for detection and 3D localization of various objects from a moving platform. On the other hand, automatic traffic sign recognition from an equipped mobile platform has recently been a challenging issue for both intelligent transportation and municipal database collection. However, there are several inevitable problems coherent to all the recognition methods completely relying on passive chromatic or grayscale images. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of an operational MMS. Being distinct from the others, the developed MMS comprises one range camera based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD technology and one standard 2D digital camera. The system benefits from certain algorithms to detect, recognize and localize the traffic signs by fusing the shape, color and object information from both range and intensity images. As the calibrating stage, a self-calibration method based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with the digital camera is applied in this study for PMD camera calibration. As the result, an improvement of 83 % in RMS of range error and 72 % in RMS of coordinates residuals for PMD camera, over that achieved with basic calibration is realized in independent accuracy assessments. Furthermore, conventional photogrammetric techniques based on controlled network adjustment are utilized for platform calibration. Likewise, the well-known Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF is applied to integrate the navigation sensors, namely GPS and INS. The overall acquisition system along with the proposed techniques leads to 90 % true positive recognition and the average of 12 centimetres 3D positioning accuracy.

  20. Importance of physiotherapy/nursing multidisciplinary integration about update newborn position in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa da Silva Neves Moreira Arakaki

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The high-risk newborns may require long periods of hospitalization until they reach clinical stability for hospital discharge. Avoiding babies to be in only one body position may be an effective way to cause respiratory and neuro-psycho-motor benefits, comfort and preventing pressure ulcers.Objectives This study investigated the impact of physiotherapy/nursing integration in update on body positioning of the newborn in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.Methods A questionnaire was administered to nurses and nursing technicians of the neonatal unit of Maternity School of UFRJ and nurses of the Advanced Course in Neonatal Nursing from the same institution. Two classes were taught by the physical therapist of the sector and the questions answered before and after these lessons. It was also a brief characterization of professional participants of the study. We used the Student's t test to compare the correct answers before (PRE and after (POST the classes, considering p < 0.05.Results There was a significant increase in the degree of knowledge of nurses and nursing technicians when compared the responses before (nurses: 68.8%; technicians: 70.1% and after classes (nurses: 78.4 %; technicians: 88.9%. The nurses were less than five years of graduated (45% and little time of professional experience in neonatology (60%. Forty-seven percent of technicians had less than five years of training and 82% had less than 10 years of experience.Conclusion The use of training by the nursing staff was significant, showing the importance of multidisciplinary approach and the integration of knowledge in the search for a humanized and effective care.

  1. Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emission of a purchase in the retail park service sector: An integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farreny, Ramon; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the energetic metabolism of a retail park service system under an integrative approach. Energy flow accounting was applied to a case study retail park in Spain, representative of the sector across Europe, after redefining the functional unit to account for both direct energy use (buildings, gardens and outdoor lighting) and indirect energy use (employee and customer transportation). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was then undertaken to determine energy global warming potential (GWP) and some energy intensity and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission indicators were defined and applied. The results emphasise the importance of service systems in global warming policies, as a potential emission of 9.26 kg CO 2 /purchase was obtained for the case study, relating to a consumption of 1.64 KOE of energy, of which 21.9% was spent on buildings and 57.9% on customer transportation. Some strategies to reduce these emissions were considered: increased supply, energy efficiency, changes in distribution of modes of transport, changes in location and changes in the mix of land uses. A combination of all of these elements in a new retail park could reduce GHG emissions by more than 50%, as it is planning strategies, which seem to be the most effective. (author)

  2. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  3. A Prospective Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Incorporating a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Prostate Cancer: Long-term Outcomes Compared With Standard Image Guided IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Michael H. [Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona (United States); Schild, Steven E., E-mail: sschild@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Wong, William W.; Vora, Sujay A.; Keole, Sameer R.; Vargas, Carlos E.; Daniels, Thomas B.; Ezzell, Gary A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Nguyen, Ba D.; Roarke, Michael C. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This report describes the long-term outcomes of a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), integrating a {sup 111}In capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan-directed simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients with T1N0M0 to T4N0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled, and their ProstaScint and pelvic computed tomography scans were coregistered for treatment planning. The entire prostate received 75.6 Gy in 42 fractions with IMRT, whereas regions of increased uptake on ProstaScint scans received 82 Gy as an SIB. Patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease also received 6 months and 12 months of adjuvant hormonal therapy, respectively. Results: The study enrolled 31 low-, 30 intermediate-, and 10 high-risk patients. The median follow-up was 120 months (range, 24-150 months). The 10-year biochemical control rates were 85% for the entire cohort and 84%, 84%, and 90% for patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease, respectively. The 10-year survival rate of the entire cohort was 69%. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL and boost volume of >10% of the prostate volume were significantly associated with poorer biochemical control and survival. The outcomes were compared with those of a cohort of 302 patients treated similarly but without the SIB and followed up for a median of 91 months (range, 6-138 months). The 5- and 10-year biochemical control rates were 86% and 61%, respectively, in patients without the SIB compared with 94% and 85%, respectively, in patients in this trial who received the SIB (P=.02). The cohort that received an SIB did not have increased toxicity. Conclusions: The described IMRT strategy, integrating multiple imaging modalities to administer 75.6 Gy to the entire prostate with a boost dose of 82 Gy, was feasible. The addition of the SIB was associated with greater biochemical control but not toxicity. Modern

  4. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  5. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  6. Maturation of the auditory system in clinically normal puppies as reflected by the brain stem auditory-evoked potential wave V latency-intensity curve and rarefaction-condensation differential potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, L C; Coppens, A G; Meuris, S I; Deltenre, P F

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate auditory maturation in puppies. Ten clinically normal Beagle puppies. Puppies were examined repeatedly from days 11 to 36 after birth (8 measurements). Click-evoked brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation click stimuli from 90 dB normal hearing level to wave V threshold, using steps of 10 dB. Responses were added, providing an equivalent to alternate polarity clicks, and subtracted, providing the rarefaction-condensation differential potential (RCDP). Steps of 5 dB were used to determine thresholds of RCDP and wave V. Slope of the low-intensity segment of the wave V latency-intensity curve was calculated. The intensity range at which RCDP could not be recorded (ie, pre-RCDP range) was calculated by subtracting the threshold of wave V from threshold of RCDP RESULTS: Slope of the wave V latency-intensity curve low-intensity segment evolved with age, changing from (mean +/- SD) -90.8 +/- 41.6 to -27.8 +/- 4.1 micros/dB. Similar results were obtained from days 23 through 36. The pre-RCDP range diminished as puppies became older, decreasing from 40.0 +/- 7.5 to 20.5 +/- 6.4 dB. Changes in slope of the latency-intensity curve with age suggest enlargement of the audible range of frequencies toward high frequencies up to the third week after birth. Decrease in the pre-RCDP range may indicate an increase of the audible range of frequencies toward low frequencies. Age-related reference values will assist clinicians in detecting hearing loss in puppies.

  7. How and why do patients with Type 1 diabetes sustain their use of flexible intensive insulin therapy? A qualitative longitudinal investigation of patients' self-management practices following attendance at a Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D; Cooke, D D; Clark, M; Heller, S; Elliott, J; Lawton, J

    2011-05-01

    Conventional insulin therapy requires patients with Type 1 diabetes to adhere to rigid dietary and insulin injection practices. Recent trends towards flexible intensive insulin therapy enable patients to match insulin to dietary intake and lifestyle; however, little work has examined patients' experiences of incorporating these practices into real-life contexts. This qualitative longitudinal study explored patients' experiences of using flexible intensive insulin therapy to help inform the development of effective long-term support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients with Type 1 diabetes following participation in a structured education programme on using flexible intensive insulin therapy, and 6 and 12 months post-course. Longitudinal data analysis used an inductive, thematic approach. Patients consistently reported feeling committed to and wanting to sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy. This regimen was seen as a logical and effective method of self-management, as patients experienced improved blood glucose readings and/or reported feeling better. Implementing and sustaining flexible intensive insulin therapy was enhanced when patients had stable routines, with more challenges reported by those working irregular hours and during weekends/holidays. Some patients re-crafted their lives to make this approach work for them; for instance, by creating dietary routines or adjusting dietary choices. Clinical data have shown that flexible intensive insulin therapy can lead to improvement in glycaemic control. This study, drawing on patients' perspectives, provides further endorsement for flexible intensive insulin therapy by demonstrating patients' liking of, and their motivation to sustain, this approach over time. To help patients implement and sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy, follow-up support should encourage them to identify routines to better integrate this regimen into their lives. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic

  8. Utility of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Derived Wave Intensity Analysis As a Marker of Ventricular Function in Children with Heart Failure and Normal Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Chung, Robin; Ciliberti, Paolo; Muthurangu, Vivek; Schievano, Silvia; Marek, Jan; Parker, Kim H; Taylor, Andrew M; Biglino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explore the diagnostic insight of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived wave intensity analysis to better study systolic dysfunction in young patients with chronic diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction (EF), comparing it against other echocardiographic and CMR parameters. Evaluating systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in children is challenging, and a gold standard method is currently lacking. Patients with presumed diastolic dysfunction [ n  = 18; nine aortic stenosis (AS), five hypertrophic, and four restrictive cardiomyopathies] were compared with age-matched control subjects ( n  = 18). All patients had no mitral or aortic incompetence, significant AS, or reduced systolic EF. E / A ratio, E / E ' ratio, deceleration time, and isovolumetric contraction time were assessed on echocardiography, and indexed left atrial volume (LAVi), acceleration time (AT), ejection time (ET), and wave intensity analyses were calculated from CMR. The latter was performed on CMR phase-contrast flow sequences, defining a ratio of the peaks of the early systolic forward compression wave (FCW) and the end-systolic forward expansion wave (FEW). Significant differences between patients and controls were seen in the E / E ' ratio (8.7 ± 4.0 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3, p  = 0.001) and FCW/FEW ratio (2.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.2 ± 4.2 × 10 -5 m/s, p  wave intensity-derived ratio summarizing systolic and diastolic function could provide insight into ventricular function in children, on top of CMR and echocardiography, and it was here able to identify an element of ventricular dysfunction with preserved EF in a small group of young patients.

  9. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D{sub 105%} and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT.

  10. Intensity modulated radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy for whole breast irradiation: a comparative dosimetric study and introduction of a novel qualitative index for plan evaluation, the normal tissue index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Jackie; Suttie, Clare; Bromley, Regina; Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    We report on a retrospective dosimetric study, comparing 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy (hIMRT). We evaluated plans based on their planning target volume coverage, dose homogeneity, dose to organs at risk (OARs) and exposure of normal tissue to radiation. The Homogeneity Index (HI) was used to assess the dose homogeneity in the target region, and we describe a new index, the normal tissue index (NTI), to assess the dose in the normal tissue inside the tangent treatment portal. Plans were generated for 25 early-stage breast cancer patients, using a hIMRT technique. These were compared with the 3DCRT plans of the treatment previously received by the patients. Plan quality was evaluated using the HI, NTI and dose to OARs. The hIMRT technique was significantly more homogenous than the 3DCRT technique, while maintaining target coverage. The hIMRT technique was also superior at minimising the amount of tissue receiving D 105% and above (P < 0.0001). The ipsilateral lung and contralateral breast maximum were significantly lower in the hIMRT plans (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005), but the 3DCRT technique achieved a lower mean heart dose in left-sided breast cancer patients (P < 0.05). Hybrid intensity modulated radiotherapy plans achieved improved dose homogeneity compared to the 3DCRT plans and superior outcome with regard to dose to normal tissues. We propose that the addition of both HI and NTI in evaluating the quality of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) breast plans provides clinically relevant comparators which more accurately reflect the new paradigm of treatment goals and outcomes in the era of breast IMRT

  11. An integrative review of supports, facilitators and barriers to patient-centred nursing in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Samantha; Perry, Lin; Lewis, Joanne

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review the literature describing factors perceived by nurses as impacting the provision of patient-centred nursing in the intensive care unit. Patient-centred nursing in critical care differs from other healthcare areas, and the aggressive curative environment of the ICU has potential to compromise some of its elements. Understanding critical care, nurses' perceptions of promoting and deterrent factors may inform development of strategies to support effective patient-centred nursing and job satisfaction in this workforce. An integrative literature review. Whittemore and Knafl's method was used with "best-fit" framework synthesis. CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline and EMBASE were searched for 2000-2016 literature using search terms drawn from the ICU patient-centred framework. In total, 3,079 papers were identified, with 23 retained after applying eligibility criteria. Five themes were identified: Nurse identity; Organisation; Communication; Relationships; and Ideology of ICU. Almost every theme and related categories referred to factors acting as barriers to patient-centred nursing in the ICU; only four referred to supports/facilitators. Findings showed that provision of patient-centred nursing may be compromised by some factors of the critical care environment, and illustrate the challenges and complexity of providing effective patient-centred nursing in this environment. Findings should be applied to address barriers and to enhance facilitators of effective patient-centred nursing in critical care. The emotional and physical demands of critical care nursing are major considerations; supporting these nurses to fulfil their challenging role may empower them in their professional quality of life and provide a basis for workforce retention as well as delivery of effective patient-centred nursing. Measures to enhance patient-centred nursing could promote critical care nurses' job satisfaction and workforce retention, and be applied more broadly and

  12. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  13. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  14. Integration of root phenes revealed by intensive phenotyping of root system architecture, anatomy, and physiology in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is among the greatest challenges humanity will face in the 21st century. Agricultural production in much of the world is constrained by the natural infertility of soil which restrains crops from reaching their yield potential. In developed nations, fertilizer inputs pollute air and water and contribute to climate change and environmental degradation. In poor nations low soil fertility is a primary constraint to food security and economic development. Water is almost always limiting crop growth in any system. Increasing the acquisition efficiency of soil resources is one method by which crop yields could be increased without the use of more fertilizers or irrigation. Cereals are the most widely grown crops, both in terms of land area and in yield, so optimizing uptake efficiency of cereals is an important goal. Roots are the primary interface between plant and soil and are responsible for the uptake of soil resources. The deployment of roots in space and time comprises root system architecture (RSA). Cereal RSA is a complex phenotype that aggregates many elemental phenes (elemental units of phenotype). Integration of root phenes will be determined by interactions through their effects on soil foraging and plant metabolism. Many architectural, metabolic, and physiological root phenes have been identified in maize, including: nodal root number, nodal root growth angle, lateral root density, lateral root length, aerenchyma, cortical cell size and number, and nitrate uptake kinetics. The utility of these phenes needs confirmation in maize and in other cereals. The maize root system is composed of an embryonic root system and nodal roots that emerge in successive whorls as the plant develops, and is similar to other cereals. Current phenotyping platforms often ignore the inner whorls and instead focus on the most visible outer whorls after excavating a maize root crown from soil. Here, an intensive phenotyping platform evaluating phenes of all nodal root

  15. Preliminary analysis of the sequential simultaneous integrated boost technique for intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Shingo; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Isono, Masaru; Masaoka, Akira; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three strategies for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for 20 head-and-neck cancer patients. For simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), doses were 66 and 54 Gy in 30 fractions for PTVboost and PTVelective, respectively. Two-phase IMRT delivered 50 Gy in 25 fractions to PTVelective in the First Plan, and 20 Gy in 10 fractions to PTVboost in the Second Plan. Sequential SIB (SEQ-SIB) delivered 55 Gy and 50 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively, to PTVboost and PTVelective using SIB in the First Plan and 11 Gy in 5 fractions to PTVboost in the Second Plan. Conformity indexes (CIs) (mean ± SD) for PTVboost and PTVelective were 1.09 ± 0.05 and 1.34 ± 0.12 for SIB, 1.39 ± 0.14 and 1.80 ± 0.28 for two-phase IMRT, and 1.14 ± 0.07 and 1.60 ± 0.18 for SEQ-SIB, respectively. CI was significantly highest for two-phase IMRT. Maximum doses (Dmax) to the spinal cord were 42.1 ± 1.5 Gy for SIB, 43.9 ± 1.0 Gy for two-phase IMRT and 40.3 ± 1.8 Gy for SEQ-SIB. Brainstem Dmax were 50.1 ± 2.2 Gy for SIB, 50.5 ± 4.6 Gy for two-phase IMRT and 47.4 ± 3.6 Gy for SEQ-SIB. Spinal cord Dmax for the three techniques was significantly different, and brainstem Dmax was significantly lower for SEQ-SIB. The compromised conformity of two-phase IMRT can result in higher doses to organs at risk (OARs). Lower OAR doses in SEQ-SIB made SEQ-SIB an alternative to SIB, which applies unconventional doses per fraction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. SU-E-T-483: In Vivo Dosimetry of Conventional and Rotational Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using Integral Quality Monitor (IQM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Qian, J; Gonzales, R; Keck, J; Armour, E; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy, sensitivity and constancy of integral quality monitor (IQM), a new system for in vivo dosimetry of conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or rotational volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) Methods: A beta-version IQM system was commissioned on an Elekta Infinity LINAC equipped with 160-MLCs Agility head. The stationary and rotational dosimetric constancy of IQM was evaluated, using five-field IMRT and single-or double-arc VMAT plans for prostate and head-and-neck (H&N) patients. The plans were delivered three times over three days to assess the constancy of IQM response. Picket fence (PF) fields were used to evaluate the sensitivity of detecting MLC leaf errors. A single leaf offset was intentionally introduced during delivery of various PF fields with segment apertures of 3×1, 5×1, 10×1, and 24×1cm2. Both 2mm and 5mm decrease in the field width were used. Results: Repeated IQM measurements of prostate and H&N IMRT deliveries showed 0.4 and 0.5% average standard deviation (SD) for segment-by-segment comparison and 0.1 and 0.2% for cumulative comparison. The corresponding SDs for VMAT deliveries were 6.5, 9.4% and 0.7, 1.3%, respectively. Statistical analysis indicates that the dosimetric differences detected by IQM were significant (p < 0.05) in all PF test deliveries. The largest average IQM signal response of a 2 mm leaf error was found to be 2.1% and 5.1% by a 5mm leaf error for 3×1 cm2 field size. The same error in 24×1 cm2 generates a 0.7% and 1.4% difference in the signal. Conclusion: IQM provides an effective means for real-time dosimetric verification of IMRT/ VMAT treatment delivery. For VMAT delivery, the cumulative dosimetry of IQM needs to be used in clinical practice.

  17. [Inheritable phenotypic normalization of rodent cells transformed by simian adenovirus SA7 E1 oncogenes by singled-stranded oligonucleotides complementary to a long region of integrated oncogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, N I; Borovkova, T V; Sats, N V; Kurabekova, R M; Rozhitskaia, O S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Pantin, V I

    1995-08-01

    G11 mouse cells and SH2 rat cells transformed with simian adenovirus SA7 DNA showed inheritable oncogen-specific phenotypic normalization when treated with sense and antisense oligonucleotides complementary to long RNA sequences, plus or minus strands of the integrated adenovirus oncogenes E1A and E1B. Transitory treatment of the cells with the oligonucleotides in the absence of serum was shown to cause the appearance of normalized cell lines with fibroblastlike morphology, slower cell proliferation, and lack of ability to form colonies in soft agar. Proliferative activity and adhesion of the normalized cells that established cell lines were found to depend on the concentration of growth factors in the cultural medium. In some of the cell lines, an inhibition of transcription of the E1 oncogenes was observed. The normalization also produced cells that divided 2 - 5 times and died and cells that reverted to a transformed phenotype in 2 - 10 days. The latter appeared predominantly upon the action of the antisense oligonucleotides.

  18. Low-loss, compact, and fabrication-tolerant Si-wire 90° waveguide bend using clothoid and normal curves for large scale photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takeshi; Makino, Shuntaro; Sato, Takanori; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2017-04-17

    Ultimately low-loss 90° waveguide bend composed of clothoid and normal curves is proposed for dense optical interconnect photonic integrated circuits. By using clothoid curves at the input and output of 90° waveguide bend, straight and bent waveguides are smoothly connected without increasing the footprint. We found that there is an optimum ratio of clothoid curves in the bend and the bending loss can be significantly reduced compared with normal bend. 90% reduction of the bending loss for the bending radius of 4 μm is experimentally demonstrated with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. The performance is compared with the waveguide bend with offset, and the proposed bend is superior to the waveguide bend with offset in terms of fabrication tolerance.

  19. Measurement of profile and intensity of proton beam by an integrating current transformer and a segmented parallel-plate ion chamber for the AGS-spallation target experiment (ASTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Profile and intensity of proton beams incident to a mercury target were measured for the experiments under AGS-spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. Protons of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV energy were measured for a temperature, pressure wave and neutronics in the mercury target. For the beam profile measurement, segmented parallel-plate ion chamber (CHIDORI) was used as the online detector. Imaging plates (IP) were also used for the profile measurement with aluminum activation foils as the image converter. An integrating current transformer (ICT) and activation method by Cu foil were used for the measurement of beam intensity. The beam profile obtained by CHIDORI gives a good agreement with the results with the IP. The beam intensity obtained by ICT agrees with the data obtained by the activation technique within ±3% for 12 and 24 GeV cases. Furthermore, these results show in good agreement with those obtained by the monitor of segmented wire ionization chamber (SWIC) and secondary emission chamber (SEC) installed by the AGS team. Therefore, a reliable beam monitor technique was established, so that the analysis of the experiment such as temperature and pressure wave can be normalized by the number of incident protons. (author)

  20. Study on the relationship between stress intensity factor and J integral for mixed mode crack with arbitrary inclination based on SBFEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, C L; Li, J B; Lin, G; Zhong, H

    2010-01-01

    The J integral and the stress intensity factor (SIF) K are both important research objects of fracture mechanics, and are often employed to establish criteria for crackpropagation. The relationship between them has always been a research hotspot. In this paper, the SIF can be obtained conveniently by the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) due to the fact that analytical solution can be obtained along the radial direction for stress singularity problems. The J integral can be solved analytically using the formulae between J and K for mixed mode crack with arbitrary inclination in elastic materials. Moreover, the J integral values obtained by this method are more accurate and convenient than by its definition. Factors that affect the accuracy of SIF and J integral, such as the distance between the crack and outer boundary, size of the discretized elements and partition of the domain into super-elements, are examined.

