WorldWideScience

Sample records for normalized fusion activities

  1. Fusion cost normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  2. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  3. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  4. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  5. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  6. Low activation materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Bloom, E.E.; Doran, D.G.; Smith, D.L.; Reuther, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The viability of fusion as a future energy source may eventually be determined by safety and environmental factors. Control of the induced radioactivity characteristics of the materials used in the first wall and blanket could have a major favorable impact on these issues. In the United States, materials program efforts are focused on developing new structural alloys with radioactive decay characteristics which would greatly simplify long-term waste disposal of reactor components. A range of alloy systems is being explored in order to maintain the maximum number of design options. Significant progress has been made, and it now appears probable that reduced-activation engineering alloys with properties at least equivalent to conventional alloys can be successfully developed and commercialized. 10 refs., 1 fig

  7. Sensor fusion for active vibration isolation in precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjepkema, D.; van Dijk, Johannes; Soemers, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Sensor fusion is a promising control strategy to improve the performance of active vibration isolation systems that are used in precision equipment. Normally, those vibration isolation systems are only capable of realizing a low transmissibility. Additional objectives are to increase the damping

  8. Activation product transport in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    Activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products will enter the coolant and/or tritium breeding material of fusion reactor power plants and experiments and cause personnel access problems. Radiation levels around plant components due to these products will cause difficulties with maintenance and repair operations throughout the plant. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to determine the transport of these products in fusion reactor coolant/tritium breeding materials. Without special treatment, it is likely that fusion reactor power plant operators could experience dose rates as high as 8 rem per hour around a number of plant components after only a few years of operation. (orig.)

  9. Subsequent development of the normal temperature fusion reaction. Joon kakuyugo sonogo no shinten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, T. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-04-24

    This paper reports on a NATTOH model made public in May 1989 by T. Matsumoto who took notice of abnormality of the normal temperature fusion reaction. The NATTO model is based on a chain reaction by hydrogen with a hydrogen-catalyzed fusion reaction which is the normal temperature fusion reaction as an elementary process. If a high temperature fusion reaction is a small-size simulation of the fusion reaction rising on the surface of the sparkling star like the sun, the normal temperature fusion reaction can be a small-size simulation of the phenomena in the last years of the star in the far distance of the space. This gives reality to the normal temperature fusion reaction. The reaction mechanism of the normal temperature fusion reaction is almost being clarified by a NATTOH model. There remain problems on a possibility of generation of unknown radioactive rays and identification of radioactive wastes, but it seems that a prospect of commercialization can be talked about now. As for the utilization as energy, sea water may be used as it is. 10 ref., 5 figs.

  10. Fusion Nuclear Data activities at FNL, IPR

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Prajapati; B. Pandey; S. Jakhar; C.V. S. Rao; T. K. Basu; B. K. Nayak; S. V. Suryanarayana; A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the current fusion nuclear data activities at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, Institute for Plasma Research. It consist of infrastructure development for the cross-section measurements of structural materials with an accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator and theoretical study of the cross-section using advanced nuclear reaction modular codes EMPIRE and TALYS. It will also cover the proposed surrogate experiment to measure 55Fe (n, p) 55Mn using BARC-TIFR Pel...

  11. Fusion hindrance in reactions with very heavy ions: Border between normal and hindered fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Caiwan; Li Qingfeng; Boilley, David; Shen Junjie; Abe, Yasuhisa

    2011-01-01

    The fusion hindrance in heavy-ion collisions is studied in the framework of the two-center liquid drop model. It appears that the neck and the radial degrees of freedom might both be hampered by an inner potential barrier on their path between the contact configuration to the compound nucleus. Heavy-ion reactions with and without the two kinds of fusion hindrance are classified through systematic calculations. It is found that the number of reactions without radial fusion hindrance is much smaller than that without neck fusion hindrance, and for both kinds of fusion hindrance the number of reactions without fusion hindrance at small mass-asymmetry parameter α is smaller than that at large α. In the formation of a given compound nucleus, if a reaction with α c is not hindered, then other reactions with α>α c are also not hindered, as is well known experimentally.

  12. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  13. Lower activation materials and magnetic fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Bloom, E.E.; Davis, J.W.; Gold, R.E.; Little, R.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, D.L.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactivity in fusion reactors can be effectively controlled by materials selection. The detailed relationship between the use of a material for construction of a magnetic fusion reactor and the material's characteristics important to waste disposal, safety, and system maintainability has been studied. The quantitative levels of radioactivation are presented for many materials and alloys, including the role of impurities, and for various design alternatives. A major outcome has been the development of quantitative definitions to characterize materials based on their radioactivation properties. Another key result is a four-level classification scheme to categorize fusion reactors based on quantitative criteria for waste management, system maintenance, and safety. A recommended minimum goal for fusion reactor development is a reference reactor that (a) meets the requirements for Class C shallow land burial of waste materials, (b) permits limited hands-on maintenance outside the magnet's shield within 2 days of a shutdown, and (c) meets all requirements for engineered safety. The achievement of a fusion reactor with at least the characteristics of the reference reactor is a realistic goal. Therefore, in making design choices or in developing particular materials or alloys for fusion reactor applications, consideration must be given to both the activation characteristics of a material and its engineering practicality for a given application

  14. Efficient sensor selection for active information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmian; Ji, Qiang

    2010-06-01

    In our previous paper, we formalized an active information fusion framework based on dynamic Bayesian networks to provide active information fusion. This paper focuses on a central issue of active information fusion, i.e., the efficient identification of a subset of sensors that are most decision relevant and cost effective. Determining the most informative and cost-effective sensors requires an evaluation of all the possible subsets of sensors, which is computationally intractable, particularly when information-theoretic criterion such as mutual information is used. To overcome this challenge, we propose a new quantitative measure for sensor synergy based on which a sensor synergy graph is constructed. Using the sensor synergy graph, we first introduce an alternative measure to multisensor mutual information for characterizing the sensor information gain. We then propose an approximated nonmyopic sensor selection method that can efficiently and near-optimally select a subset of sensors for active fusion. The simulation study demonstrates both the performance and the efficiency of the proposed sensor selection method.

  15. Disposal of activated fusion wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Dorn, D.W.; Maninger, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    We have used NRC's low-level waste disposal regulation (10CFR61) to classify activated fusion reactor structural materials. The limits set by the NRC in 10CFR61 will require extremely expensive steels with degraded properties, even when the limits are adjusted to give credit for use of an expensive hot waste disposal facility. Both the expense and the poorer properties could have a negative impact on reactor safety, thus subverting the overall goals of the NRC family of regulations. Following this initial study, we have examined the methodology used by the NRC to set waste concentration limits. For a long-lived gamma emitter like 94 Nb, direct gamma dose to an intruding home builder dominates the limit setting process. Of all the tests applied to the waste, the controlling test which sets the lowest limit ignores all the engineered intrusion barriers which are themselves required by the same regulation. If even a small fraction of the barriers remain intact (an extremely likely event), the 94 Nb limit could be increased from the 0.2 Ci/m 3 in 10CFR61 to 1100 Ci/m 3 without exceeding the limits set for personnel exposure. Similarly, cautious application of the 10CFR61 methodology to other radioisotopes of interest to fusion designers will result in limits which are more in line with the unique nature of fusion energy

  16. Activation analyses for different fusion structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The leading candidate structural materials, viz., the vanadium alloys, the nickel or the manganese stabilized austenitic steels, and the ferritic steels, are analysed in terms of their induced activation in the TPSS fusion power reactor. The TPSS reactor has 1950 MW fusion power and inboard and outboard average neutron wall loading of 3.75 and 5.35 MW/m 2 respectively. The results shows that, after one year of continuous operation, the vanadium alloys have the least radioactivity at reactor shutdown. The maximum difference between the induced radioactivity in the vanadium alloys and in the other iron-based alloys occurs at about 10 years after reactor shutdown. At this time, the total reactor radioactivity, using the vanadium alloys, is about two orders of magnitude less than the total reactor radioactivity utilizing any other alloy. The difference is even larger in the first wall, the FW-vanadium activation is 3 orders of magnitude less than other alloys' FW activation. 2 refs., 7 figs

  17. The Relationship Between Fusion, Suppression, and Diplopia in Normal and Amblyopic Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Baldwin, Alex S; Hess, Robert F

    2016-10-01

    Single vision occurs through a combination of fusion and suppression. When neither mechanism takes place, we experience diplopia. Under normal viewing conditions, the perceptual state depends on the spatial scale and interocular disparity. The purpose of this study was to examine the three perceptual states in human participants with normal and amblyopic vision. Participants viewed two dichoptically separated horizontal blurred edges with an opposite tilt (2.35°) and indicated their binocular percept: "one flat edge," "one tilted edge," or "two edges." The edges varied with scale (fine 4 min arc and coarse 32 min arc), disparity, and interocular contrast. We investigated how the binocular interactions vary in amblyopic (visual acuity [VA] > 0.2 logMAR, n = 4) and normal vision (VA ≤ 0 logMAR, n = 4) under interocular variations in stimulus contrast and luminance. In amblyopia, despite the established sensory dominance of the fellow eye, fusion prevails at the coarse scale and small disparities (75%). We also show that increasing the relative contrast to the amblyopic eye enhances the probability of fusion at the fine scale (from 18% to 38%), and leads to a reversal of the sensory dominance at coarse scale. In normal vision we found that interocular luminance imbalances disturbed binocular combination only at the fine scale in a way similar to that seen in amblyopia. Our results build upon the growing evidence that the amblyopic visual system is binocular and further show that the suppressive mechanisms rendering the amblyopic system functionally monocular are scale dependent.

  18. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  19. Activation product transport in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products will enter the coolant and/or tritium breeding material of fusion reactor power plants and experiments and cause personnel access problems. Radiation levels around plant components due to these products will cause difficulties with maintenance and repair operations throughout the plant. Similar problems are experienced around fission reactor systems. The determination of the transport of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products through the system is achieved using the computer code RAPTOR. This code calculates the mass transfer of a number of activation products based on the corrosion and sputtering rates through the system, the deposition and release characteristics of various plant components, the neturon flux spectrum, as well as other plant parameters. RAPTOR assembles a system of first order linear differential equations into a matrix equation based upon the reactor system parameters. Included in the transfer matrix are the deposition and erosion coefficients, and the decay and activation data for the various plant nodes and radioactive isotopes. A source vector supplies the corrosion and neutron sputtering source rates. This matrix equation is then solved using a matrix operator technique to give the specific activity distribution of each radioactive species throughout the plant. Once the amount of mass transfer is determined, the photon transport due to the radioactive corrosion and sputtering product sources can be evaluated, and dose rates around the plant components of interest as a function of time can be determined. This method has been used to estimate the radiation hazards around a number of fusion reactor system designs

  20. Potential off-normal events and associated radiological source terms for the compact ignition tokamak: Fusion Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.; Lyon, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the latest step in the United States program to develop the commercial application of fusion power, is designed as the first fusion device to achieve ignition conditions. It is to be constructed near Princeton, New Jersey on the site of the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). To address the environmental impact and public safety concerns, a preliminary analysis was performed of potential off-normal radiological releases. Operational occurrences, natural phenomena, accidents with external origins, and accidents external to the PPPL site were considered as potential sources for off-normal events. Based on an initial screening, events were selected for preliminary analysis. Included in these events were tritium releases from the tritium delivery and recovery system, tritium releases from the torus, releases of activated nitrogen from the test cell or cryostat, seismic events, and shipping accidents. In each case, the design considerations related to the event were reviewed and the release scenarios discussed. Because of the complexity of some of the proposed safety systems, in some cases event trees were used to describe the accident scenarios. For each scenario, the probability was estimated as well as the release magnitude, isotope, chemical form, and release mode. 10 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately

  2. Role of cytoskeleton in regulating fusion of nucleoli: a study using the activated mouse oocyte model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Hua-Yu; Jiao, Guang-Zhong; Wang, Hui-Li; Tan, Xiu-Wen; Wang, Tian-Yang; Zheng, Liang-Liang; Kong, Qiao-Qiao; Tan, Jing-He

    2014-09-01

    Although fusion of nucleoli was observed during pronuclear development of zygotes and the behavior of nucleoli in pronuclei has been suggested as an indicator of embryonic developmental potential, the mechanism for nucleolar fusion is unclear. Although both cytoskeleton and the nucleolus are important cellular entities, there are no special reports on the relationship between the two. Role of cytoskeleton in regulating fusion of nucleoli was studied using the activated mouse oocyte model. Mouse oocytes were cultured for 6 h in activating medium (Ca²⁺-free CZB medium containing 10 mM SrCl₂) supplemented with or without inhibitors for cytoskeleton or protein synthesis before pronuclear formation, nucleolar fusion, and the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) were examined. Whereas treatment with microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D or B or intermediate filament inhibitor acrylamide suppressed nucleolar fusion efficiently, treatment with microtubule inhibitor demecolcine or nocodazole or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide had no effect. The cytochalasin D- or acrylamide-sensitive temporal window coincided well with the reported temporal window for nucleolar fusion in activated oocytes. Whereas a continuous incubation with demecolcine prevented pronuclear formation, pronuclei formed normally when demecolcine was excluded during the first hour of activation treatment when the MPF activity dropped dramatically. The results suggest that 1) microfilaments and intermediate filaments but not microtubules support nucleolar fusion, 2) proteins required for nucleolar fusion including microfilaments and intermediate filaments are not de novo synthesized, and 3) microtubule disruption prevents pronuclear formation by activating MPF. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. Health physics aspects of activation products from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.; Poston, J.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the activation products from fusion reactors and their attendant impacts is discussed. This includes a discussion on their production, expected inventories, and the status of metabolic data on these products

  4. Revised graphs of activation data for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.

    1991-06-01

    Activation data are required for calculation of induced activity in a fusion reactor. This report gives in graphical form, the activation data which have been evaluated based on recent measurements and calculations, for use in the activation calculation code system THIDA-2. It shows transmutation and decay chain data, activation cross sections and decay gamma-ray emission data for 152 nuclides of interest in terms of fusion reactor design. This report is an updated and enlarged version of a similar report compiled in 1982 for the activation data of 116 nuclides, which had been shown to be extremely effective in referring the activation data and in locating and correcting inappropriate data. (author)

  5. Overview of Australian activities of fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, S.; Dewar, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The new status of the H-1NF heliac stellarator as a national facility and the signed international implementing agreement on collaboration in the development of the stellarator concept should together be a significant encouragement for further fusion research in Australia. In this report the future of fusion research in Australia is discussed with special attention being paid to the importance of stellarator power plant studies and in particular stellarator fusion neutronics. The main differences between tokamak and stellarator neutronics analyses are identified, namely the neutron wall loading, geometrical modelling and total heating in in-vessel reactor components including toroidal field (TF) coils. An approach to stellarator (TF) coils heating calculations is discussed. This approach is a modification of a previously reported method of total heating calculations in tokamak TF coils. Due to the more complicated nature of stellarator neutronics analyses, simplified approaches to fusion neutronics already developed for tokamaks are expected to be even more important and widely used for designing a conceptual stellarator power plant. (orig.)

  6. Thought-action fusion and anxiety disorders symptoms in normal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, P; Meesters, C; Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Campbell, J

    2001-07-01

    The present study examined thought-action fusion (TAF) in a large sample of normal adolescents (n=427). Participants completed the Thought-Action Fusion Questionnaire for Adolescents (TAFQ-A) and scales measuring trait anxiety, symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, other anxiety disorders, and depression. Results showed that the TAFQ-A is a reliable instrument assessing two dimensions of TAF, viz. Morality (i.e., the belief that unacceptable thoughts are morally equivalent to overt actions) and Likelihood (i.e., the belief that thinking of an unacceptable or disturbing situation will increase the probability that that situation actually occurs). Furthermore, TAF was not only associated with symptoms of OCD, but also with symptoms of other anxiety disorders and depression. However, when controlling for levels of trait anxiety, most connections between TAF and anxiety disorders symptoms disappeared. Symptoms of OCD and generalised anxiety remained significantly related to TAF. Altogether, the data are supportive of the notion that TAF is involved in a broad range of anxiety disorders and in particular OCD.

  7. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation

  8. Fusion alpha loss diagnostic for ITER using activation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Vermaercke, P.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1298-1301 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT) /26th./. Port o, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * fusion product * burning plasma diagnostics * alpha losses * activation technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002778

  9. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  10. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2008-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated (and contaminated) materials that will be generated during plant operation and after decommissioning-a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. This will clearly demonstrate that designers developing fusion facilities will be dealing with the back end of this type of energy production from the beginning of the conceptual design of power plants. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. Beginning in the mid 1980s and continuing to the present, numerous fusion designs examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. In this paper, recent history is analyzed, a new fusion waste management scheme is covered, and possibilities for how its prospects can be improved are examined

  11. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  12. Nuclear design of a very-low-activation fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Hopkins, G.R.

    1983-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the nuclear design aspects of using very-low-activation materials, such as SiC, MgO, and aluminum for fusion-reactor first wall, blanket, and shield applications. In addition to the advantage of very-low radioactive inventory, it was found that the very-low-activation fusion reactor can also offer an adequate tritium-breeding ratio and substantial amount of blanket nuclear heating as a conventional-material-structured reactor does. The most-stringent design constraint found in a very-low-activation fusion reactor is the limited space available in the inboard region of a tokamak concept for shielding to protect the superconducting toroidal field coil. A reference design was developed which mitigates the constraint by adopting a removable tungsten shield design that retains the inboard dimensions and gives the same shield performance as the reference STARFIRE tokamak reactor design

  13. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  14. Evaluation of the activity levels in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    1977-05-01

    The activation of a fusion reactor blanket (316 SS or V-10Cr-10Ti as structure) with a minimum lithium inventory has been calculated for 0.83 MW/m 2 wall load. The resulting radiation levels and waste problems are discussed. The dose rate near the steel structure will always be higher than 0.1 rem/h due to its niobium content. After 200 to 100,000 years of decay the potential biological hazard originating from this high level fusion reactor waste (with plutonium recyclation). (orig.) [de

  15. Design aspects of low activation fusion ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Hopkins, G.R.; Trester, P.W.; Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary design studies have been done exploring (1) materials selection, (2) shutdown biological dose rates, (3) mechanical design and (4) thermal design of a fusion ignition experiment made of low activation materials. From the results of these preliminary design studies it appears that an ignition experiment could be built of low activation materials, and that this design would allow hands-on access for maintenance

  16. Goals, challenges, and successes of managing fusion activated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Massaut, V.; Zucchetti, M.; Tobita, K.; Cadwallader, L.

    2007-01-01

    After decades of designing magnetic and inertial fusion power plants, it is timely to develop a new framework for managing the activated materials generated during plant operation and after decommissioning - a framework that takes into account the lessons learned from numerous international fusion and fission studies and the environmental, political, and present reality in the U.S., EU, and Japan. Since the inception of the fusion projects in the early 1970s, the majority of power plant designs have focused on the disposal of active materials in geological repositories as the main option for handling the replaceable and life-of-plant components, adopting the preferred fission waste management approach. It is becoming evident that future regulations for geological burial will be upgraded to assure tighter environmental controls. Along with the political difficulty of constructing new repositories worldwide, the current reality suggests reshaping all aspects of handling the continual stream of fusion active materials. There is a growing international effort in support of this new trend. Beginning in the mid 1990s and continuing to the present, fusion designs developed in Europe, U.S., and Japan have examined replacing the disposal option with more environmentally attractive approaches, redirecting their attention to recycling and clearance while continuing the development of materials with low activation potential. These options became more technically feasible in recent years with the development of radiation-hardened remote handling (RH) tools and the introduction of the clearance category for slightly radioactive materials by national and international nuclear agencies. We applied all scenarios to selected fusion studies. While recycling and clearance appeared technically attractive and judged, in some cases, a must requirement to control the radwaste stream, the disposal scheme emerged as the preferred option for specific components for several reasons, including

  17. Development of materials of low activation for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    Unlike nuclear fission, in nuclear fusion, it is a feature that activated products are not formed, but this merit is to be lost if the structural materials of the equipment are activated by generated neutrons. Accordingly, the elements which are activated by neutrons must be excluded from the structural materials in nuclear fusion reactors and fusion experiment apparatuses. As the result of evaluating the materials for low induced activation, aluminum alloys are the most promising. Aluminum alloys have also excellent properties in gas release, the thermal stress of first walls due to the temperature distribution, vaporizing quantity at the time of disruption and so on. However, in the existing aluminum alloys, the lowering of strength above 150 deg C is remarkable, and when the aluminum walls of vacuum vessels are too thick, the rate of tritium breeding may lower. The Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, carried out the total design of a tokamak made of an aluminum alloy for the first time in the world. In this paper, the properties of the aluminum alloy and the feasibility of its industrial manufacture are described, and the course of improving this alloy is pointed out. Improved 5083 alloy and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li alloy were investigated. The industrial manufacture of large plates with this Al-Mg-Li alloy is possible now. (Kako, I.)