  1. SU-E-J-04: Integration of Interstitial High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound Applicators On a Clinical MRI-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment Planning Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, N [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Partanen, A [Philips Healthcare, Andover, Massachusetts (United States); Ghoshal, G; Burdette, E [Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interstitial high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) applicators can be used to ablate tissue percutaneously, allowing for minimally-invasive treatment without ionizing radiation [1,2]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of combining multielement interstitial HITU applicators with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound software platform. Methods: The Sonalleve software platform (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) combines anatomical MRI for target selection and multi-planar MRI thermometry to provide real-time temperature information. The MRI-compatible interstitial US applicators (Acoustic MedSystems, Savoy, IL, USA) had 1–4 cylindrical US elements, each 1 cm long with either 180° or 360° of active surface. Each applicator (4 Fr diameter, enclosed within a 13 Fr flexible catheter) was inserted into a tissue-mimicking agar-silica phantom. Degassed water was circulated around the transducers for cooling and coupling. Based on the location of the applicator, a virtual transducer overlay was added to the software to assist targeting and to allow automatic thermometry slice placement. The phantom was sonicated at 7 MHz for 5 minutes with 6–8 W of acoustic power for each element. MR thermometry data were collected during and after sonication. Results: Preliminary testing indicated that the applicator location could be identified in the planning images and the transducer locations predicted within 1 mm accuracy using the overlay. Ablation zones (thermal dose ≥ 240 CEM43) for 2 active, adjacent US elements ranged from 18 mm × 24 mm (width × length) to 25 mm × 25 mm for the 6 W and 8 W sonications, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of interstitial HITU applicators and this software platform holds promise for novel approaches in minimally-invasive MRI-guided therapy, especially when bony structures or air-filled cavities may preclude extracorporeal HIFU.[1] Diederich et al

  2. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  3. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: Applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Mette [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: mm@frh.regionh.dk; Christensen, Robin [Parker Institute: Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: robin.christensen@frh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: stp@frh.regionh.dk; Thomsen, Carsten [Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: carsten.thomsen@rh.regionh.dk; Nolsoe, Christian P. [Department of Radiology, Koge Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: cnolsoe@dadlnet.dk

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. Materials and methods: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers (median age: 24 years (range: 21-37 years) and median bodyweight: 65 kg (51-80 kg)) completed two dynamic MRM examinations on a 0.6 T open scanner. The inter-examination time was 24 h (23.5-25 h). The following sequences were applied: axial T2W TSE and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen containing oral contraceptives (ECOC) was recorded. Post-processing with automated subtraction, manually traced ROI (region of interest) and recording of the SI was performed. A random coefficient model was applied. Results: We found an SI increase of 24.2% and 40% following the low and high dose, respectively (P < 0.0001); corresponding to a 65% (95% CI: 37-99%) SI increase, indicating a moderate saturation. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.06), the results indicated a tendency, towards lower maximal SI in the breast parenchyma of ECOC users compared to non-ECOC users. Conclusion: We conclude that the contrast dose can be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight, if a better contrast/noise relation is desired but increasing the contrast dose above 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight is not likely to improve the enhancement substantially due to the moderate saturation observed. Further research is needed to determine the impact of ECOC on the relative enhancement ratio, and further studies are needed to determine if a possible use of ECOC should be considered a compromising

  4. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: Applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mette; Christensen, Robin; Torp-Pedersen, Soren; Thomsen, Carsten; Nolsoe, Christian P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. Materials and methods: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers (median age: 24 years (range: 21-37 years) and median bodyweight: 65 kg (51-80 kg)) completed two dynamic MRM examinations on a 0.6 T open scanner. The inter-examination time was 24 h (23.5-25 h). The following sequences were applied: axial T2W TSE and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen containing oral contraceptives (ECOC) was recorded. Post-processing with automated subtraction, manually traced ROI (region of interest) and recording of the SI was performed. A random coefficient model was applied. Results: We found an SI increase of 24.2% and 40% following the low and high dose, respectively (P < 0.0001); corresponding to a 65% (95% CI: 37-99%) SI increase, indicating a moderate saturation. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.06), the results indicated a tendency, towards lower maximal SI in the breast parenchyma of ECOC users compared to non-ECOC users. Conclusion: We conclude that the contrast dose can be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight, if a better contrast/noise relation is desired but increasing the contrast dose above 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight is not likely to improve the enhancement substantially due to the moderate saturation observed. Further research is needed to determine the impact of ECOC on the relative enhancement ratio, and further studies are needed to determine if a possible use of ECOC should be considered a compromising

  5. Mapping rice extent map with crop intensity in south China through integration of optical and microwave images based on google earth engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wu, B.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Rice is one of the main staple foods in East Asia and Southeast Asia, which has occupied more than half of the world's population with 11% of cultivated land. Study on rice can provide direct or indirect information on food security and water source management. Remote sensing has proven to be the most effective method to monitoring the cropland in large scale by using temporary and spectral information. There are two main kinds of satellite have been used to mapping rice including microwave and optical. Rice, as the main crop of paddy fields, the main feature different from other crops is flooding phenomenon at planning stage (Figure 1). Microwave satellites can penetrate through clouds and efficiency on monitoring flooding phenomenon. Meanwhile, the vegetation index based on optical satellite can well distinguish rice from other vegetation. Google Earth Engine is a cloud-based platform that makes it easy to access high-performance computing resources for processing very large geospatial datasets. Google has collected large number of remote sensing satellite data around the world, which providing researchers with the possibility of doing application by using multi-source remote sensing data in a large area. In this work, we map rice planting area in south China through integration of Landsat-8 OLI, Sentienl-2, and Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The flowchart is shown in figure 2. First, a threshold method the VH polarized backscatter from SAR sensor and vegetation index including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from optical sensor were used the classify the rice extent map. The forest and water surface extent map provided by earth engine were used to mask forest and water. To overcome the problem of the "salt and pepper effect" by Pixel-based classification when the spatial resolution increased, we segment the optical image and use the pixel- based classification results to merge the object

  6. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K.; Iwamoto, A.; Asahina, T.; Yamanoi, K.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH2) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH2 evaporation rate. Although LH2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm2, which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  7. Assessing infrared intensity using the evaporation rate of liquid hydrogen inside a cryogenic integrating sphere for laser fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwano, K; Iwamoto, A; Asahina, T; Yamanoi, K; Arikawa, Y; Nagatomo, H; Nakai, M; Norimatsu, T; Azechi, H

    2017-07-01

    Infrared (IR) heating processes have been studied to form a deuterium layer in an inertial confinement fusion target. To understand the relationship between the IR intensity and the fuel layering time constant, we have developed a new method to assess the IR intensity during irradiation. In our method, a glass flask acting as a dummy target is filled with liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) and is then irradiated with 2-μm light. The IR intensity is subsequently calculated from the time constant of the LH 2 evaporation rate. Although LH 2 evaporation is also caused by the heat inflow from the surroundings and by the background heat, the evaporation rate due to IR heating can be accurately determined by acquiring the time constant with and without irradiation. The experimentally measured IR intensity is 0.66 mW/cm 2 , which agrees well with a value estimated by considering the IR photon energy balance. Our results suggest that the present method can be used to measure the IR intensity inside a cryogenic system during IR irradiation of laser fusion targets.

  8. Effect of light intensity and initial pH during hydrogen production by an integrated dark and photofermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Kaushik [Department of Chemical Engineering, GH Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Das, Debabrata [Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Photofermentation was carried out with the spent fermentation broth obtained from the anaerobic dark fermentation in a two-stage process. For the first stage, i.e. dark fermentation Enterobacter cloacae DM 11 was used as hydrogen producing microorganism. For photofermentation Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001, a photo-heterotrophic purple non-sulfur bacterium, was used. pH study revealed that cumulative hydrogen production was maximum at initial medium pH of 7.0 {+-} 0.2. Biomass yield was also high at the vicinity of pH 7.0 and it decreased as the pH increased from 7.0 to 8.0. Increased light intensity resulted in an increase in the total volume of hydrogen evolved and also hydrogen production rate. However, light conversion efficiency decreased by increasing light intensity. A four-fold increase in light intensity resulted in a three-fold decrease in light conversion efficiency although the cumulative volume of hydrogen gas production increased. It was observed that only a maximum of 0.51% light conversion efficiency could be achieved but at the expense of very low light intensity of 2500 lux (3.75 W m{sup -2}). (author)

  9. Design of an integrated sensor platform for vital sign monitoring of newborn infants at neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bouwstra, S.; Ayoola, Idowu; Dols, S.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the

  10. Inhibition of enteric pathogens and surrogates using integrated, high intensity 405nm led light on the surface of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfecting properties of 405 nm light were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and their non-pathogenic surrogate bacteria on the surface of almonds. High intensity monochromatic blue light (MBL) was generated from an array of narrow-band 405 nm light-emitting diodes (LE...

  11. Interacting effects of temperature integration and light intensity on growth and development of single-stemmed cut rose plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Meinen, E.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation in horticulture can be achieved by allowing temperatures to fluctuate within predefined bandwidths instead of using rigid set points for heating and ventilation. In temperature integration, plants are supposed to compensate effects of temporarily deviations of the average

  12. Combined effect of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 and HMB supplementation on muscle integrity and cytokine response during intense military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Hoffman, Jay R; Shemesh, Elad; Stout, Jeffrey R; Church, David D; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Zelicha, Hila; Shelef, Ilan; Chen, Yacov; Frankel, Hagai; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the coadministration of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) calcium (CaHMB) to CaHMB alone on inflammatory response and muscle integrity during 40 days of intense military training. Soldiers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: CaHMB with BC30 (CaHMBBC30; n = 9) or CaHMB with placebo (CaHMBPL, n = 9). A third group of participants served as a control (CTL; n = 8). During the first 28 days soldiers were garrisoned on base and participated in the same training tasks. During the final 2 wk soldiers navigated 25-30 km per night in difficult terrain carrying ~35 kg of equipment. All assessments (blood draws and diffusion tensor imaging to assess muscle integrity) were conducted before and ~12 h after final supplement consumption. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze all blood and muscle measures. Significant attenuations were noted in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, CX3CL1, and TNF-α for both CaHMBBC30 and CaHMBPL compared with CTL. Plasma IL-10 concentrations were significantly attenuated for CaHMBBC30 compared with CTL only. A significant decrease in apparent diffusion coefficients was also observed for CaHMBBC30 compared with CaHMBPL. Results provide further evidence that HMB supplementation may attenuate the inflammatory response to intense training and that the combination of the probiotic BC30 with CaHMB may be more beneficial than CaHMB alone in maintaining muscle integrity during intense military training. NEW & NOTEWORTHY β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) in its free acid form was reported to attenuate inflammation and maintain muscle integrity during military training. However, this formulation was difficult to maintain in the field. In this investigation, soldiers ingested HMB calcium (CaHMB) with Bacillus coagulans (BC30) or CaHMB alone during 40 days of training. Results indicated that CaHMB attenuated the inflammatory response and that BC30 combined with

  13. Integrating public demands into model-based design for multifunctional agriculture: An application to intensive dutch dairy landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Carmona-Torres, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of agriculture to the welfare of society is determined by its economic, social and environmental performance. Although theoretical discussions can be found in the literature, few reports exist that integrate the social demand for multifunctional agriculture in the evaluation of the

  14. Validating a Method to Assess Lipreading, Audiovisual Gain, and Integration During Speech Reception With Cochlear-Implanted and Normal-Hearing Subjects Using a Talking Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreitmüller, Stefan; Frenken, Miriam; Bentz, Lüder; Ortmann, Magdalene; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    Watching a talker's mouth is beneficial for speech reception (SR) in many communication settings, especially in noise and when hearing is impaired. Measures for audiovisual (AV) SR can be valuable in the framework of diagnosing or treating hearing disorders. This study addresses the lack of standardized methods in many languages for assessing lipreading, AV gain, and integration. A new method is validated that supplements a German speech audiometric test with visualizations of the synthetic articulation of an avatar that was used, for it is feasible to lip-sync auditory speech in a highly standardized way. Three hypotheses were formed according to the literature on AV SR that used live or filmed talkers. It was tested whether respective effects could be reproduced with synthetic articulation: (1) cochlear implant (CI) users have a higher visual-only SR than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, and younger individuals obtain higher lipreading scores than older persons. (2) Both CI and NH gain from presenting AV over unimodal (auditory or visual) sentences in noise. (3) Both CI and NH listeners efficiently integrate complementary auditory and visual speech features. In a controlled, cross-sectional study with 14 experienced CI users (mean age 47.4) and 14 NH individuals (mean age 46.3, similar broad age distribution), lipreading, AV gain, and integration of a German matrix sentence test were assessed. Visual speech stimuli were synthesized by the articulation of the Talking Head system "MASSY" (Modular Audiovisual Speech Synthesizer), which displayed standardized articulation with respect to the visibility of German phones. In line with the hypotheses and previous literature, CI users had a higher mean visual-only SR than NH individuals (CI, 38%; NH, 12%; p < 0.001). Age was correlated with lipreading such that within each group, younger individuals obtained higher visual-only scores than older persons (rCI = -0.54; p = 0.046; rNH = -0.78; p < 0.001). Both CI and NH

  15. An Integrated Response of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 Growth and Photo-Physiology to Iron, CO2, and Light Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Tobias G; Oxborough, Kevin; Gledhill, Martha; Lawson, Tracy; Geider, Richard J

    2018-01-01

    We have assessed how varying CO 2 (180, 380, and 720 μatm) and growth light intensity (40 and 400 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) affected Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 growth and photophysiology over free iron (Fe') concentrations between 20 and 9,600 pM. We found significant iron dependencies of growth rate and the initial slope and maximal relative PSII electron transport rates (rP m ). Under iron-limiting concentrations, high-light increased growth rates and rP m ; possibly indicating a lower allocation of resources to iron-containing photosynthetic proteins. Higher CO 2 increased growth rates across all iron concentrations, enabled growth to occur at lower Fe' concentrations, increased rP m and lowered the iron half saturation constants for growth (K m ). We attribute these CO 2 responses to the operation of the CCM and the ATP spent/saved for CO 2 uptake and transport at low and high CO 2 , respectively. It seems reasonable to conclude that T. erythraeum IMS101 can exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to CO 2 , light intensity and iron-limitation. These results are important given predictions of increased dissolved CO 2 and water column stratification (i.e., higher light exposures) over the coming decades.

  16. An Integrated Response of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 Growth and Photo-Physiology to Iron, CO2, and Light Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias G. Boatman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have assessed how varying CO2 (180, 380, and 720 μatm and growth light intensity (40 and 400 μmol photons m−2 s−1 affected Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 growth and photophysiology over free iron (Fe′ concentrations between 20 and 9,600 pM. We found significant iron dependencies of growth rate and the initial slope and maximal relative PSII electron transport rates (rPm. Under iron-limiting concentrations, high-light increased growth rates and rPm; possibly indicating a lower allocation of resources to iron-containing photosynthetic proteins. Higher CO2 increased growth rates across all iron concentrations, enabled growth to occur at lower Fe′ concentrations, increased rPm and lowered the iron half saturation constants for growth (Km. We attribute these CO2 responses to the operation of the CCM and the ATP spent/saved for CO2 uptake and transport at low and high CO2, respectively. It seems reasonable to conclude that T. erythraeum IMS101 can exhibit a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to CO2, light intensity and iron-limitation. These results are important given predictions of increased dissolved CO2 and water column stratification (i.e., higher light exposures over the coming decades.

  17. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  18. Integration of quality assurance activities into a computerized patient data management system in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, C; Mossel, P; Haimet, S; King, T C

    1990-11-01

    A prototype computer-based patient data management system (PDMS) was developed for a surgery-anesthesiology intensive care unit (ICU) to reduce the time and staff needed to implement quality assurance (QA) functions. Goals of the system were to make QA functions routine and minimally intrusive to the daily operation of the ICU. PDMS collects general data (eg, admissions and discharges, lengths of stay, and bed utilization rates) and specialized data (eg, specific indicators) unique to the ICU and performs prospective monitoring for the occurrence of specific events (occurrence screening) and retrospective examinations of patient records (targeted reviews). Preliminary results suggest that PDMS facilitates the acquisition and analysis of QA data and reduces the time needed to acquire these data. Research to validate these claims and efforts to improve and expand the prototype system with a permanent production system are in progress.

  19. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques for Intensity Zonation within a Landslide Area: A Case Study in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Tofani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of remote sensing techniques, based on SAR interferometry for the intensity zonation of the landslide affecting the Castagnola village (Northern Apennines of Liguria region, Italy. The study of the instability conditions of the landslide started in 2001 with the installation of conventional monitoring systems, such as inclinometers and crackmeters, ranging in time from April 2001 to April 2002, which allowed to define the deformation rates of the landslide and to locate the actual landslide sliding surface, as well as to record the intensity of the damages and cracks affecting the buildings located within the landslide perimeter. In order to investigate the past long-term evolution of the ground movements a PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry analysis has been performed making use of a set of ERS1/ERS2 images acquired in 1992–2001 period. The outcome of the PSI analysis has allowed to confirm the landslide extension as mapped within the official landslide inventory map as well as to reconstruct the past line-of-sight average velocities of the landslide and the time-series deformations. Following the high velocities detected by the PSI, and the extensive damages surveyed in the buildings of the village, the Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBInSAR system has been installed. The GBInSAR monitoring system has been equipped during October 2008 and three distinct campaigns have been carried out from October 2008 until March 2009. The interpretation of the data has allowed deriving a multi-temporal deformation map of the landslide, showing the up-to-date displacement field and the average landslide velocity. A new landslide boundary has been defined and two landslide sectors characterized by different displacement rates have been identified.

  20. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavel, Sebastien, E-mail: sebastien.clavel@umontreal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Despres, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Khaouam, Nader [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada); Donath, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Soulieres, Denis [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Guertin, Louis [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  1. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Compared With Conventional Radiotherapy in Patients Treated With Concurrent Carboplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, Sébastien; Nguyen, David H.A.; Fortin, Bernard; Després, Philippe; Khaouam, Nader; Donath, David; Soulières, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, the toxicity and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in patients treated with concomitant carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and December 2007, 249 patients were treated with definitive chemoradiation. One hundred patients had 70 Gy in 33 fractions using IMRT, and 149 received CRT at 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 42 months. Three-year actuarial rates for locoregional control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 95.1% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.005), 85.3% vs. 69.3% (p = 0.001), and 92.1% vs. 75.2% (p < 0.001) for IMRT and CRT, respectively. The benefit of the radiotherapy regimen on outcomes was also observed with a Cox multivariate analysis. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was associated with less acute dermatitis and less xerostomia at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Conclusions: This study suggests that simultaneous integrated boost using IMRT is associated with favorable locoregional control and survival rates with less xerostomia and acute dermatitis than CRT when both are given concurrently with chemotherapy.

  2. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  3. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  4. Intensive field phenotyping of maize (Zea mays L.) root crowns identifies phenes and phene integration associated with plant growth and nitrogen acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Root architecture is an important regulator of nitrogen (N) acquisition. Existing methods to phenotype the root architecture of cereal crops are generally limited to seedlings or to the outer roots of mature root crowns. The functional integration of root phenes is poorly understood. In this study, intensive phenotyping of mature root crowns of maize was conducted to discover phenes and phene modules related to N acquisition. Twelve maize genotypes were grown under replete and deficient N regimes in the field in South Africa and eight in the USA. An image was captured for every whorl of nodal roots in each crown. Custom software was used to measure root phenes including nodal occupancy, angle, diameter, distance to branching, lateral branching, and lateral length. Variation existed for all root phenes within maize root crowns. Size-related phenes such as diameter and number were substantially influenced by nodal position, while angle, lateral density, and distance to branching were not. Greater distance to branching, the length from the shoot to the emergence of laterals, is proposed to be a novel phene state that minimizes placing roots in already explored soil. Root phenes from both older and younger whorls of nodal roots contributed to variation in shoot mass and N uptake. The additive integration of root phenes accounted for 70% of the variation observed in shoot mass in low N soil. These results demonstrate the utility of intensive phenotyping of mature root systems, as well as the importance of phene integration in soil resource acquisition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Segmentation of clustered cells in negative phase contrast images with integrated light intensity and cell shape information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, C; Zhang, Z

    2018-05-01

    Automated cell segmentation plays a key role in characterisations of cell behaviours for both biology research and clinical practices. Currently, the segmentation of clustered cells still remains as a challenge and is the main reason for false segmentation. In this study, the emphasis was put on the segmentation of clustered cells in negative phase contrast images. A new method was proposed to combine both light intensity and cell shape information through the construction of grey-weighted distance transform (GWDT) within preliminarily segmented areas. With the constructed GWDT, the clustered cells can be detected and then separated with a modified region skeleton-based method. Moreover, a contour expansion operation was applied to get optimised detection of cell boundaries. In this paper, the working principle and detailed procedure of the proposed method are described, followed by the evaluation of the method on clustered cell segmentation. Results show that the proposed method achieves an improved performance in clustered cell segmentation compared with other methods, with 85.8% and 97.16% accuracy rate for clustered cells and all cells, respectively. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Travel intensity and climate policy: The influence of different mobility futures on the diffusion of battery integrated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a focus on mobility and the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles is reflected in the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility and emissions that tend to be linked with population and economic growth. Simulation results using the WITCH model show that changes in the kilometres driven per year using light duty vehicles have a notable impact on investments related to the development of battery related technologies. As a result, different mobility futures have notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. As climate policy becomes more stringent, achieving abatement with increased mobility implies large investments in battery related technologies in comparison to the 2010 level. The model results also show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved with climate policy in place. However, notable cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved. - Highlights: • Travel intensity of GDP at the national level shows signs of stability over an extended period. • Different mobility futures imply notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. • As climate policy becomes more stringent, investments in battery related technologies increase substantially. • The model results show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved. • Cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved

  7. Integrating care for frequent users of emergency departments: implementation evaluation of a brief multi-organizational intensive case management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Deborah; Leszcz, Molyn; O'Campo, Patricia; Hwang, Stephen W; Wasylenki, Donald A; Kurdyak, Paul; Wise Harris, Deborah; Gozdzik, Agnes; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-04-27

    Addressing the needs of frequent users of emergency departments (EDs) is a health system priority in many jurisdictions. This study describes stakeholder perspectives on the implementation of a multi-organizational brief intervention designed to support integration and continuity of care for frequent ED users with mental health and addictions problems, focusing on perceived barriers and facilitators to early implementation in a large urban centre. Coordinating Access to Care from Hospital Emergency Departments (CATCH-ED) is a brief case management intervention bridging hospital, primary and community care for frequent ED users experiencing mental illness and addictions. To examine barriers and facilitators to early implementation of this multi-organizational intervention, between July and October 2012, 47 stakeholders, including direct service providers, managers and administrators participated in 32 semi-structured qualitative interviews and one focus group exploring their experience with the intervention and factors that helped or hindered successful early implementation. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders valued the intervention and its potential to support continuity of care for this population. Service delivery system factors, including organizational capacity and a history of collaborative relationships across the healthcare continuum, and support system factors, such as training and supervision, emerged as key facilitators of program implementation. Operational challenges included early low program referral rates, management of a multi-organizational initiative, variable adherence to the model among participating organizations, and scant access to specialty psychiatric resources. Factors contributing to these challenges included lack of dedicated staff in the ED and limited local system capacity to support this population, and insufficient training and technical assistance available to participating organizations. A multi

  8. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  9. Educational Contributions Of The Nurse In The Prevention Of Sepsis In The Unit Of Intensive Therapy: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Morais Venancio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined as a syndrome of inflammatory response, motivated by an aggressive agent, associated with systemic infection, the early approach of the infectious agent, both in the direction of diagnosis and in the control of infectious focus, are fundamental for the good evolution of the patient. This pathology has been considered a global health problem, affecting a large number of people and causing high rates of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate how nurses contribute in an educational way in the prevention of complications caused by sepsis in an intensive care unit. METHOD: The research was carried out through an electronic search of scientific papers published in the databases LILACS, SCIELO and PUBMED, portal of the virtual library in health. Other materials were located in scientific journals available on university websites and articles related to the subject. The initial evaluation of the material occurred through the reading of the abstracts, in order to select those that met the objectives of the study, with this, 37 articles were selected. In carrying out the research it was possible to verify that the recognition of sepsis by nursing professionals is mainly identified through the changes in the signs and symptoms that are observed through the provision of care to these critical patients. RESULTS: It has been shown that even with all the advances in the production of knowledge about the pathophysiology and the treatment of sepsis, it is still possible to find several difficulties for the proper handling in the diagnosis and in the ideal treatment for each particular case. CONCLUSION: The professional nurse should always be updating and seeking new knowledge for a fast, safe and effective action, in conjunction with the entire health team to promote quality and resolutive care for the patient, especially those affected by sepsis.

  10. Isocentric integration of intensity-modulated radiotherapy with electron fields improves field junction dose uniformity in postmastectomy radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Pauliina; Suilamo, Sami; Lindholm, Paula; Kulmala, Jarmo

    2014-08-01

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), the dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) with additional margins, including the chest wall, supraclavicular, interpectoral, internal mammary and axillar level I-III lymph nodes, is often compromised. Electron fields may improve the medial dose coverage while maintaining organ at risk (OAR) doses at an acceptable level, but at the cost of hot and cold spots at the electron and photon field junction. To improve PMRT dose coverage and uniformity, an isocentric technique combining tangential intensity-modulated (IM)RT fields with one medial electron field was implemented. For 10 postmastectomy patients isocentric IMRT with electron plans were created and compared with a standard electron/photon mix and a standard tangent technique. PTV dose uniformity was evaluated based on the tolerance range (TR), i.e. the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean dose, a dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the 90% isodose coverage and the hot spot volumes. OAR and contralateral breast doses were also recorded. IMRT with electrons significantly improved the PTV dose homogeneity and conformity based on the TR and DSC values when compared with the standard electron/photon and tangent technique (p < 0.02). The 90% isodose coverage improved to 86% compared with 82% and 80% for the standard techniques (p < 0.02). Compared with the standard electron/photon mix, IMRT smoothed the dose gradient in the electron and photon field junction and the volumes receiving a dose of 110% or more were reduced by a third. For all three strategies, the OAR and contralateral breast doses were within clinically tolerable limits. Based on these results two-field IMRT combined with an electron field is a suitable strategy for PMRT.

  11. Comparison of long-term survival and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost vs conventional fractionation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao HM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hengmin Tao,1,2 Yumei Wei,1 Wei Huang,1 Xiujuan Gai,1,2 Baosheng Li11Department of 6th Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: In recent years, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB and intensity-modulated radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (IMRT-CF have been involved in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the potential clinical effects and toxicities are still controversial.Methods: Here, 107 patients with biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC between March 2004 and January 2011 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Among them, 54 patients received IMRT-SIB, and 53 patients received IMRT-CF. Subsequently, overall survival (OS, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS, and relevant toxicities were analyzed.Results: In the present study, all patients completed the treatment, and the overall median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 8–126 months. The 5-year OS analysis revealed no significant difference between the IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF groups (80.9% vs 80.5%, P=0.568. In addition, there were also no significant between-group differences in 5-year PFS (73.3% vs 74.4%, P=0.773 and 5-year LRFS (88.1% vs 90.8%, P=0.903. Notably, the dose to critical organs (spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland in patients treated by IMRT-CF was significantly lower than that in patients treated by IMRT-SIB (all P<0.05.Conclusion: Both IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF techniques are effective in treating locally advanced NPC, with similar OS, PFS, and LRFS. However, IMRT-CF has more advantages than IMRT-SIB in protecting spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland from acute and late toxicities, such as xerostomia. Further prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.Keywords: intensity

  12. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  13. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  14. Integrated approach to e-learning enhanced both subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, W B; Tagamolila, V; Toh, Y P; Cheng, Z R

    2015-03-01

    Various meta-analyses have shown that e-learning is as effective as traditional methods of continuing professional education. However, there are some disadvantages to e-learning, such as possible technical problems, the need for greater self-discipline, cost involved in developing programmes and limited direct interaction. Currently, most strategies for teaching amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide depend on traditional teaching methods. We implemented a programme that utilised an integrated approach to e-learning. The programme consisted of three sessions of supervised protected time e-learning in an NICU. The objective and subjective effectiveness of the approach was assessed through surveys administered to participants before and after the programme. A total of 37 NICU staff (32 nurses and 5 doctors) participated in the study. 93.1% of the participants appreciated the need to acquire knowledge of aEEG. We also saw a statistically significant improvement in the subjective knowledge score (p = 0.041) of the participants. The passing rates for identifying abnormal aEEG tracings (defined as ≥ 3 correct answers out of 5) also showed a statistically significant improvement (from 13.6% to 81.8%, p e-learning can help improve subjective and objective knowledge of aEEG.

  15. Endoluminal ultrasound applicator with an integrated RF coil for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity contact ultrasound thermotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rata, Mihaela; Salomir, Rares; Lafon, Cyril; Umathum, Reiner; Jenne, Juergen; Bock, Michael; Cotton, Francois

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity contact ultrasound (HICU) under MRI guidance may provide minimally invasive treatment of endocavitary digestive tumors in the esophagus, colon or rectum. In this study, a miniature receive-only coil was integrated into an endoscopic ultrasound applicator to offer high-resolution MRI guidance of thermotherapy. A cylindrical plastic support with an incorporated single element flat transducer (9.45 MHz, water cooling tip) was made and equipped with a rectangular RF loop coil surrounding the active element. The integrated coil provided significantly higher sensitivity than a four-element extracorporeal phased array coil, and the standard deviation of the MR thermometry (SDT) improved up to a factor of 7 at 10 mm depth in tissue. High-resolution morphological images (T1w-TFE and IR-T1w-TSE with a voxel size of 0.25 x 0.25 x 3 mm 3 ) and accurate thermometry data (the PRFS method with a voxel size of 0.5 x 0.5 x 5 mm 3 , 2.2 s/image, 0.3 deg. C voxel-wise SDT) were acquired in an ex vivo esophagus sample, on a clinical 1.5T scanner. The endoscopic device was actively operated under automatic temperature control, demonstrating a high level of accuracy (1.7% standard deviation, 1.1% error of mean value), which indicates that this technology may be suitable for HICU therapy of endoluminal cancer.

  16. Endoluminal ultrasound applicator with an integrated RF coil for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity contact ultrasound thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Mihaela; Salomir, Rares; Umathum, Reiner; Jenne, Jürgen; Lafon, Cyril; Cotton, François; Bock, Michael

    2008-11-01

    High-intensity contact ultrasound (HICU) under MRI guidance may provide minimally invasive treatment of endocavitary digestive tumors in the esophagus, colon or rectum. In this study, a miniature receive-only coil was integrated into an endoscopic ultrasound applicator to offer high-resolution MRI guidance of thermotherapy. A cylindrical plastic support with an incorporated single element flat transducer (9.45 MHz, water cooling tip) was made and equipped with a rectangular RF loop coil surrounding the active element. The integrated coil provided significantly higher sensitivity than a four-element extracorporeal phased array coil, and the standard deviation of the MR thermometry (SDT) improved up to a factor of 7 at 10 mm depth in tissue. High-resolution morphological images (T1w-TFE and IR-T1w-TSE with a voxel size of 0.25 × 0.25 × 3 mm3) and accurate thermometry data (the PRFS method with a voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 5 mm3, 2.2 s/image, 0.3 °C voxel-wise SDT) were acquired in an ex vivo esophagus sample, on a clinical 1.5T scanner. The endoscopic device was actively operated under automatic temperature control, demonstrating a high level of accuracy (1.7% standard deviation, 1.1% error of mean value), which indicates that this technology may be suitable for HICU therapy of endoluminal cancer.

  17. Coupling Intensive Land Use and Landscape Ecological Security for Urban Sustainability: An Integrated Socioeconomic Data and Spatial Metrics Analysis in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoteng Cen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unprecedented rate of urbanization throughout the world, human society is still facing the challenge of coordinating urban socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. In this article, we integrated socioeconomic data and spatial metrics to investigate the coupling relationship between intensive land use (ILU system and landscape ecological security (LES system for urban sustainable development, and to determine how these systems interact with each other. The values of ILU and LES were first calculated according to two evaluation subsystems under the pressure-state-response (PSR framework. A coupling model was then established to analyze the coupling relationship within these two subsystems. The results showed that the levels of both subsystems were generally increasing, but there were several fluctuation changes in LES. The interaction in each system was time lagged; urban land use/cover change (LUCC and ecosystem transformation were determined by political business cycles and influenced by specific factors. The coupling relationship underwent a coordinated development mode from 1992–2012. From the findings we concluded that the coupling system maintained a stable condition and underwent evolving threshold values. The integrated ILU and LES system was a coupling system in which subsystems were related to each other and internal elements had mutual effects. Finally, it was suggested that our results provided a multi-level interdisciplinary perspective on linking socioeconomic-ecological systems. The implications for urban sustainable development were also discussed.

  18. The effect of 6 and 15 MV on intensity-modulated radiation therapy prostate cancer treatment: plan evaluation, tumour control probability and normal tissue complication probability analysis, and the theoretical risk of secondary induced malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M; Aldridge, S; Guerrero Urbano, T; Nisbet, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 and 15-MV photon energies on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer treatment plan outcome and to compare the theoretical risks of secondary induced malignancies. Methods Separate prostate cancer IMRT plans were prepared for 6 and 15-MV beams. Organ-equivalent doses were obtained through thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements in an anthropomorphic Aldersen radiation therapy human phantom. The neutron dose contribution at 15 MV was measured using polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate neutron track etch detectors. Risk coefficients from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report 103 were used to compare the risk of fatal secondary induced malignancies in out-of-field organs and tissues for 6 and 15 MV. For the bladder and the rectum, a comparative evaluation of the risk using three separate models was carried out. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum, bladder and prostate planning target volume were evaluated, as well as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability calculations. Results There is a small increased theoretical risk of developing a fatal cancer from 6 MV compared with 15 MV, taking into account all the organs. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum and bladder show that 15 MV results in better volume sparing in the regions below 70 Gy, but the volume exposed increases slightly beyond this in comparison with 6 MV, resulting in a higher NTCP for the rectum of 3.6% vs 3.0% (p=0.166). Conclusion The choice to treat using IMRT at 15 MV should not be excluded, but should be based on risk vs benefit while considering the age and life expectancy of the patient together with the relative risk of radiation-induced cancer and NTCPs. PMID:22010028

  19. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 μm (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 μm within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 μm and 45 to 440 μm can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 μm (fhwm) could be detected.

  20. Dosimetric comparison of the related parameters between simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy and sequential boost conformal radiotherapy for postoperative malignant glioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Qian; Lu Jie; Li Jianbin; Sun Tao; Bai Tong; Liu Tonghai; Yin Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric of different parameter of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) with sequential boost conformal radiotherapy (SB-CRT) for postoperative malignant glioma of the brain. Methods: Ten patients with malignant glioma of brain were selected to study. Each patient was simulated all by CT and MRI, and the imagings of CT and MRI were all sent to Pinnacle 3 planning system. The fusion technology with MR-CT imaging was used on Pinnacle 3 planning system. The target volume was delineated and defined based on MRI. The postoperative residual lesion and resection cavity were defined as gross tumor volume (GTV) and expanded GTV some scope was defined as clinical target volume (CTV). The margins of GTV expanded 10 mm and 25 mm were defined as CTV1 and CTV2 respectively. CTV1 and CTV2 all enlarged 5 mm were defined as PTV1 and PTV2 respectively. The plans of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy and sequential boost conformal radiotherapy were respectively designed for each patient using Pinnacle 3 planning system and the dosimetric of different parameter was compared. The prescribe dose of SIB-IMRT was PTV1: 62.5 Gy/25 f, PTV2: 50.0 Gy/25 f; and SB-CRT was PTV1: 66.0 Gy/33 f, PTV2: 50.0 Gy/25 f. The dosimetries of different parameters of SIB-IMRT and SB-CRT were compared by using Paired-Samples T Test. Results: The maximum and mean dose of PTV1, PTV2, and brainstem were of significant difference (P 0.05). Conclusion: The SIB-IMRT plan is better than the SB-CRT plan. The CI and HI of SIB-IMRT are superior to SB-CRT. At the same time, it can preserve the important organs such as brainstem and reduce the mean dose of whole brain. On the other hand it can shorten the total period of therapy time. (authors)

  1. Intensely irradiated steel components: Plastic and fracture properties, and a new concept of structural design criteria for assuring the structural integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: suzuki.kazuhiko@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Jitsukawa, Shiro; Okubo, Nariaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Takada, Fumiki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Department of JMTR Operation, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken 311-1393 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    In order to develop a systematic and reasonable concept assuring the structural integrity of components under intense neutron irradiation, two basic tensile properties, true stress-true strain (TS-TS) curves and fracture strain, were investigated on an austenitic stainless steel and martensitic steel. Application of Swift equation is confirmed to a large plastic strain range of TS-TS curves. Fracture strain epsilon{sub f} data were well correlated as epsilon{sub f} + epsilon{sub 0} = const. where epsilon{sub 0} is the pre-strain representing the irradiation hardening. Based on those formulations and available experimental information, several critical issues to be dealt with in developing the concept were identified possible reduction in ductility, significant change in mechanical properties, remarkable cyclic softening and other unique cyclic properties observed during a high-cycle fatigue testing, and the redundancy of the plastic collapse concept to bending. Existing structural codes are all based on the assumption that there will be no significant changes in mechanical properties during operation, and of high ductility. Therefore, a new concept for assuring structural integrity is required for application not only to components with high ductility but also components with reduced ductility. First, potential failure modes were identified, and a new and systematic concept was proposed for preventing these modes of failure, introducing a new concept of categorizing the loadings by stability of deformation process to fracture (as type F and M loadings). Based on the basic concept, a detailed concept of how to protect against ductile fracture was given, and loading type-dependent limiting parameters were set. Finally, application of the detailed concept was presented, especially on determination of loading type (in numerical approach, the formulation of TS-TS curves and fracture strain derived above are needed), and on how to determine the limiting parameters as

  2. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Patients With Brain Oligometastases: A Phase 1 Study (ISIDE-BM-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Marica [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Chiesa, Silvia [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Bertini, Federica [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Frezza, Giovanni [Radiotherapy Department, Ospedale Bellaria, Bologna (Italy); Farioli, Andrea [Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cammelli, Silvia [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Balducci, Mario [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Ianiro, Anna [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Campobasso (Italy); Angelini, Anna Lisa; Compagnone, Gaetano [Medical Physics Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tolerated dose of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost whole-brain radiation therapy for palliative treatment of patients with <5 brain metastases using a standard linear accelerator. Materials and Methods: The whole brain plus 3-mm margin was defined as the planning target volume (PTV{sub wb}), whereas each brain metastasis, defined as the contrast-enhancing tumor on MRI T1 scans, plus a 3-mm isotropic margin, was defined as metastases PTV (PTV{sub m}). Radiation therapy was delivered in 10 daily fractions (2 weeks). Only the dose to PTV{sub m} was progressively increased in the patient cohorts (35 Gy, 40 Gy, 45 Gy, 50 Gy), whereas the PTV{sub wb} was always treated with 30 Gy (3 Gy per fraction) in all patients. The dose-limiting toxicity was evaluated providing that 3 months of follow-up had occurred after the treatment of a 6-patient cohort. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled in the study (dose PTV{sub m}: 35 Gy, 8 patients; 40 Gy, 6 patients; 45 Gy, 6 patients; 50 Gy, 10 patients). The number of treated brain metastases was 1 in 18 patients, 2 in 5 patients, 3 in 6 patients, and 4 in 1 patient. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity: 1 patient at dose level 2 presented grade 3 (G3) skin toxicity; 1 patient at dose level 4 presented G3 neurologic toxicity; and 1 patient at the same level showed brain hemorrhage. Most patients showed G1 to 2 acute toxicity, in most cases skin (n=19) or neurologic (n=10). Twenty-seven were evaluable for response: 6 (22%) stable disease, 18 (67%) partial response, and 3 (11%) complete response. Median survival and 1-year overall survival were 12 months and 53%, respectively. No patient showed late toxicity. Conclusions: In this first prospective trial on the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy simultaneous integrated boost delivered with a standard linear accelerator in patients with brain oligometastases, a boost dose up to 50

  3. Intensely irradiated steel components: Plastic and fracture properties, and a new concept of structural design criteria for assuring the structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Okubo, Nariaki; Takada, Fumiki

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a systematic and reasonable concept assuring the structural integrity of components under intense neutron irradiation, two basic tensile properties, true stress-true strain (TS-TS) curves and fracture strain, were investigated on an austenitic stainless steel and martensitic steel. Application of Swift equation is confirmed to a large plastic strain range of TS-TS curves. Fracture strain ε f data were well correlated as ε f + ε 0 = const. where ε 0 is the pre-strain representing the irradiation hardening. Based on those formulations and available experimental information, several critical issues to be dealt with in developing the concept were identified possible reduction in ductility, significant change in mechanical properties, remarkable cyclic softening and other unique cyclic properties observed during a high-cycle fatigue testing, and the redundancy of the plastic collapse concept to bending. Existing structural codes are all based on the assumption that there will be no significant changes in mechanical properties during operation, and of high ductility. Therefore, a new concept for assuring structural integrity is required for application not only to components with high ductility but also components with reduced ductility. First, potential failure modes were identified, and a new and systematic concept was proposed for preventing these modes of failure, introducing a new concept of categorizing the loadings by stability of deformation process to fracture (as type F and M loadings). Based on the basic concept, a detailed concept of how to protect against ductile fracture was given, and loading type-dependent limiting parameters were set. Finally, application of the detailed concept was presented, especially on determination of loading type (in numerical approach, the formulation of TS-TS curves and fracture strain derived above are needed), and on how to determine the limiting parameters as allowable limits. Experiments were done to

  4. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  5. 68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT imaging of localized primary prostate cancer patients for intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning with integrated boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lena; Kantz, Steffi; Hung, Arthur; Monaco, Debra; Gaertner, Florian C; Essler, Markus; Strunk, Holger; Laub, Wolfram; Bundschuh, Ralph A

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to show the feasibility and potential benefits of using 68 Ga-PSMA-PET/CT imaging for radiation therapy treatment planning of patients with primary prostate cancer using either integrated boost on the PET-positive volume or localized treatment of the PET-positive volume. The potential gain of such an approach, the improvement of tumor control, and reduction of the dose to organs-at-risk at the same time was analyzed using the QUANTEC biological model. Twenty-one prostate cancer patients (70 years average) without previous local therapy received 68 Ga-PSMA-PET/CT imaging. Organs-at-risk and standard prostate target volumes were manually defined on the obtained datasets. A PET active volume (PTV_PET) was segmented with a 40% of the maximum activity uptake in the lesion as threshold followed by manual adaption. Five different treatment plan variations were calculated for each patient. Analysis of derived treatment plans was done according to QUANTEC with in-house developed software. Tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was calculated for all plan variations. Comparing the conventional plans to the plans with integrated boost and plans just treating the PET-positive tumor volume, we found that TCP increased to (95.2 ± 0.5%) for an integrated boost with 75.6 Gy, (98.1 ± 0.3%) for an integrated boost with 80 Gy, (94.7 ± 0.8%) for treatment of PET-positive volume with 75 Gy, and to (99.4 ± 0.1%) for treating PET-positive volume with 95 Gy (all p PET/CT image information allows for more individualized prostate treatment planning. TCP values of identified active tumor volumes were increased, while rectum and bladder NTCP values either remained the same or were even lower. However, further studies need to clarify the clinical benefit for the patients applying these techniques.