  18. Transmutation and activation of fusion reactor wall and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report details the extent of the nuclear data needed for inclusion in a data library to be used for general assessments of fusion reactor structure activation and transmutation, describes the sources of data available, reviews the literature and explores the reliability of current calculations by providing an independent assessment of the activity inventory to be expected from five structural materials in a simple blanket design for comparison with the results of other workers. An indication of the nuclear reactions which make important contributions to the activity, transmutation and gas production rates for these structural materials is also presented. (author)

  19. Impurity concentration limits and activation in fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines waste management problems related to impurity activation in first-wall, shield, and magnet materials for fusion reactors. Definitions of low activity based on hands-on recycling, remote recycling, and shallow land burial waste management criteria are discussed. Estimates of the impurity concentration in low-activation materials (elementally substituted stainless steels and vanadium alloys) are reported. Impurity activation in first-wall materials turns out to be critical after a comparison of impurity concentration limits and estimated levels. Activation of magnet materials is then considered: Long-term activity is not a concern, while short-term activity is. In both cases, impurity activation is negligible. Magnet materials, and all other less flux-exposed materials, have no practical limitation on impurities in terms of induced radioactivity

  20. Premature activation of the paramyxovirus fusion protein before target cell attachment with corruption of the viral fusion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F; Palermo, Laura M; Yokoyama, Christine C; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-11-04

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents.

  1. Fusion material development program in the broader approach activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research: Naka, Ibaraki, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, H.; Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Takatsu, H. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Momie Energy Agency, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Process Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Tsuchiya, K. [Directorates of Fusion Energy Research, JAEA, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); MoIslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [EPFL-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, UHD - CRPP, PPB, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pizzuto, A. [ENEA CR Frascat, Frascati (Italy); Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT-Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Association Euratom-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Lasser, R.; Gasparotto, M. [EFDA CSU Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are initiated by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan. The BA activities include the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF-EVEDA), the International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC), and the Satellite Tokamak. IFERC consists of three sub project; a DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center, a Computational Simulation Center, and an ITER Remote Experimentation Center. Technical R and Ds mainly on fusion materials will be implemented as a part of the DEMO Design and R and D coordination Center. Based on the common interest of each party toward DEMO, R and Ds on a) reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a DEMO blanket structural material, SiCf/SiC composites, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier for DEMO blankets, and Tritium Technology were selected and assessed by European and Japanese experts. In the R and D on the RAFM steels, the fabrication technology, techniques to incorporate the fracture/rupture properties of the irradiated materials, and methods to predict the deformation and fracture behaviors of structures under irradiation will be investigated. For SiCf/SiC composites, standard methods to evaluate high-temperature and life-time properties will be developed. Not only for SiCf/SiC but also related ceramics, physical and chemical properties such as He and H permeability and absorption will be investigated under irradiation. As the advanced tritium breeder R and D, Japan and EU plan to establish the production technique for advanced breeder pebbles of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, respectively. Also physical, chemical, and mechanical properties will be investigated for produced breeder pebbles. For the

  2. Clearance, recycling and disposal of fusion activated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Forty, C.; Gulden, W.; Rocco, P.; Rosanvallon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The SEAFP-99 waste management studies include further explorations in the direction of activated materials management, adopting a more realistic approach in order to consolidate and refine the previous encouraging findings of SEAFP waste management studies performed till 1998. The main results were obtained in the following topics, impact of materials/components optimisation on waste management issues; integrated approach to recycling and clearance; analysis of the potential for fusion specific repositories and hazard-relevant nuclides/processes; materials detritiation. The overall conclusion is that the adoption of a more realistic approach for the analysis has been beneficial. The results further confirmed the potential for waste minimisation and hazard reduction

  3. The correlation between thought-action fusion and religiosity in a normal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Koster, E

    2003-03-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF) refers to a set of two cognitive biases that are thought to contribute to the inflation of feelings of responsibility for one's own thoughts, and thus to the development of obsession. Therefore, insight into the origins of TAF is a clinically relevant research topic. The present study examined the association between religiosity and TAF. Undergraduate students (N=100) completed questionnaires concerning religion, TAF and obsessive-compulsive complaints. Results indicate that religiosity is, indeed, correlated with certain aspects of TAF. Furthermore, correlational patterns differed between Catholic and Protestant subsamples.

  4. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  6. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  7. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations

  8. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  9. Hypermetabolism of compensatory laryngeal muscles in unilateral vocal cord palsy: comparison study between speech and silence with normal subjects by co-registered PET-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Kim, Hyon Kyong; Kim, Han Su

    2006-01-01

    There are a few case report on asymmetric vocal cord uptake on FDG-PET in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which could be a potential pitfall in the interpretation of FDG-PET images. We evaluated the metabolic activity of laryngeal muscles of patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis in comparison to normal controls during both speech and silence. Eleven patients with unilateral vocal cord palsy (thyroidectomy=7, lung cancer=1, other=3) and 12 normal controls underwent FDG-PET with usual protocol. They were divided into two groups respectively; one group read books aloud for 20 minutes (phonation group) and the other kept silence (non-phonation groups) after FDG injection. Recent neck CT scan were co-registered with FDG-PET to produce PET-CT fusion images to elaborate small laryngeal muscles. In patients with unilateral vocal cord palsy, contralateral non-paralyzed vocal cord showed hypermetabolism mainly on thyroarytenoid muscle, more intensely with phonation group (SUV=5.88±2.65) than with non-phonation group (SUV=2.30±0.39). Normal control subjects showed hypermetabolism (3.68± 0.96) in interarytenoid muscle and symmetric mild hypermetabolism in both lateral cricoarytenoid muscles in only phonation group. FDG-PET with fusion images using CT scan in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis showed hypermetabolism of contralateral non-paralyzed thyroarytedoid muscle, suggesting compensatory action during phonation. Phonation during FDG-PET study enhanced FDG uptake on different laryngeal muscles between patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis and normal subjects

  10. A methodology for generating normal and pathological brain perfusion SPECT images for evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods: application in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grova, C [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Jannin, P [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Biraben, A [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Buvat, I [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Benali, H [INSERM U494, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Paris (France); Bernard, A M [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Eugene Marquis, Rennes (France); Scarabin, J M [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Gibaud, B [Laboratoire IDM, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2003-12-21

    Quantitative evaluation of brain MRI/SPECT fusion methods for normal and in particular pathological datasets is difficult, due to the frequent lack of relevant ground truth. We propose a methodology to generate MRI and SPECT datasets dedicated to the evaluation of MRI/SPECT fusion methods and illustrate the method when dealing with ictal SPECT. The method consists in generating normal or pathological SPECT data perfectly aligned with a high-resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI using realistic Monte Carlo simulations that closely reproduce the response of a SPECT imaging system. Anatomical input data for the SPECT simulations are obtained from this 3D T1-weighted MRI, while functional input data result from an inter-individual analysis of anatomically standardized SPECT data. The method makes it possible to control the 'brain perfusion' function by proposing a theoretical model of brain perfusion from measurements performed on real SPECT images. Our method provides an absolute gold standard for assessing MRI/SPECT registration method accuracy since, by construction, the SPECT data are perfectly registered with the MRI data. The proposed methodology has been applied to create a theoretical model of normal brain perfusion and ictal brain perfusion characteristic of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. To approach realistic and unbiased perfusion models, real SPECT data were corrected for uniform attenuation, scatter and partial volume effect. An anatomic standardization was used to account for anatomic variability between subjects. Realistic simulations of normal and ictal SPECT deduced from these perfusion models are presented. The comparison of real and simulated SPECT images showed relative differences in regional activity concentration of less than 20% in most anatomical structures, for both normal and ictal data, suggesting realistic models of perfusion distributions for evaluation purposes. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry coefficients measured on simulated data were

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations

  12. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  13. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed

  14. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Reyes, S.; Cadwallader, L.C.; Sharpe, J.P.; Marshall, T.D.; Merrill, B.J.; Moore, R.L.; Petti, D.A.; Falquina, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Sanz, J.; Cabellos, O.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S and E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S and E characteristics - both radiological and chemical - of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion

  15. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers

  16. Low activation structural material candidates for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Cook, I.

    1997-06-01

    Under the SEAL Programme of the European Long-Term Fusion Safety Programme, an assessment was performed of a number of possible blanket structural materials. These included the steels then under consideration in the European Blanket Programme, as well as materials being considered for investigation in the Advanced Materials Programme. Calculations were performed, using SEAFP methods, of the activation properties of the materials, and these were related, based on the SEAFP experience, to assessments of S and E performance. The materials investigated were the SEAFP low-activation martensitic steel (LA12TaLC); a Japanese low-activation martensitic steel (F-82H), a range of compositional variants about this steel; the vanadium-titanium-chromium alloy which was the original proposal of the ITER JCT for the ITER in-vessel components; a titanium-aluminium intermetallic (Ti-Al) which is under investigation in Japan; and silicon carbide composite (SiC). Assessed impurities were included in the compositions of these materials, and they have very important impacts on the activation properties. Lack of sufficiently detailed data on the composition of chromium alloys precluded their inclusion in the study. (UK)

  17. Effect of graphite reflector on activation of fusion breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young-Ouk; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The graphite reflector concept has been applied in the design of the Korea HCCR TBM for ITER and this concept is also a candidate design option for Korea Demo. • In the graphite reflector, C-14, B-11 and Be-10 are produced after an irradiation. Impurities in both case of beryllium and graphite is dominant in the shutdown dose after an irradiation. • Based on the evaluation, the graphite reflector is a good alternative of the beryllium multiplier in the view of induced activity and shutdown dose. But C-14 produced in the graphite reflector should be considered carefully in the view of radwaste management. - Abstract: Korea has proposed a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) breeding blanket concept relevant to fusion power plants. Here, graphite is used as a reflector material by reducing the amount of beryllium multiplier. In this paper, activity analysis was performed and the effect of graphite reflector in the view of activation was compared to the beryllium multiplier. As a result, it is expected that using the graphite reflector instead of the beryllium multiplier decreases total activity very effectively. But the graphite reflector produces C-14 about 17.2 times than the beryllium multiplier. Therefore, C-14 produced in the graphite reflector is expected as a significant nuclide in the view of radwaste management.

  18. Present status of low activation materials R and D for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, Akira

    1999-01-01

    Low activation materials development is one of the key technologies for fusion engineering. Starting with a brief introduction about design concepts of low activation materials for fusion, current activities on the major three low activation material categories, such as low activation ferritic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composite materials, are provided. Material database improvement in low-activation ferritic steel R and D and material property improvements in SiC/SiC are emphasized. (author)

  19. Superconducting magnet and conductor research activities in the US fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, P.C.; Schultz, J.H.; Antaya, T.A.; Ballinger, R.; Chiesa, L.; Feng, J.; Gung, C.-Y.; Harris, D.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, P.; Martovetsky, N.; Minervini, J.V.; Radovinsky, A.; Salvetti, M.; Takayasu, M.; Titus, P.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion research in the United States is sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES). The OFES sponsors a wide range of programs to advance fusion science, fusion technology, and basic plasma science. Most experimental devices in the US fusion program are constructed using conventional technologies; however, a small portion of the fusion research program is directed towards large scale commercial power generation, which typically relies on superconductor technology to facilitate steady-state operation with high fusion power gain, Q. The superconductor portion of the US fusion research program is limited to a small number of laboratories including the Plasma Science and Fusion Center at MIT, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Applied Superconductivity Center at University of Wisconsin, Madison. Although Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are primarily sponsored by the US's High Energy Physics program, both have made significant contributions to advance the superconductor technology needed for the US fusion program. This paper summarizes recent superconductor activities in the US fusion program

  20. Control of activation levels to simplify waste management of fusion reactor ferritic steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F.W.; Santoro, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Activation characteristics of a material for service in the neutron flux of a fusion reactor first wall fall into three areas: waste management, reactor maintenance and repair, and safety. Of these, the waste management area is the most likely to impact the public acceptance of fusion reactors for power generation. The decay of the activity in steels within tens of years could lead to simplified waste disposal or possibly even to materials recycle. Whether or not these can be achieved will be controlled by (1) selection of alloying elements, (2) control of critical impurity elements, and (3) control of cross contamination from other reactor components. Several criteria can be used to judge the acceptability of potential alloying elements in iron, and to define the limits on content of critical impurity elements. One approach is to select and limit alloying additions on the basis of the activity. If material recycle is a goal, N, Al, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Mo must be excluded. If simplified waste storage by shallow land burial is the goal, regulations limit the concentration of only a few isotopes. For first-wall material that will be exposed to 9 MW-y/m 2 service, allowable initial concentration limits include (in at. ppM) Ni < 20,000; Mo < 3650; N < 3650, Cu < 2400; and Nb < 1.0. The other constituent elements of ferritic steels will not be limited. Possible substitutes for the molybdenum normally used to strengthen the steels include W, Ta, Ti, and V

  1. Evaluation of permeable and non-permeable tritium in normal condition in a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, V; Manuel, P J [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM)/ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Sedano Luis, A [Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, Ciemat (Spain)], E-mail: marta@denim.upm.es

    2008-05-15

    The tritium cycle, technologies of process and control of the tritium in the plant will constitute a fraction of the environmental impact of the first generation of DT fusion reactors. The efforts of conceptual development of the tritium cycle are centered in the Internal Regenerator Cycle. The tritium could be recovered from a flow of He gas, or directly from solid breeder. The limits of transfers to the atmosphere are assumed {approx} 1 gr-T/a ({approx}20 Ci/a) (without species distinction). In the case of ITER, for example, we have global demands of control of 5 orders of magnitude have been demonstrated at experimental level. The transfer limits determine the key parameters in tritium Cycle (HT, HTO, as dominant, and T2, T2O as marginal). Presently, the transfer from the cycle to the environment is assumed through the exchange system of the power plant (primary to secondary). That transport is due to the permeation through HT, T2, or leakage to the coolant in the primary system. It is key the chemical optimization in the primary system, that needs to be reanalyzed in terms of radiological impact both for permeable, HT, T2, and non-permeable HTO, T2O. It is necessary considered the pathway of tritium from the reactor to the atmosphere, these processes are modelled adequately. Results of the assessments were early and chronic doses which have been evaluated for the Most Exposed Individual at particular distance bands from the release point. The impact evaluations will be performed with the computational tools (NORMTRI), besides national regulatory models, internationally accepted computer these code for dosimetric evaluations of tritiated effluents in operational conditions.

  2. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  3. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srikumar, E-mail: sbanerjee@barc.gov.in

    2014-12-15

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V–4Cr–4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu–1 wt%Cr–0.1 wt%Zr – an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall – was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead–lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb–Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U

  4. Development of Transcriptional Fusions to Assess Leptospira interrogans Promoter Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Souza, Natalie M.; Araújo, Eduardo R.; Barros, Aline T.; Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Sílvio A.; Nascimento, Ana L. T. O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. Methodology and Principal Findings A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA) and Sphingomielynase 2 (sph2) promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. Conclusions The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa. PMID:21445252

  5. Development of transcriptional fusions to assess Leptospira interrogans promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Cerqueira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that affects both humans and animals. The existing genetic tools for Leptospira spp. have improved our understanding of the biology of this spirochete as well as the interaction of pathogenic leptospires with the mammalian host. However, new tools are necessary to provide novel and useful information to the field. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of promoter-probe vectors carrying a reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP were constructed for use in L. biflexa. They were tested by constructing transcriptional fusions between the lipL41, Leptospiral Immunoglobulin-like A (ligA and Sphingomyelinase 2 (sph2 promoters from L. interrogans and the reporter gene. ligA and sph2 promoters were the most active, in comparison to the lipL41 promoter and the non-induced controls. The results obtained are in agreement with LigA expression from the L. interrogans Fiocruz L1-130 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The novel vectors facilitated the in vitro evaluation of L. interrogans promoter activity under defined growth conditions which simulate the mammalian host environment. The fluorescence and rt-PCR data obtained closely reflected transcriptional regulation of the promoters, thus demonstrating the suitability of these vectors for assessing promoter activity in L. biflexa.

  6. On combining multi-normalization and ancillary measures for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Anzar, Sharafudeen Thaha; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we have considered the utility of multi-normalization and ancillary measures, for the optimal score level fusion of fingerprint and voice biometrics. An efficient matching score preprocessing technique based on multi-normalization is employed for improving the performance of the multimodal system, under various noise conditions. Ancillary measures derived from the feature space and the score space are used in addition to the matching score vectors, for weighing the modalities, based on their relative degradation. Reliability (dispersion) and the separability (inter-/intra-class distance and d-prime statistics) measures under various noise conditions are estimated from the individual modalities, during the training/validation stage. The `best integration weights' are then computed by algebraically combining these measures using the weighted sum rule. The computed integration weights are then optimized against the recognition accuracy using techniques such as grid search, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show that, the proposed biometric solution leads to considerable improvement in the recognition performance even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions and reduces the false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR), making the system useful for security as well as forensic applications.

  7. Beryllium neutron activation detector for pulsed DD fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebitaher, A.; Springham, S.V.; Rawat, R.S.; Lee, P.

    2011-01-01

    A compact fast neutron detector based on beryllium activation has been developed to perform accurate neutron fluence measurements on pulsed DD fusion sources. It is especially well suited to moderate repetition-rate ( 9 Be(n,α) 6 He cross-section, energy calibration of the proportional counters, and numerical simulations of neutron interactions and beta-particle paths using MCNP5. The response function R(E n ) is determined over the neutron energy range 2-4 MeV. The count rate capability of the detector has been studied and the corrections required for high neutron fluence measurements are discussed. For pulsed DD neutron fluencies >3×10 4 cm -2 , the statistical uncertainty in the fluence measurement is better than 1%. A small plasma focus device has been employed as a pulsed neutron source to test two of these new detectors, and their responses are found to be practically identical. Also the level of interfering activation is found to be sufficiently low as to be negligible.

  8. Efficient modeling for pulsed activation in inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Yuste, P.; Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    First structural wall material (FSW) materials in inertial fusion energy (IFE) power reactors will be irradiated under typical repetition rates of 1-10 Hz, for an operation time as long as the total reactor lifetime. The main objective of the present work is to determine whether a continuous-pulsed (CP) approach can be an efficient method in modeling the pulsed activation process for operating conditions of FSW materials. The accuracy and practicability of this method was investigated both analytically and (for reaction/decay chains of two and three nuclides) by computational simulation. It was found that CP modeling is an accurate and practical method for calculating the neutron-activation of FSW materials. Its use is recommended instead of the equivalent steady-state method or the exact pulsed modeling. Moreover, the applicability of this method to components of an IFE power plant subject to repetition rates lower than those of the FSW is still being studied. The analytical investigation was performed for 0.05 Hz, which could be typical for the coolant. Conclusions seem to be similar to those obtained for the FSW. However, further future work is needed for a final answer

  9. Transmutation and activation analysis of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are three principal objectives of this research: (1) development of an activation computer code that insures no important isotopes are neglected: (2) development of a linear chain code that enables one to compute the stable isotope inventory at all times; and (3) revision of the DCDLIB library using ACTL data. DKR is a computer code that uses the linear chain method to determine the activity, biological hazards potential, afterheat, and dose that will be present should a fusion reactor be constructed and operated. Unfortunately, this code terminates the chains with a strategy that can allow important chains to be neglected or not produced. To remedy this situation, the adjoint method of chain construction was developed. In this study, the adjoint operator is derived and the adjoint nuclide density equations are solved. The validity of using this method for the construction of chains is also demonstrated. A computer code, ANDYKAY, was developed that employs the adjoint method. The structure of this code is described and results obtained running this code in various configurations are given. The DKR and ANDYKAY codes are only capable of computing the radioactive isotope inventory. The code DKR-STABLE, which has been written to calculate the stable isotope inventory, is described. The results of a sample calculation performed using this code are given

  10. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Activation and Radiation Damage Behaviour of Russian Structural Materials for Fusion Reactors in the Fission and Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.; Demin, N.; Chernov, V.; Leonteva-Smirnova, M.; Potapenko, M.