  6. Evaluation of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by MRI. Determination of a normal range in signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images and evaluation of diffuse diseases of an organ by using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow, were evaluated by using signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in 1.5 T MR system in 203 persons, including 122 controls and 81 patients with a diffuse disease in the upper abdominal organ. In controls, though there was neither sexual nor age difference in signal intensity ratios of the liver and pancreas, those of the spleen and vertebral marrow showed sexual and age difference, respectively. A normal range of signal intensity ratio of each organ in each image was determined in each decade of each sex by using controls. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly low in T1- and T2-weighted images in patients with abundant iron deposit and within normal limits in patients with liver cirrhosis or scant iron deposit. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly high only in a T2-weighted image in patients with fatty deposit in the liver, which was suspected to be due to inflammatory change in the liver with fatty deposit. The signal intensity ratios of the spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow were significantly low only in a T2-weighted image in patients with iron metabolic disturbance. The signal intensity ratio of the pancreas was significantly high in 40% of patients with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, which was more sensitive in detection of pancreatitis than data in other studies. it can be concluded that the signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images is useful for detection of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by using the normal range in each decade of each sex. (S.Y.)

  7. Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Bong Kyung; Kang, Min Kyul; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Young; Choi, Gyu Seog; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Kim, Hye Jin; Park, Soo Yeun [Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

  8. Preoperative intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost in locally advanced rectal cancer: Report on late toxicity and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Benedikt; Platteaux, Nele; Van den Begin, Robbe; Gevaert, Thierry; Sermeus, Alexandra; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy has been established as the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. As an alternative strategy, we explored intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT–IGRT) with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in a prospective phase II study. Here, we report outcome and late toxicity after a median follow-up of 54 months. Methods and materials: A total of 108 patients were treated preoperatively with IMRT–IGRT, delivering a dose of 46 Gy in fractions of 2 Gy. Patients (n = 57) displaying an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm based on magnetic resonance imaging received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Results: The absolute incidence of grade ⩾3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity was 9% and 4%, respectively, with a 13% rate of any grade ⩾3 late toxicity. The actuarial 5-year local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 97%, 57%, and 68%. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection and pN2 disease were associated with significantly impaired OS. Conclusions: The use of preoperative IMRT–IGRT with a SIB resulted in a high 5-year LC rate and non-negligible late toxicity

  9. Definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with systemic therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Outcomes from an integrated regional Australian cancer centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbari, Reza M.; McKay, Michael; Dwyer, Patrick; Winkley, Lauren; Hill, Jacques; Last, Andrew; Tahir, Abdul R.M.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has increased over the past two decades largely because of an increase in human papilloma virus (HPV)-related OPSCC. We report here outcomes of definitive radiation therapy for OPSCC with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a regional Australian cancer centre. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of all patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. We included patients who received a curative intent IMRT for OPSCC (2010–2014). Of 61 patients, 80% were men, and the median age was 57 years. Ninety percent of our patients received concurrent systemic therapy, and 68% were p16 positive. The median radiotherapy dose received was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The median follow up for surviving patients was 22 months. Twenty-four month actuarial data show that the loco-regional recurrence free, metastasis-free MFS, cancer-specific (CaSS) and overall survival percentages were 98.3%, 92.6%, 91% and 90.3%, respectively. We did not observe grades 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities, and 10 patients (16.2%) exhibited persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after completing the treatment. The results from curative IMRTs for OPSCC delivered in a regional cancer centre are comparable with results published by tertiary referral centres. A long-term follow up of this patient cohort will continue for further analyses and comparisons with tertiary centres.

  10. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous-integrated boost for definitive treatment of locally advanced mucosal head and neck cancer: outcomes from a single-institution series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Meredith; Guo, Linxin; Hanna, Catherine; Back, Michael; Guminski, Alex; Lee, Adrian; Eade, Thomas; Veivers, David; Wignall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to report outcomes for patients treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with simultaneous-integrated boost and weekly cisplatin for American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Records for 67 patients treated definitively with IMRT for HNSCC were reviewed. By including only those treated with weekly cisplatin, 45 patients were eligible for analysis. Treatment outcomes, effect of patient, tumour and treatment characteristics on disease recurrence were analysed. All patients completed IMRT to 7000cGy in 35 fractions, with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40mg/m 2 (median 6 cycles). Median follow-up was 28 months for living patients. Two-year loco-regional recurrence-free, metastasis-free and overall survival were 85.4, 81.0 and 87.4%, respectively. Local recurrence occurred in three patients, and distant recurrence in eight patients. Our results show efficacy of IMRT and weekly cisplatin in the treatment of stage III/IV HNSCC at our institution with respect to loco-regional control.

  11. Intensity-modulated arc therapy with simultaneous integrated boost in the treatment of primary irresectable cervical cancer. Treatment planning, quality control, and clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien; De Neve, Wilfried; De Gersem, Werner; Paelinck, Leen; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Wagter, Carlos; De Meerleer, Gert [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Delrue, Louke; Villeirs, Geert [Dept. of Radiology, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium); Makar, Amin [Dept. of Gynecology, Ghent Univ. Hospital (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to report on the planning procedure, quality control, and clinical implementation of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) delivering a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with primary irresectable cervix carcinoma. Patients and methods: six patients underwent PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) before treatment planning. Prescription (25 fractions) was (1) a median dose (D{sub 50}) of 62, 58 and 56 Gy to the primary tumor (GTVcervix), primary clinical target volume (CTVcervix) and its planning target volume (PTVcervix), respectively; (2) a D{sub 50} of 60 Gy to the PET-positive lymph nodes (GTVnodes); (3) a minimal dose (D{sub 98}) of 45 Gy to the planning target volume of the elective lymph nodes (PTVnodes). IMAT plans were generated using an anatomy-based exclusion tool with the aid of weight and leaf position optimization. The dosimetric delivery of IMAT was validated preclinically using radiochromic film dosimetry. Results: five to nine arcs were needed to create valid IMAT plans. Dose constraints on D{sub 50} were not met in two patients (both GTVcervix: 1 Gy and 3 Gy less). D{sub 98} for PTVnodes was not met in three patients (1 Gy each). Film dosimetry showed excellent gamma evaluation. There were no treatment interruptions. Conclusion: IMAT allows delivering an SIB to the macroscopic tumor without compromising the dose to the elective lymph nodes or the organs at risk. The clinical implementation is feasible. (orig.)

  12. Integrated beam orientation and scanning-spot optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy for brain and unilateral head and neck tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenbo; O'Connor, Daniel; Nguyen, Dan; Yu, Victoria Y; Ruan, Dan; Dong, Lei; Sheng, Ke

    2018-04-01

    Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) is the state-of-the-art method of delivering proton radiotherapy. Previous research has been mainly focused on optimization of scanning spots with manually selected beam angles. Due to the computational complexity, the potential benefit of simultaneously optimizing beam orientations and spot pattern could not be realized. In this study, we developed a novel integrated beam orientation optimization (BOO) and scanning-spot optimization algorithm for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). A brain chordoma and three unilateral head-and-neck patients with a maximal target size of 112.49 cm 3 were included in this study. A total number of 1162 noncoplanar candidate beams evenly distributed across 4π steradians were included in the optimization. For each candidate beam, the pencil-beam doses of all scanning spots covering the PTV and a margin were calculated. The beam angle selection and spot intensity optimization problem was formulated to include three terms: a dose fidelity term to penalize the deviation of PTV and OAR doses from ideal dose distribution; an L1-norm sparsity term to reduce the number of active spots and improve delivery efficiency; a group sparsity term to control the number of active beams between 2 and 4. For the group sparsity term, convex L2,1-norm and nonconvex L2,1/2-norm were tested. For the dose fidelity term, both quadratic function and linearized equivalent uniform dose (LEUD) cost function were implemented. The optimization problem was solved using the Fast Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm (FISTA). The IMPT BOO method was tested on three head-and-neck patients and one skull base chordoma patient. The results were compared with IMPT plans created using column generation selected beams or manually selected beams. The L2,1-norm plan selected spatially aggregated beams, indicating potential degeneracy using this norm. L2,1/2-norm was able to select spatially separated beams and achieve

  13. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  14. Environmental comparison of intensive and integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems for striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, based on two existing case studies using life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluts, I.N.; Potting, J.M.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Phong, L.T.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is the largest producer for the export of striped catfish. Traditionally striped catfish production in the Mekong Delta took place in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems, but has shifted recently to intensive systems to meet increasing export demands. A recent study quantified the

  15. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Exploring the Link between Visual Perception, Visual-Motor Integration, and Reading in Normal Developing and Impaired Children using DTVP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Stéphanie; Muneaux, Mathilde; Huau, Andréa; Lévêque, Yohana; Jover, Marianne; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    Reading is known to be primarily a linguistic task. However, to successfully decode written words, children also need to develop good visual-perception skills. Furthermore, motor skills are implicated in letter recognition and reading acquisition. Three studies have been designed to determine the link between reading, visual perception, and visual-motor integration using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception version 2 (DTVP-2). Study 1 tests how visual perception and visual-motor integration in kindergarten predict reading outcomes in Grade 1, in typical developing children. Study 2 is aimed at finding out if these skills can be seen as clinical markers in dyslexic children (DD). Study 3 determines if visual-motor integration and motor-reduced visual perception can distinguish DD children according to whether they exhibit or not developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Results showed that phonological awareness and visual-motor integration predicted reading outcomes one year later. DTVP-2 demonstrated similarities and differences in visual-motor integration and motor-reduced visual perception between children with DD, DCD, and both of these deficits. DTVP-2 is a suitable tool to investigate links between visual perception, visual-motor integration and reading, and to differentiate cognitive profiles of children with developmental disabilities (i.e. DD, DCD, and comorbid children). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  18. Definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy concurrent with systemic therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Outcomes from an integrated regional Australian cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud Rahbari, Reza; Winkley, Lauren; Hill, Jacques; Tahir, Abdul Rahim Mohammed; McKay, Michael; Last, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P; Dwyer, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence has increased over the past two decades largely because of an increase in human papilloma virus (HPV)-related OPSCC. We report here outcomes of definitive radiation therapy for OPSCC with simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in a regional Australian cancer centre. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of all patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. We included patients who received a curative intent IMRT for OPSCC (2010-2014). Of 61 patients, 80% were men, and the median age was 57 years. Ninety percent of our patients received concurrent systemic therapy, and 68% were p16 positive. The median radiotherapy dose received was 70 Gy in 35 fractions. The median follow up for surviving patients was 22 months. Twenty-four month actuarial data show that the loco-regional recurrence free, metastasis-free MFS, cancer-specific (CaSS) and overall survival percentages were 98.3%, 92.6%, 91% and 90.3%, respectively. We did not observe grades 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities, and 10 patients (16.2%) exhibited persistent grade 3 toxicity 6 months after completing the treatment. The results from curative IMRTs for OPSCC delivered in a regional cancer centre are comparable with results published by tertiary referral centres. A long-term follow up of this patient cohort will continue for further analyses and comparisons with tertiary centres. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  19. Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (I.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted-Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Binbin, E-mail: binbin.wu@gunet.georgetown.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Zahurak, Marianna [Department of Oncology Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Simari, Patricio [Autodesk Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, Dalong [Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, Russell [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Sanguineti, Giuseppe [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)-driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  1. Fully Automated Simultaneous Integrated Boosted–Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning Is Feasible for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Zahurak, Marianna; Simari, Patricio; Pang, Dalong; Taylor, Russell; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine whether overlap volume histogram (OVH)–driven, automated simultaneous integrated boosted (SIB)-intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning for head-and-neck cancer can be implemented in clinics. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was designed to compare fully automated plans (APs) created by an OVH-driven, automated planning application with clinical plans (CPs) created by dosimetrists in a 3-dose-level (70 Gy, 63 Gy, and 58.1 Gy), head-and-neck SIB-IMRT planning. Because primary organ sparing (cord, brain, brainstem, mandible, and optic nerve/chiasm) always received the highest priority in clinical planning, the study aimed to show the noninferiority of APs with respect to PTV coverage and secondary organ sparing (parotid, brachial plexus, esophagus, larynx, inner ear, and oral mucosa). The sample size was determined a priori by a superiority hypothesis test that had 85% power to detect a 4% dose decrease in secondary organ sparing with a 2-sided alpha level of 0.05. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression model was used for statistical comparison. Results: Forty consecutive patients were accrued from July to December 2010. GEE analysis indicated that in APs, overall average dose to the secondary organs was reduced by 1.16 (95% CI = 0.09-2.33) with P=.04, overall average PTV coverage was increased by 0.26% (95% CI = 0.06-0.47) with P=.02 and overall average dose to the primary organs was reduced by 1.14 Gy (95% CI = 0.45-1.8) with P=.004. A physician determined that all APs could be delivered to patients, and APs were clinically superior in 27 of 40 cases. Conclusions: The application can be implemented in clinics as a fast, reliable, and consistent way of generating plans that need only minor adjustments to meet specific clinical needs.

  2. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  3. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  4. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  5. How big is big enough? Justifying results of the iid test based on the correlation integral in the non-normal world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briatka, Ľuboš

    -, č. 308 (2006), s. 1-30 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : chaos * nonlinear dynamics * correlation integral Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge.cuni.cz/pdf/wp/Wp308.pdf

  6. A randomized phase III study between sequential versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit; Prayongrat, Anussara; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Netsawang, Buntipa; Kitpanit, Sarin

    2018-05-01

    This study was performed to compare the acute and late toxicities between sequential (SEQ) and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two plans: 2 Gy × 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV) followed by a sequential boost (2 Gy × 10 fractions) to high-risk PTV, while SIB-IMRT treated low- and high-risk PTVs with doses of 56 and 70 Gy in 33 fractions. Toxicities and survival outcomes were analyzed. Between October 2010 and September 2015, of the 209 patients who completed treatment, 102 in the SEQ and 107 in the SIB arm were analyzed. The majority had undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (82%). Mucositis and dysphagia were the most common grade 3-5 acute toxicities. There were no statistically significant differences in the cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute toxicities between the two arms (59.8% in SEQ vs. 58.9% in SIB; P = 0.892). Common grade 3-4 late toxicities for SEQ and SIB included hearing loss (2.9 vs. 8.4%), temporal lobe injury (2.9 vs. 0.9%), cranial nerve injury (0 vs. 2.8%), and xerostomia (2 vs. 0.9%). With the median follow-up of 41 months, 3‑year progression-free and overall survival rates were 72.7 vs. 73.4% (P = 0.488) and 86.3 vs. 83.6% (P = 0.938), respectively. SEQ and SIB provide excellent survival outcomes with few late toxicities. According to our study, SIB with a satisfactory dose-volume constraint to nearby critical organs is the technique of choice for NPC treatment due to its convenience.

  7. Simultaneous Integrated Boost–Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Capecitabine and Mitomycin C for Locally Advanced Anal Carcinoma: A Phase 1 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deenen, Maarten J. [Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dewit, Luc [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boot, Henk [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beijnen, Jos H. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmaco-epidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schellens, Jan H.M. [Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Faculty of Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmaco-epidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cats, Annemieke, E-mail: a.cats@nki.nl [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Newer radiation techniques, and the application of continuous 5-FU exposure during radiation therapy using oral capecitabine may improve the treatment of anal cancer. This phase 1, dose-finding study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost–intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) with concomitant capecitabine and mitomycin C in locally advanced anal cancer, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses. Methods and Materials: Patients with locally advanced anal carcinoma were treated with SIB-IMRT in 33 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy to the primary tumor and macroscopically involved lymph nodes and 33 fractions of 1.5 Gy electively to the bilateral iliac and inguinal lymph node areas. Patients received a sequential radiation boost dose of 3 × 1.8 Gy on macroscopic residual tumor if this was still present in week 5 of treatment. Mitomycin C 10 mg/m{sup 2} (maximum 15 mg) was administered intravenously on day 1, and capecitabine was given orally in a dose-escalated fashion (500-825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d.) on irradiation days, until dose-limiting toxicity emerged in ≥2 of maximally 6 patients. An additional 8 patients were treated at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Results: A total of 18 patients were included. The MTD of capecitabine was determined to be 825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d. The predominant acute grade ≥3 toxicities included radiation dermatitis (50%), fatigue (22%), and pain (6%). Fifteen patients (83% [95%-CI: 66%-101%]) achieved a complete response, and 3 (17%) patients a partial response. With a median follow-up of 28 months, none of the complete responders, and 2 partial responders had relapsed. Conclusions: SIB-IMRT with concomitant single dose mitomycin C and capecitabine 825 mg/m{sup 2} b.i.d. on irradiation days resulted in an acceptable safety profile, and proved to be a tolerable and effective treatment regimen for locally advanced anal cancer.

  8. SU-E-P-21: Impact of MLC Position Errors On Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengqiang, L; Yin, Y; Chen, L [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan, 250117 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of MLC position errors on simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: To compare the dosimetric differences between the simulated plans and the clinical plans, ten patients with locally advanced NPC treated with SIB-IMRT were enrolled in this study. All plans were calculated with an inverse planning system (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System{sub )}. Random errors −2mm to 2mm{sub )},shift errors{sub (} 2mm,1mm and 0.5mm) and systematic extension/ contraction errors (±2mm, ±1mm and ±0.5mm) of the MLC leaf position were introduced respectively into the original plans to create the simulated plans. Dosimetry factors were compared between the original and the simulated plans. Results: The dosimetric impact of the random and system shift errors of MLC position was insignificant within 2mm, the maximum changes in D95% of PGTV,PTV1,PTV2 were-0.92±0.51%,1.00±0.24% and 0.62±0.17%, the maximum changes in the D0.1cc of spinal cord and brainstem were 1.90±2.80% and −1.78±1.42%, the maximum changes in the Dmean of parotids were1.36±1.23% and −2.25±2.04%.However,the impact of MLC extension or contraction errors was found significant. For 2mm leaf extension errors, the average changes in D95% of PGTV,PTV1,PTV2 were 4.31±0.67%,4.29±0.65% and 4.79±0.82%, the averaged value of the D0.1cc to spinal cord and brainstem were increased by 7.39±5.25% and 6.32±2.28%,the averaged value of the mean dose to left and right parotid were increased by 12.75±2.02%,13.39±2.17% respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2mm. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for MLC extension or contraction errors.We should pay attention to the anatomic changes in target organs and anatomical structures during the course,individual radiotherapy was recommended to ensure adaptive doses.

  9. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  10. Simultaneous Integrated Boost–Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Capecitabine and Mitomycin C for Locally Advanced Anal Carcinoma: A Phase 1 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Dewit, Luc; Boot, Henk; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schellens, Jan H.M.; Cats, Annemieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Newer radiation techniques, and the application of continuous 5-FU exposure during radiation therapy using oral capecitabine may improve the treatment of anal cancer. This phase 1, dose-finding study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of simultaneous integrated boost–intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) with concomitant capecitabine and mitomycin C in locally advanced anal cancer, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses. Methods and Materials: Patients with locally advanced anal carcinoma were treated with SIB-IMRT in 33 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy to the primary tumor and macroscopically involved lymph nodes and 33 fractions of 1.5 Gy electively to the bilateral iliac and inguinal lymph node areas. Patients received a sequential radiation boost dose of 3 × 1.8 Gy on macroscopic residual tumor if this was still present in week 5 of treatment. Mitomycin C 10 mg/m 2 (maximum 15 mg) was administered intravenously on day 1, and capecitabine was given orally in a dose-escalated fashion (500-825 mg/m 2 b.i.d.) on irradiation days, until dose-limiting toxicity emerged in ≥2 of maximally 6 patients. An additional 8 patients were treated at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Results: A total of 18 patients were included. The MTD of capecitabine was determined to be 825 mg/m 2 b.i.d. The predominant acute grade ≥3 toxicities included radiation dermatitis (50%), fatigue (22%), and pain (6%). Fifteen patients (83% [95%-CI: 66%-101%]) achieved a complete response, and 3 (17%) patients a partial response. With a median follow-up of 28 months, none of the complete responders, and 2 partial responders had relapsed. Conclusions: SIB-IMRT with concomitant single dose mitomycin C and capecitabine 825 mg/m 2 b.i.d. on irradiation days resulted in an acceptable safety profile, and proved to be a tolerable and effective treatment regimen for locally advanced anal cancer

  11. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  12. OS041. Apolipoprotein A-I protects normal integration of the trophoblast into endothelial cellular networks in an in vitro model of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, F; Xu, B; Makris, A; Hennessy, A; Rye, K-A

    2012-07-01

    Failure of the trophoblast to appropriately invade uterine spiral arteries is thought to be an initiating event in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. A dyslipidemia characterised by low plasma levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and elevated triglycerides has also been described in preeclampsia. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α inhibits trophoblast invasion of uterine endothelial cells. Previous work using an in vitro JEG-3 cell/Uterine endothelial cell co-culture model investigated the effect of apoliopoprotein A-I, the main apolipoprotein component of HDL, on trophoblast incorporation into endothelial tubules in the presence and absence of TNF-α. These effects are now investigated using the human invasive trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo. This study asks if apoA-I, which has established anti-inflammatory properties, can protect against the deleterious effect of TNF-α on trophoblast-endothelial cell interactions. The in vitro trophoblast-uterine endothelial cell co-culture model was used to investigate the effect of apoA-I on trophoblast incorporation into endothelial tubules in the presence and absence of TNF-α. Uterine endothelial cells were pre-incubated with lipid free apoA-I (final apoA-I concentration 1 mg/mL) for 16h prior to seeding on matrigel coated plates. Tubules formed within 4h. Fluorescence-labelled HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were then co-cultured with the endothelial cells±TNF-α (final concentration of 0.2ng/mL). Bright field and fluorescent images were captured after 24h. The effect of TNF-α on HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion was quantified with Image J software. Integration of HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells into uterine endothelial tubular networks was also imaged using live cell imaging techniques (Zeiss Axiovert). TNF-α inhibited HTR-8/SVneo (trophoblast) cell integration into endothelial tubular structures by 24.1±3.7% pintegration of trophoblast into endothelial tubular structures in the presence

  13. Dosimetric comparison of standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost schedule (sequential IMRT plan) with simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT (SIB IMRT) treatment plan in patients with localized carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A; Kapoor, R; Singh, S K; Kumar, N; Oinam, A S; Sharma, S C

    2012-07-01

    DOSIMETERIC AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL COMPARISON OF TWO RADIATION SCHEDULES IN LOCALIZED CARCINOMA PROSTATE: Standard Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT) followed by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) boost (sequential-IMRT) with Simultaneous Integrated Boost IMRT (SIB-IMRT). Thirty patients were enrolled. In all, the target consisted of PTV P + SV (Prostate and seminal vesicles) and PTV LN (lymph nodes) where PTV refers to planning target volume and the critical structures included: bladder, rectum and small bowel. All patients were treated with sequential-IMRT plan, but for dosimetric comparison, SIB-IMRT plan was also created. The prescription dose to PTV P + SV was 74 Gy in both strategies but with different dose per fraction, however, the dose to PTV LN was 50 Gy delivered in 25 fractions over 5 weeks for sequential-IMRT and 54 Gy delivered in 27 fractions over 5.5 weeks for SIB-IMRT. The treatment plans were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms. Also, Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) obtained with the two plans were compared. The volume of rectum receiving 70 Gy or more (V > 70 Gy) was reduced to 18.23% with SIB-IMRT from 22.81% with sequential-IMRT. SIB-IMRT reduced the mean doses to both bladder and rectum by 13% and 17%, respectively, as compared to sequential-IMRT. NTCP of 0.86 ± 0.75% and 0.01 ± 0.02% for the bladder, 5.87 ± 2.58% and 4.31 ± 2.61% for the rectum and 8.83 ± 7.08% and 8.25 ± 7.98% for the bowel was seen with sequential-IMRT and SIB-IMRT plans respectively. For equal PTV coverage, SIB-IMRT markedly reduced doses to critical structures, therefore should be considered as the strategy for dose escalation. SIB-IMRT achieves lesser NTCP than sequential-IMRT.

  14. Treatment planning strategy for whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing and simultaneous integrated boost for multiple brain metastases using intensity-modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Damodar, E-mail: dpokhrel@kumc.edu; Sood, Sumit; McClinton, Christopher; Shen, Xinglei; Lominska, Christopher; Saleh, Habeeb; Badkul, Rajeev; Jiang, Hongyu; Mitchell, Melissa; Wang, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). Materials and methods: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set. The hippocampal avoidance zone (HAZ) was generated using a 5-mm uniform margin around the paired hippocampi. The m-BM planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured on T1/T2-weighted MRI registered with the 3D planning computed tomography (CT). The whole-brain planning target volume (WB-PTV) was defined as the whole-brain tissue volume minus HAZ and m-BM PTVs. Highly conformal IMAT plans were generated in the Eclipse treatment planning system for Novalis-TX linear accelerator consisting of high-definition multileaf collimators (HD-MLCs: 2.5-mm leaf width at isocenter) and 6-MV beam. Prescription dose was 30 Gy for WB-PTV and 45 Gy for each m-BM in 10 fractions. Three full coplanar arcs with orbit avoidance sectors were used. Treatment plans were evaluated using homogeneity (HI) and conformity indices (CI) for target coverage and dose to organs at risk (OAR). Dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each IMAT plan was assessed via quality assurance (QA) with a MapCHECK device. Actual beam-on time was recorded and a gamma index was used to compare dose agreement between the planned and measured doses. Results: All 5 HS-WBRT with SIB plans met WB-PTV D{sub 2%}, D{sub 98%}, and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} NRG-CC001 requirements. The plans demonstrated highly conformal and homogenous coverage of the WB-PTV with mean HI and CI values of 0.33 ± 0.04 (range: 0.27 to 0.36), and 0.96 ± 0.01 (range: 0.95 to 0.97), respectively. All 5

  15. Treatment planning strategy for whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing and simultaneous integrated boost for multiple brain metastases using intensity-modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Damodar; Sood, Sumit; McClinton, Christopher; Shen, Xinglei; Lominska, Christopher; Saleh, Habeeb; Badkul, Rajeev; Jiang, Hongyu; Mitchell, Melissa; Wang, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). Materials and methods: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set. The hippocampal avoidance zone (HAZ) was generated using a 5-mm uniform margin around the paired hippocampi. The m-BM planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured on T1/T2-weighted MRI registered with the 3D planning computed tomography (CT). The whole-brain planning target volume (WB-PTV) was defined as the whole-brain tissue volume minus HAZ and m-BM PTVs. Highly conformal IMAT plans were generated in the Eclipse treatment planning system for Novalis-TX linear accelerator consisting of high-definition multileaf collimators (HD-MLCs: 2.5-mm leaf width at isocenter) and 6-MV beam. Prescription dose was 30 Gy for WB-PTV and 45 Gy for each m-BM in 10 fractions. Three full coplanar arcs with orbit avoidance sectors were used. Treatment plans were evaluated using homogeneity (HI) and conformity indices (CI) for target coverage and dose to organs at risk (OAR). Dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each IMAT plan was assessed via quality assurance (QA) with a MapCHECK device. Actual beam-on time was recorded and a gamma index was used to compare dose agreement between the planned and measured doses. Results: All 5 HS-WBRT with SIB plans met WB-PTV D 2% , D 98% , and V 30 Gy NRG-CC001 requirements. The plans demonstrated highly conformal and homogenous coverage of the WB-PTV with mean HI and CI values of 0.33 ± 0.04 (range: 0.27 to 0.36), and 0.96 ± 0.01 (range: 0.95 to 0.97), respectively. All 5 hippocampal sparing

  16. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  17. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  18. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). METHOD: Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and

  19. The nursing role during end-of-life care in the intensive care unit related to the interaction between patient, family and professional : An integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noome, M.; Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dijkstra, B.M.; Vloet, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). Method Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and reference

  20. Intensive variable and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xinqi; Yuan, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Opening with intensive variables theory, using a combination of static and dynamic GIS and integrating numerical calculation and spatial optimization, this book creates a framework and methodology for evaluating land use effect, among other concepts.

  1. PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Joy M; Green, Charles E; Hasan, Khader M; Vincent, Jessica; Suchting, Robert; Weaver, Michael F; Moeller, F Gerard; Narayana, Ponnada A; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Dineley, Kelly T; Lane, Scott D

    2017-10-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance and tolerability were evaluated. Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). Single-site out-patient treatment research clinic in Houston, TX, USA. Thirty treatment-seeking adults, 18 to 60 years old, with CUD. Eighteen participants (8 = PIO; 10 = PLC) completed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of WM integrity at pre-/post-treatment. Study medication was dispensed at thrice weekly visits along with once-weekly cognitive behavioral therapy for 12 weeks. Measures of target engagement mechanisms of interest included cocaine craving assessed by the Brief Substance Craving Scale (BSCS), the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (OCDUS), a visual analog scale (VAS) and change in WM integrity. Feasibility measures included number completing treatment, medication compliance (riboflavin detection) and tolerability (side effects, serious adverse events). Target engagement change in mechanisms of interest, defined as a ≥ 0.75 Bayesian posterior probability of an interaction existing favoring PIO over PLC, was demonstrated on measures of craving (BSCS, VAS) and WM integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Outcomes indicated greater decrease in craving and greater increase in FA values in the PIO group. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates among those starting treatment (21/26 = 80%) and medication compliance (≥ 80%). There were no reported serious adverse events for PIO. Compared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment. Pioglitazone shows good feasibility as a treatment for cocaine

  2. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  3. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  4. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  6. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  7. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  8. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: decrease of the tinnitus-related distress during a one-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Szczepek, A; Klapp, B F; Schrom, T

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of the chronic tinnitus is aimed at improving the way patients cope with their tinnitus and at reducing the tinnitus-related distress. The present study investigated the changes of psychometric parameters that occurred in patients with chronic tinnitus after 7-days outpatient multidisciplinary therapy. The changes were monitored for up to 1 year in order to evaluate the long-term efficiency. Main emphasis of the intensive tinnitus therapy applied was placed on tinnitus habituation and on teaching the patients how to apply coping strategies. The main elements of the multimodal concept included progressive muscle relaxation according to Jacobson, physiotherapy, educative seminars, training of selective attention and, lastly, the change of judgment, attitude and behaviour towards tinnitus. Psychometric parameters and tinnitus-related distress were assessed prior to and after the therapy (at 3, 6 and 12 months) using the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) according to Goebel and Hiller. Furthermore, subjects waiting for therapy (waiting list) were recruited to the control group and compared with the therapy group which had received therapy 3 months earlier. The therapy group showed a significant reduction of the TQ total score after 3 months as compared to the control group. Moreover, we observed a long-term, progressive positive outcome during the one-year follow-up. The TQ total score was reduced by 10.9 points. There was an obvious decrease of the emotional and cognitive distress as well as of the intrusiveness of tinnitus, as per evaluation of TQ subscales. The outpatient intensive multidisciplinary tinnitus therapy with long-term aftercare has proved to be an effective method in the treatment of patients with chronic tinnitus. The outpatient setting enables the instant implementation of strategies learned during therapy in the patients' everyday life.

  9. A technique for estimating the probability of radiation-stimulated failures of integrated microcircuits in low-intensity radiation fields: Application to the Spektr-R spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2006-10-01

    In developing radio-electronic devices (RED) of spacecraft operating in the fields of ionizing radiation in space, one of the most important problems is the correct estimation of their radiation tolerance. The “weakest link” in the element base of onboard microelectronic devices under radiation effect is the integrated microcircuits (IMC), especially of large scale (LSI) and very large scale (VLSI) degree of integration. The main characteristic of IMC, which is taken into account when making decisions on using some particular type of IMC in the onboard RED, is the probability of non-failure operation (NFO) at the end of the spacecraft’s lifetime. It should be noted that, until now, the NFO has been calculated only from the reliability characteristics, disregarding the radiation effect. This paper presents the so-called “reliability” approach to determination of radiation tolerance of IMC, which allows one to estimate the probability of non-failure operation of various types of IMC with due account of radiation-stimulated dose failures. The described technique is applied to RED onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft to be launched in 2007.

  10. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  11. Transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.; Laslett, L.J.; Smith, L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of using intense bursts of heavy ions to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated interest in the transport of intense unneutralized heavy ion beams by quadrupole or solenoid systems. This problem was examined in some detail, using numerical integration of the coupled envelope equations for the quadrupole case. The general relations which emerge are used to develop examples of high energy transport systems and as a basis for discussing the limitations imposed by a transport system on achievable intensities for initial acceleration

  12. Skin dose differences between intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy and between boost and integrated treatment regimens for treating head and neck and other cancer sites in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penoncello, Gregory P.; Ding, George X.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate dose to skin between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment techniques for target sites in the head and neck, pelvis, and brain and (2) to determine if the treatment dose and fractionation regimen affect the skin dose between traditional sequential boost and integrated boost regimens for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 19 patients and 48 plans were evaluated. The Eclipse (v11) treatment planning system was used to plan therapy in 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 5 patients with prostate cancer, and 5 patients with brain cancer with VMAT and static-field IMRT. The mean skin dose and the maximum dose to a contiguous volume of 2 cm"3 for head and neck plans and brain plans and a contiguous volume of 5 cm"3 for pelvis plans were compared for each treatment technique. Of the 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 3 underwent an integrated boost regimen. One integrated boost plan was replanned with IMRT and VMAT using a traditional boost regimen. For target sites located in the head and neck, VMAT reduced the mean dose and contiguous hot spot most noticeably in the shoulder region by 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. When using an integrated boost regimen, the contiguous hot spot skin dose in the shoulder was larger on average than a traditional boost pattern by 26.5% and the mean skin dose was larger by 1.7%. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin in the pelvis by an average of 36% compared with IMRT. For the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body, but more noticeably in the shoulders in patients with head and neck and pelvis cancer. We also found that using integrated boost regimens in patients with head and neck cancer leads to higher shoulder skin doses compared with traditional boost regimens.

  13. Skin dose differences between intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy and between boost and integrated treatment regimens for treating head and neck and other cancer sites in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penoncello, Gregory P; Ding, George X

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate dose to skin between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment techniques for target sites in the head and neck, pelvis, and brain and (2) to determine if the treatment dose and fractionation regimen affect the skin dose between traditional sequential boost and integrated boost regimens for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 19 patients and 48 plans were evaluated. The Eclipse (v11) treatment planning system was used to plan therapy in 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 5 patients with prostate cancer, and 5 patients with brain cancer with VMAT and static-field IMRT. The mean skin dose and the maximum dose to a contiguous volume of 2cm(3) for head and neck plans and brain plans and a contiguous volume of 5cm(3) for pelvis plans were compared for each treatment technique. Of the 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 3 underwent an integrated boost regimen. One integrated boost plan was replanned with IMRT and VMAT using a traditional boost regimen. For target sites located in the head and neck, VMAT reduced the mean dose and contiguous hot spot most noticeably in the shoulder region by 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. When using an integrated boost regimen, the contiguous hot spot skin dose in the shoulder was larger on average than a traditional boost pattern by 26.5% and the mean skin dose was larger by 1.7%. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin in the pelvis by an average of 36% compared with IMRT. For the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body, but more noticeably in the shoulders in patients with head and neck and pelvis cancer. We also found that using integrated boost regimens in patients with head and neck cancer leads to higher shoulder skin doses compared with traditional boost regimens. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by

  14. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  16. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  17. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  18. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses; Echtzeitbestimmung longitudinaler Elektronenstrahlparameter mittels absoluter Intensitaets- und Spektralmessung einzelner kohaerenter THz Strahlungspulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 {mu}m (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 {mu}m within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 {mu}m and 45 to 440 {mu}m can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 {mu}m (fhwm) could be detected.

  19. Intensive integrated therapy of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The macro- and microvascular burden of type 2 diabetes is well established. A number of recent single risk factor intervention trials targeting hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, procoagulation, microalbumuria, and existing cardiovascular disorders have, however, shown major beneficial...

  20. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K.; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high intensity shoulder elevations can......BACKGROUND: Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary...... contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...

  1. FCET2EC (From controlled experimental trial to = 2 everyday communication): How effective is intensive integrative therapy for stroke-induced chronic aphasia under routine clinical conditions? A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Grewe, Tanja; Ziegler, Wolfram; Floel, Agnes; Springer, Luise; Martus, Peter; Breitenstein, Caterina

    2013-09-23

    Therapy guidelines recommend speech and language therapy (SLT) as the "gold standard" for aphasia treatment. Treatment intensity (i.e., ≥5 hours of SLT per week) is a key predictor of SLT outcome. The scientific evidence to support the efficacy of SLT is unsatisfactory to date given the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT), particularly with respect to chronic aphasia (lasting for >6 months after initial stroke). This randomized waiting list-controlled multi-centre trial examines whether intensive integrative language therapy provided in routine in- and outpatient clinical settings is effective in improving everyday communication in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Participants are men and women aged 18 to 70 years, at least 6 months post an ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke resulting in persisting language impairment (i.e., chronic aphasia); 220 patients will be screened for participation, with the goal of including at least 126 patients during the 26-month recruitment period. Basic language production and comprehension abilities need to be preserved (as assessed by the Aachen Aphasia Test).Therapy consists of language-systematic and communicative-pragmatic exercises for at least 2 hours/day and at least 10 hours/week, plus at least 1 hour self-administered training per day, for at least three weeks. Contents of therapy are adapted to patients' individual impairment profiles.Prior to and immediately following the therapy/waiting period, patients' individual language abilities are assessed via primary and secondary outcome measures. The primary (blinded) outcome measure is the A-scale (informational content, or 'understandability', of the message) of the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), a standardized measure of functional communication ability. Secondary (unblinded) outcome measures are language-systematic and communicative-pragmatic language screenings and questionnaires assessing life quality as viewed by the patient as well as a relative

  2. Application of superconductivity to intense proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three examples of proposed superconducting linacs for intense particle beams are presented, and in two cases compared to normal conducting counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of both types are discussed. Suggestions for future developments are presented. Finally a comparison of estimated operational costs of the normal and the superconducting linac for the ESS is given. (R.P.)

  3. INTEGRATED EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accepting and valuing people with disabilities is a key aspect of social policies promoted worldwide. The implementation of these policies aim normalize the lives of people with disabilities through full integration in the society to which they belong. Removing discrimination and social barriers equates to a maturing of the society, maturing translated by accepting diversity that surrounds us. Each person must be appreciated at its true value regardless of its condition of normality or deviation from it. Valuing individuals can be achieved only through a full acceptance in society, by assigning statuses and fulfilling social roles. School integration of children with special educational needs in mainstream education is a challenge and involves many aspects to be successful. It is the premise of social integration, the basis for future socio-professional insertion. Integrated education is the first step towards a world of equal opportunities, a world without discrimination.

  4. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  6. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  7. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  8. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  9. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... religion, or social mores. They might include very aggressive or destructive behavior, overt racism or prejudice, stealing, truancy, smoking or substance abuse, school failure, or an intense sibling rivalry. Your ...

  10. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  11. Acute Toxicity and Tumor Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy With Shortening of the Overall Treatment Time Using Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost: A Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    But-Hadzic, Jasna, E-mail: jbut@onko-i.si [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Anderluh, Franc [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Brecelj, Erik; Edhemovic, Ibrahim [Division of Surgery, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Secerov-Ermenc, Ajra; Hudej, Rihard; Jeromen, Ana [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kozelj, Miran; Krebs, Bojan [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Oblak, Irena [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Omejc, Mirko [Division of Surgery, University Medical Centre Lubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogrin, Andrej [Division of Diagnostics, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Velenik, Vaneja [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-12-01

    Background and Purpose: This phase 2 study investigated the efficacy and safety of preoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) without dose escalation, concomitant with standard capecitabine chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2014 and March 2015, 51 patients with operable stage II-III rectal adenocarcinoma received preoperative IMRT with pelvic dose of 41.8 Gy and simultaneously delivered 46.2 Gy to T2/3 and 48.4 Gy to T4 tumor in 22 fractions, concomitant with capecitabine, 825 mg/m{sup 2}/12 hours, including weekends. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Results: Fifty patients completed preoperative treatment according to the protocol, and 47 underwent surgical resection. The sphincter preservation rate for the low rectal tumors was 62%, and the resection margins were free in all but 1 patient. Decrease in tumor and nodal stage was observed in 32 (68%) and 39 (83%) patients, respectively, with pCR achieved in 12 (25.5%) patients. There were only 2 G ≥ 3 acute toxicities, with infectious enterocolitis in 1 patient and dermatitis over the sacral area caused by the bolus effect of the treatment table in the second patient. Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT-SIB without dose escalation is well tolerated, with a low acute toxicity profile, and can achieve a high rate of pCR and downstaging.

  12. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  14. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  15. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  16. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  17. Parallel Architectures and Parallel Algorithms for Integrated Vision Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alok Nidhi

    1989-01-01

    Computer vision is regarded as one of the most complex and computationally intensive problems. An integrated vision system (IVS) is a system that uses vision algorithms from all levels of processing to perform for a high level application (e.g., object recognition). An IVS normally involves algorithms from low level, intermediate level, and high level vision. Designing parallel architectures for vision systems is of tremendous interest to researchers. Several issues are addressed in parallel architectures and parallel algorithms for integrated vision systems.

  18. A comprehensive two-dimensional gel protein database of noncultured unfractionated normal human epidermal keratinocytes: towards an integrated approach to the study of cell proliferation, differentiation and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) gel database of cellular proteins from noncultured, unfractionated normal human epidermal keratinocytes has been established. A total of 2651 [35S]methionine-labeled cellular proteins (1868 isoelectric focusing, 783 nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) were resolved...

  19. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiaoxiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to intense sweeteners and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight (ID 1136, 1444, 4299), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 4298), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 1221, 4298), and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation (ID 1134, 1167, 1283) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health cla...... sweeteners, which should replace sugars in foods and beverages in order to obtain the claimed effects. The Panel considers that intense sweeteners are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects........ The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are intense...

  1. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  2. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songthong, Anussara P; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-08-08

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2 Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2 Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12 Gy and 1.7 Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3-5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4% vs 13.6%, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6% vs 9.1%, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6% vs 7.6%, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6% and 32.7% experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8% and 95.5% in SEQ-IMRT and 98% and 90.2% in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising.