    2006-01-01

    Various structural low (reduced) activated materials have been proposed as a candidate for the first walls-blankets of fusion reactors. One of the main problems connected with using these materials - to minimise the production of long-lived radionuclides from nuclear transmutations and to provide with good technological and functional properties. The selection of materials and their metallurgical and fabrication technologies for fusion reactor components is influenced by this factor. Accurate prediction of induced radioactivity is necessary for the development of the fusion reactor materials. Low activated V-Ti-Cr alloys and reduced activated ferritic-martensitic steels are a leading candidate material for fusion first wall and blanket applications. At the present time a range of compositions and an impurity level are still being investigated to better understand the sensitive of various functional and activation properties to small compositional variations and impurity level. For the two types of materials mentioned above (V-Ti-Cr alloys and 9-12 % Cr f/m steels) and manufactured in Russia (Russia technologies) the analysis of induced activity, hydrogen and helium-production as well as the accumulation of such elements as C, N, O, P, S, Zn and Sn as a function of irradiation time was performed. Materials '' were irradiated '' by fission (BN-600, BOR-60) and fusion (Russian DEMO-C Reactor Project) typical neutron spectra with neutron fluency up to 10 22 n/cm 2 and the cooling time up to 1000 years. The calculations of the transmutation of elements and the induced radioactivity were carried out using the FISPACT inventory code, and the different activation cross-section libraries like the ACDAM, FENDL-2/A and the decay data library FENDL-2/D. It was shown that the level of impurities controls a long-term behaviour of induced activity and contact dose rate for materials. From this analysis the concentration limits of impurities were obtained. The generation of gas

  12. An Experiential Learning Activity Demonstrating Normal and Phobic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for an undergraduate abnormal psychology course that used student-generated data to illustrate normal versus clinically significant anxiety responses related to specific phobias. Students (N = 37) viewed 14 images of low- or high-anxiety valence and rated their subjective response to each. Discussion in a…

  13. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing expression with a reference gene: anomalies due to the influence of the test promoter on the reference promoter. Simran Bhullar Suma Chakravarthy Deepak Pental Pradeep Kumar Burma. Articles Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 953-962 ...

  14. Plasma renin activity profile in normal and hypertensive Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, R.; Torres, J. Jr.; Abundo, H.P.; Perez, A.P.

    To establish a base line profile of plasma renin activity in normotensive and hypertensive Filipinos, 1.019 cases, 479 males and 540 females with an age range 14 - 89 years (mean - 46 + -20) were studied at the Santo Tomas University Hospital of various life styles from the Metro-Manila area, 248 comprised the normotensive group (male - 122 or 49.2 %, female 126 or 50.8 %) and 771 were hypertensive. Of these, 711 (92.6 %) has essential hypertension and are presented in this report. Plasma Renin Activity was determined by radioimmunoassay using Dainabot Renin-Ricket. Concurrent 24 hr. urine sodium and potassium were determined. Nomograms of plasma renin activity as related to urine sodium excretion were drawn after computerized statistical analysis of data. The normal mean value of plasma renin activity was found to be 1.64 + - 0.81 ng./ml./hr. in the upright position and 1.15 + - .68 ng./ml./hr. in the supine position. Based on the nomogram derived, the values obtained in the 711 cases of essential hypertension were classified into High Renin - 14.3 % Normal Renin - 56.1 % and Low Renin - 29.6 %. This study establishes normal levels of plasma renin activity as well as define and classify same renin activity among hypertensive Filipinos, a useful and practicable guide for treatment and can be of prognostic significance. (author)

  15. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  16. Confidence building in and through fission and fusion activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyojiro Fuketa

    1989-01-01

    The peaceful uses of atomic energy are most suitable for achieving worldwide confidence building for the following reasons. (1) In spite of the need for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the world is facing difficulties in the public perception and acceptance of nuclear works and facilities. (2) The above difficulties are due to many factors, such as the two sides of nuclear energy peaceful and military, the possibility of a large-scale reactor accident, the lack of understanding about radiation and radioactivity, and finally, emotion and egoism. Some of these factors are unique to nuclear-energy, but in other cases of public reactions, there are many facets similar to the above factors. (3) The public concern about safety is at its highest, broadest and severest point ever, coincident with the highest life expectancy in history. Over-precaution and over-protection about certain things may sometimes spoil one's health. Nuclear energy is most definitely suffering from such a trend. As a result, a severe nuclear accident in any country results in severe damage worldwide no manner in what form the real physical effects reach other countries. (4) The huge science and technology efforts required for fission and fusion activities cannot be fully achieved by one country. Explanations of some of the above factors are given. 2 refs

  17. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T.; Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Azizov, E.; Filatov, O.; Chernov, V.M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Paper contains results of fusion material testing national program and results of activities on creation of material testing spherical tokamak. Hydrogen isotope behavior (diffusion, permeation, and accumulation) in the components of the first wall and divertor was studied taking into account temperature, pressure, and reactor irradiation. There were carried out out-of-pile and in-pile (reactors IVG-IM, WWRK, RA) studies of beryllium of various grades (TV-56, TShG-56, DV-56, TGP-56, TIP-56), graphites (RG-T, MPG-8, FP 479, R 4340), molybdenum, tungsten, steels (Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, F82H), alloys V-(4-6)Cr-( 4-5)Ti, Cu+1%Cr+0.1%Zr, and double Be/Cu and triple Be/Cu/steel structures. Tritium permeability from eutectic Pb+17%Li through steels Cr18Ni10Ti, Cr16Ni15, MANET, and F82H were studied taking into account protective coating effects. The tritium production rate was experimentally assessed during in-pile and post-reactor experiments. There were carried out radiation tests of ceramic Li 2 TiO 3 (96% enrichment by Li-6) with in-situ registration of released tritium and following post-irradiation material tests of irradiated samples. Verification of computer codes for simulation of accidents related to LOCA in ITER reactor was carried out. Codes' verification was carried out for a mockup of first wall in a form of three-layer cylinder of beryllium, bronze (Cu-Cr-Zr) and stainless steel. At present Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing (tokamak KTM) is created in National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan in cooperation with Russian Federation organizations (start-up is scheduled on 2008). Tokamak KTM allows for expansion and specification of the studies and tests of materials, protection options of first wall, receiving divertor tiles and divertor components, methods for load reduction at divertor, and various options of heat/power removal, fast evacuation of divertor volume and development of the techniques for

  18. Hypermetabolism of compensatory laryngeal muscles in unilateral vocal cord palsy: comparison study between speech and silence with normal subjects by co-registered PET-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Kim, Hyon Kyong; Kim, Han Su; Chung, Sung Min

    2005-01-01

    There are a few case reports on asymmetric vocal cord uptake on FDG-PET in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which could be a potential pitfall in the interpretation of FDG-PET images. We evaluated the metabolic activity of laryngeal muscles of patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis in comparison to normal controls during both speech and silence. Eleven patients with iatrogenic unilateral vocal cord palsy(thyroidectomy 7, lung cancer = 1, others = 3) and 12 normal controls underwent FDG-PET with usual protocol. They were divided into two groups respectively; one group read books aloud for 20 minutes (phonation group) and the other kept silence (non-phonation groups) after FDG injection. Recent neck CT scan were co-registered with FDG-PET to produce PET-CT fusion images to elaborate small laryngeal muscles. In patients with unilateral vocal cord palsy, contralateral non-paralyzed vocal cord showed increased FDG uptake, more intense with phonation group (SUV =5.88, n =5) than non-phonation group (SUV =2.33, n =6) --mainly on thyroarytenoid muscle. Normal control subjects showed symmetric mildly increased FDG uptake (SUV=1.92, n=6) only in phonation group, which was significantly low against patient groups and was localized in lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. Hypermetabolism of contralateral thyroarytenoid muscle in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis could be encountered during FDG-PET imaging even with keeping silence. Phonation during FDG-PET study enhance FDG uptake on different laryngeal muscles between unilateral vocal cord paralysis and normal subjects

  19. Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship Program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program (MFETF) for the 1985 calendar year. The MFETF program has continued to support the mission of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) and its Division of Development and Technology (DDT) by ensuring the availability of appropriately trained engineering manpower needed to implement the OFE/DDT magnetic fusion energy agenda. This program provides training and research opportunities to highly qualified students at DOE-designated academic, private sector, and government magnetic fusion energy institutions. The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program are: (1) to provide support for graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology; (2) to ensure an adequate supply of appropriately trained manpower to implement the nation's magnetic fusion energy agenda; (3) to raise the visibility of careers in magnetic fusion energy technology and to encourage students to pursue such careers; and (4) to make national magnetic fusion energy facilities available for manpower training

  20. Menin-MLL inhibitors reverse oncogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembecka, Jolanta; He, Shihan; Shi, Aibin; Purohit, Trupta; Muntean, Andrew G; Sorenson, Roderick J; Showalter, Hollis D; Murai, Marcelo J; Belcher, Amalia M; Hartley, Thomas; Hess, Jay L; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-29

    Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene result in human acute leukemias with very poor prognosis. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is critically dependent on their direct interaction with menin, a product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) gene. Here we present what are to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL fusion protein interaction that specifically bind menin with nanomolar affinities. These compounds effectively reverse MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemic transformation by downregulating the expression of target genes required for MLL fusion protein oncogenic activity. They also selectively block proliferation and induce both apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells harboring MLL translocations. Identification of these compounds provides a new tool for better understanding MLL-mediated leukemogenesis and represents a new approach for studying the role of menin as an oncogenic cofactor of MLL fusion proteins. Our findings also highlight a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive leukemias with MLL rearrangements.

  1. Fusion peptide of influenza hemagglutinin requires a fixed angle boomerang structure for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alex L; Park, Heather; White, Judith M; Tamm, Lukas K

    2006-03-03

    The fusion peptide of influenza hemagglutinin is crucial for cell entry of this virus. Previous studies showed that this peptide adopts a boomerang-shaped structure in lipid model membranes at the pH of membrane fusion. To examine the role of the boomerang in fusion, we changed several residues proposed to stabilize the kink in this structure and measured fusion. Among these, mutants E11A and W14A expressed hemagglutinins with hemifusion and no fusion activities, and F9A and N12A had no effect on fusion, respectively. Binding enthalpies and free energies of mutant peptides to model membranes and their ability to perturb lipid bilayer structures correlated well with the fusion activities of the parent full-length molecules. The structure of W14A determined by NMR and site-directed spin labeling features a flexible kink that points out of the membrane, in sharp contrast to the more ordered boomerang of the wild-type, which points into the membrane. A specific fixed angle boomerang structure is thus required to support membrane fusion.

  2. Super Normal Vector for Human Activity Recognition with Depth Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2017-05-01

    The advent of cost-effectiveness and easy-operation depth cameras has facilitated a variety of visual recognition tasks including human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing human activities from video sequences captured by depth cameras. We extend the surface normal to polynormal by assembling local neighboring hypersurface normals from a depth sequence to jointly characterize local motion and shape information. We then propose a general scheme of super normal vector (SNV) to aggregate the low-level polynormals into a discriminative representation, which can be viewed as a simplified version of the Fisher kernel representation. In order to globally capture the spatial layout and temporal order, an adaptive spatio-temporal pyramid is introduced to subdivide a depth video into a set of space-time cells. In the extensive experiments, the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods on the four public benchmark datasets, i.e., MSRAction3D, MSRDailyActivity3D, MSRGesture3D, and MSRActionPairs3D.

  3. Coordinated activities on evaluation of collisional data for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Braams, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    It is the role of the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency to review progress in the production, compilation and evaluation of atomic, molecular and plasma-surface interaction (AM/PSI) data for the fusion program and to support the development of internationally recommended libraries of AM/PSI data for fusion. In response to increasing requests from the fusion community the Unit has increased its effort to promote the assessment of data quality by organizing a series of meetings on the relevant issues: 1) Error propagation and sensitivity analysis, 2) Current status of evaluated databases, 3) Uncertainty estimates of theoretical data, 4) Experimental data evaluation, 5) Data evaluation methods and semi-empirical fits and 6) Establishment of an evaluators’ network. The discussions and conclusions are summarized here

  4. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  5. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  6. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member

  7. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  8. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting on neutron activation cross sections for fission and fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Vonach, H.

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings of a specialists' meeting on neutron activation cross sections for fission and fusion energy applications are divided into 4 sessions bearing on: - data needs: 4 conferences - experimental work: 11 conferences - theoretical work: 4 conferences - evaluation work: 5 conferences

  9. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book

  10. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  11. IAEA specialists' meeting on the fusion evaluated nuclear data library related to the ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.; Lorenz, A.

    1988-01-01

    This is the summary report of an IAEA Specialists' Meeting on the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library Related to the ITER Activity, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna from 16 to 18 November 1987. The objective of the meeting was to formulate a detailed programme and time schedule for the development of the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) to meet the future needs of the ITER activity

  12. Localized cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity is required for myogenic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Multinucleated myotubes are formed by fusion of mononucleated myogenic progenitor cells (myoblasts) during terminal skeletal muscle differentiation. In addition, myoblasts fuse with myotubes, but terminally differentiated myotubes have not been shown to fuse with each other. We show here that an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and other reagents that elevate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels induced cell fusion between small bipolar myotubes in vitro. Then an extra-large myotube, designated a 'myosheet,' was produced by both primary and established mouse myogenic cells. Myotube-to-myotube fusion always occurred between the leading edge of lamellipodia at the polar end of one myotube and the lateral plasma membrane of the other. Forskolin enhanced the formation of lamellipodia where cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) was accumulated. Blocking enzymatic activity or anchoring of PKA suppressed forskolin-enhanced lamellipodium formation and prevented fusion of multinucleated myotubes. Localized PKA activity was also required for fusion of mononucleated myoblasts. The present results suggest that localized PKA plays a pivotal role in the early steps of myogenic cell fusion, such as cell-to-cell contact/recognition through lamellipodium formation. Furthermore, the localized cAMP-PKA pathway might be involved in the specification of the fusion-competent areas of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia of myogenic cells

  13. Atomic and Molecular Data Activities for Fusion Research in JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been producing, collecting and compiling cross-section data for atomic and molecular collisions and spectral data relevant to fusion research. In this talk, an overview of our activities since the last meeting in September 2009 will be presented. The state selective charge transfer cross-section data of Be 4+ , C 4+ and C 6+ by collision with H(n=2) in the collision energy range between 62 eV/amu and 6.2 keV/amu have been calculated with a molecular-bases close-coupling method. The calculated charge transfer data of C 4+ was implemented in a collisional-radiative model code for C 3+ , and it is shown that in some cases the charge transfer from C 4+ to H(n=2) populates predominantly C 3+ (n = 6, 7). The cross-section data of dissociative recombination and excitation of HD + , D 2+ , DT + , T 2+ 3 HeH + and 4 HeH + were produced by theoretical calculation. The principal quantum number of dissociated H atom isotopes was also given. The analytical expressions for the cross-section data for 26 processes of He-collision systems were produced in order to facilitate practical use of the data. The compiled data are in preparation for the web site at the URL of http://www-jt60.naka.jaea.go.jp/engish/JEAMDL/. The chemical sputtering yield data of CFC materials with hydrogen isotope collisions have been compiled. The ionization rate of W 44+ and the radiative and the dielectronic recombination rates of W 45+ were calculated with FAC. The ratio of these rates was compared with experimentally measured ratio of W 45+ density to W 44+ density in JT-60U, showing that the calculated ratio of the recombination ratio of W 45+ to the ionization rate of W 44+ is accurate within the experimental uncertainty (∼ 30%). The atomic and molecular data activities in JAEA are pursued in collaboration with Japanese universities, and other department of JAEA. (author)

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of low activity fusion blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.; Yu, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    The heat transfer aspects of fusion blankets are considered where: (a) conduction and (b) boiling and condensation are the dominant heat transfer mechanisms. In some cases, unique heat transfer problems arise and additional heat transfer data and analyses may be required

  15. Protective antitumor activity induced by a fusion vaccine with murine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeting angiogenesis is an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. The vascular endothelialcadherin (VE-cad) regulated angiogenesis is a potential target for anti-angiogenesis. Here, we develop a fusion vaccine plasmid DNA pSec-MBD2-VE-cad from VE-cad and murine beta defensin2 (MBD2) to induce immunity for ...

  16. Development of new low activation aluminum alloys for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kohji; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1985-01-01

    As the materials for the R facility (a tokamak nuclear fusion device in the R project intended for D-T burning) in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Al-4 % Mg-0.2 % Bi (5083 improved type) and Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li, aimed at low radioactivability, high electric resistance and high strength, have been developed. The results of the nuclear properties evaluation with 14 MeV neutrons and of the measurements of electric resistance and mechanical properties were satisfactory. The possibility of producing large Al-4 % Mg-1 % Li plate (1 m x 2 m x 25 mm) in the existing factory was confirmed, with the properties retained. The electric resistances were higher than those in the conventional aluminum alloys, and still with feasibility for the further improvement. General properties of the fusion aluminum alloys and the 26 Al formation in (n, 2n) reaction were studied. (Mori, K.)

  17. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  18. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics

  19. Metal Catalyzed Fusion: Nuclear Active Environment vs. Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2009-03-01

    To achieve radiationless dd fusion and/or other LENR reactions via chemistry: some focus on environment of interior or altered near-surface volume of bulk metal; some on environment inside metal nanocrystals or on their surface; some on the interface between nanometal crystals and ionic crystals; some on a momentum shock-stimulation reaction process. Experiment says there is also a spontaneous reaction process.

  20. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  1. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  2. Detection of association and fusion of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunami, Takeshi; Caschera, Filippo; Morita, Yuuki; Toyota, Taro; Nishimura, Kazuya; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hanczyc, Martin M; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2010-10-05

    We have developed a method to evaluate the fusion process of giant vesicles using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Three fluorescent markers and FACS technology were used to evaluate the extent of association and fusion of giant vesicles. Two fluorescent markers encapsulated in different vesicle populations were used as association markers; when these vesicles associate, the two independent markers should be observed simultaneously in a single detection event. The quenched fluorescent marker and the dequencher, which were encapsulated in separate vesicle populations, were used as the fusion marker. When the internal aqueous solutions mix, the quenched marker is liberated by the dequencher and emits the third fluorescent signal. Although populations of pure POPC vesicles showed no detectable association or fusion, the same populations, oppositely charged by the exogenous addition of charged amphiphiles, showed up to 50% association and 30% fusion upon population analysis of 100,000 giant vesicles. Although a substantial fraction of the vesicles associated in response to a small amount of the charged amphiphiles (5% mole fraction compared to POPC alone), a larger amount of the charged amphiphiles (25%) was needed to induce vesicle fusion. The present methodology also revealed that the association and fusion of giant vesicles was dependent on size, with larger giant vesicles associating and fusing more frequently.

  3. Activation analysis of tritium breeder lithium lead irradiated by fusion neutrons in FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingliang Chen

    2006-01-01

    R-and-D of fusion materials, especially their activation characteristics, is one of the key issues for fusion research in the world. Research on activation characteristics for low activation materials, such as reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites, is being done throughout the world to ensure the attractiveness of fusion power regarding safety and environmental aspects. However, there is less research on the activation characteristics of the other important fusion materials, such as tritium breeder etc.. Lithium lead (Li 17 Pb 83 ) is presently considered as a primary candidate tritium breeder for fusion power reactors because of its attractive characteristics. It can serve as a tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant in the blanket at the same time. The radioactivity of Li 17 Pb 83 by D-T fusion neutrons in FDS-II has been calculated and analyzed. FDS-II is a concept design of fusion power reactor, which consists of fusion core with advanced plasma parameters extrapolated from the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and two candidates of liquid lithium breeder blankets (named SLL and DLL blankets). The neutron transport and activation calculation are carried out based on the one-dimensional model for FDS-II with the home-developed multi-functional code system VisualBUS and the multi-group data library HENDL1.0/MG and European Activation File EAF-99. The effects of irradiation time on the activation characteristics of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed and it concludes that the irradiation time has an important effect on the activation level of Li 17 Pb 83 . Furthermore, the results were compared with the activation levels of other tritium breeders, such as Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 O and Li etc., under the same irradiation conditions. The dominant nuclides to dose rate and activity of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed as well. Tritium generated by Li has a great contribution to the afterheat and

  4. Overview of the RFX-mod fusion science activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuin, M.; Dal Bello, S.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M.E.; Agostinetti, P.; Agostini, M.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barbisan, M.; Barbui, T.; Baruzzo, M.; Belli, F.; Bettini, P.; Bigi, M.; Bilel, R.; Boldrin, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Bonfiglio, D.; Brombin, M.; Buffa, A.; Bustreo, C.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Cester, D.; Chacon, L.; Chitarin, G.; Cooper, W.A.; Cordaro, L.; Dalla Palma, M.; Deambrosis, S.; Delogu, R.; De Lorenzi, A.; De Masi, G.; Dong, J.Q.; Escande, D.F.; Fassina, A.; Felici, F.; Ferro, A.; Finotti, C.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Gaio, E.; Ghezzi, F.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Gobbin, M.; Gonzalez, W.A.; Grando, L.; Guo, S.C.; Hanson, J.D.; Hirshman, S.P.; Innocente, P.; Jackson, J.L.; Kiyama, S.; Komm, Michael; Kudlacek, O.; Laguardia, L.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, S.F.; Liu, Y.Q.; López- Bruna, D.; Lorenzini, R.; Luce, T.C.; Luchetta, A.; Maistrello, A.; Manduchi, G.; Mansfield, D.K.; Marchiori, G.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martin, P.; Martines, E.; Martini, S.; Mazzitelli, G.; McCormack, O.; Miorin, E.; Momo, B.; Moresco, M.; Narushima, Y.; Okabayashi, M.; Paccagnella, R.; Patel, N.; Pavei, M.; Peruzzo, S.; Pilan, N.; Pigatto, L.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Piron, L.; Predebon, I.; Pucella, G.; Rea, C.; Recchia, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Rostagni, G.; Ruset, C.; Sajò- Bohus, L.; Sakakita, H.; Sanchez, R.; Sarff, J.S.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, W.; Siragusa, M.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Spagnolo, S.; Spolaore, M.; Spong, D.A.; Spizzo, G.; Stevanato, L.; Suzuki, Y.; Taliercio, C.; Terranova, D.; Tudisco, O.; Urso, G.; Valente, M.; Valisa, M.; Vallar, M.; Veranda, M.; Vianello, N.; Villone, F.; Vincenzi, P.; Visona, N.; White, R.B.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Xu, X.Y.; Yanovskiy, V.; Zamengo, A.; Zanca, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zilli, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 102012. ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/26./. Kyoto, 17.10.2016-22.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : reversed field pinch * tokamak * single helicity * 3D boundary * runaway electrons * MHD * PWI Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa61cc

  5. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity. Present status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo; Noda, Kenji; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    For developing the materials for nuclear fusion reactors, it is indispensable to study on the neutron irradiation behavior under fusion reactor conditions, but there is not any high energy neutron irradiation facility that can simulate fusion reactor conditions at present. Therefore, the investigation of the IFMIF was begun jointly by Japan, USA, Europe and Russia following the initiative of IEA. The conceptual design activities were completed in 1997. As to the background and the course, the present status of the research on heavy irradiation and the testing means for fusion materials, the requirement and the technical basis of high energy neutron irradiation, and the international joint design activities are reported. The materials for fusion reactors are exposed to the neutron irradiation with the energy spectra up to 14 MeV. The requirements from the users that the IFMIF should satisfy, the demand of the tests for the materials of prototype and demonstration fusion reactors and the evaluation of the neutron field characteristics of the IFMIF are discussed. As to the conceptual design of the IFMIF, the whole constitution, the operational mode, accelerator system and target system are described. (K.I.)

  6. Muon nuclear fusion and low temperature nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    1990-01-01

    Low temperature (or normal temperature) nuclear fusion is one of the phenomena causing nuclear fusion without requiring high temperature. In thermal nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome with the help of thermal energy, but in the low temperature nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is neutralized by the introduction of the particles having larger mass than electrons and negative charges, at this time, if two nuclei can approach to the distance of 10 -13 cm in the neutral state, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction is expected. As the mass of the particles is heavier, the neutral region is smaller, and nuclear fusion is easy to occur. The particles to meet this purpose are the electrons within substances and muons. The research on muon nuclear fusion became suddenly active in the latter half of 1970s, the cause of which was the discovery of the fact that the formation of muons occurs resonantly rapidly in D-T and D-D systems. Muons are the unstable elementary particles having the life of 2.2 μs, and they can have positive and negative charges. In the muon catalyzed fusion, the muons with negative charge take part. The principle of the muon catalyzed fusion, its present status and future perspective, and the present status of low temperature nuclear fusion are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Asymmetrical trunk movement during walking improved to normal range at 3 months after corrective posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Chung, Daniel A C F; Schimmel, Janneke J P; de Kleuver, Marinus; Keijsers, Noël L W

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and curve type on upper body movements in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients during gait. Twenty-four girls (12-18 years) with AIS underwent PSF. 3D-Gait-analyses were performed preoperatively, at 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Mean position (0° represents symmetry) and range of motion (ROM) of the trunk (thorax-relative-to-pelvis) in all planes were assessed. Lower body kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters were also evaluated. Mean trunk position improved from 7.0° to 2.9° in transversal plane and from 5.0° to - 0.8° in frontal plane at 3 months postoperative (p maintenance of normal gait can explain the rapid recovery and well functioning in daily life of AIS patients, despite undergoing a fusion of large parts of their spine.

  8. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Batistoni, Paola [ENEA, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-11

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  9. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Shen, Qian; Castillo, Gabriel N; Filoteo, J Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Takahashi, Colleen; French, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN) and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex), sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus), basal ganglia (putamen, caudate), and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a pathological

  10. Development of 'low activation superconducting wire' for an advanced fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Y.; Yamada, S.; Sagara, A.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Matsuda, K.; Taniguchi, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the D-T burning plasma reactor beyond ITER such as DEMO and fusion power plants assuming the steady-state and long time operation, it will be necessary to consider carefully induced radioactivity and neutron irradiation properties on the all components for fusion reactors. The decay time of the induced radioactivity can control the schedule and scenarios of the maintenance and shutdown on the fusion reactor. V 3 Ga and MgB 2 compound have shorter decay time within 1 years and they will be desirable as a candidate material to realize 'low activation and high magnetic field superconducting magnet' for advanced fusion reactor. However, it is well known that J c -B properties of V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are lower than that of the Nb-based A15 compound wires, so the J c -B enhancements on the V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are required in order to apply for an advanced fusion reactor. We approached and succeeded to developing the new process in order to improve J c properties of V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires. In this paper, the recent activities for the J c improvements and detailed new process in V 3 Ga and MgB 2 wires are investigated. (author)

  11. Hematopoietic properties of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor/immunoglobulin (G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins in normal and neutropenic rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George N Cox

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in vitro bioactivity is preserved when the protein is joined via a flexible 7 amino acid linker to an immunoglobulin-1 (IgG1-Fc domain and that the G-CSF/IgG1-Fc fusion protein possessed a longer circulating half-life and improved hematopoietic properties compared to G-CSF in normal rats. We have extended this analysis by comparing the relative hematopoietic potencies of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc to G-CSF in normal mice and to G-CSF and polyethylene glycol (PEG -modified G-CSF in neutropenic rats. Mice were treated for 5 days using different doses and dosing regimens of G-CSF/IgG1-Fc or G-CSF and circulating neutrophil levels in the animals measured on Day 6. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc stimulated greater increases in blood neutrophils than comparable doses of G-CSF when administered using daily, every other day or every third day dosing regimens. In rats made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide, G-CSF/IgG1-Fc accelerated recovery of blood neutrophils to normal levels (from Day 9 to Day 5 when administered as 5 daily injections or as a single injection on Day 1. By contrast, G-CSF accelerated neutrophil recovery when administered as 5 daily injections, but not when administered as a single injection. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc was as effective as PEG-G-CSF at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. G-CSF/IgG1-Fc and G-CSF/IgG4-Fc fusion proteins in which the 7 amino acid linker was deleted also were effective at accelerating neutrophil recovery following a single injection in neutropenic rats. These studies confirm the enhanced in vivo hematopoietic properties of G-CSF/IgG-Fc fusion proteins.

  12. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of 95 Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire

  13. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of /sup 95/Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire.

  14. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  15. Measurement and Analysis of Activation Induced in Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum by Fusion Peak Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klix, A.; Eichin, R.; Freiesleben, H.; Schomburg, K.; Seidel, K.; Unholzer, S.; Forrest, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The large fluxes of neutrons in the materials of a fusion device during operation produce activation that is relevant to operational safety and decommissioning. Nuclides with a broad range of half-lives have to be included in the corresponding analyses. The activity with decay times ranging from the order of magnitude of minutes to weeks is of interest with respect to heat production and shut-down dose rates, whereas the long-term activity determines the waste management. The activity is mainly produced by two components of the neutron flux spectrum, by thermal neutrons and by the 14-MeV D-T fusion neutrons. Analyses of the material activation rely on calculations with inventory codes and libraries containing activation and decay data. To gain trust in the results of such calculations data and codes have to be validated experimentally. In the present work, the European Activation System (EASY, inventory code FISPACT and data library EAF) was tested in benchmark experiments on Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum. They are constituents of fusion reactor structural materials such as EUROFER and insulating coatings for liquid breeder systems. Small samples of the materials were irradiated in a D-T neutron field. The gamma-radioactivity following irradiation was measured several times during decay and nuclide activities were derived. For each of the measured activities the corresponding value was calculated with EASY, and the calculated-to-experimental ratios (C/E) were determined. The nuclear reactions producing the activities were also analysed. The C/E ratios obtained for the individual activities will be used for discussing the activation performance and the contact dose rate of the materials at fusion power plant conditions. (author)

  16. Safety aspects of activation products in a compact Tokamak Fusion Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenberg, H.J.; Bickford, W.E.

    1978-10-01

    Neutron activation of materials in a compact tokamak fusion reactor has been investigated. Results of activation product inventory, dose rate, and decay heat calculations in the blanket and injectors are presented for a reactor design with stainless steel structures. Routine transport of activated materials into the plasma and vacuum systems is discussed. Accidental release of radioactive materials as a result of liquid lithium spills is also considered

  17. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations

  18. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  19. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  20. Activation of structural alloys in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.; Doran, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Using the REAC2 code system, both short-term and long-term activation were calculated for possible structural and magnet materials at the shield-magnet interface. The flux was taken from the STARFIRE conceptual design and a 30-year lifetime was assumed. Short-term activation does not seem to be a problem. Only materials with large amounts of niobium appear to be a potential problem for long-term activation. 2 tabs

  1. Potential low-level waste disposal limits for activation products from fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) scientists are involved in studies considering alternative construction materials for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors. To permit a comparison of radioactivity levels, both the level of activation and an acceptable limit for the radionuclides present must be known. Generic material composition guidelines can be developed using the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations governing the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These regulations consider wastes defined as containing source, special nuclear, or by-product materials arising from research, industrial, medical, and nuclear fuel-cycle activities. However, not all of the activation products produced in low-level wastes from fusion reactors are considered by the NRC in their regulations. The purpose of this report is to present potential low-level waste-disposal limits for ten radionuclides resulting from fusion reactor operations that are not considered in the NRC low-level waste regulations. These potential limits will be used by HEDL scientists to complete their generic material composition guidelines for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors

  2. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  3. Global epigenomic analysis indicates protocadherin-7 activates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Nakashima, Tomoki [Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Hayashi, Mikihito [Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Takayanagi Osteonetwork Project, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Izawa, Naohiro; Yasui, Tetsuro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aburatani, Hiroyuki [Genome Science Division, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Tanaka, Sakae [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takayanagi, Hiroshi, E-mail: takayana@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Takayanagi Osteonetwork Project, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Identification of epigenetically regulated genes during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 is regulated by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 expression is increased by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. • Establishment of novel cell fusion analysis for osteoclasts by imaging cytometer. • Pcdh7 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell fusion related gene expressions. - Abstract: Gene expression is dependent not only on genomic sequences, but also epigenetic control, in which the regulation of chromatin by histone modification plays a crucial role. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) are related to transcriptionally activated and silenced sequences, respectively. Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, are generated by the fusion of precursor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. To elucidate the molecular and epigenetic regulation of osteoclast differentiation, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in combination with RNA sequencing. We focused on the histone modification change from H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(+) to H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(–) and identified the protocadherin-7 gene (Pcdh7) to be among the genes epigenetically regulated during osteoclastogenesis. Pcdh7 was induced by RANKL stimulation in an NFAT-dependent manner. The knockdown of Pcdh7 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation due to the impairment of cell–cell fusion, accompanied by a decreased expression of the fusion-related genes Dcstamp, Ocstamp and Atp6v0d2. This study demonstrates that Pcdh7 plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion.

  4. Global epigenomic analysis indicates protocadherin-7 activates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Haruhiko; Nakashima, Tomoki; Hayashi, Mikihito; Izawa, Naohiro; Yasui, Tetsuro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Sakae; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of epigenetically regulated genes during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 is regulated by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 during osteoclastogenesis. • Pcdh7 expression is increased by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. • Establishment of novel cell fusion analysis for osteoclasts by imaging cytometer. • Pcdh7 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell fusion related gene expressions. - Abstract: Gene expression is dependent not only on genomic sequences, but also epigenetic control, in which the regulation of chromatin by histone modification plays a crucial role. Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) are related to transcriptionally activated and silenced sequences, respectively. Osteoclasts, the multinucleated cells that resorb bone, are generated by the fusion of precursor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. To elucidate the molecular and epigenetic regulation of osteoclast differentiation, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in combination with RNA sequencing. We focused on the histone modification change from H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(+) to H3K4me3(+)H3K27me3(–) and identified the protocadherin-7 gene (Pcdh7) to be among the genes epigenetically regulated during osteoclastogenesis. Pcdh7 was induced by RANKL stimulation in an NFAT-dependent manner. The knockdown of Pcdh7 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation due to the impairment of cell–cell fusion, accompanied by a decreased expression of the fusion-related genes Dcstamp, Ocstamp and Atp6v0d2. This study demonstrates that Pcdh7 plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis by promoting cell–cell fusion

  5. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brett D; Liu, Yuanyuan; Kors, Christopher A; Leser, George P; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Lamb, Robert A

    2012-10-09

    The paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) enters cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane through the concerted action of the fusion (F) protein and the receptor binding protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The F protein folds initially to form a trimeric metastable prefusion form that is triggered to undergo large-scale irreversible conformational changes to form the trimeric postfusion conformation. It is thought that F refolding couples the energy released with membrane fusion. The F protein is synthesized as a precursor (F0) that must be cleaved by a host protease to form a biologically active molecule, F1,F2. Cleavage of F protein is a prerequisite for fusion and virus infectivity. Cleavage creates a new N terminus on F1 that contains a hydrophobic region, known as the FP, which intercalates target membranes during F protein refolding. The crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of the uncleaved form of PIV5 F is known; here we report the crystal structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of PIV5 F. The structure shows minimal movement of the residues adjacent to the protease cleavage site. Most of the hydrophobic FP residues are buried in the uncleaved F protein, and only F103 at the newly created N terminus becomes more solvent-accessible after cleavage. The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein.

  6. Hypoglycemic Activity Of Polygala arvensis In Normal And Alloxan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood glucose was estimated by the glucose oxidase method in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats before and 2h after the administration of drugs. The glycogen content of the liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm were estimated. It showed significant reduction ...

  7. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  8. The B isozyme creatine kinase is active as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsky, A.P.; Traxler, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the B isozyme of creatine kinase CK B has been expressed in Escherichia coli from a fusion with lacZ carried by λgtll. Western blots indicate that a stable polypeptide with the appropriate mobility for the Β-galactosidase-creatine kinase Β-gal-CK B ) fusion protein cross-reacts with both Β-gal and CK B antiserum. No significant CK activity is detected in control E. coli; however, extracts from cells containing the λgtll-CK B construct have a CK activity of 1.54j0.07 μmol/min per mg protein. The fusion protein appears to provide this activity bacause immunoprecipitation of protein with Β-gal antiserum leads to a loss of CK activity from extracts. That the enzyme is active in vivo was demonstrated by detection of a phosphocreatine (PCr) peak in the 31 P NMR spectrum from E. coli grown on medium supplemented with creatine. As in mammalian brain and muscle, the PCr peak detected was sensitive to the energy status of the E. coli. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Activation Inventories after Exposure to DD/DT Neutrons in Safety Analysis of Nuclear Fusion Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankunas, Gediminas; Cufar, Aljaz; Tidikas, Andrius; Batistoni, Paola

    2017-11-23

    Irradiations with 14 MeV fusion neutrons are planned at Joint European Torus (JET) in DT operations with the objective to validate the calculation of the activation of structural materials in functional materials expected in ITER and fusion plants. This study describes the activation and dose rate calculations performed for materials irradiated throughout the DT plasma operation during which the samples of real fusion materials are exposed to 14 MeV neutrons inside the JET vacuum vessel. Preparatory activities are in progress during the current DD operations with dosimetry foils to measure the local neutron fluence and spectrum at the sample irradiation position. The materials included those used in the manufacturing of the main in-vessel components, such as ITER-grade W, Be, CuCrZr, 316 L(N) and the functional materials used in diagnostics and heating systems. The neutron-induced activities and dose rates at shutdown were calculated by the FISPACT code, using the neutron fluxes and spectra that were provided by the preceding MCNP neutron transport calculations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of low activation steels as first wall of nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.T.; Lapena, J.; Diego, G. de; Schirra, M.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, the design development of fusion reactors and the possible materials to use in them are being studied in parallel. One of the most critical problems in this research is the structural materials selection for the first wall and blanket. The aim of the present work is to study three low activation alloys designed in Germany in which niobium has been substituted by tantalum or cerium. The mechanical results show that the alloys containing cerium are in the same order of the low activation materials known to date, but the tantalum doped alloy produces TaC 3 precipitation that destabilizes the matrix and provokes large microstructural changes. This causes a decrease of the mechanical properties at about 600 degree centigree. This fact makes this alloy insuitable for the first wall on fusion reactors, because the working temperature is near 550 degree centigree. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Low-activation structural ceramic composites for fusion power reactors: materials development and main design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.S.; Le Bars, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced Low-Activation Materials (LAMs) with favourable short-term activation characteristics is discussed, for the use as structural materials in a fusion power reactor (in order to reduce the risk associated with a major accident, in particular those related with radio-isotopes release in the environment), and to try to approach the concept of an inherently safe reactor. LA Ceramics Composites (LACCs) are the most promising LAMs because of their relatively good thermo-mechanical properties. At present, SiC/SiC composite is the only LACC considered by the fusion community, and therefore is the one having the most complete data base. The preliminary design of a breeding blanket using SiC/SiC as structural material indicated that significant improvement of its thermal conductivity is required. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Normal postural responses preceding shoulder flexion: co-activation or asymmetric activation of transverse abdominis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Sanaz; Maroufi, Nader; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Parnianpour, Mohammad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that activation of the transverse abdominis muscle has a stabilizing effect on the lumbar spine by raising intra-abdominal pressure without added disc compression. However, its feedforward activity has remained a controversial issue. In addition, research regarding bilateral activation of trunk muscles during a unilateral arm movement is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate bilateral anticipatory activity of trunk muscles during unilateral arm flexion. Eighteen healthy subjects (aged 25 ± 3.96 years) participated in this study and performed 10 trials of rapid arm flexion in response to a visual stimulus. The electromyographic activity of the right anterior deltoid (AD) and bilateral trunk muscles including the transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), superficial lumbar multifidus (SLM) and lumbar erector spine (LES) was recorded. The onset latency and anticipatory activity of the recorded trunk muscles were calculated. The first muscle activated in anticipation of the right arm flexion was the left TA/IO. The right TA/IO activated significantly later than all other trunk muscles (P 0.05). Healthy subjects showed no bilateral anticipatory co-activation of TA/IO in unilateral arm elevation. Further investigations are required to delineate normal muscle activation pattern in healthy subjects prior to prescribing bilateral activation training of transverse abdominis for subjects with chronic low back pain.

  13. Activity of pyrimidine degradation enzymes in normal tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B. P.; van Lenthe, H.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measured the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) and beta-ureidopropionase (beta-UP), using radiolabeled substrates, in 16 different tissues obtained at autopsy from a single patient. The activity of DPD could be detected in all tissues

  14. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops' as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems

  15. Current status of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels R and D for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steels have been considered to be the prime candidate for the fusion blanket structural material. The irradiation data obtained up to now indicates rather high feasibility of the steels for application to fusion reactors because of their high resistance to degradation of material performance caused by both the irradiation-induced displacement damage and transmutation helium atoms. The martensitic structure of RAF/M steels consists of a large number of lattice defects before the irradiation, which strongly retards the formation of displacement damage through absorption and annihilation of the point defects generated by irradiation. Transmutation helium can be also trapped at those defects in the martensitic structure so that the growth of helium bubbles at grain boundaries is suppressed. The major properties of the steels are well within our knowledge, and processing technologies are mostly developed for fusion application. RAF/M steels are now certainly ready to proceed to the next stage, that is, the construction of International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor Test Blanket Modules (ITER-TBM). Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels have been developed for higher thermal efficiency of fusion power plants. Recent irradiation experiments indicated that the steels were quite highly resistant to neutron irradiation embrittlement, showing hardening accompanied by no loss of ductility. High-Cr ODS steels whose chromium concentration was in the range from 14 to 19 mass% showed high resistance to corrosion in supercritical pressurized water. It is shown that the 14Cr-ODS steel is susceptible to neither hydrogen nor helium embrittlement. A combined utilization of ODS steels with RAF/M steels will be effective to realize fusion power early at a reasonable thermal efficiency. (author)

  16. 'Low-activation' fusion materials development and related nuclear data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.