  3. A randomized phase II/III study of adverse events between sequential (SEQ) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; preliminary result on acute adverse events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songthong, Anussara P.; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chakkabat, Chakkapong; Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit

    2015-01-01

    To investigate acute and late toxicities comparing sequential (SEQ-IMRT) versus simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Newly diagnosed stage I-IVB NPC patients were randomized to receive SEQ-IMRT or SIB-IMRT, with or without chemotherapy. SEQ-IMRT consisted of two sequential radiation treatment plans: 2Gy x 25 fractions to low-risk planning target volume (PTV-LR) followed by 2Gy x 10 fractions to high-risk planning target volume (PTV-HR). In contrast, SIB-IMRT consisted of only one treatment plan: 2.12Gy and 1.7Gy x 33 fractions to PTV-HR and PTV-LR, respectively. Toxicities were evaluated according to CTCAE version 4.0. Between October 2010 and November 2013, 122 eligible patients were randomized between SEQ-IMRT (54 patients) and SIB-IMRT (68 patients). With median follow-up time of 16.8 months, there was no significant difference in toxicities between the two IMRT techniques. During chemoradiation, the most common grade 3–5 acute toxicities were mucositis (15.4 % vs 13.6 %, SEQ vs SIB, p = 0.788) followed by dysphagia (9.6 % vs 9.1 %, p = 1.000) and xerostomia (9.6 % vs 7.6 %, p = 0.748). During the adjuvant chemotherapy period, 25.6 % and 32.7 % experienced grade 3 weight loss in SEQ-IMRT and SIB-IMRT (p = 0.459). One-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 95.8 % and 95.5 % in SEQ-IMRT and 98 % and 90.2 % in SIB-IMRT, respectively (p = 0.472 for OS and 0.069 for PFS). This randomized, phase II/III trial comparing SIB-IMRT versus SEQ-IMRT in NPC showed no statistically significant difference between both IMRT techniques in terms of acute adverse events. Short-term tumor control and survival outcome were promising

  4. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  5. Effect of Couple Stresses on the Stress Intensity Factors for Two Parallel Cracks in an Infinite Elastic Medium under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouetsu Itou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stresses around two parallel cracks of equal length in an infinite elastic medium are evaluated based on the linearized couple-stress theory under uniform tension normal to the cracks. Fourier transformations are used to reduce the boundary conditions with respect to the upper crack to dual integral equations. In order to solve these equations, the differences in the displacements and in the rotation at the upper crack are expanded through a series of functions that are zero valued outside the crack. The unknown coefficients in each series are solved in order to satisfy the boundary conditions inside the crack using the Schmidt method. The stresses are expressed in terms of infinite integrals, and the stress intensity factors can be determined using the characteristics of the integrands for an infinite value of the variable of integration. Numerical calculations are carried out for selected crack configurations, and the effect of the couple stresses on the stress intensity factors is revealed.

  6. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  7. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  8. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  9. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  10. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  15. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  16. Normal Language Skills and Normal Intelligence in a Child with de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…

  17. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  18. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  19. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  1. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence......In this article, we introduce the so-called stochastic conditional intensity (SCI) model by extending Russell’s (1999) autoregressive conditional intensity (ACI) model by a latent common dynamic factor that jointly drives the individual intensity components. We show by simulations that the proposed...... for a joint latent factor and show that its inclusion allows for an improved and more parsimonious specification of the multivariate intensity process...

  2. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  3. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  4. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Fission cross-section normalization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.; Ghent Rijksuniversiteit; Deruytter, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The present measurements yield σsub(f)-data in the neutron energy from 20 MeV to 30 keV directly normalized in the thermal region. In the keV-region these data are consistent with the absolute σsub(f)-measurements of Szabo and Marquette. For the secondary normalization integral I 2 values have been obtained in agreement with those of Gwin et al. and Czirr et al. which were also directly normalized in the thermal region. For the I 1 integral, however, puzzling low values have been obtained. This was also the case for σsub(f)-bar in neutron energy intervals containing strong resonances. Three additional measurements are planned to further investigate these observations: (i) maintaining the actual approx.2π-geometry but using a 10 B-foil for the neutron flux detection (ii) using a low detection geometry with a 10 B- as well as a 6 Li-flux monitor. Only after these measurements definite conclusions on the I 1 and I 2 integrals can be formulated and final σsub(f)-bar-values can be released. The present study also gives some evidence for a correlation between the integral I 2 and the neutron flux monitor used. The influence of a normalization via I 1 or I 2 on the final cross-section has been shown. The magnitude of possible normalization errors is illustrated. Finally, since 235 U is expected to be an ''easy'' nucleus (low α-activity high σsub(f)-values), there are some indications that the important discrepancies still present in 235 U(n,f) cross-section measurements might partially be due to errors in the neutron flux determination

  6. Oscillating intensity display of soft tissue lesions in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Levin, D.N.; Beck, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-aided tissue characterization scheme is used to separate abnormal from normal tissues on the basis of their intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. The intensity of an abnormal tissue on a T1-weighted image is then made to oscillate so that the amplitude (or frequency) of oscillation is directly proportional to the difference between the lesion's intensity and the intensities of normal tissues. The result is a ''movie'' in which the abnormal tissue churns or oscillates on the screen, drawing the attention because of the eye's sensitivity to motion

  7. Absolute intensities of supersonic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Habets, A.H.M.; Verster, N.F.

    1977-01-01

    In a molecular beam experiment the center-line intensity I(0) (particles s -1 sterad -1 ) and the flow rate dN/dt (particles s -1 ) of a beam source are important features. To compare the performance of different types of beam sources the peaking factor, kappa, is defined as the ratio kappa=π(I(0)/dN/dt). The factor π is added to normalize to kappa=1 for an effusive source. The ideal peaking factor for the supersonic flow from a nozzle follows from continuum theory. Numerical values of kappa are available. Experimental values of kappa for an argon expansion are presented in this paper, confirming these calculations. The actual center-line intensity of a supersonic beam source with a skimmer is reduced in comparison to this ideal intensity if the skimmer shields part of the virtual source from the detector. Experimental data on the virtual source radius are given enabling one to predict this shielding quantitatively. (Auth.)

  8. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  10. AGS intensity upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    After the successful completion of the AGS Booster and several upgrades of the AGS, a new intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 protons per pulse accelerated to 24 GeV was achieved. The high intensity slow-extracted beam program at the AGS typically serves about five production targets and about eight experiments including three rare Kaon decay experiments. Further intensity upgrades are being discussed that could increase the average delivered beam intensity by up to a factor of four

  11. Intense Ion Pulses for Radiation Effects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    induction linear accelerator that has been developed to deliver intense, up to 50 nC/pulse/mm2, sub-ns pulses of light ions with kinetic energy up to 1.2...II induction linear accelerator for intense ion beam pulses at Berkeley Lab. Figure 3. Helium current and integrated charge versus time at the...under contracts DE-AC02-205CH11231 and DE-AC52-07NA27344. JOURNAL OF RADIATION EFFECTS, Research and Engineering Vol. 35, No. 1, April 2017 158 INTENSE

  12. Metabonomics and Intensive Care

    OpenAIRE

    Antcliffe, D; Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at http://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2016. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.

  13. Theory of normal metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The organizers requested that I give eight lectures on the theory of normal metals, ''with an eye on superconductivity.'' My job was to cover the general properties of metals. The topics were selected according to what the students would need to known for the following lectures on superconductivity. My role was to prepare the ground work for the later lectures. The problem is that there is not yet a widely accepted theory for the mechanism which pairs the electrons. Many mechanisms have been proposed, with those of phonons and spin fluctuations having the most followers. So I tried to discuss both topics. I also introduced the tight-binding model for metals, which forms the basis for most of the work on the cuprate superconductors

  14. Superconductor-insulator-normal-conductor-insulator-superconductor (Nb/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Nb) process development for integrated circuit applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, D.; Buchholz, F.M.; Schulze, H.; Khabipov, M.I.; Kessel, W.; Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The paper reports on recent developments in a new technology process in LTS implementation to fabricate intrinsically shunted tunnel junctions. The process has been realized in SINIS Nb/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Al/Al{sub x}O{sub y}/Nb multilayer thin-film technology. In various test series, circuits containing a large variety of single junctions and junction arrays of different contact areas and sizes were fabricated and measured. By variation of the oxidation parameters the fabrication process has been optimized for application in integrated circuits operating in RSFQ impulse logic. The junction parameter values realized for the critical current density j{sub c} range to up to about j{sub c} = 1000 A cm{sup -2}, those for the characteristic voltage V{sub c} to up to about V{sub c} = 230 {mu}V. The junctions show nearly non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristics; the intra-wafer parameter spread is below 10%. The junctions realized fulfil the requirements imposed for digital RSFQ circuit operation at clock frequencies in the lower GHz frequency range. (author)

  15. Spill control and intensity monitoring for the Bevatron--Bevalac external particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, J.J.; Crebbin, K.C.

    1975-03-01

    Time-intensity modulation in beam spill can be of primary concern in some experiments. The major source of this beam structure is from main-guide field-magnet power supply ripple. If the time constants are appropriate, then final control of beam structure can be accomplished by closed loop control of the intensity of beam spill. The response characteristics of the feedback system will determine the final structure. At high beam fluxes signal to noise ratio of beam detectors, in the feedback loop, can be improved by at least four orders of magnitude by using photomultiplier tubes and a water Cherenkov counter in place of the normal secondary emission monitor. At beam fluxes below 10 10 particles per second (PPS), a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier tube are used in the feedback system. A plastic scintillator and photomultiplier are also used in the beam as intensity monitors. At intensities below about 10 7 PPS standard counting techniques are used. For intensities between 10 6 to 110 9 PPS, the photomultiplier is used as a current source driving an integrating circuit which is then calibrated to read the number of particles per pulse. (U.S.)

  16. Normalization as a canonical neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carandini, Matteo; Heeger, David J.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the brain relies on a set of canonical neural computations, repeating them across brain regions and modalities to apply similar operations to different problems. A promising candidate for such a computation is normalization, in which the responses of neurons are divided by a common factor that typically includes the summed activity of a pool of neurons. Normalization was developed to explain responses in the primary visual cortex and is now thought to operate throughout the visual system, and in many other sensory modalities and brain regions. Normalization may underlie operations such as the representation of odours, the modulatory effects of visual attention, the encoding of value and the integration of multisensory information. Its presence in such a diversity of neural systems in multiple species, from invertebrates to mammals, suggests that it serves as a canonical neural computation. PMID:22108672

  17. Structured, intensive education maximising engagement, motivation and long-term change for children and young people with diabetes: a cluster randomised controlled trial with integral process and economic evaluation - the CASCADE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Deborah; Thompson, Rebecca; Sawtell, Mary; Allen, Elizabeth; Cairns, John; Smith, Felicity; Jamieson, Elizabeth; Hargreaves, Katrina; Ingold, Anne; Brooks, Lucy; Wiggins, Meg; Oliver, Sandy; Jones, Rebecca; Elbourne, Diana; Santos, Andreia; Wong, Ian C K; O'Neill, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Hindmarsh, Peter; Annan, Francesca; Viner, Russell

    2014-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and young people is increasing worldwide with a particular increase in children under the age of 5 years. Fewer than one in six children and young people achieve glycosylated fraction of haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in the range identified as providing best future outcomes. There is an urgent need for clinic-based pragmatic, feasible and effective interventions that improve both glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL). The intervention offers both structured education, to ensure young people know what they need to know, and a delivery model designed to motivate self-management. To assess the feasibility of providing a clinic-based structured educational group programme incorporating psychological approaches to improve long-term glycaemic control, QoL and psychosocial functioning in a diverse range of young people. The study was a pragmatic, cluster randomised control trial with integral process and economic evaluation. Twenty-eight paediatric diabetes services across London, south-east England and the Midlands. Minimised by clinic size, age (paediatric or adolescent) and specialisation (district general hospital clinic or teaching hospital/tertiary clinic). Half of the sites were randomised to the intervention arm and half to the control arm. Allocation was concealed until after clinics had consented and the first participant was recruited. Where possible, families were blind to allocation until recruitment finished. Forty-three health-care practitioners (14 teams) were trained in the intervention. The study recruited 362 children aged 8-16 years, diagnosed with T1D for > 12 months, with a mean 12-month HbA1c level of ≥ 8.5%. Two 1-day workshops taught intervention delivery. A detailed manual and resources were provided. The intervention consists of four group education sessions led by a paediatric diabetes specialist nurse with another team member. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, assessed at the individual level

  18. Impact of global warming on the typhoon intensities during 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Elsner, J.; Chun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The climate of 2015 was characterized by a strong El Nino, global warmth, and record setting tropical cyclone (TC) intensity for western North Pacific typhoons. In this study, the highest TC intensity in 32 years (1984-2015) is shown to be a consequence of above normal TC activity—following natural internal variation—and greater efficiency of intensity. The efficiency of intensity (EINT) is termed the `blasting effect' and refers to typhoon intensification at the expense of occurrence. Statistical models show that the EINT is mostly due to the anomalous warmth in the environment as indicated by global mean sea-surface temperature. In comparison, the EINT due to El Nino is negligibly small. This implies that the record-setting intensity of 2015 might not have occurred without environmental warming and suggests that a year with even greater TC intensity is possible in the near future when above normal activity coincides with another record EINT due to continuous warming.

  19. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...... patients. We were not able to further reduce the already existing low noise levels in the ICU and did not find any association between the environmental intervention and the presence of normal sleep characteristics in the PSG....

  20. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... miles per hour Tennis (doubles) Ballroom dancing General gardening Vigorous Intensity Race walking, jogging, or running Swimming ... miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute Intensity The ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  17. Towards higher intensities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 2 weeks, commissioning of the machine protection system has advanced significantly, opening up the possibility of higher intensity collisions at 3.5 TeV. The intensity has been increased from 2 bunches of 1010 protons to 6 bunches of 2x1010 protons. Luminosities of 6x1028 cm-2s-1 have been achieved at the start of fills, a factor of 60 higher than those provided for the first collisions on 30 March.   The recent increase in LHC luminosity as recorded by the experiments. (Graph courtesy of the experiments and M. Ferro-Luzzi) To increase the luminosity further, the commissioning crews are now trying to push up the intensity of the individual proton bunches. After the successful injection of nominal intensity bunches containing 1.1x1011 protons, collisions were subsequently achieved at 450 GeV with these intensities. However, half-way through the first ramping of these nominal intensity bunches to 3.5 TeV on 15 May, a beam instability was observed, leading to partial beam loss...

  18. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Karpievitch

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated. Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05 as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  20. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  1. Volume-preserving normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    A practical method is described for computing the unique generator of the algebra of first integrals associated with a large class of Hopf-zero singularity. The set of all volume-preserving classical normal forms of this singularity is introduced via a Lie algebra description. This is a maximal vector space of classical normal forms with first integral; this is whence our approach works. Systems with a nonzero condition on their quadratic parts are considered. The algebra of all first integrals for any such system has a unique (modulo scalar multiplication) generator. The infinite level volume-preserving parametric normal forms of any nondegenerate perturbation within the Lie algebra of any such system is computed, where it can have rich dynamics. The associated unique generator of the algebra of first integrals are derived. The symmetry group of the infinite level normal forms are also discussed. Some necessary formulas are derived and applied to appropriately modified Rössler and generalized Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our theoretical results. An approach (introduced by Iooss and Lombardi) is applied to find an optimal truncation for the first level normal forms of these examples with exponentially small remainders. The numerically suggested radius of convergence (for the first integral) associated with a hypernormalization step is discussed for the truncated first level normal forms of the examples. This is achieved by an efficient implementation of the results using Maple. (paper)

  2. Volume-preserving normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2013-10-01

    A practical method is described for computing the unique generator of the algebra of first integrals associated with a large class of Hopf-zero singularity. The set of all volume-preserving classical normal forms of this singularity is introduced via a Lie algebra description. This is a maximal vector space of classical normal forms with first integral; this is whence our approach works. Systems with a nonzero condition on their quadratic parts are considered. The algebra of all first integrals for any such system has a unique (modulo scalar multiplication) generator. The infinite level volume-preserving parametric normal forms of any nondegenerate perturbation within the Lie algebra of any such system is computed, where it can have rich dynamics. The associated unique generator of the algebra of first integrals are derived. The symmetry group of the infinite level normal forms are also discussed. Some necessary formulas are derived and applied to appropriately modified Rössler and generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our theoretical results. An approach (introduced by Iooss and Lombardi) is applied to find an optimal truncation for the first level normal forms of these examples with exponentially small remainders. The numerically suggested radius of convergence (for the first integral) associated with a hypernormalization step is discussed for the truncated first level normal forms of the examples. This is achieved by an efficient implementation of the results using Maple.

  3. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  4. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  5. The intense neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1966-01-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through μ-, π- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  6. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  7. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  8. Managing TRANSPETRO pipeline integrity through the use of intensive geographic information systems (GIS); Gerenciando a integridade de dutos da TRANSPETRO com o uso intensivo de ferramenta de geoprocessamento (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Ulisses D. [PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrozo, Andre; Correa, Fernando Luiz R.S.; Silva, Helder A.da [PricewaterhouseCoopers (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The GIS (Geographic Information System) is a system that monitors and crosses information of data bases and documents from the geographic localization of an object, allowing analyses integrated for the development of solutions. In it, data on objects of the real world they are stored in a base and on dynamic to a map in the screen of the computer. Intent to the potential of this tool, PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. - TRANSPETRO, invested in the creation of the GIS TRANSPETRO system that, using the geo-processing technology, optimizes the management of its network pipeline and guarantees a bigger trustworthiness to the operation. Thus, it became basic tool in the process of sustainability of the Program of Integrity of Ducts, created for the company to take care of to the demanding standards of its politics of Security, Environment and Health. Developed in partnership with the PricewaterhouseCoopers, it has as objective to congregate in one alone place the geo-referenced data of all cartographic base of the network pipeline and information of the equipment and ducts, making possible to the Units of Business to elaborate qualitative and quantitative analyses on the operation of the company. The system still foresees that all the refined data are shared with the other corporative systems, becoming efficient instrument to guide the taking of decision of the managers of the company. (author)

  9. Integral or integrated marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davčik Nebojša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing theorists and experts try to develop business efficient organization and to get marketing performance at higher, business integrated level since its earliest beginnings. The core issue in this paperwork is the dialectic and practical approach dilemma should we develop integrated or integral marketing approach in the organization. The presented company cases as well as dialectic and functional explanations of this dilemma clearly shows that integrated marketing is narrower approach than integral marketing if we take as focal point new, unique and completed entity. In the integration the essence is in getting different parts together, which do not have to make necessary the new entity. The key elements in the definition of the integral marketing are necessity and holistic, e.g. necessity to develop new, holistic entity.

  10. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  11. Some Modified Integrated Squared Error Procedures for Multivariate Normal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    p-dimensional Gaussian. There are a number of measures of qualitative robustness but the most important is the influence function . Most of the other...measures are derived from the influence function . The influence function is simply proportional to the score function (Huber, 1981, p. 45 ). The... influence function at the p-variate Gaussian distribution Np (UV) is as -1P IC(x; ,N) = IE&) ;-") sD=XV = (I+c) (p+2)(x-p) exp(- ! (x-p) TV-.1-)) (3.6

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit ... Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower ...

  13. Integral dose conservation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Adam S.; Das, Shiva K.; Curle, Charles; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment planners frequently modify beam arrangements and use IMRT to improve target dose coverage while satisfying dose constraints on normal tissues. The authors herein analyze the limitations of these strategies and quantitatively assess the extent to which dose can be redistributed within the patient volume. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that (1) the normalized integral dose is constant across concentric shells of normal tissue surrounding the target (normalized to the average integral shell dose), (2) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans with different numbers and orientations of beams, and (3) the normalized integral shell dose is constant across plans when reducing the dose to a critical structure. Using the images of seven patients previously irradiated for cancer of brain or prostate cancer and one idealized scenario, competing three-dimensional conformal and IMRT plans were generated using different beam configurations. Within a given plan and for competing plans with a constant mean target dose, the normalized integral doses within concentric ''shells'' of surrounding normal tissue were quantitatively compared. Within each patient, the normalized integral dose to shells of normal tissue surrounding the target was relatively constant (1). Similarly, for each clinical scenario, the normalized integral dose for a given shell was also relatively constant regardless of the number and orientation of beams (2) or degree of sparing of a critical structure (3). 3D and IMRT planning tools can redistribute, rather than eliminate dose to the surrounding normal tissues (intuitively known by planners). More specifically, dose cannot be moved between shells surrounding the target but only within a shell. This implies that there are limitations in the extent to which a critical structure can be spared based on the location and geometry of the critical structure relative to the target.

  14. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  15. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  16. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.

  17. Dosimetric Comparison of Three-Dimensional Conformal Proton Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy, and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Treatment of Pediatric Craniopharyngiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Grosshans, David R., E-mail: dgrossha@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques B. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Palmer, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Song, Xiaofei; Amos, Richard A.; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Meyer, Jeffrey J.; Mahajan, Anita; Woo, Shiao Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Cranial irradiation in pediatric patients is associated with serious long-term adverse effects. We sought to determine whether both three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3D-PRT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) decrease integral dose to brain areas known to harbor neuronal stem cells, major blood vessels, and other normal brain structures for pediatric patients with craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: IMRT, forward planned, passive scattering proton, and IMPT plans were generated and optimized for 10 pediatric patients. The dose was 50.4 Gy (or cobalt Gy equivalent) delivered in 28 fractions with the requirement for planning target volume (PTV) coverage of 95% or better. Integral dose data were calculated from differential dose-volume histograms. Results: The PTV target coverage was adequate for all modalities. IMRT and IMPT yielded the most conformal plans in comparison to 3D-PRT. Compared with IMRT, 3D-PRT and IMPT plans had a relative reduction of integral dose to the hippocampus (3D-PRT, 20.4; IMPT, 51.3%{sup Asterisk-Operator }), dentate gyrus (27.3, 75.0%{sup Asterisk-Operator }), and subventricular zone (4.5, 57.8%{sup Asterisk-Operator }). Vascular organs at risk also had reduced integral dose with the use of proton therapy (anterior cerebral arteries, 33.3{sup Asterisk-Operator }, 100.0%{sup Asterisk-Operator }; middle cerebral arteries, 25.9%{sup Asterisk-Operator }, 100%{sup Asterisk-Operator }; anterior communicating arteries, 30.8{sup Asterisk-Operator }, 41.7%{sup Asterisk-Operator }; and carotid arteries, 51.5{sup Asterisk-Operator }, 77.6{sup Asterisk-Operator }). Relative reduction of integral dose to the infratentorial brain (190.7{sup Asterisk-Operator }, 109.7%{sup Asterisk-Operator }), supratentorial brain without PTV (9.6, 26.8%{sup Asterisk-Operator }), brainstem (45.6, 22.4%{sup Asterisk-Operator }), and whole brain without PTV (19.4{sup Asterisk

  18. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S.; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. ► System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. ► Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. ► Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  19. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  20. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  1. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  2. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  3. The N'ormal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An optimal way of choosing sample size in an opinion poll is indicated using the normal distribution. Introduction. In this article, the ubiquitous normal distribution is intro- duced as a convenient approximation for computing bino- mial probabilities for large values of n. Stirling's formula. • and DeMoivre-Laplace theorem ...