    1990-01-01

    So-called ''low-activation'' materials are presently considered as an important means of improving the safety characteristics of future DT fusion reactors. Essential benefits are expected in various problem areas ranging from operation considerations to aspects of decommissioning and waste disposal. Present programs on ''low-activation'' materials development depend strongly on reliable activity calculations for a wide range of technologically important materials. The related nuclear data requirements and important needs for more and improved nuclear data are discussed. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  18. Reduced activation structural materials for fusion power plants - The European Union program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der; Le Marois, G.; Moeslang, A.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The competition of fusion power plants with the renewable energy sources in the second half of the 21st century requires structural materials operating at high temperatures, and sufficient radiation resistance to ensure high plant efficiency and availability. The reduced activation materials development in the EU counts several steps regarding the radiation damage resistance: 75 dpa for DEMO and 150 dpa and beyond for power plants. The maximum operating temperature development line ranges from the present day from the present day feasible 600 K up to 1300- K in advanced power plants. The reduced activation steel, RAS, forms the reference for the development efforts. EUROFER has been manufactured in the EU on industrial scale with specified purity and mechanical properties up to 825 K. The oxide dispersion strengthened , ODS, variety of RAS should reach the 925 K operation limit. The EU has selected silicon carbide ceramic composite as the primary high temperature, 1300 K, goal. On a small scale the potential of tungsten alloys for higher temperatures is investigated. The present test environments for radiation resistance are insufficient to provide data for DEMO. Hence the support of the EU for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation facility. The computational modelling is expected to guide the materials development and the design of near plasma components. The EU co-operates closely with Japan, the RF and US in IEA and IAEA co-ordinated agreements, which are highly beneficial for the fusion structural materials development. (author)

  19. Episodic aphasia associated with tumor active multiple sclerosis: a correlative SPECT study utilising image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roff, G.; Campbell, A.; Lawn, N.; Henderson, A.; McCarthy, M.; Lenzo, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cerebral perfusion imaging is a common technique to assess cerebral perfusion and metabolism. It can complement anatomical imaging in assessing a number of neurological conditions. At times it can better define the clinical manifestations of a disease process than anatomical imaging alone. We present a clinical case whereby cerebral SPECT imaging helped define the physiological reason for intermittent aphasia in a patient with tumor active multiple sclerotic white matter plaques. Cerebral SPECT studies were performed during a period of aphasia and when the patient had recovered. We utilised subtraction analyses and image fusion techniques to better define the changes seen on SPECT. We discuss the neuroanatomical relationship of aphasia and the automatic fusion technique that allows accurate co-registration of the MRI and SPECT data. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. A new NFIA:RAF1 fusion activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christina Westmose; Sehested, Astrid; Regué, Àngels Mateu

    2016-01-01

    of a comprehensive genomic tumor profiling. We show that the NFIA:RAF1 fusion results in constitutive Raf1 kinase activity, leading to activation of downstream MEK1/2 cascade and increased proliferation of cancer cells. The NFIA:RAF1 fusion displayed distinct subcellular localization towards the plasma membrane...... in order to refine diagnostics of PA and to unravel potential treatment options, e.g. with MEK inhibitors....

  1. Transmutation and activation of stainless steel 316 SS in a thermal fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.; Schneider, J.

    1977-10-01

    Using the program MATEXP (matrix exponential method) the influence of neutron flux is calculated for stainless steel 3s16 SS which is used as a structural material in a fusion reactor blanket (CTRD-I). The transmutations, activations and γ-dose rates are determined for an operation time of 20 years. Investigating the decay behaviour after operation time, we found that the long term activity and dose rate was mainly influenced by five nuclides: Fe55, Ni63, Ni59, Co60 and Nb94. (orig.) [de

  2. Progress in the US program to develop low-activation structural materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.; Bloom, E.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Smith, D.L.; Odette, G.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    It has long been recognized that attainment of the safety and environmental potential of fusion energy requires the successful development of low-activation materials for the first wall, blanket and other high heat flux structural components. Only a limited number of materials potentially possess the physical, mechanical and low-activation characteristics required for this application. The current US structural materials research effort is focused on three candidate materials: advanced ferritic steels, vanadium alloys, and silicon carbide composites. Recent progress has been made in understanding the response of these materials to neutron irradiation. (author)

  3. Progress in the U.S. program to develop low-activation structural materials for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.; Bloom, E.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Smith, D.L.; Odette, G.R.; Wiffen, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    It has long been recognized that attainment of the safety and environmental potential of fusion energy requires the successful development of low-activation materials for the first wall, blanket and other high heat flux structural components. Only a limited number of materials potentially possess the physical, mechanical and low-activation characteristics required for this application. The current U.S. structural materials research effort is focused on three candidate materials: advanced ferritic steels, vanadium alloys, and silicon carbide composites. Recent progress has been made in understanding the response of these materials to neutron irradiation. (author)

  4. A shallow land buriable low-activation austenitic stainless steel for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1990-01-01

    First-wall components are the most activated materials in fusion reactors, but their activity can be reduced by material selection. The development of new alloys with good mechanical and physical properties and with low activation characteristics is needed. The PCA is one of the reference austenitic stainless steels for fusion structural applications in the United States. In this paper, the authors analyze the induced radioactivity in the PCA in connection with the shallow land burial (SLB) waste disposal concept. The most proper elemental substitutions is suggested for reducing the activity in the PCA. A low-activity version of the PCA is proposed. Since recycling is not possible, shallow land burial is the best achievable goal for a low-activation steel for the first wall. The PCA cannot be accepted for SLB, mainly due to the presence of molybdenum, niobium, and certain impurities. With limited elemental substitutions and impurity limitations, a new alloy (PCA-la) can be obtained. The PCA-la meets requirements for SLB. The properties of PCA-la should be comparable to those of the PCA. Fabrication and testing of specimens to check its main properties will be the next step of this work

  5. Activation calculation and radiation analysis for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi, E-mail: zchen@ustc.edu.cn; Qiao, Shiji; Jiang, Shuai; Xu, X. George

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Activation calculation was performed using FLUKA for the main components of CFETR. • Radionuclides and radioactive wastes were assessed for CFETR. • The Waste Disposal Ratings (WDR) were assessed for CFETR. - Abstract: The activation calculation and analysis for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) will play an important role in its system design, maintenance, inspection and assessment of nuclear waste. Using the multi-particle transport code FLUKA and its associated data library, we calculated the radioactivity, specific activity, waste disposal rating from activation products, nuclides in the tritium breeding blanket, shielding layer, vacuum vessel and toroidal field coil (TFC) of CFETR. This paper presents the calculation results including neutron flux, activation products and waste disposal rating after one-year full operation of the CFETR. The findings show that, under the assumption of one-year operation at the 200 MW fusion power, the total radioactivity inventory will be 1.05 × 10{sup 19} Bq at shutdown and 1.03 × 10{sup 17} Bq after ten years. The primary residual nuclide is found to be {sup 55}Fe in ten years after the shutdown. The waste disposal rating (WDR) values are very low (<<1), according to Class C limits, CFETR materials are qualified for shallow land burial. It is shown that CFETR has no serious activation safety issue.

  6. Mechanism of suppression of normal hemopoietic activity by lymphokine-activated killer cells and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, F.M.; Malkovska, V.; Myint, A.A.; Meager, A.; Gordon-Smith, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes (lymphokine-activated killer [LAK] cells) have been shown to inhibit the formation of autologous human granulocyte-macrophage hemopoietic progenitors (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, CFU-GM) in vitro. Effects of LAK cells on these progenitors may include a number of different mechanisms. LAK cells are potent cytotoxic lymphocytes capable of lysing certain normal autologous cells. They also produce cytokines known to inhibit hemopoiesis (interferon gamma [IFN-gamma] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) or enhance it (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, GM-CSF). In the authors' current study they analyzed the mechanism of suppression of autologous CFU-GM by LAK cells. Their results suggest that LAK cells are not directly cytotoxic to normal CFU-GM. They show that it is possible to abolish the hemopoiesis-inhibiting activity of LAK cells without abrogating their cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines using inhibitors of DNA synthesis, namely hydroxyurea or irradiation

  7. Constraining slip rates and spacings for active normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Patience A.; Roberts, Gerald P.

    2001-12-01

    Numerous observations of extensional provinces indicate that neighbouring faults commonly slip at different rates and, moreover, may be active over different time intervals. These published observations include variations in slip rate measured along-strike of a fault array or fault zone, as well as significant across-strike differences in the timing and rates of movement on faults that have a similar orientation with respect to the regional stress field. Here we review published examples from the western USA, the North Sea, and central Greece, and present new data from the Italian Apennines that support the idea that such variations are systematic and thus to some extent predictable. The basis for the prediction is that: (1) the way in which a fault grows is fundamentally controlled by the ratio of maximum displacement to length, and (2) the regional strain rate must remain approximately constant through time. We show how data on fault lengths and displacements can be used to model the observed patterns of long-term slip rate where measured values are sparse. Specifically, we estimate the magnitude of spatial variation in slip rate along-strike and relate it to the across-strike spacing between active faults.

  8. Expression and activity analysis of a new fusion protein targeting ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Manman; Chang, Weiqin; Wang, Dingding; Cui, Manhua; Lin, Yang; Wu, Shuying; Xu, Tianmin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new therapeutic drug to improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. Human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)17-34-kunitz-type protease inhibitor (KPI) eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and recombinant human uPA17-34-KPI (rhuPA17-34-KPI) in P. pastoris was expressed. In the present study, the DNA sequences that encode uPA 17-34 amino acids were created according to the native amino acids sequence and inserted into the KPI-pPICZαC vector, which was constructed. Then, uPA17‑34-KPI-pPICZαC was transformed into P. pastoris X-33, and rhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed by induction of methanol. The bioactivities of a recombinant fusion protein were detected with trypsin inhibition analysis, and the inhibitory effects on the growth of ovarian cancer cells were identified using the TUNEL assay, in vitro wound‑healing assay and Matrigel model analysis. The results of the DNA sequence analysis of the recombinant vector uPA17-34-KPI‑pPICZα demonstrated that the DNA‑encoding human uPA 17-34 amino acids, 285-288 amino acids of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and 1-57 amino acids of KPI were correctly inserted into the pPICZαC vector. Following induction by methonal, the fusion protein with a molecular weight of 8.8 kDa was observed using SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. RhuPA17-34-KPI was expressed in P. pastoris with a yield of 50 mg/l in a 50-ml tube. The recombinant fusion protein was able to inhibit the activity of trypsin, inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of SKOV3 cells, and inhibit the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells. By considering uPA17-34 amino acid specific binding uPAR as the targeted part of fusion protein and utilizing the serine protease inhibitor activity of KPI, it was found that the recombinant fusion protein uPA17-34-KPI inhibited the invasion and metastasis of ovarian tumors, and may therefore be regarded as effective in targeted treatment.

  9. Fusion reactors and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1990-04-01

    Fusion power, based on the nuclear fusion of light elements to yield a net gain of energy, has the potential to extend the world's resources in a way which is environmentally attractive. Nevertheless, the easiest route to fusion - the reaction between deuterium and tritium - involves hazards from the use of tritium and the neutron activation of the structural materials. These hazards have been considered on the basis of simple conceptual reactor designs, both in relation to normal operation and decommissioning and to potential accident situations. Results from several studies are reviewed and suggest that fusion reactors appear to have an inherently lower environmental impact than fission reactors. However, the realization of this potential has yet to be demonstrated. (author)

  10. Towards a reduced activation structural materials database for fusion DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeslang, A.; Diegele, E.; Laesser, R.; Klimiankou, M.; Lindau, R.; Materna-Morris, E.; Rieth, M.; Lucon, E.; Petersen, C.; Schneider, H.-C.; Pippan, R.; Rensman, J.W.; Schaaf, B. van der; Tavassoli, F.

    2005-01-01

    The development of First Wall, Blanket and Divertor materials which are capable of withstanding many years the high neutron and heat fluxes, is a critical path to fusion power. Therefore, the timely availability of a sound materials database has become an indispensable element in international fusion road maps. In order to provide materials design data for short term needs of ITER Test Blanket Modules and for a DEMOnstration fusion reactor, a wealth of R and D results on the European reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER, and on oxide dispersion strengthened variants are being characterized, mainly in the temperature window 250-650 deg. C. The characterisation includes irradiations up to 15 dpa in the mixed spectrum reactor HFR and up to 75 dpa in the fast breeder reactor BOR60. Industrial EUROFER-batches of 3.5 and 7.5 tons have been produced with a variety of semi-finished, quality-assured product forms. To increase thermal efficiency of blankets, high temperature resistant SiC f /SiC channel inserts for liquid metal coolant tubes are also developed. Regarding radiation damage resistance, a broad based reactor irradiation programs counts several steps from ≤5dpa (ITER TBMs) up to 75 dpa (DEMO). For the European divertor designers, a materials data base is presently being set up for pure W and W alloys, and related reactor irradiations are foreseen with temperatures from 650-1000 deg. C. (author)

  11. Review of recent japanese activities on tritium accountability in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi; Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of Japanese tritium-safety research is given from several viewpoints. • The keywords are tritium accountability and self sufficiency. • Tritium-relating history, tritium facilities and legal regulation are introduced. - Abstract: After introduction of Japanese history or recent topics on tritium (T)-relating research and T-handling capacity in facilities or universities, present activities on T engineering research in Japan are summarized in short in terms of T accountability on safety. The term of safety includes wide processes from T production, assay, storing, confinement, transfer through safety handling finally to shipment of its waste. In order to achieve reliable operation of fusion reactors, several unit processes included in the T cycle of fusion reactors are investigated. Especially, the following recent advances are focused: T retention in plasma facing materials, emergency detritiation system including fire case, T leak through metal tube walls, oxide coating and water detritiation. Strict control, storing and accurate measurement are especially demanded for T accountability depending on various molecular species. Since kg-order T of vaporable radioisotope (RI) will be handled in a fuel cycle or breeding system of a fusion reactor, the accuracy of <0.1% is demanded far over the conventional technology status. Necessity to control T balance within legal restrictions is always kept in mind for operation of the future reactor.

  12. Review of recent japanese activities on tritium accountability in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail: sfukada@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Dept. Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga, 816-8580 (Japan); Oya, Yasuhisa [College of Science, Academic Institute, Shizuoka University, 836 Otani, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, Organization for Promotion Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Review of Japanese tritium-safety research is given from several viewpoints. • The keywords are tritium accountability and self sufficiency. • Tritium-relating history, tritium facilities and legal regulation are introduced. - Abstract: After introduction of Japanese history or recent topics on tritium (T)-relating research and T-handling capacity in facilities or universities, present activities on T engineering research in Japan are summarized in short in terms of T accountability on safety. The term of safety includes wide processes from T production, assay, storing, confinement, transfer through safety handling finally to shipment of its waste. In order to achieve reliable operation of fusion reactors, several unit processes included in the T cycle of fusion reactors are investigated. Especially, the following recent advances are focused: T retention in plasma facing materials, emergency detritiation system including fire case, T leak through metal tube walls, oxide coating and water detritiation. Strict control, storing and accurate measurement are especially demanded for T accountability depending on various molecular species. Since kg-order T of vaporable radioisotope (RI) will be handled in a fuel cycle or breeding system of a fusion reactor, the accuracy of <0.1% is demanded far over the conventional technology status. Necessity to control T balance within legal restrictions is always kept in mind for operation of the future reactor.

  13. Attenuation capability of low activation-modified high manganese austenitic stainless steel for fusion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, M.M. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El-kameesy, S.U.; El-Fiki, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ghali, S.N. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El Shazly, R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Saeed, Aly, E-mail: aly_8h@yahoo.com [Nuclear Power station Department, Faculty of Engineering, Egyptian-Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement stainless steel alloys to be used in fusion reactors. • Structural, mechanical, attenuation properties of investigated alloys were studied. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results has been achieved. • The developed alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactors. - Abstract: Low nickel-high manganese austenitic stainless steel alloys, SSMn9Ni and SSMn10Ni, were developed to use as a shielding material in fusion reactor system. A standard austenitic stainless steel SS316L was prepared and studied as a reference sample. The microstructure properties of the present stainless steel alloys were investigated using Schaeffler diagram, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. Mainly, an austenite phase was observed for the prepared stainless steel alloys. Additionally, a small ferrite phase was observed in SS316L and SSMn10Ni samples. The mechanical properties of the prepared alloys were studied using Vickers hardness and tensile tests at room temperature. The studied manganese stainless steel alloys showed higher hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength than SS316L. On the other hand, the manganese stainless steel elongation had relatively lower values than the standard SS316L. The removal cross section for both slow and total slow (primary and those slowed down in sample) neutrons were carried out using {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. Gamma ray attenuation parameters were carried out for different gamma ray energy lines which emitted from {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th radioactive sources. The developed manganese stainless steel alloys had a higher total slow removal cross section than SS316L. While the slow neutron and gamma rays were nearly the same for all studied stainless steel alloys. From the obtained results, the developed manganese stainless steel alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactor system with low activation based on the short life

  14. Chaperone activity of human small heat shock protein-GST fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbach, Hannah; Butler, Caley; McMenimen, Kathryn A

    2017-07-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a ubiquitous part of the machinery that maintains cellular protein homeostasis by acting as molecular chaperones. sHsps bind to and prevent the aggregation of partially folded substrate proteins in an ATP-independent manner. sHsps are dynamic, forming an ensemble of structures from dimers to large oligomers through concentration-dependent equilibrium dissociation. Based on structural studies and mutagenesis experiments, it is proposed that the dimer is the smallest active chaperone unit, while larger oligomers may act as storage depots for sHsps or play additional roles in chaperone function. The complexity and dynamic nature of their structural organization has made elucidation of their chaperone function challenging. HspB1 and HspB5 are two canonical human sHsps that vary in sequence and are expressed in a wide variety of tissues. In order to determine the role of the dimer in chaperone activity, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was genetically linked as a fusion protein to the N-terminus regions of both HspB1 and HspB5 (also known as Hsp27 and αB-crystallin, respectively) proteins in order to constrain oligomer formation of HspB1 and HspB5, by using GST, since it readily forms a dimeric structure. We monitored the chaperone activity of these fusion proteins, which suggest they primarily form dimers and monomers and function as active molecular chaperones. Furthermore, the two different fusion proteins exhibit different chaperone activity for two model substrate proteins, citrate synthase (CS) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH). GST-HspB1 prevents more aggregation of MDH compared to GST-HspB5 and wild type HspB1. However, when CS is the substrate, both GST-HspB1 and GST-HspB5 are equally effective chaperones. Furthermore, wild type proteins do not display equal activity toward the substrates, suggesting that each sHsp exhibits different substrate specificity. Thus, substrate specificity, as described here for full-length GST

  15. The ORNL Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center: Overview of Activities 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory continued operation aimed at collecting, evaluating, and disseminating atomic, molecular, and particle-surface interaction (AM and PSI) data needed by both the U.S. and international plasma science communities. This work has been carried out within an overarching atomic physics research group which produces much of the required data through an active experimental and theoretical science program. The production of an annotated bibliography of AM and PSI literature relevant to plasma science continues to be among the most important activities of the data center, forming the basis for the CFADC on-line bibliographic search engine and a significant part of the IAEA A+M Data Unit's 'International Bulletin on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion.' Also chief among the data center's activities are responses to specific data requests from the plasma science community, leading to either rapid feedback using existing data resources or long term data production projects, as well as participation in IAEA Coordinated Research Programs including recently 'Data for Surface Composition Dynamics Relevant to Erosion Processes' and 'Atomic and Molecular Data for Plasma Modeling.' Highlights of recent data production projects include the following: Experimental and theoretical data for inelastic electron-hydrocarbon reactions, large scale computational results for particle reflection from surfaces, measurements of chemical sputtering from carbon, inaugural experiments considering molecular ion collisions with neutral hydrogen, and expansion of the database of elastic and related transport cross sections calculated for intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in hydrogen plasmas. Progress is being hampered owing to news from the US Department of Energy that it plans to close out the program after a ramp down of funding in 2012, following a distinguished 52 year history of contributions to the US and

  16. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  17. FENDL/A-2.0. Neutron activation cross section data library for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.; Kopecky, J.; Sublet, J.C. Sublet; Forrest, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the contents of a comprehensive neutron cross section data library for 13,006 neutron activation reactions with 739 target nuclides from H (A=1,Z=1) to Cm (A=248,Z=96), in the incident energy range up to 20 MeV. FENDL/A-2 is a sublibrary of FENDL-2, the second revision of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications. It is supplemented by a decay data library FENDL/D-2 in ENDF-6 format for 1867 nuclides. The data are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section online via INTERNET by FTP command, or on magnetic tape upon request. (author)

  18. Control of activation levels to simplify waste management of fusion reactor ferritic steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiffen, F.W.; Santoro, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the restrictions placed on the composition of steels to allow simplified waste management after service in a fusion reactor first wall. Decay of steel activity within tens of years could simplify waste disposal or even permit recycle. For material recycle, N, Al, Ni, Cu, Nb, and Mo must be excluded. For shallow land burial, initial concentration limits include (in at. ppM) Ni, <20,000; Mo, <3650; N, <3650; Cu, <2400; and Nb, <1.0. Other constituents of steels will not be limited

  19. of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Activity by the Fusion of High-Resolution SPECT and Morphological Imaging Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Fujii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to clearly visualize heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF activity in tumor tissues in vivo. Methods. We synthesized of 125I-IPOS, a 125I labeled chimeric protein probe, that would visualize HIF activity. The biodistribution of 125I-IPOS in FM3A tumor-bearing mice was evaluated. Then, the intratumoral localization of this probe was observed by autoradiography, and it was compared with histopathological findings. The distribution of 125I-IPOS in tumors was imaged by a small animal SPECT/CT scanner. The obtained in vivo SPECT-CT fusion images were compared with ex vivo images of excised tumors. Fusion imaging with MRI was also examined. Results. 125I-IPOS well accumulated in FM3A tumors. The intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS by autoradiography was quite heterogeneous, and it partially overlapped with that of pimonidazole. High-resolution SPECT-CT fusion images successfully demonstrated the heterogeneity of 125I-IPOS distribution inside tumors. SPECT-MRI fusion images could give more detailed information about the intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. Conclusion. High-resolution SPECT images successfully demonstrated heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. SPECT-CT fusion images, more favorably SPECT-MRI fusion images, would be useful to understand the features of heterogeneous intratumoral expression of HIF activity in vivo.