  4. AGS intensity record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1994-01-01

    As flashed in the September issue, this summer the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) reached a proton beam intensity of 4.05 x 10 13 protons per puise, claimed as the highest intensity ever achieved in a proton synchrotron. It is, however, only two-thirds of the way to its final goal of 6 x 10 13 . The achievement is the resuit of many years of effort. The Report of the AGS II Task Force, issued in February 1984, laid out a comprehensive programme largely based on a careful analysis of the PS experience at CERN. The AGS plan had two essential components: the construction of a new booster, and major upgrades to the AGS itself.

  5. Intensities of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissell, David; Vannini, Phillip; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the intensities of long-distance commuting journeys in order to understand how bodily sensibilities become attuned to the regular mobilities which they undertake. More people are travelling farther to and from work than ever before, owing to a variety of factors which relate...... to complex social and geographical dynamics of transport, housing, lifestyle, and employment. Yet, the experiential dimensions of long-distance commuting have not received the attention that they deserve within research on mobilities. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in Australia, Canada, and Denmark...... this paper aims to further develop our collective understanding of the experiential particulars of long-distance workers or ‘supercommuters’. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in broad social patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions...

  6. Intensive culture”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2012-01-01

    Scott Lash argumenterer i bogen Intensive Culture for en vending fra ”ekstensiv” til ”intensiv” i den nutidige globalisering. Bogens udgangspunkt er en stadig mere ekstensiv og gennemtrængende globalisering af kultur, forbrugs- og vareformer, ”comtemporary culture, today’s capitalism – our global......, samlivsmøstre etc.; ”the sheer pace of life in the streets of today’s mega-city would seem somehow to be intensive”....

  7. Intense ion beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Sudan, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for producing intense megavolt ion beams are disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflex triode-type pulsed ion accelerator is described which produces ion pulses of more than 5 kiloamperes current with a peak energy of 3 MeV. In other embodiments, the device is constructed so as to focus the beam of ions for high concentration and ease of extraction, and magnetic insulation is provided to increase the efficiency of operation

  8. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  9. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  10. Infecções do trato respiratório superior e treinos de alta intensidade: uma revisão integrativa da literatura / Upper respiratory tract infections and high intensity training: an integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucila Coelho Boaes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata-se de uma revisão de literatura integrativa com o objetivo de discutir os principais achados na literatura envolvendo o comportamento do sistema imunológico frente ao estímulo de treino intenso. Foram utilizados os seguintes termos de busca: “infecção”, “inflamação”, “exercício”, “infecção do trato respiratório superior”. Foram revisados 70 estudos para a seleção inicial, dos quais selecionaram-se 19 publicações que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. O treino intenso induz alterações transitórias no sistema imunológico, gerando reorganização das respostas fisiológicas entre seus componentes, tais como: citocinas, células natural killer, receptores como toll like, monócitos e linfócitos T e B. O treinamento intenso causa elevação de glicocorticóides e catecolaminas, bem como temporário e inapropriado desenvolvimento da resposta de imunidade adaptativa, especificamente relacionada a uma resposta das células T tipo 1 e 2, aumentando o risco de infecções do trato respiratório superior. This review aimed to present a discussion on recent scientific findings that correlated extenuating training and immunological response in human samples. Seventy stud-ies were initially chosen according to the following search terms: "infection", "in-flammation", "exercise" and "upper respir-atory tract infection". Eventually, nineteen investigations met the inclusion criteria and therefore were chosen to compose this article. The literature has shown that intense training is associated with transi-ent changes in the immune system, induc-ing reorganization of physiological re-sponses involving cytokines, natural killer cells, toll-like receptors, monocytes and T and B cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that training at extenuating rates is associated to elevated plasmatic levels of glucocorticoids and catechola-mines. It has also been reported a tempo-rary and inappropriate development

  11. Integral-preserving integrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D I; Quispel, G R W

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations having a first integral may be solved numerically using one of several methods, with the integral preserved to machine accuracy. One such method is the discrete gradient method. It is shown here that the order of the method can be bootstrapped repeatedly to higher orders of accuracy. The method is illustrated using the Henon-Heiles system. (letter to the editor)

  12. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step in brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis. During MR image acquisition, different scanners or parameters would be used for scanning different subjects or the same subject at a different time, which may result in large intensity variations. This intensity variation will greatly undermine the performance of subsequent MRI processing and population analysis, such as image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement. In this work, we proposed a new histogram normalization method to reduce the intensity variation between MRIs obtained from different acquisitions. In our experiment, we scanned each subject twice on two different scanners using different imaging parameters. With noise estimation, the image with lower noise level was determined and treated as the high-quality reference image. Then the histogram of the low-quality image was normalized to the histogram of the high-quality image. The normalization algorithm includes two main steps: (1) intensity scaling (IS), where, for the high-quality reference image, the intensities of the image are first rescaled to a range between the low intensity region (LIR) value and the high intensity region (HIR) value; and (2) histogram normalization (HN),where the histogram of low-quality image as input image is stretched to match the histogram of the reference image, so that the intensity range in the normalized image will also lie between LIR and HIR. We performed three sets of experiments to evaluate the proposed method, i.e., image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement, and compared this with the existing intensity normalization method. It is then possible to validate that our histogram normalization framework can achieve better results in all the experiments. It is also demonstrated that the brain template with normalization preprocessing is of higher quality than the template with no normalization processing. We have proposed

  13. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  14. Bianchi surfaces: integrability in an arbitrary parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieszporski, Maciej; Sym, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    We discuss integrability of normal field equations of arbitrarily parametrized Bianchi surfaces. A geometric definition of the Bianchi surfaces is presented as well as the Baecklund transformation for the normal field equations in an arbitrarily chosen surface parametrization.

  15. Análise da integração dos sistemas de gestão normalizados ISO 9001 e OHSAS 18001: estudo de casos múltiplos Analysis of the integration of normalized management systems ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001: multiple case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Aparecida Vitoreli

    2013-03-01

    integration of management systems takes place in organizations; therefore, the investigation of this process seems to be an interesting area to study contributing to IMS research. Focusing on the normalized management systems ISO 9001 and OHSAS 18001, this paper analyzes their integration by means of a case study based on three variables: IMS implementation process, integration of the IMS management norm requirements and structure. The results show similarities between the IMS implementation process and the documentation related to the IMS established by the organizations. It was also found that the size of the organization can affect the structure established to oversee the IMS management.

  16. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  17. Facial-Attractiveness Choices Are Predicted by Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furl, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Do people appear more attractive or less attractive depending on the company they keep? A divisive-normalization account-in which representation of stimulus intensity is normalized (divided) by concurrent stimulus intensities-predicts that choice preferences among options increase with the range of option values. In the first experiment reported here, I manipulated the range of attractiveness of the faces presented on each trial by varying the attractiveness of an undesirable distractor face that was presented simultaneously with two attractive targets, and participants were asked to choose the most attractive face. I used normalization models to predict the context dependence of preferences regarding facial attractiveness. The more unattractive the distractor, the more one of the targets was preferred over the other target, which suggests that divisive normalization (a potential canonical computation in the brain) influences social evaluations. I obtained the same result when I manipulated faces' averageness and participants chose the most average face. This finding suggests that divisive normalization is not restricted to value-based decisions (e.g., attractiveness). This new application to social evaluation of normalization, a classic theory, opens possibilities for predicting social decisions in naturalistic contexts such as advertising or dating.

  18. Orchestrating intensities and rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Juelskjær, Malou

    2016-01-01

    environmentality and learning-centered governance standards has dramatic and performative effects for the production of (educational) subjectivities. This implies a shift from governing identities, categories and structures towards orchestrating affective intensities and rhythms. Finally, the article discusses...... and the making of subjects have held sway for many years; and it is also well known that schools have been some of the most regular purchasers of psychological methods, tests and classifications. Following but also elaborating upon governmentality studies, it is suggested that a current shift towards...

  19. Time variations in geomagnetic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    After many years spent by paleomagnetists studying the directional behavior of the Earth's magnetic field at all possible timescales, detailed measurements of field intensity are now needed to document the variations of the entire vector and to analyze the time evolution of the field components. A significant step has been achieved by combining intensity records derived from archeological materials and from lava flows in order to extract the global field changes over the past 12 kyr. A second significant step was due to the emergence of coherent records of relative paleointensity using the remanent magnetization of sediments to retrace the evolution of the dipole field. A third step was the juxtaposition of these signals with those derived from cosmogenic isotopes. Contemporaneous with the acquisition of records, new techniques have been developed to constrain the geomagnetic origin of the signals. Much activity has also been devoted to improving the quality of determinations of absolute paleointensity from volcanic rocks with new materials, proper selection of samples, and investigations of complex changes in magnetization during laboratory experiments. Altogether these developments brought us from a situation where the field changes were restricted to the past 40 kyr to the emergence of a coherent picture of the changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment for at least the past 1 Myr. On longer timescales the field variability and its average behavior is relatively well documented for the past 400 Myr. Section 3 gives a summary of most methods and techniques that are presently used to track the field intensity changes in the past. In each case, current limits and potential promises are discussed. The section 4 describes the field variations measured so far over various timescales covered by the archeomagnetic and the paleomagnetic records. Preference has always been given to composite records and databases in order to extract and discuss major and global geomagnetic

  20. Gait Recognition and Walking Exercise Intensity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular patients consult doctors for advice regarding regular exercise, whereas obese patients must self-manage their weight. Because a system for permanently monitoring and tracking patients’ exercise intensities and workouts is necessary, a system for recognizing gait and estimating walking exercise intensity was proposed. For gait recognition analysis, αβ filters were used to improve the recognition of athletic attitude. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD was used to filter the noise of patients’ attitude to acquire the Fourier transform energy spectrum. Linear discriminant analysis was then applied to this energy spectrum for training and recognition. When the gait or motion was recognized, the walking exercise intensity was estimated. In addition, this study addressed the correlation between inertia and exercise intensity by using the residual function of the EMD and quadratic approximation to filter the effect of the baseline drift integral of the acceleration sensor. The increase in the determination coefficient of the regression equation from 0.55 to 0.81 proved that the accuracy of the method for estimating walking exercise intensity proposed by Kurihara was improved in this study.

  1. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  2. Normal form for mirror machine Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic algorithm is developed for performing canonical transformations on Hamiltonians which govern particle motion in magnetic mirror machines. These transformations are performed in such a way that the new Hamiltonian has a particularly simple normal form. From this form it is possible to compute analytic expressions for gyro and bounce frequencies. In addition, it is possible to obtain arbitrarily high order terms in the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion. The algorithm makes use of Lie series, is an extension of Birkhoff's normal form method, and has been explicitly implemented by a digital computer programmed to perform the required algebraic manipulations. Application is made to particle motion in a magnetic dipole field and to a simple mirror system. Bounce frequencies and locations of periodic orbits are obtained and compared with numerical computations. Both mirror systems are shown to be insoluble, i.e., trajectories are not confined to analytic hypersurfaces, there is no analytic third integral of motion, and the adiabatic magnetic moment expansion is divergent. It is expected also that the normal form procedure will prove useful in the study of island structure and separatrices associated with periodic orbits, and should facilitate studies of breakdown of adiabaticity and the onset of ''stochastic'' behavior

  3. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  4. Sonographic findings of normal newborn spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Dong Gyu

    1988-01-01

    The authors performed spinal cord ultrasonography of 21 healthy newborn infants in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Normal spinal cord revealed low echogenecity at that of cerebrospinal fluid and was demarcated by intense reflections from its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The central canal was routinely seen as a thin linear reflection in the center of the cord. The nerve roots making up the cauda equina formed a poorly defined collection of intense linear echoes extending from the conus. On real time image, the normal spinal cord exhibited rather slow and rhythmical anteroposterior movement within the subarachnoid fluid. A distinct and rapid vascular pulsation of the spinal cord was usually recognizable. The approximate level of vertebral bodies was determined as follows; most ventrally located vertebral body was thought to be L5 and S1 was seen slightly posterior to the L5 directed inferoposteriorly. According to the above criteria terminal portions of spinal cord were seen around the L2 body in 5 MHz and pointed termination of conus medullaris was clearly seen at L2-3 junction and in upper body of L3 by 7.5 MHz. So it would be better to examine by 5 MHz for spatial orientation and then by 7.5 MHz for more accurate examination. High-resolution, real-time ultrasonography was a safe, rapid screening technique for evaluation of the spinal cord in infants. Additional applications of spinal sonography may be possible in the evaluation of neonatal syringohydromyelia and meningocele as well as intraspinal cyst localization for possible percutaneous puncture by ultrasound guidance

  5. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  6. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  7. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  8. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  9. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  10. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  11. MR imaging of the normal pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Hisao; Takahashi, Norio; Uchida, Yoshie; Nakayama, Gen; Bito, Kaoru; Haba, Hirotsugu; Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Hamamoto, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate current 1.5-T MR imaging with respiratory ordered phase encoding (ROPE) technique in the identification of pancreatic contour and main pancreatic duct, 100 normal subjects examined with spin echo technique including transaxial scans of T 1 -WI,T 2 -WI, and proton density (PD)-WI were reviewed. The results of MR imaging were then compared with computed tomography (CT). Pancreatic contour was divided into 3 parts; head, body, and tail. T 1 -WI was the best pulse sequence in describing pancreas and the rates of specific identification of head, body, and tail were 69%, 97%, and 92%, respectively. While these rates were 62%, 90%, and 92% with plain CT and 69%, 94%, and 94% with contrast-enhanced CT, respectively. A combination of MR imaging and CT yielded better rates of identification. The main pancreatic duct was visible in 44% as a low intensity line on T 1 -WI and in 16% on plain CT. Dorsal to pancreas, all of the major vessels were seen in every patients. Ventrally, retroperitoneal fat was important, however, it was not a limiting factor. When respiratory compensation using ROPE functioned well, it was possible to differentiate bowel from pancreas in patients with sparse fat because signal intensity of the pancreas tended to be higher than that of gastrointestinal wall and its contents on T 1 -WI. Current MR imaging seemed to be a complementary method with CT in the identification of the pancreas. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaicher, Wibke [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: wibke.blaicher@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Schwindt, Jens [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Deutinger, Josef [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Bernaschek, Gerhard [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  14. Biomassa microbiana do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto, submetido a intensidades de pastejo Soil microbial biomass in a no-tillage integrated crop-livestock system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicarlos Damacena de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, boa parte do suprimento de nutrientes para as pastagens provém das excreções dos animais, na forma de esterco e de urina, o que resulta em estímulo à atividade e ao acúmulo de nutrientes nas suas células. Este estudo foi desenvolvido num experimento de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto, iniciado em 2001, e objetivou avaliar o impacto de diferentes intensidades de pastejo da pastagem de inverno (aveia-preta + azevém; 10, 20 e 40 cm, e um tratamento sem pastejo sobre a atividade microbiana e sobre os teores e estoques de C, N e P na biomassa microbiana na camada de 0-10 cm de um Latossolo Vermelho, no Sul do Brasil, durante o ciclo da pastagem. Os teores e estoques dos nutrientes na biomassa e a atividade microbiana foram alterados pela intensidade de pastejo e pela época no ciclo da pastagem. Os teores de C e de P microbiano aumentaram do início da pastagem, em maio, até o período de grande produção de fitomassa, em setembro, após o qual decresceram, acompanhando o início de senescência da pastagem. Por sua vez, o N microbiano decresceu de maio para novembro, possivelmente devido à absorção desse nutriente pelas plantas. Sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária em plantio direto mantêm a qualidade biológica do solo, sendo, sob adequada lotação animal, similar ao sistema plantio direto sem a entrada de animais. No entanto, sob alta intensidade de pastejo (10 cm há perdas nessa qualidade do solo em condições de estresse hídrico.In integrated crop-livestock systems most of the nutrient supply for a pasture is provided by animal excretions, in the form of manure or urine, stimulating the activity and accumulation of nutrients in the cells. This study was carried out in an integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage, initiated in 2001, with the objective of evaluating the impact of different winter grazing intensities (black oat + Italian ryegrass; 10, 20

  15. The experience of weight management in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann; Hernandez, David A; Wellington, Christine M; Kidd, Art

    2016-11-01

    No prior research has been done with normal weight persons specific to their experience of weight management. The purpose of this research was to discover the experience of weight management in normal weight individuals. Glaserian grounded theory was used. Qualitative data (focus group) and quantitative data (food diary, study questionnaire, and anthropometric measures) were collected. Weight management was an ongoing process of trying to focus on living (family, work, and social), while maintaining their normal weight targets through five consciously and unconsciously used strategies. Despite maintaining normal weights, the nutritional composition of foods eaten was grossly inadequate. These five strategies can be used to develop new weight management strategies that could be integrated into existing weight management programs, or could be developed into novel weight management interventions. Surprisingly, normal weight individuals require dietary assessment and nutrition education to prevent future negative health consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were quantitated...

  17. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals; Fertigungstechnologie fuer praxistaugliche Josephson-Spannungsnormale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe 2.43 ' ' Josephson-Schaltungen' '

    2016-09-15

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  18. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Precaval retropancreatic space: Normal anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Myung Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    The authors defined precaval retropancreatic space as the space between pancreatic head with portal vein and IVC and analyzed the CT findings of this space to know the normal structures and size in this space. We evaluated 100 cases of normal abdominal CT scan to find out normal anatomic structures of precaval retropancreatic space retrospectively. We also measured the distance between these structures and calculated the minimum, maximum and mean values. At the splenoportal confluence level, normal structures between portal vein and IVC were vessel (21%), lymph node (19%), and caudate lobe of liver (2%) in order of frequency. The maximum AP diameter of portocaval lymph node was 4 mm. Common bile duct (CBD) was seen in 44% and the diameter was mean 3 mm and maximum 11 mm. CBD was located in extrapancreatic (75%) and lateral (60.6%) to pancreatic head. At IVC-left renal vein level, the maximum distance between CBD and IVC was 5 mm and the structure between posterior pancreatic surface and IVC was only fat tissue. Knowledge of these normal structures and measurement will be helpful in differentiating pancreatic mass with retropancreatic mass such as lymphadenopathy.

  20. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Correspondence normalized ghost imaging on compressive sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zhuang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) offers great potential with respect to conventional imaging techniques. It is an open problem in GI systems that a long acquisition time is be required for reconstructing images with good visibility and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). In this paper, we propose a new scheme to get good performance with a shorter construction time. We call it correspondence normalized ghost imaging based on compressive sensing (CCNGI). In the scheme, we enhance the signal-to-noise performance by normalizing the reference beam intensity to eliminate the noise caused by laser power fluctuations, and reduce the reconstruction time by using both compressive sensing (CS) and time-correspondence imaging (CI) techniques. It is shown that the qualities of the images have been improved and the reconstruction time has been reduced using CCNGI scheme. For the two-grayscale ''double-slit'' image, the mean square error (MSE) by GI and the normalized GI (NGI) schemes with the measurement number of 5000 are 0.237 and 0.164, respectively, and that is 0.021 by CCNGI scheme with 2500 measurements. For the eight-grayscale ''lena'' object, the peak signal-to-noise rates (PSNRs) are 10.506 and 13.098, respectively using GI and NGI schemes while the value turns to 16.198 using CCNGI scheme. The results also show that a high-fidelity GI reconstruction has been achieved using only 44% of the number of measurements corresponding to the Nyquist limit for the two-grayscale “double-slit'' object. The qualities of the reconstructed images using CCNGI are almost the same as those from GI via sparsity constraints (GISC) with a shorter reconstruction time. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Turbulence Intensity Scaling: A Fugue

    OpenAIRE

    Basse, Nils T.

    2018-01-01

    We study streamwise turbulence intensity definitions using smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow measurements made in the Princeton Superpipe. Scaling of turbulence intensity with the bulk (and friction) Reynolds number is provided for the definitions. The turbulence intensity is proportional to the square root of the friction factor with the same proportionality constant for smooth- and rough-wall pipe flow. Turbulence intensity definitions providing the best description of the measurements are i...

  3. Characterizations of the diurnal shapes of OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensity variations: inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chakrabarty

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OI 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow emission by means of the Dayglow Photometer (DGP at Mt. Abu (24.6° N, 73.7° E, dip lat 19.09° N, a station under the crest of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA, reveal day-to-day changes in the shapes of the diurnal profiles of dayglow intensity variations. These shapes have been characterized using the magnetometer data from equatorial and low-latitude stations. Substantial changes have been noticed in the shapes of the dayglow intensity variations between 10:00–15:00 IST (Indian Standard Time during the days when normal and counter electrojet events are present over the equator. It is found that the width (the time span corresponding to 0.8 times the maximum dayglow intensity of the diurnal profile has a linear relationship with the integrated electrojet strength. Occasional deviation from this linear relationship is attributed to the presence of substantial mean meridional wind.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere – atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  4. Characterizations of the diurnal shapes of OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensity variations: inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available Measurements of OI 630.0 nm thermospheric dayglow emission by means of the Dayglow Photometer (DGP at Mt. Abu (24.6° N, 73.7° E, dip lat 19.09° N, a station under the crest of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA, reveal day-to-day changes in the shapes of the diurnal profiles of dayglow intensity variations. These shapes have been characterized using the magnetometer data from equatorial and low-latitude stations. Substantial changes have been noticed in the shapes of the dayglow intensity variations between 10:00–15:00 IST (Indian Standard Time during the days when normal and counter electrojet events are present over the equator. It is found that the width (the time span corresponding to 0.8 times the maximum dayglow intensity of the diurnal profile has a linear relationship with the integrated electrojet strength. Occasional deviation from this linear relationship is attributed to the presence of substantial mean meridional wind.

    Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere – atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  6. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  7. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  8. Parametric investigations of target normal sheath acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Alessandro; Sgattoni, Andrea; Passoni, Matteo

    2011-10-01

    One of the most important challenges related to laser-driven ion acceleration research is to actively control some important ion beam features. This is a peculiar topic in the light of future possible technological applications. In the present work we make use of one theoretical model for target normal sheath acceleration in order to reproduce recent experimental parametric studies about maximum ion energy dependencies on laser parameters. The key role played by pulse energy and intensity is enlightened. Finally the effective dependence of maximum ion energy on intensity is evaluated using a combined theoretical approach, obtained by means of an analytical and a particle-in-cell numerical investigation.

  9. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  10. How We Remember the Emotional Intensity of Past Musical Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening to music usually elicits emotions that can vary considerably in their intensity over the course of listening. Yet, after listening to a piece of music, people are easily able to evaluate the music’s overall emotional intensity. There are two different hypotheses about how affective experiences are temporally processed and integrated: (1 all moments’ intensities are integrated, resulting in an averaged value; (2 the overall evaluation is built from specific single moments, such as the moments of highest emotional intensity (peaks, the end, or a combination of these. Here we investigated what listeners do when building an overall evaluation of a musical experience. Participants listened to unknown songs and provided moment-to-moment ratings of experienced intensity of emotions. Subsequently, they evaluated the overall emotional intensity of each song. Results indicate that participants’ evaluations were predominantly influenced by their average impression but that, in addition, the peaks and end emotional intensities contributed substantially. These results indicate that both types of processes play a role: All moments are integrated into an averaged value but single moments might be assigned a higher value in the calculation of this average.

  11. CT and MRI normal findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.

    1998-01-01

    This book gives answers to questions frequently heard especially from trainees and doctors not specialising in the field of radiology: Is that a normal finding? How do I decide? What are the objective criteria? The information presented is three-fold. The normal findings of the usual CT and MRI examinations are shown with high-quality pictures serving as a reference, with inscribed important additional information on measures, angles and other criteria describing the normal conditions. These criteria are further explained and evaluated in accompanying texts which also teach the systematic approach for individual picture analysis, and include a check list of major aspects, as a didactic guide for learning. The book is primarily intended for students, radiographers, radiology trainees and doctors from other medical fields, but radiology specialists will also find useful details of help in special cases. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  13. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  15. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  16. Safeguarding genome integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Syljuåsen, Randi G

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms that preserve genome integrity are highly important during the normal life cycle of human cells. Loss of genome protective mechanisms can lead to the development of diseases such as cancer. Checkpoint kinases function in the cellular surveillance pathways that help cells to cope with D...

  17. MR demonstration of the meninges: Normal and pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Henkes, H.; Sander, B.; Felix, R.

    1988-01-01

    The MR appearance of normal and pathological meninges was studied in 23 patients. Amongst twelve normals, T 1 -weighted images demonstrated the meninges as slightly hyperintense density structures (compared with CSF) which increased in signal intensity somewhat after the administration of gadolinium-DTPA. On T 2 -weighted images, the subarachnoid space and meninges were isointense. In eleven patients with inflammatory disease or tumourous infiltration of the meninges, abnormal findings were evident in the unenhanced images as well as after administration of gadolinium-DTPA. Compared with CT, MR proved greatly superior in the diagnosis of meningeal abnormalities. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparative study of rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue on magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zimei; Wang Xizhen; Wang Bin; Liu Feng; Li Haiqing; Sun Yequan; Dong Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in evaluating the blood perfusion of tumor by analyzing the features and indexes of PWI on rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 carcinoma were established under direct surgical vision embedding tumor tissue. MR examination was performed at 21 days after the tumor implantation. The signal intensity -time curve of hepatic tumor and normal liver tissue were obtained. Mean time to enhance (MTE), negative enhancement integral (NEI), time to minimum (TM), maximum slope of decrease (MSD) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were measured. Results: MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the normal liver tissue were 208.341±2.226 ms, 78.334±8.152, 24.059±1.927 ms, 38.221±2.443, and 15.389±2.526, respectively. MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the tumor tissue were 175.437±4.182 ms, 123.203±19.455, 17.061±1.834 ms, 125.740±4.842, and 67.832±2.882, respectively. The MTE and TM of tumor were shorter than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). NEI, MSD, and MSI of tumor were higher than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: PWI can distinguish the normal liver tissue from the tumor tissue, which is helpful in evaluating blood perfusion of different hepatic tissues. (authors)

  19. Stress Intensity Factors of Slanted Cracks in Bi-Material Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Azhar Kamarudin, Kamarul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stress intensity factors (SIF) of slanted cracks in bi-material plates subjected to mode I loading is numerically solved. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of research works are available studying the normal cracks in both similar and dissimilar plates. However, lack of SIF behavior for slanted cracks especially when it is embedded in bi-material plates. The slanted cracks are then modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. Two plates of different in mechanical properties are firmly bonded obliquely and then slanted edge cracks are introduced at the lower inclined edge. Isoparametric singular element is used to model the crack tip and the SIF is determined which is based on the domain integral method. Three mechanical mismatched and four slanted angles are used to model the cracks. According to the present results, the effects of mechanical mismatch on the SIF for normal cracks are not significant. However, it is played an important role when slanted angles are introduced. It is suggested that higher SIF can be obtained when the cracks are inclined comparing with the normal cracks. Consequently, accelerating the crack growth at the interface between two distinct materials.

  20. Normalized mutual information based PET-MR registration using K-Means clustering and shading correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, Z.F.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Pluim, J.P.W.; Gee, J.C.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Vannier, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the efficient re-binning and shading based correction of intensity distributions of the images prior to normalized mutual information based registration is presented. Our intensity distribution re-binning method is based on the K-means clustering algorithm as opposed to the generally

  1. An experimental study on MRI signal intensity of albumin solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, In Oak; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Song, Chi Sung; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1990-01-01

    This in vitro study attempted to correlate magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity with concentration of albumin solution in magnetic field strength of 2.0 Tesla (T) and 0.5T. MR imaging of bovine serum albumin solutions of various concentrations ranging from 0 to 40 g/dl was performed on both 2.0T and 0.5T MR units. The relative (with respect to normal saline) signal intensities of each albumin solution were measured in T1-weighted, proton density-weighted and T2-weighted MR images, correlated with albumin concentration on each pulse sequence, and compared between 2.0T and 0.5T. Additionally, the albumin concentrations showing signal intensities identical to those of white matter, cortical gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal brain MRI were determined by visual comparison of those images. 1. On T1-weighted (SE 400-500 msec/30 msec) images under 2.0T and 0.5T field strength, the signal intensity increased with increasing albumin concentrations up to about 30-35 g/dl and the decreased. For the solutions ranging from 0 to about 5 g/dl concentration, the signal intensities appeared isointense to normal saline on visual inspection. 2. On proton density-weighted (SE 2000-2500 msec/30 msec) images under 2.0T and 0.5T field strength, the signal intensity slightly increased with increasing albumin concentrations up to about 7.5-10 g/dl, and then gradually decreased. 3. On T2-weighted (SE 2000-2500 msec/80-100 msec) images under 2.0T and 0.5T field strength, the signal intensity slightly increased with increasing albumin concentrations up to about 7.5-10 g/dl, and then gradually decreased. Above the concentration of about 25-30 g/dl, the signal intensity appeared lower than that of normal saline on visual inspection. 4. Compared with the signal intensities of normal brain structures on T1-weighted images under 2.0T and 0.5T field strength, the signal intensities of the albumin solution below 2.5-5 g/dl concentration were similar to that of CSF, and those of

  2. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  3. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  4. Mixed normal inference on multicointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic likelihood analysis of cointegration in I(2) models, see Johansen (1997, 2006), Boswijk (2000) and Paruolo (2000), has shown that inference on most parameters is mixed normal, implying hypothesis test statistics with an asymptotic 2 null distribution. The asymptotic distribution of the

  5. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? Cayla, who is 4 years old, did not finish her lunch. But she is ready to play. Her ... snack for later. That is okay! Your child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in ...

  6. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  7. Semigroups of data normalization functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable centering and scaling are functions that are typically used in data normalization. Various properties of centering and scaling functions are presented. It is shown that if we use two centering functions (or scaling functions) successively, the result depends on the order in which the

  8. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  9. Neutron RBE for normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1979-01-01

    RBE for various normal tissues is considered as a function of neutron dose per fraction. Results from a variety of centres are reviewed. It is shown that RBE is dependent on neutron energy and is tissue dependent, but is not specially high for the more critical tissues or for damage occurring late after irradiation. (author)

  10. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  11. MISTRAL V1.1.1: assessing doses from atmospheric releases in normal and off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Kerouanton; Patrick Devin; Malvina Rennesson

    2006-01-01

    intensity. When the meteorology is specified, the user characterizes the release. In off-normal situation, successive stages can be defined independently from the meteorological stages. For each one, radionuclides are chosen, the activity released is given and the lung absorption type is specified in accordance with its chemical form. All those compositions can be recorded. In case of annual releases, release duration is automatically set to 1 year. When the release is fully specified, the receptors have to be characterized by giving their coordinates or their distance and angle from release point. Doses can be calculated at various moments specified by the user. In case of annual releases, the standard observation times correspond to one year but the user has the possibility to calculate for any whole number of years up to 70 years. Finally, the user has to specify the output data needed: primary data such as concentrations in air or on soil (at the different moments specified or integrated) or doses. For the public, five potential exposure pathways are available in MISTRAL V1.1.1. Code: - From plume: internal and external exposure, - From deposit: external exposure, internal exposure due to inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and ingestion. Exposure from plume occurs as soon as radionuclides are released in atmosphere whereas deposited activity generates long time exposure. Dose impact is calculated at all distances and times stated by the user for different age classes. Ingestion is calculated by using a dynamic food chain model. Ingestion dose is calculated by using annual food consumptions. The user has to possibility to record its own data. In off-normal situations, doses from deposit are integrated over 30 days or one year duration. If the routine release scheme is chosen, doses are integrated over the duration specified by the user as observation times. The time spent inside and outside by any individual can be specified. In addition, attenuation coefficient for

  12. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  13. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  14. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a "normalization pool." Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing.

  15. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J.; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a “normalization pool.” Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing. PMID:24910596

  16. Tumor vessel normalization after aerobic exercise enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadler, Keri L; Thomas, Nicholas J; Galie, Peter A; Bhang, Dong Ha; Roby, Kerry C; Addai, Prince; Till, Jacob E; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Chen, Christopher S; Ryeom, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    Targeted therapies aimed at tumor vasculature are utilized in combination with chemotherapy to improve drug delivery and efficacy after tumor vascular normalization. Tumor vessels are highly disorganized with disrupted blood flow impeding drug delivery to cancer cells. Although pharmacologic anti-angiogenic therapy can remodel and normalize tumor vessels, there is a limited window of efficacy and these drugs are associated with severe side effects necessitating alternatives for vascular normalization. Recently, moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to induce vascular normalization in mouse models. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the tumor vascular normalization induced by exercise. Shear stress, the mechanical stimuli exerted on endothelial cells by blood flow, modulates vascular integrity. Increasing vascular shear stress through aerobic exercise can alter and remodel blood vessels in normal tissues. Our data in mouse models indicate that activation of calcineurin-NFAT-TSP1 signaling in endothelial cells plays a critical role in exercise-induced shear stress mediated tumor vessel remodeling. We show that moderate aerobic exercise with chemotherapy caused a significantly greater decrease in tumor growth than chemotherapy alone through improved chemotherapy delivery after tumor vascular normalization. Our work suggests that the vascular normalizing effects of aerobic exercise can be an effective chemotherapy adjuvant.

  17. Integrating Online Discussion in an Australian Intensive English Language Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Internet was used for online interaction in a 10-week English-as-a-Second-Language course. Students were highly motivated and seeking eventual admittance to undergraduate programs through successful completion of International English language Testing System (IELTS) examinations. (Author/VWL)

  18. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  19. Intensity-modulated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Radhe

    1996-01-01

    Optimized intensity-modulated treatments one of the important advances in photon radiotherapy. Intensity modulation provides a greatly increased control over dose distributions. Such control can be maximally exploited to achieve significantly higher levels of conformation to the desired clinical objectives using sophisticated optimization techniques. Safe, rapid and efficient delivery of intensity-modulated treatments has become feasible using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator under computer control. The need for all other field shaping devices such as blocks, wedges and compensators is eliminated. Planning and delivery of intensity-modulated treatments is amenable to automation and development of class solutions for each treatment site and stage which can be implemented not only at major academic centers but on a wide scale. A typical treatment involving as many as 10 fields can be delivered in times shorter than much simpler conventional treatments. The main objective of the course is to give an overview of the current state of the art of planning and delivery methods of intensity-modulated treatments. Specifically, the following topics will be covered using representative optimized plans and treatments: 1. A typical procedure for planning and delivering an intensity-modulated treatment. 2. Quantitative definition of criteria (i.e., the objective function) of optimization of intensity-modulated treatments. Clinical relevance of objectives and the dependence of the quality of optimized intensity-modulated plans upon whether the objectives are stated purely in terms of simple dose or dose-volume criteria or whether they incorporate biological indices. 3. Importance of the lateral transport of radiation in the design of intensity-modulated treatments. Impact on dose homogeneity and the optimum choice of margins. 4. Use of intensity-modulated treatments in escalation of tumor dose for the same or lower normal tissue dose. Fractionation of intensity-modulated treatments

  20. Intensity-modulated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Radhe

    1997-01-01

    Optimized intensity-modulated treatments one of the important advances in photon radiotherapy. Intensity modulation provides a greatly increased control over dose distributions. Such control can be maximally exploited to achieve significantly higher levels of conformation to the desired clinical objectives using sophisticated optimization techniques. Safe, rapid and efficient delivery of intensity-modulated treatments has become feasible using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator under computer control. The need for all other field shaping devices such as blocks, wedges and compensators is eliminated. Planning and delivery of intensity-modulated treatments is amenable to automation and development of class solutions for each treatment site and stage which can be implemented not only at major academic centers but on a wide scale. A typical treatment involving as many as 10 fields can be delivered in times shorter than much simpler conventional treatments. The main objective of the course is to give an overview of the current state of the art of planning and delivery methods of intensity-modulated treatments. Specifically, the following topics will be covered using representative optimized plans and treatments: 1. A typical procedure for planning and delivering an intensity-modulated treatment. 2. Quantitative definition of criteria (i.e., the objective function) of optimization of intensity-modulated treatments. Clinical relevance of objectives and the dependence of the quality of optimized intensity-modulated plans upon whether the objectives are stated purely in terms of simple dose or dose-volume criteria or whether they incorporate biological indices. 3. Importance of the lateral transport of radiation in the design of intensity-modulated treatments. Impact on dose homogeneity and the optimum choice of margins. 4. Use of intensity-modulated treatments in escalation of tumor dose for the same or lower normal tissue dose. Fractionation of intensity-modulated treatments

  1. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal Hearing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Werner, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in post-lingually deaf adults as well as pre-lingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). In order to apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in NH children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners’ sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. Design SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90 degree shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2X3 between subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough “depth” (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal hearing listeners (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In Experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The Infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in Experiment 2 infant performance was

  2. Feasibility of using intensity-modulated radiotherapy to improve lung sparing in treatment planning for distal esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Anurag; Guerrero, Thomas M.; Liu, H. Helen; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Wang Xiaochun; Murshed, Hasan; Bonnen, Mark D.; Garg, Amit K.; Stevens, Craig W.; Chang, Joe Y.; Jeter, Melinda D.; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the feasibility whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be used to reduce doses to normal lung than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in treating distal esophageal malignancies. Patients and methods: Ten patient cases with cancer of the distal esophagus were selected for a retrospective treatment-planning study. IMRT plans using four, seven, and nine beams (4B, 7B, and 9B) were developed for each patient and compared with the 3DCRT plan used clinically. IMRT and 3DCRT plans were evaluated with respect to PTV coverage and dose-volumes to irradiated normal structures, with statistical comparison made between the two types of plans using the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. Results: IMRT plans (4B, 7B, 9B) reduced total lung volume treated above 10 Gy (V 1 ), 20 Gy (V 2 ), mean lung dose (MLD), biological effective volume (V eff ), and lung integral dose (P 1 , 5% for V 2 , and 2.5 Gy for MLD. IMRT improved the PTV heterogeneity (P<0.05), yet conformity was better with 7B-9B IMRT plans. No clinically meaningful differences were observed with respect to the irradiated volumes of spinal cord, heart, liver, or total body integral doses. Conclusions: Dose-volume of exposed normal lung can be reduced with IMRT, though clinical investigations are warranted to assess IMRT treatment outcome of esophagus cancers

  3. Intensity limits for stationary and interacting multi-soliton complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Akhmediev, Nail N.

    2002-01-01

    We obtain an accurate estimate for the peak intensities of multi-soliton complexes for a Kerr-type nonlinearity in the (1+1) dimension problem. Using exact analytical solutions of the integrable set of nonlinear Schroedinger equations, we establish a rigorous relationship between the eigenvalues of incoherently-coupled fundamental solitons and the range of admissible intensities. A clear geometrical interpretation of this effect is given

  4. Asymptotic inference for jump diffusions with state-dependent intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becheri, Gaia; Drost, Feico; Werker, Bas

    2016-01-01

    We establish the local asymptotic normality property for a class of ergodic parametric jump-diffusion processes with state-dependent intensity and known volatility function sampled at high frequency. We prove that the inference problem about the drift and jump parameters is adaptive with respect to

  5. [Intensity of pentose phosphate metabolism of carbohydrates in various brain areas in normal and starved animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimov, B F

    2002-01-01

    The activities of key enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6 PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), were studied in cytoplasmatic fractions of brain cortical (limbic, orbital, sensorimotor cortex) and subcortical (myelencefalon, mesencefalon, hypothalamus) structures of rats subjected to starvation for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days. Short-term starvation (1-3 days) caused activation of 6-GPD and 6-PGD both in cortical and subcortical structures. Long-term starvation for 5-7 days caused a decrease of activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes in all studied structures. It is suggested that enzymes of pentose phosphate pathway in nervous tissues are functionally and metabolically related to glutathione system and during starvation they indirectly participate in the regulation lipid peroxidation processes.

  6. The effects of frequency and intensity level on glottal closure in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Albers, FWJ

    The degree of glottal closure during phonation has an influence on voice quality and it is related to the robustness of the voice source. To quantify glottal closure a frame of reference was created by investigating 47 healthy men and 92 healthy women with no vocal complaints using

  7. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  8. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  9. Rough Sets and Stomped Normal Distribution for Simultaneous Segmentation and Bias Field Correction in Brain MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhirup; Maji, Pradipta

    2015-12-01

    The segmentation of brain MR images into different tissue classes is an important task for automatic image analysis technique, particularly due to the presence of intensity inhomogeneity artifact in MR images. In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous segmentation and bias field correction in brain MR images. It integrates judiciously the concept of rough sets and the merit of a novel probability distribution, called stomped normal (SN) distribution. The intensity distribution of a tissue class is represented by SN distribution, where each tissue class consists of a crisp lower approximation and a probabilistic boundary region. The intensity distribution of brain MR image is modeled as a mixture of finite number of SN distributions and one uniform distribution. The proposed method incorporates both the expectation-maximization and hidden Markov random field frameworks to provide an accurate and robust segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach, along with a comparison with related methods, is demonstrated on a set of synthetic and real brain MR images for different bias fields and noise levels.

  10. Effect of nifedipine on gastric emptying in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, M.; Lange, R.C.; McAllister, R.G.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nifedipine (N) inhibits calcium entry into smooth muscle cells and relaxes esophageal smooth muscle. The authors studied N's effect on gastric emptying of liquids and solids. Ten normal subjects underwent radionuclide (In-111-DTPA in water and Tc-99m-sulfur colloid tagged to chicken liver) emptying tests with and without 30 mg N given orally 20 min prior to meal ingestion. Peak plasma N levels were either 30 or 60 min after drug dosing and showed a 3-fold variation (low 145 ng/ml, high 434 ng/ml). Both mean N levels and integral concentration time values were twice as high as those obtained after 30 mg sublingual dosing in normals previously studied in our lab. The authors conclude that plasma N levels which are associated with significant esophageal motility effects do not change gastric emptying in normal subjects. The data also show that N levels are greater after oral than sublingual dosing of 30 mg in normal subjects

  11. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  12. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  13. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  14. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  15. A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhimeng; Lu, Guangfeng; Yang, Kaiyong; Long, Xingwu; Huang, Yun

    2012-02-01

    A digital intensity stabilization system for HeNe laser is developed. Based on a switching power IC to design laser power supply and a general purpose microcontroller to realize digital PID control, the system constructs a closed loop to stabilize the laser intensity by regulating its discharge current. The laser tube is made of glass ceramics and its integrated structure is steady enough to eliminate intensity fluctuations at high frequency and attenuates all intensity fluctuations, and this makes it easy to tune the control loop. The control loop between discharge current and photodiode voltage eliminates the long-term drifts. The intensity stability of the HeNe laser with this system is 0.014% over 12 h.

  16. Normalizations of High Taylor Reynolds Number Power Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Alejandro; Koster, Timothy; Larue, John C.

    2014-11-01

    The velocity power spectrum provides insight in how the turbulent kinetic energy is transferred from larger to smaller scales. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted where high intensity turbulence is generated by means of an active turbulence grid modeled after Makita's 1991 design (Makita, 1991) as implemented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (M&W, 1998). The goal of this study is to document the evolution of the scaling region and assess the relative collapse of several proposed normalizations over a range of Rλ from 185 to 997. As predicted by Kolmogorov (1963), an asymptotic approach of the slope (n) of the inertial subrange to - 5 / 3 with increasing Rλ is observed. There are three velocity power spectrum normalizations as presented by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938) and George (1992). Results show that the Von Karman and Howarth normalization does not collapse the velocity power spectrum as well as the Kolmogorov and George normalizations. The Kolmogorov normalization does a good job of collapsing the velocity power spectrum in the normalized high wavenumber range of 0 . 0002 University of California, Irvine Research Fund.

  17. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  19. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  20. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)