  20. Self-Assembly of Spider Silk-Fusion Proteins Comprising Enzymatic and Fluorescence Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Martin; Mohrand, Madeleine; Scheibel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(C16) was genetically fused either with esterase 2 (EST2) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusions EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) were spectroscopically investigated and showed native structures of EST and GFP. The structural integrity was confirmed by the enzymatic activity of EST and the fluorescence of GFP. The spider silk moiety retained its intrinsically unstructured conformation in solution and the self-assembly into either nanofibrils or nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of phosphate. Particles, however, showed significantly lower activity of the EST and GFP domains likely caused by a steric hindrance. However, upon self-assembly of EST-eADF4(C16) and GFP-eADF4(C16) into fibrils the protein activities were retained. In general, the fusion of globular enzymes with the spider silk domain allows the generation of fibrous biomaterials with catalytic or light emitting properties.

  1. Cell fusion in osteoclasts plays a critical role in controlling bone mass and osteoblastic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Ninomiya, Ken; Miyamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Toru; Sato, Yuiko

    2008-01-01

    The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity is central for maintaining the integrity of bone homeostasis. Here we show that mice lacking dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an essential molecule for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, exhibited impaired bone resorption and upregulation of bone formation by osteoblasts, which do not express DC-STAMP, which led to increased bone mass. On the contrary, DC-STAMP over-expressing transgenic (DC-STAMP-Tg) mice under the control of an actin promoter showed significantly accelerated cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts and bone resorption, with decreased osteoblastic activity and bone mass. Bone resorption and formation are known to be regulated in a coupled manner, whereas DC-STAMP regulates bone homeostasis in an un-coupled manner. Thus our results indicate that inhibition of a single molecule provides both decreased osteoclast activity and increased bone formation by osteoblasts, thereby increasing bone mass in an un-coupled and a tissue specific manner.

  2. Semiallogenic fusions of MSI+ tumor cells and activated B cells induce MSI-specific T cell responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, Yvette; Klier, Ulrike; Linnebacher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Various strategies have been developed to transfer tumor-specific antigens into antigen presenting cells in order to induce cytotoxic T cell responses against tumor cells. One approach uses cellular vaccines based on fusions of autologous antigen presenting cells and allogeneic tumor cells. The fusion cells combine antigenicity of the tumor cell with optimal immunostimulatory capacity of the antigen presenting cells. Microsatellite instability caused by mutational inactivation of DNA mismatch repair genes results in translational frameshifts when affecting coding regions. It has been shown by us and others that these mutant proteins lead to the presentation of immunogenic frameshift peptides that are - in principle - recognized by a multiplicity of effector T cells. We chose microsatellite instability-induced frameshift antigens as ideal to test for induction of tumor specific T cell responses by semiallogenic fusions of microsatellite instable carcinoma cells with CD40-activated B cells. Two fusion clones of HCT116 with activated B cells were selected for stimulation of T cells autologous to the B cell fusion partner. Outgrowing T cells were phenotyped and tested in functional assays. The fusion clones expressed frameshift antigens as well as high amounts of MHC and costimulatory molecules. Autologous T cells stimulated with these fusions were predominantly CD4 + , activated, and reacted specifically against the fusion clones and also against the tumor cell fusion partner. Interestingly, a response toward 6 frameshift-derived peptides (of 14 tested) could be observed. Cellular fusions of MSI + carcinoma cells and activated B cells combine the antigen-presenting capacity of the B cell with the antigenic repertoire of the carcinoma cell. They present frameshift-derived peptides and can induce specific and fully functional T cells recognizing not only fusion cells but also the carcinoma cells. These hybrid cells may have great potential for cellular immunotherapy and

  3. Physical activity patterns in morbidly obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Mohammad, Jamal; Samuel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    To compare physical activity patterns between morbidly obese and normal-weight women. Daily physical activity of 18 morbidly obese and 7 normal-weight women aged 30-58 years was measured for 2 days using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) device. The obese group spent about 2 hr/day less standing and 30 min/day less walking than did the normal-weight group. Time spent standing (standing time) was positively associated with time spent walking (walking time). Age- and walking time-adjusted standing time did not differ according to weight status. Promoting standing may be a strategy to increase walking.

  4. Glycan shield and fusion activation of a deltacoronavirus spike glycoprotein fine-tuned for enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Snijder, Joost; Yoshioka, Craig; Walls, Alexandra C; Li, Wentao; McGuire, Andrew T; Rey, Félix A; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Veesler, David

    2017-11-01

    Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to initiate infection. The S protein is a major determinant of the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and is also the main target of the host humoral immune response. We report here the 3.5 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S glycoprotein trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which belongs to the recently identified delta genus. Structural and glycoproteomics data indicate that the glycans of PDCoV S are topologically conserved when compared with the human respiratory coronavirus HCoV-NL63 S, resulting in similar surface areas being shielded from neutralizing antibodies and implying that both viruses are under comparable immune pressure in their respective hosts. The structure further reveals a shortened S 2 ' activation loop, containing a reduced number of basic amino acids, which participates to rendering the spike largely protease-resistant. This property distinguishes PDCoV S from recently characterized betacoronavirus S proteins and suggests that the S protein of enterotropic PDCoV has evolved to tolerate the protease-rich environment of the small intestine and to fine-tune its fusion activation to avoid premature triggering and reduction of infectivity. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses use transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein trimers to promote host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We determined a near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S ectodomain trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which is responsible for diarrhea in piglets and has had devastating consequences for the swine industry worldwide. Structural and glycoproteomics data reveal that PDCoV S is

  5. Canine Distemper Virus Fusion Activation: Critical Role of Residue E123 of CD150/SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Mojtaba; Bringolf, Fanny; Röthlisberger, Silvan; Bieringer, Maria; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Origgi, Francesco; Plattet, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) possess tetrameric attachment proteins (H) and trimeric fusion proteins, which cooperate with either SLAM or nectin 4 receptors to trigger membrane fusion for cell entry. While the MeV H-SLAM cocrystal structure revealed the binding interface, two distinct oligomeric H assemblies were also determined. In one of the conformations, two SLAM units were sandwiched between two discrete H head domains, thus spotlighting two binding interfaces ("front" and "back"). Here, we investigated the functional relevance of both interfaces in activating the CDV membrane fusion machinery. While alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified five critical regulatory residues in the front H-binding site of SLAM, the replacement of a conserved glutamate residue (E at position 123, replaced with A [E123A]) led to the most pronounced impact on fusion promotion. Intriguingly, while determination of the interaction of H with the receptor using soluble constructs revealed reduced binding for the identified SLAM mutants, no effect was recorded when physical interaction was investigated with the full-length counterparts of both molecules. Conversely, although mutagenesis of three strategically selected residues within the back H-binding site of SLAM did not substantially affect fusion triggering, nevertheless, the mutants weakened the H-SLAM interaction recorded with the membrane-anchored protein constructs. Collectively, our findings support a mode of binding between the attachment protein and the V domain of SLAM that is common to all morbilliviruses and suggest a major role of the SLAM residue E123, located at the front H-binding site, in triggering the fusion machinery. However, our data additionally support the hypothesis that other microdomain(s) of both glycoproteins (including the back H-binding site) might be required to achieve fully productive H-SLAM interactions. A complete understanding of the measles virus and canine distemper virus

  6. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  7. Verification of dose rate calculation and selection study on low activation concrete in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Koji; Minami, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Kosako, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Tomoo

    1991-01-01

    A concrete assembly was irradiated by D-T neutrons for 10 h, and dose rate measurement one day after shutdown has been carried out in order to provide a guide line for selection studies of low activation concrete. The experimental results were analyzed by the two dimensional calculation code DOT3.5 with its related nuclear data library GICX40 based on ENDF/B-III, however disagreement between experiment and calculation was observed in the deeper detector positions. Calculations were also performed using the nuclear data library based on ENDF/B-IV, and agreement within experimental errors was obtained at all detector positions. Selection studies for low activation concrete were performed using this nuclear data library. As a result, it was found that limestone concrete exhibited excellent properties as a low activation concrete in fusion facilities. (orig.)

  8. Risk for COPD with Obstruction of Active Smokers with Normal Spirometry and Reduced Diffusion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Robert J.; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are assessed for COPD using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusion capacity (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these “normal spirometry/low DLCO” smokers is unknown. Methods From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, CBC, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest X-ray, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity (TLC). Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers. Findings In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45 ± 20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41 ± 31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD. Interpretation Despite appearing “normal” by GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk for developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  9. Respiratory management of CT-transmission for accuracy fusion in PET/CT. A comparison between normal expiration and free breathing in 600 experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Atsushi; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Tamura, Shintaro; Ohashi, Takashi; Miwa, Kenta; Akimoto, Kenta; Wagatsuma, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Image misregistration can occur in fusion positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, because of motion artifacts caused by the management of respiration. The standard imaging protocol of the CT component of PET/CT is normal expiration (NormExp) or free breathing (FB). The objective of this study was to compare NormExp and FB for the optimal breathing protocol for PET/CT scans. A total of 600 consecutive patients were examined using lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based PET/CT. CT was acquired during NormExp (id est (i.e.), the level reached when the patient exhaled without forcing expiration and then held the breath) in 300 patients and during FB in 300 patients. The profile of liver measured along body axis was assessed. The distance of profile centers between the PET image and the CT image was measured. The misalignment between profile centers (PET) and profile centers (CT) was compared between NormExp and FB using the histogram of patients. An F test was used to test if the variances of two misalignments are equal. Next, the relationship between misalignment and age was evaluated in two managements of respiration. There was no significant difference between NormExp and FB in the histogram. However, significant misalignments (>10 cm) were found with NormExp. Patient age may have influenced the mismatch. FB is recommended for geriatric patients during acquisition of attenuation correction CT data sets. (author)

  10. Successful ovulation induction, conception, and normal delivery after chronic therapy with etanercept: a recombinant fusion anti-cytokine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E S; Perloe, M; Tucker, M J; Kaplan, C R; Palermo, G D

    2001-11-01

    Etanercept (Enbrel; Wyeth-Ayerst/Immunex Inc, Seattle, WA, USA) is a subcutaneously administered novel fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the 75 kD receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNFalpha) and the Fc portion of human IgG1. The agent is synthesized by plasmid transfection of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, utilizing recombinant DNA technology. Etanercept was approved by the US FDA for treatment of multi-drug resistant rheumatoid arthritis in 1998, but no human data exist regarding the impact of anti-TNFalpha therapy on human reproductive function or its use before ovulation induction. As TNFalpha potentiates collagenolysis via matrix metalloproteinase gene expression (thereby facilitating ovulation), there exists a theoretical risk that TNFalpha-inhibition could exert an undesirable effect on ovulation and pregnancy. In this report, we describe the first case of ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, normal pregnancy and singleton delivery of a healthy infant following chronic ( > 1 year) pre-ovulatory TNFalpha-inhibitor therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Reproductive endocrinologists and obstetrician-gynecologists should be familiar with etanercept therapy in the context of severe rheumatic disease, and offer appropriate reassurance regarding its safe use for infertility patients planning ovulation induction.

  11. Activation calculation and environmental safety analysis for fusion experimental breeder (FEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiming, Feng [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China)

    1996-04-01

    An activation calculation code FDKR and decay chain data library AFDCDLIB are used to calculate the radioactivity, decay heat, dose rate and biological hazard potential (BHP) form activation products, actinides and fission products in a Fusion Experiment Breeder (FEB). The code and library are introduced briefly, and calculation results and decay curves of related hazards after one year operation with 150 MW fusion power are given. The total radioactivity inventory, decay heat and BHP are 5.74 x 10{sup 20} Bq, 8.34 MW and 4.08 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 3} of air, respectively, at shutdown. Results obtained show that the first wall of FEB can meet the nuclear waste disposal criteria for the NRC 10 CFR61 Class C after a few weeks from shutdown. The inventory of important actinides for the fuel reprocessing, such as {sup 232}U and {sup 237}Np were also calculated. It was shown that their concentrations do not excess the limit value of environmental safety required. (9 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.).

  12. Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors demonstrate antiviral activity against African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Astghik; Galindo, Inmaculada; Nañez, Almudena; Arabyan, Erik; Karalyan, Zaven; Chistov, Alexey A; Streshnev, Philipp P; Korshun, Vladimir A; Alonso, Covadonga; Zakaryan, Hovakim

    2018-01-01

    Rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors (RAFIs) are a family of nucleoside derivatives that inhibit the infectivity of several enveloped viruses by interacting with virion envelope lipids and inhibiting fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Here we tested the antiviral activity of two RAFIs, 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)-arabino-uridine (aUY11) and 5-(Perylen-3-ylethynyl)uracil-1-acetic acid (cm1UY11) against African swine fever virus (ASFV), for which no effective vaccine is available. Both compounds displayed a potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ASFV infection in Vero cells. The major antiviral effect was observed when aUY11 and cm1UY11 were added at early stages of infection and maintained during the complete viral cycle. Furthermore, virucidal assay revealed a significant extracellular anti-ASFV activity for both compounds. We also found decrease in the synthesis of early and late viral proteins in Vero cells treated with cm1UY11. Finally, the inhibitory effect of aUY11 and cm1UY11 on ASFV infection in porcine alveolar macrophages was confirmed. Overall, our study has identified novel anti-ASFV compounds with potential for future therapeutic developments.

  13. Integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with d-Li neutrons up to 55 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Moellendorff, Ulrich von [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wada, Masayuki [Business Automation Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    An integral activation experiment of fusion reactor materials with a deuteron-lithium neutron source was performed. Since the maximum energy of neutrons produced was 55 MeV, the experiment with associated analysis was one of the first attempts for extending the energy range beyond 20 MeV. The following keywords represent the present study: d-Li neutrons, 55 MeV, dosimetry, SAND-II, spectrum adjustment, LA-150, MCNP, McDeLi, IFMIF, fusion reactor materials, integral activation experiment, low-activation, F82H, vanadium-alloy, IEAF, ALARA, and sequential charged particle reaction. (author)

  14. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...

  15. L-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Regulate Synaptic-Activity-Triggered Recycling Endosome Fusion in Neuronal Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Hiester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the surface of neuronal dendrites are tuned by regulated fusion of recycling endosomes (REs with the dendritic plasma membrane. While this process is critical for neuronal function and plasticity, how synaptic activity drives RE fusion remains unexplored. We demonstrate a multistep fusion mechanism that requires Ca2+ from distinct sources. NMDA receptor Ca2+ initiates RE fusion with the plasma membrane, while L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-VGCCs regulate whether fused REs collapse into the membrane or reform without transferring their cargo to the cell surface. Accordingly, NMDA receptor activation triggered AMPA-type glutamate receptor trafficking to the dendritic surface in an L-VGCC-dependent manner. Conversely, potentiating L-VGCCs enhanced AMPA receptor surface expression only when NMDA receptors were also active. Thus L-VGCCs play a role in tuning activity-triggered surface expression of key synaptic proteins by gating the mode of RE fusion.

  16. Linked functional network abnormalities during intrinsic and extrinsic activity in schizophrenia as revealed by a data-fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Okada, Rieko; Hasegawa, Sayaka; Tani, Masayuki; Kato, Nobumasa; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls. For the input to the PLS analyses, we generated a pair of FC maps during the resting state (REST) and the auditory deviance response (ADR) from each participant using the common seed region in the left middle temporal gyrus, which is a focus of activity associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). PLS correlation (PLS-C) analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia have significantly lower loadings of a component containing positive FCs in default-mode network regions during REST and a component containing positive FCs in the auditory and attention-related networks during ADR. Specifically, loadings of the REST component were significantly correlated with the severities of positive symptoms and AVH in patients with schizophrenia. The co-occurrence of such altered FC patterns during REST and ADR was replicated using PLS regression, wherein FC patterns during REST are modeled to predict patterns during ADR. These findings provide an integrative understanding of altered FCs during intrinsic and extrinsic activity underlying core schizophrenia symptoms.

  17. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor, E-mail: leonorhh@biomedicas.unam.mx

    2017-03-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  18. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4"+ T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  19. Management of water leaks on Tore Supra actively cooled fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchressian, J.C.; Gargiulo, L.; Samaille, F.; Soler, B.

    2005-01-01

    Up to now, Tore Supra is the only fusion device fully equipped with actively cooled Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In case of abnormal events during a plasma discharge, the PFCs could be submitted to a transient high power density (run away electrons) or to a continuous phenomena as local thermal flux induced by trapped suprathermal electrons or ions). It could lead to a degradation of the PFC integrity and in the worst case to a water leak occurrence. Such water leak has important consequence on the tokamak operation that concerns PFCs themselves, monitoring equipment located in the vacuum vessel or connected to the ports as RF antennas, diagnostics or pumping systems. Following successive water leak events (the most important water leak, that occurred in September 2002, is described in the paper), a large feedback experience has been gained on Tore supra since more than 15 years that could be useful to actively cooled next devices as W7X and ITER. (authors)

  20. Reduced-activation materials for fusion reactors: An overview of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Packan, N.H.; Gelles, D.S.; Okada, M.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the most serious safety and environmental concerns for future fusion reactors involve induced radioactivity in the first wall and blanket structures. One problem caused by the induced radioactivity in a reactor constructed from the conventional austenitic and ferritic steels presently being considered as structural materials would be the disposal of the highly radioactive structures after their service lifetimes. To simplify the waste-disposal process, ''low-activation'' or ''reduced-activation'' alloys are being developed. The objective for such materials is that they qualify for shallow land burial, as opposed to the much more expensive deep geologic disposal. This paper reviews these classes of materials for this purpose: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic steels, and vanadium alloys

  1. Enhanced exo-inulinase activity and stability by fusion of an inulin-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun-Hua; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Juan; Chi, Zhe; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Guang-Lei

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an inulin-binding module from Bacillus macerans was successfully fused to an exo-inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus, creating a hybrid functional enzyme. The recombinant exo-inulinase (rINU), the hybrid enzyme (rINUIBM), and the recombinant inulin-binding module (rIBM) were, respectively, heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized. It was found that both the inulinase activity and the catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m(app)) of the rINUIBM were considerably higher than those of rINU. Though the rINU and the rINUIBM shared the same optimum pH of 4.5, the optimum temperature of the rINUIBM (60 °C) was 5 °C higher than that of the rINU. Notably, the fused IBM significantly enhanced both the pH stability and the thermostability of the rINUIBM, suggesting that the rINUIBM obtained would have more extensive potential applications. Furthermore, the fusion of the IBM could substantially improve the inulin-binding capability of the rINUIBM, which was consistent with the determination of the K m(app). This meant that the fused IBM could play a critical role in the recognition of polysaccharides and enhanced the hydrolase activity of the associated inulinase by increasing enzyme-substrate proximity. Besides, the extra supplement of the independent non-catalytic rIBM could also improve the inulinase activity of the rINU. However, this improvement was much better in case of the fusion. Consequently, the IBM could be designated as a multifunctional domain that was responsible for the activity enhancement, the stabilization, and the substrate binding of the rINUIBM. All these features obtained in this study make the rINUIBM become an attractive candidate for an efficient inulin hydrolysis.

  2. Analyses of the activation of near term fusion reactor compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengar, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the important questions that still have to be solved for the next generation fusion reactors is the choice of the material to be used for the first wall. An important criteria is low activation due to neutron bombardment from the plasma. One of the promising materials is the SiC/SiC composite. Its main elemental constituents, namely the C and Si, have very good activation characteristics. The main contribution to activity arises, however, from trace elements, which are needed in the sintering process and remain in the material afterwards. Before the preparation process of the material, the activation characteristics of individual constituents are needed. The activation properties of the whole sample could than be estimated by summing the weighted properties of individual constituents. The activity of a particular trace element is, however, not necessarily dependent only on the percentage of the element in the sample, but also on the presence of other elements in the compound due to the charge particle production and/or (n, 2n) reactions. The extension of this effect is investigated and to what extent individual calculations, performed for a single element, mimic the real situation. Further the activation characteristic for several possible sintering aid elements is theoretically investigated with the use of the FISPACT inventory code. (author)

  3. Evidence of parasexual activity in "asexual amoebae" Cochliopodium spp. (Amoebozoa): extensive cellular and nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Yonas I; Anderson, O Roger; Lecky, Ariel F

    2014-09-01

    The majority of microbial eukaryotes have long been considered asexual, though new evidence indicates sex, or sexual-like (parasexual) behaviors that deviate from the usual union of two gametes, among other variant aspects. Over a dozen amoebozoans are implicated to have sexual stages. However, the exact mechanism by which sex occurs in these lineages remains elusive. This is mainly due to the diverse quality and cryptic nature of their life cycle. In this study we present evidence of some previously unreported aspects of the life cycle of an amoeba, Cochliopodium, that undergoes unusual intraspecific interactions using light microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Similar to other amoebozoans, Cochliopodium, is considered asexual with no published reports of sex or parasexuality. We also investigated environmental conditions that govern the observed intraspecific interactions. Both light microscopic and immunocytochemistry evidence demonstrates Cochliopodium undergoes cellular fusion (plasmogamy) and nuclear fusion (karyogamy). Large plasmodia eventually undergo karyogamy and contain large fused, polyploid, nuclei. These are observed to fragment, subsequently, by karyotomy (nuclear fission) and cytoplasmic fission to yield uninucleated amoebae. This process could lead to a non-meiotic, parasexual exchange of chromosomes in Cochliopodium. These findings strongly suggest that Cochliopodium is involved in parasexual activity and should no longer be considered strictly asexual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of Nipah virus infection in vivo: targeting an early stage of paramyxovirus fusion activation during viral entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Porotto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paramyxovirus cell entry process, receptor binding triggers conformational changes in the fusion protein (F leading to viral and cellular membrane fusion. Peptides derived from C-terminal heptad repeat (HRC regions in F have been shown to inhibit fusion by preventing formation of the fusogenic six-helix bundle. We recently showed that the addition of a cholesterol group to HRC peptides active against Nipah virus targets these peptides to the membrane where fusion occurs, dramatically increasing their antiviral effect. In this work, we report that unlike the untagged HRC peptides, which bind to the postulated extended intermediate state bridging the viral and cell membranes, the cholesterol tagged HRC-derived peptides interact with F before the fusion peptide inserts into the target cell membrane, thus capturing an earlier stage in the F-activation process. Furthermore, we show that cholesterol tagging renders these peptides active in vivo: the cholesterol-tagged peptides cross the blood brain barrier, and effectively prevent and treat in an established animal model what would otherwise be fatal Nipah virus encephalitis. The in vivo efficacy of cholesterol-tagged peptides, and in particular their ability to penetrate the CNS, suggests that they are promising candidates for the prevention or therapy of infection by Nipah and other lethal paramyxoviruses.

  5. Material science and manufacturing of heat-resistant reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioltukhovskiy, A.G.; Blokhin, A.I.; Budylkin, N.I.; Chernov, V.M.; Leont'eva-Smirnova, M.V.; Mironova, E.G.; Medvedeva, E.A.; Solonin, M.I.; Porollo, S.I.; Zavyalsky, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    A number of issues regarding the development and use of 10-12% Cr reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFMS) for fusion are considered. These include: (1) problems of manufacturing and modifying their composition and metallurgical condition; (2) the influence on properties of their composition, purity, δ-ferrite concentration and cooling rates in the final stages of manufacturing; and (3) the effects of neutron irradiation at 320-650 deg. C up to 108 dpa on their mechanical properties. In addition, neutron activation and nuclear accumulation of elements in RAFMS with different initial concentrations of alloying and impurity elements for typical fusion reactor (DEMO) irradiation regimes have been calculated

  6. Analysis of Induced Gamma Activation by D-T Neutrons in Selected Fusion Reactor Relevant Materials with EAF-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klix Axel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of lanthanum, erbium and titanium which are constituents of structural materials, insulating coatings and tritium breeder for blankets of fusion reactor designs have been irradiated in a fusion peak neutron field. The induced gamma activities were measured and the results were used to check calculations with the European activation system EASY-2010. Good agreement for the prediction of major contributors to the contact dose rate of the materials was found, but for minor contributors the calculation deviated up to 50%.

  7. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  8. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  10. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  11. A practical approach for active camera coordination based on a fusion-driven multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alvaro Luis; Molina, José M.; Patricio, Miguel A.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-agent system architecture to manage spatially distributed active (or pan-tilt-zoom) cameras. Traditional video surveillance algorithms are of no use for active cameras, and we have to look at different approaches. Such multi-sensor surveillance systems have to be designed to solve two related problems: data fusion and coordinated sensor-task management. Generally, architectures proposed for the coordinated operation of multiple cameras are based on the centralisation of management decisions at the fusion centre. However, the existence of intelligent sensors capable of decision making brings with it the possibility of conceiving alternative decentralised architectures. This problem is approached by means of a MAS, integrating data fusion as an integral part of the architecture for distributed coordination purposes. This paper presents the MAS architecture and system agents.

  12. Peer Popularity and Peer Communication Patterns: Hyperactive versus Active but Normal Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    Classroom peer perceptions of 18 teacher-nominated hyperactive and 18 teacher-nominated active but normal elementary school-age boys were compared. Results indicated that hyperactives were significantly different from actives on all sociometric measures in that they were perceived more negatively. (Author/SB)

  13. Physical activity during pregnancy in normal-weight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K; Nørgaard, K; Secher, N J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study were to compare physical activity in 70 normal-weight women with a body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2), and 70 obese with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), before and during pregnancy, and to compare compliance using the pedometer. Physical activity before pregnancy was...

  14. Vacuum Plasma Spraying W-coated Reduced Activation Structural Steels for Fusion Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are considered as candidate materials for plasma facing materials of the first wall and diverter components in fusion reactor systems because of high sputtering resistance and low tritium retention in a fusion environment. Therefore, it is considered that the joining between W and reduced activation structural steels, and its evaluation, are critical issues for the development of fusion reactors. However, the joining between these materials is a very challenging process because of significant differences in their physical properties, particularly the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). For instance, the CTE of pure W is known to be about 4.3Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1}; however, that of martensitic steels reaches over three times, about 12-14Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1} at room temperature even up to 373K. Nevertheless, several joining techniques have been developed for joining between W and structural steels, such as a vapor deposition method, brazing and diffusion bonding. Meanwhile, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) is supposed to be one of the prospective methods to fabricate a sufficient W layer on the steel substrates because of the coating of a large area with a relatively high fabricating rate. In this study, the VPS method of W powders on reduced activation steels was employed, and its microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. ODS ferritic steels and F82H steel were coated by VPS-W, and the microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. A microstructure analysis revealed that pure W was successfully coated on steel substrates by the VPS process without an intermediate layer, in spite of a mismatch of the CTE between dissimilar materials. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPSW. However, the hardening of VPS-W was lesser than that of bulk W irradiated HFIR at 773K. Substrate materials, ODS ferritic steels, and F82H steel, did not show irradiation hardening

  15. Control of molten salt corrosion of reduced activation steel for fusion applications by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, P.; Nishimura, H.; Terai, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2001 the INL started a research program as a part of the 2. Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Energy Research (JUPITER-II collaboration) aimed at the characterization of the 2LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) molten salt as a breeder and coolant material for fusion applications. A key objective of the work was to demonstrate chemical compatibility between Flibe and potential fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. A series of tests performed at INL demonstrated that this can be achieved by contacting the salt with metallic beryllium, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W JLF-1 to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) and fluoride potential control (metallic Be) at 530 C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The specimen and a beryllium rod were simultaneously immersed in the molten salt through gas tight fittings mounted on risers extending from the top lid of the test vessel; the beryllium rod was extracted after 5 hours, while the sample was left in the salt for 250 hours during which salt samples were withdrawn from the melt at fixed intervals. A diagnostic system based on the measurement of reacting HF through on-line titration was coupled with the analysis of metallic components in the salt samples that were dissolved and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Impurity levels of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon were determined from pieces of the solidified melt using Leco analytical systems. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic elements dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration falls below the detectable limit when the beryllium rod is inserted and increases when the

  16. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  17. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital...... in Copenhagen. POPULATION: 338 pregnant women, 175 normal-weight women with body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2) and 163 obese women with BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2). METHODS: Physical activity was assessed by a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700/701) on seven consecutive days in six different groups: normal......-weight or obese at gestational ages 11-13, 18-22, and 36-38, and expressed as median number of daily steps during a whole week, working days, and weekends. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between BMI and physical activity during pregnancy and compliance with wearing the pedometer. RESULTS: Noncompliance was more...

  18. Inhibitory effect of mTOR activator MHY1485 on autophagy: suppression of lysosomal fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Ja Choi

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a major degradative process responsible for the disposal of cytoplasmic proteins and dysfunctional organelles via the lysosomal pathway. During the autophagic process, cells form double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes that sequester disposable materials in the cytoplasm and finally fuse with lysosomes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of autophagy by a synthesized compound, MHY1485, in a culture system by using Ac2F rat hepatocytes. Autophagic flux was measured to evaluate the autophagic activity. Autophagosomes were visualized in Ac2F cells transfected with AdGFP-LC3 by live-cell confocal microscopy. In addition, activity of mTOR, a major regulatory protein of autophagy, was assessed by western blot and docking simulation using AutoDock 4.2. In the result, treatment with MHY1485 suppressed the basal autophagic flux, and this inhibitory effect was clearly confirmed in cells under starvation, a strong physiological inducer of autophagy. The levels of p62 and beclin-1 did not show significant change after treatment with MHY1485. Decreased co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes in confocal microscopic images revealed the inhibitory effect of MHY1485 on lysosomal fusion during starvation-induced autophagy. These effects of MHY1485 led to the accumulation of LC3II and enlargement of the autophagosomes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, MHY1485 induced mTOR activation and correspondingly showed a higher docking score than PP242, a well-known ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, in docking simulation. In conclusion, MHY1485 has an inhibitory effect on the autophagic process by inhibition of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes leading to the accumulation of LC3II protein and enlarged autophagosomes. MHY1485 also induces mTOR activity, providing a possibility for another regulatory mechanism of autophagy by the MHY compound. The significance of this study is the finding of a novel

  19. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  20. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  1. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  2. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  3. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  4. Activation and clearance of vanadium alloys and beryllium multipliers in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartenev, S.; Romanovskij, V.; Ciampichetti, A.; Zucchetti, M.; Forrest, R.; Kolbasov, B.; Romanov, P.

    2006-01-01

    Design of fusion reactors includes the development of low-activation materials. V-Cr-Ti alloys are among the candidate structural materials for the first wall and blanket, with the scarce and costly V as the main component. It is worth considering its regeneration and refabrication as well as to avoid its disposal as radioactive waste. However, to do so, it is necessary to bring its radioactivity down to sufficiently low levels. We have two possible goals: · Recycling (within the nuclear industry) for first wall and front blanket components. In that case, contact dose rate must be sufficiently low. · Clearance (release from nuclear regulatory control) for back blanket and backplate components. In that case, the clearance index must be below unity. In fact, for components less exposed to neutron activation, clearance may be reachable, after a conceivable period of decay. Maximum radionuclide concentrations in the alloys allowing their clearance were determined, using new IAEA Clearance Limits. For this purpose, also for less neutron-exposed structures, such as the back part of the blanket and the backplate, clearance is possible only if certain activation products are separated. As for recycling within the nuclear industry of first wall components, also for clearance it turns out that the development of isotope chemical separation techniques is interesting and necessary for our purposes. A suitable method for achieving the required substantial radioactivity reduction of activated V-Cr-Ti alloys is radiochemical extraction reprocessing, Such a technology, permitting to remove metallic activation products from spent materials, was developed and tested experimentally in Russia. Concerning clearance of less activated components, based on the estimated element distribution factors in the extraction and re-extraction processes, and computations, it was shown that the alloy components may be purified from the activation products, using this technology, down to an

  5. Normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signal with functional activity measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaroh Takagaki

    Full Text Available In general, signal amplitude in optical imaging is normalized using the well-established DeltaF/F method, where functional activity is divided by the total fluorescent light flux. This measure is used both directly, as a measure of population activity, and indirectly, to quantify spatial and spatiotemporal activity patterns. Despite its ubiquitous use, the stability and accuracy of this measure has not been validated for voltage-sensitive dye imaging of mammalian neocortex in vivo. In this report, we find that this normalization can introduce dynamic biases. In particular, the DeltaF/F is influenced by dye staining quality, and the ratio is also unstable over the course of experiments. As methods to record and analyze optical imaging signals become more precise, such biases can have an increasingly pernicious impact on the accuracy of findings, especially in the comparison of cytoarchitechtonic areas, in area-of-activation measurements, and in plasticity or developmental experiments. These dynamic biases of the DeltaF/F method may, to an extent, be mitigated by a novel method of normalization, DeltaF/DeltaF(epileptiform. This normalization uses as a reference the measured activity of epileptiform spikes elicited by global disinhibition with bicuculline methiodide. Since this normalization is based on a functional measure, i.e. the signal amplitude of "hypersynchronized" bursts of activity in the cortical network, it is less influenced by staining of non-functional elements. We demonstrate that such a functional measure can better represent the amplitude of population mass action, and discuss alternative functional normalizations based on the amplitude of synchronized spontaneous sleep-like activity. These findings demonstrate that the traditional DeltaF/F normalization of voltage-sensitive dye signals can introduce pernicious inaccuracies in the quantification of neural population activity. They further suggest that normalization

  6. A general strategy to endow natural fusion-protein-derived peptides with potent antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Pessi

    Full Text Available Fusion between the viral and target cell membranes is an obligatory step for the infectivity of all enveloped virus, and blocking this process is a clinically validated therapeutic strategy.Viral fusion is driven by specialized proteins which, although specific to each virus, act through a common mechanism, the formation of a complex between two heptad repeat (HR regions. The HR regions are initially separated in an intermediate termed "prehairpin", which bridges the viral and cell membranes, and then fold onto each other to form a 6-helical bundle (6HB, driving the two membranes to fuse. HR-derived peptides can inhibit viral infectivity by binding to the prehairpin intermediate and preventing its transition to the 6HB.The antiviral activity of HR-derived peptides differs considerably among enveloped viruses. For weak inhibitors, potency can be increased by peptide engineering strategies, but sequence-specific optimization is time-consuming. In seeking ways to increase potency without changing the native sequence, we previously reported that attachment to the HR peptide of a cholesterol group ("cholesterol-tagging" dramatically increases its antiviral potency, and simultaneously increases its half-life in vivo. We show here that antiviral potency may be increased by combining cholesterol-tagging with dimerization of the HR-derived sequence, using as examples human parainfluenza virus, Nipah virus, and HIV-1. Together, cholesterol-tagging and dimerization may represent strategies to boost HR peptide potency to levels that in some cases may be compatible with in vivo use, possibly contributing to emergency responses to outbreaks of existing or novel viruses.

  7. Thioredoxin-albumin fusion protein prevents copper enhanced zinc-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Shimoda, Mikako; Chuang, Victor T G; Nishida, Kento; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru; Ishima, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death. Thioredoxin-Albumin fusion (HSA-Trx) is a derivative of thioredoxin (Trx), an antioxidative protein, with improved plasma retention and stability of Trx. In this study, we examined the effect of HSA-Trx on Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity. Firstly, HSA-Trx was found to clearly suppress Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neuronal cell death in mouse hypothalamic neuronal cells (GT1-7 cells). Moreover, HSA-Trx markedly suppressed Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced ROS production and the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as heme oxygenase-1. In contrast, HSA-Trx did not affect the intracellular levels of both Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ after Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment. Finally, HSA-Trx was found to significantly suppress endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ treatment in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that HSA-Trx counteracted Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ -induced neurotoxicity by suppressing the production of ROS via interfering the related gene expressions, in addition to the highly possible radical scavenging activity of the fusion protein. Based on these findings, HSA-Trx has great potential as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.

  9. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Necmettin

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379

  10. Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A Rothan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1 and plectasin (PLSN were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 0.5±0.1 μM. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 μM. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities.

  11. A camel-derived MERS-CoV with a variant spike protein cleavage site and distinct fusion activation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Goldstein, Monty E; Labitt, Rachael N; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Daniel, Susan; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to circulate in both humans and camels, and the origin and evolution of the virus remain unclear. Here we characterize the spike protein of a camel-derived MERS-CoV (NRCE-HKU205) identified in 2013, early in the MERS outbreak. NRCE-HKU205 spike protein has a variant cleavage motif with regard to the S2′ fusion activation site—notably, a novel substitution of isoleucine for the otherwise invariant serine at the critical P1′ cleavage site position. The substitutions resulted in a loss of furin-mediated cleavage, as shown by fluorogenic peptide cleavage and western blot assays. Cell–cell fusion and pseudotyped virus infectivity assays demonstrated that the S2′ substitutions decreased spike-mediated fusion and viral entry. However, cathepsin and trypsin-like protease activation were retained, albeit with much reduced efficiency compared with the prototypical EMC/2012 human strain. We show that NRCE-HKU205 has more limited fusion activation properties possibly resulting in more restricted viral tropism and may represent an intermediate in the complex pattern of MERS-CoV ecology and evolution. PMID:27999426

  12. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  13. Quantification of pulmonary thallium-201 activity after upright exercise in normal persons: importance of peak heart rate and propranolol usage in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-nine normal patients (34 angiographically normal and 25 clinically normal by Bayesian analysis) underwent thallium-201 imaging after maximal upright exercise. Lung activity was quantitated relative to myocardial activity and a lung/myocardial activity ratio was determined for each patient. Stepwise regression analysis was then used to examine the influence of patient clinical characteristics and exercise variables on the lung/myocardium ratio. Peak heart rate during exercise and propranolol usage both showed significant negative regression coefficients (p less than 0.001). No other patient data showed a significant relation. Using the regression equation and the estimated variance, a 95% confidence level upper limit of normal could be determined for a give peak heart rate and propranolol status. Sixty-one other patients were studied to validate the predicted upper limits of normal based on this model. None of the 27 patients without coronary artery disease had an elevated lung/myocardial ratio, compared with 1 of 8 with 1-vessel disease (difference not significant), 6 of 14 with 2-vessel disease (p less than 0.005), and 6 of 12 with 3-vessel disease (p less than 0.0001). Thus, lung activity on upright exercise thallium-201 studies can be quantitated relative to myocardial activity, and is inversely related to peak heart rate and propranolol use. Use of a regression analysis allows determination of a 95% confidence upper limit of normal to be anticipated in an individual patient

  14. Activation of lysosomal function in the course of autophagy via mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Tan, Shi-Hao; Nicolas, Valérie; Bauvy, Chantal; Yang, Nai-Di; Zhang, Jianbin; Xue, Yuan; Codogno, Patrice; Shen, Han-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Lysosome is a key subcellular organelle in the execution of the autophagic process and at present little is known whether lysosomal function is controlled in the process of autophagy. In this study, we first found that suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity by starvation or two mTOR catalytic inhibitors (PP242 and Torin1), but not by an allosteric inhibitor (rapamycin), leads to activation of lysosomal function. Second, we provided evidence that activation of lysosomal function is associated with the suppression of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but not mTORC2, and the mTORC1 localization to lysosomes is not directly correlated to its regulatory role in lysosomal function. Third, we examined the involvement of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and demonstrated that TFEB activation following mTORC1 suppression is necessary but not sufficient for lysosomal activation. Finally, Atg5 or Atg7 deletion or blockage of the autophagosome-lysosome fusion process effectively diminished lysosomal activation, suggesting that lysosomal activation occurring in the course of autophagy is dependent on autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Taken together, this study demonstrates that in the course of autophagy, lysosomal function is upregulated via a dual mechanism involving mTORC1 suppression and autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

  15. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bacchi

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9-22.8] vs 26.5[25.5-29.0] kg/m2, respectively, medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE modified questionnaire, at 14-16, 24-28 and 30-32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy.

  16. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital in ...

  17. A dual potassium channel activator improves repolarization reserve and normalizes ventricular action potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Di Diego, José M; Hansen, Rie Schultz

    2016-01-01

    in cultured canine cardiac myocytes and determined whether a dual K(+) current activator can normalize K(+) currents and restore action potential (AP) configuration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes were isolated and cultured for up to 48h. Current and voltage clamp recordings were made using patch...... of EADs. Our results suggest a potential benefit of K(+) current activators under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve including heart failure....

  18. Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Kenji; Satou, Osamu; Ootsuka, Michio; Abe, Tetsuya; Hara, Shigemitsu; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Enoeda, Mikio.

    1997-01-01

    Outgassing characteristics of F82H ferritic steel as a low activation material for the blanket of fusion device were investigated. A test chamber was constructed by welding F82H ferritic steel plates. The inner surface of the chamber was buffed and electropolished. The test chamber was degassed by the prebaking at temperature of 350degC for 20 h in vacuum. Then outgassing rates of the test chamber were measured by the throughput method as a function of pumping time for the cases that the test chamber was baked and not baked. The typical outgassing rate after baking at 250degC for 24 h was 3 x 10 -9 Pa·ms -1 and it seems that this value is sufficiently small to produce pressures at least as low as 10 -9 Pa in the vacuum chamber made of F82H ferritic steel. In the pump-down of the test chamber without baking after exposure to air, the outgassing rate decreases with pumping time and reached 1 x 10 -7 Pa·ms -1 at t = 10 5 s. The activation energy of hydrogen in bulk diffusion in the F82H ferritic steel was measured and found to be 7 kcal/mol. (author)

  19. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  20. Attitude toward physical activity in normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforche, Benedicte I; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M; Tanghe, Ann P

    2006-05-01

    To investigate differences in physical activity and attitude toward physical activity in adolescents with different degrees of overweight and explore whether the prediction of physical activity by attitude is moderated by level of overweight. Subjects were divided into a normal-weight group (n = 37, 18.8 +/- 1.2 kg/m2), an overweight group (n = 28, 25.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m2), and an obese group (n = 24, 33.7 +/- 4.1 kg/m2). Mean age was 14.6 +/- 1.2 years, with 72% girls. Physical activity was estimated using the Baecke Questionnaire. Attitude was measured by assessing perceived benefits and barriers. Participation in sports was higher in normal-weight compared with overweight (p attitude compared with their normal-weight (p attitude was not moderated by level of overweight. This study demonstrates that overweight and obese adolescents show lower sport participation and have a less positive attitude toward physical activity. Interventions in youngsters with weight problems should try to increase participation in sports by making activities more fun and attractive for these youngsters.

  1. A social work study for comparison of thought action–fusion and anxiety sensitivity among normal student versus obsessive compulsive symptom in high school Esfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Niknejadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical and nonclinical extent. The survey selects 384 high school students in city of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire among them. All questions are designed in Likert scale and participants are divided into two groups of with and without OCD. The results show that there is a significant and positive difference in thought – action fusion and anxiety sensitivity among girls and boys adolescents having or symptoms in clinical and nonclinical l extent (P<0.01.

  2. Physical activity and self-efficacy in normal and over-fat children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suton, Darijan; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Feltz, Deborah L; Yee, Kimbo E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined association of self-efficacy and fatness with physical activity in 5(th) grade children. Participants were 281 students (10.4 ± 0.7 years). Physical activity was assessed using a self-report question. Self-efficacy to be physically active was assessed using a 5-point scale. Body fatness was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and t-tests were used. There were no differences in reported days of physical activity between boys and girls, and normal-fat and over-fat children. However, children with high self-efficacy participated in significantly more physical activity compared to their low self-efficacy counterparts (3.4 ± 2.0 days vs. 5.4 ± 1.8 days, respectively, p < .001). Only physical activity self-efficacy was related to physical activity, fatness was not.

  3. Why and how of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  4. Study of chromium speciation in normal and diabetic rats by activable enriched stable isotope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W.Y.; Qian, Q.F.; Ding, W.J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    Chromium speciation was investigated in the liver cytosol, serum and urine of normal and diabetic rats after a single intravenous injection of enriched stable isotope 50 Cr tracer solution. Sephadex G-25 gel chromatography combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to isolate and characterize protein-bound chromium in the above materials. The results indicate that Cr is mainly combined with a high-molecular-weight protein either in liver cytosol or serum. A low-molecular-weight, Cr-containing compound (LMWCr) was found in all the observed liver, serum and urine samples of both normal and diabetic rats. Chromium is excreted chiefly as LMWCr in urine. (author)

  5. Effects of low dose irradiation on NK activity of normal individuals and patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan

    1994-10-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on NK activity of lymphocytes and on K 562 cells were studied. The NK activity was determined by means of 3 H-TdR release assay. While 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to reflect functional changes of K 562 cells after low dose irradiation. 21 patients with cancer and 10 normal individuals were detected. The results indicated that the NK activity of lymphocytes in normal individuals increased significantly after 10 and 50 cGy γ-ray irradiation, while in patients with cancer the NK activity of lymphocytes increased only at the dose of 50 cGy irradiation. The increase of NK activity in normal individuals was higher than that in patients with cancer after same doses of irradiation. When K 562 cells were irradiated by 10 cGy γ-rays, the 3 H-TdR incorporation value increased. After exposed to over 50 cGy the stimulating effect disappeared

  6. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, B; Maruccia, G; Petrizzi, L; Bignon, G; Blandin, C; Chauffriat, S; Lebrun, A; Recroix, H; Trapp, J P; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-01-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties...

  7. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  8. Effects of waste management on the impact of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.; Powell, J.

    1978-01-01

    Throughputs and inventories of radioactive materials that would have to be managed by a country whose primary form of electrical generation is fusion are estimated. Whole body dose rates for the entire population due to normal and off-normal incidents are calculated. For the case of equilibrium systems, two fusion cases are compared to an advanced fission power case. Comparisons are made for various stages of the fuel cycle and activated materials cycles. Fission reactor radiological impact is dominated by fuel reprocessing facility releases. These releases will decrease significantly if methods of containing 85 Kr are implemented. Tritium releases during normal plant operations comprise most of the radiologic impact for both fusion cases. Total dose rates are estimated to be roughly two orders of magnitude lower for fusion than for fission reactors

  9. IFMIF, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility conceptual design activity cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennich, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the cost estimate for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) at the completion of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA). The estimate corresponds to the design documented in the Final IFMIF CDA Report. In order to effectively involve all the collaborating parties in the development of the estimate, a preparatory meeting was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in March 1996 to jointly establish guidelines to insure that the estimate was uniformly prepared while still permitting each country to use customary costing techniques. These guidelines are described in Section 4. A preliminary cost estimate was issued in July 1996 based on the results of the Second Design Integration Meeting, May 20--27, 1996 at JAERI, Tokai, Japan. This document served as the basis for the final costing and review efforts culminating in a final review during the Third IFMIF Design Integration Meeting, October 14--25, 1996, ENEA, Frascati, Italy. The present estimate is a baseline cost estimate which does not apply to a specific site. A revised cost estimate will be prepared following the assignment of both the site and all the facility responsibilities

  10. IAEA activities on atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit (http://www-amdis.iaea.org/) aims to provide internationally evaluated and recommended data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) processes in fusion research. The Unit organizes technical meetings and coordinates an A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) and a Code Centre Network (CCN). In addition the Unit organizes Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs), for which the objectives are mixed between development of new data and evaluation and recommendation of existing data. In the area of A+M data we are placing new emphasis in our meeting schedule on data evaluation and especially on uncertainties in calculated cross section data and the propagation of uncertainties through structure data and fundamental cross sections to effective rate coefficients. Following a recent meeting of the CCN it is intended to use electron scattering on Be, Ne and N2 as exemplars for study of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation in calculated data; this will be discussed further at the presentation. Please see http://www-amdis.iaea.org/CRP/ for more on our active and planned CRPs, which are concerned with atomic processes in core and edge plasma and with plasma interaction with beryllium-based surfaces and with irradiated tungsten.

  11. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)], E-mail: gaelle.chevet@cea.fr; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SAFRAN-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2009-03-31

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  12. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-03-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load.

  13. Damage of actively cooled plasma facing components of magnetic confinement controlled fusion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.; Schlosser, J.; Martin, E.; Herb, V.; Camus, G.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of magnetic fusion machines have high manufactured residual stresses and have to withstand important stress ranges during operation. These actively cooled PFCs have a carbon fibre composite (CFC) armour and a copper alloy heat sink. Cracks mainly appear in the CFC near the composite/copper interface. In order to analyse damage mechanisms, it is important to well simulate the damage mechanisms both of the CFC and the CFC/Cu interface. This study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of the N11 material for which the scalar ONERA damage model was used. The damage parameters of this model were identified by similarity to a neighbour material, which was extensively analysed, according to the few characterization test results available for the N11. The finite elements calculations predict a high level of damage of the CFC at the interface zone explaining the encountered difficulties in the PFCs fabrication. These results suggest that the damage state of the CFC cells is correlated with a conductivity decrease to explain the temperature increase of the armour surface under fatigue heat load

  14. Optimum alloy compositions in reduced-activation martensitic 9Cr steels for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Noda, T.; Okada, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain potential reduced-activation ferritic steels suitable for fusion reactor structures, the effect of alloying elements W and V on the microstructural evolution, toughness, high-temperature creep and irradiation hardening behavior was investigated for simple 9Cr-W and 9Cr-V steels. The creep strength of the 9Cr-W steels increased but their toughness decreased with increasing W concentration. The 9Cr-V steels exhibited poor creep rupture strength, far below that of a conventional 9Cr-1MoVNb steel and poor toughness after aging at 873 K. It was also found that the Δ-ferrite should be avoided, because it degraded both the roughness and high-temperature creep strength. Based on the results on the simple steels, optimized martensitic 9Cr steels were alloy-designed from a standpoint of enough thoughness and high-temperature creep strength. Two kinds of optimized 9Cr steels with low and high levels of W were obtained; 9Cr-1WVTa and 9Cr-3WVTa. These steels indeed exhibited excellent toughness and creep strength, respectively. The 9Cr-1WVTa steel exhibiting an excellent roughness was shown to be the most promising for relatively low-temperature application below 500deg C, where irradiation embrittlement is significant. The 9Cr-3WVTa steel was the most promising for high temperature application above 500deg C from the standpoint of enough high-temperature strength. (orig.)

  15. TDP-43 loss of function increases TFEB activity and blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qin; Wang, Hongfeng; Hao, Zongbing; Fu, Cheng; Hu, Qingsong; Gao, Feng; Ren, Haigang; Chen, Dong; Han, Junhai; Ying, Zheng; Wang, Guanghui

    2016-01-18

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by selective loss of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as a major component of disease pathogenesis in ALS, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative disease. Despite the fact that TDP-43 is a multi-functional protein involved in RNA processing and a large number of TDP-43 RNA targets have been discovered, the initial toxic effect and the pathogenic mechanism underlying TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration remain elusive. In this study, we found that loss of TDP-43 strongly induced a nuclear translocation of TFEB, the master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, through targeting the mTORC1 key component raptor. This regulation in turn enhanced global gene expressions in the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) and increased autophagosomal and lysosomal biogenesis. However, loss of TDP-43 also impaired the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes through dynactin 1 downregulation, leading to accumulation of immature autophagic vesicles and overwhelmed ALP function. Importantly, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling by rapamycin treatment aggravated the neurodegenerative phenotype in a TDP-43-depleted Drosophila model, whereas activation of mTORC1 signaling by PA treatment ameliorated the neurodegenerative phenotype. Taken together, our data indicate that impaired mTORC1 signaling and influenced ALP may contribute to TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Fusion technology: The Iter fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the Iter international fusion experiment, in which the European Union, Japan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA cooperate, were begun in 1985, and construction work started in early 1994. These activities serve for the preparation of the design and construction documents for a research reactor in which a stable fusion plasma is to be generated. This is to be the basis for the construction of a fusion reactor for electricity generation. Preparatory work was performed in the Tokamak experiments with JET and TFTR. The fusion power of 1.5 GW will be attained, thus enabling Iter to keep a deuterium-tritium plasma burning. (orig.) [de

  17. Blob-level active-passive data fusion for Benthic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong Yong; Kalluri, Hemanth; Mathur, Abhinav; Ramnath, Vinod; Kim, Minsu; Aitken, Jennifer; Tuell, Grady

    2012-06-01

    We extend the data fusion pixel level to the more semantically meaningful blob level, using the mean-shift algorithm to form labeled blobs having high similarity in the feature domain, and connectivity in the spatial domain. We have also developed Bhattacharyya Distance (BD) and rule-based classifiers, and have implemented these higher-level data fusion algorithms into the CZMIL Data Processing System. Applying these new algorithms to recent SHOALS and CASI data at Plymouth Harbor, Massachusetts, we achieved improved benthic classification accuracies over those produced with either single sensor, or pixel-level fusion strategies. These results appear to validate the hypothesis that classification accuracy may be generally improved by adopting higher spatial and semantic levels of fusion.

  18. Biologically active and C-amidated hinnavinII-38-Asn produced from a Trx fusion construct in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Soo; Son, Seung-Yeol; Bang, In Seok

    2008-12-01

    The cabbage butterfly (Artogeia rapae) antimicrobial peptide hinnavinII as a member of cecropin family is synthesized as 37 residues in size with an amidated lysine at C-terminus and shows the humoral immune response to a bacterial invasion. In this work, a synthetic gene for hinnavinII-38-Asn (HIN) with an additional amino acid asparagine residue containing amide group at C-terminus was cloned into pET-32a(+) vector to allow expression of HIN as a Trx fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The resulting expression level of the fusion protein Trx-HIN could reach 15-20% of the total cell proteins and more than 70% of the target proteins were in soluble form. The fusion protein could be purified successfully by HiTrap Chelating HP column and a high yield of 15 mg purified fusion protein was obtained from 80 ml E. coli culture. Recombinant HIN was readily obtained by enterokinase cleavage of the fusion protein followed by FPLC chromatography, and 3.18 mg pure active recombinant HIN was obtained from 80 ml culture. The molecular mass of recombinant HIN determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer is 4252.084 Da which matches the theoretical mass (4252.0 Da) of HIN. Comparing the antimicrobial activities of the recombinant hinnavinII with C-amidated terminus to that without an amidated C-terminus, we found that the amide of asparagine at C-terminus of hinnavinII improved its potency on certain microorganism such as E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus megaterium, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  19. Evaluation of Postprandial Total Antioxidant Activity in Normal and Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Postprandial changes acutely alter some mechanisms in body. There are many studies showing blood oxidative status changes after food intake, and supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized meal on serum total antioxidant activity (TAA in normal weight and overweight individuals. Material and Method: Fourteen normal weight and twelve overweight individuals were given a standardized meal in the morning after an overnight fast. Serum TAA, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were measured at baseline, 3rd hour, and 6th hour after the meal in both groups.Results: In both normal and overweight groups, the difference between baseline and 3rd hour was significant for TAA. The TAA of the overweight group was also significantly lower than the TAA of the normal weight group at 3rd hour. However, there was no significant correlation between lipid parameters and TAA levels. Discussion: The present study shows that postprandial oxidative damage occurs more prominently in overweight individuals than in normal weight individuals. Postprandial changes acutely induce oxidative stress and impair the natural antioxidant defense mechanism. It should be noted that consuming foods with antioxidants in order to avoid various diseases and complications is useful, particularly in obese subjects.

  20. The yeast cell fusion protein Prm1p requires covalent dimerization to promote membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Prm1p is a multipass membrane protein that promotes plasma membrane fusion during yeast mating. The mechanism by which Prm1p and other putative regulators of developmentally controlled cell-cell fusion events facilitate membrane fusion has remained largely elusive. Here, we report that Prm1p forms covalently linked homodimers. Covalent Prm1p dimer formation occurs via intermolecular disulfide bonds of two cysteines, Cys-120 and Cys-545. PRM1 mutants in which these cysteines have been substituted are fusion defective. These PRM1 mutants are normally expressed, retain homotypic interaction and can traffic to the fusion zone. Because prm1-C120S and prm1-C545S mutants can form covalent dimers when coexpressed with wild-type PRM1, an intermolecular C120-C545 disulfide linkage is inferred. Cys-120 is adjacent to a highly conserved hydrophobic domain. Mutation of a charged residue within this hydrophobic domain abrogates formation of covalent dimers, trafficking to the fusion zone, and fusion-promoting activity. The importance of intermolecular disulfide bonding informs models regarding the mechanism of Prm1-mediated cell-cell fusion.

  1. On the Use of Sensor Fusion to Reduce the Impact of Rotational and Additive Noise in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of fusion mechanisms is to increase the individual reliability of the systems through the use of the collectivity knowledge. Moreover, fusion models are also intended to guarantee a certain level of robustness. This is particularly required for problems such as human activity recognition where runtime changes in the sensor setup seriously disturb the reliability of the initial deployed systems. For commonly used recognition systems based on inertial sensors, these changes are primarily characterized as sensor rotations, displacements or faults related to the batteries or calibration. In this work we show the robustness capabilities of a sensor-weighted fusion model when dealing with such disturbances under different circumstances. Using the proposed method, up to 60% outperformance is obtained when a minority of the sensors are artificially rotated or degraded, independent of the level of disturbance (noise imposed. These robustness capabilities also apply for any number of sensors affected by a low to moderate noise level. The presented fusion mechanism compensates the poor performance that otherwise would be obtained when just a single sensor is considered.

  2. Expression of Peroxisomes-Proliferate Activated Receptors-γ in Diabetics, Obese and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current research in type 2 diabetes mellitus focuses on the role of Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the pathogenesis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS), which are pre-diabetic lesion and the hallmark of fully developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims at identifying the abnormal status of the PPAR-g in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, when compared with matched normal controls. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, from 2012 to 2014. Sample included three equal groups of patients. Group-1 with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 40-65 years, acting as the test group, Group-2 included non-diabetic obese, and Group-3 with normal subjects. Transcription Factor Assay for Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (gamma PPAR) was done on ELISA Technique from Nuclear Extract procured from Adipose Tissue of the subjects. Results: Mean age of enrolled participants was 48.93 SD±6.52.years. Patients ranged between ages of 40 years to 67 years. The mean values of PPAR in normal, obese and diabetic group were 1.72 SD±0.28, 1.282 SE±0.18 and 1.283 SE±0.18 respectively. The difference in mean values of PPAR was significant ρ<0.05. Conclusion: The levels of PPAR-g in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obese cases are significantly lower than normal controls. (author)

  3. Insulin Signaling-independent Activation of DAF-16 Shapes the Transcriptome during Normal Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Liang, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Li, Shang-Tong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Zhao, Han-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The roles and regulatory mechanisms of transriptome changes during aging are unclear. It has been proposed that the transcriptome suffers decay during aging owing to age-associated down-regulation of transcription factors. In this study, we characterized the role of a transcription factor DAF-16, which is a highly conserved lifespan regulator, in the normal aging process of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that DAF-16 translocates into the nucleus in aged wild-type worms and activates the exp...

  4. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma YF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yufan Ma,1 Zhao Wang,1,2 Wen Zhao,1 Tingli Lu,1 Rutao Wang,1,2 Qibing Mei,1 Tao Chen1–3 1Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2Shaanxi Liposome Research Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 3Xi'an Libang Pharmaceuticals Co, Ltd, Xi'an, People's Republic of China Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium. Methods: The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE, and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA, nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay. Results: It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the

  5. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahai

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain the progress reports of the Coordinated Research Programme to measure and evaluate the activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology and the contributed papers (9) presented at the Consultants' Meeting held at Argonne National Laboratory between 11-12 September 1989. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Elevated testosterone and hypergonadotropism in active adolescents of normal weight with oligomenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K; Rosenthal, A; Kasa-Vubu, Josephine Z

    2009-10-01

    Oligomenorrhea in active adolescent females of normal weight is presumed to be related to hypoestrogenism secondary to physical activity and decreased fat mass. We hypothesized that active adolescents with oligomenorrhea would have lower estrogen levels than normal controls with similar levels of cardiovascular fitness. Twenty healthy participants between the ages of 16 and 20 years were recruited at least 2 years postmenarche. Adolescents reporting fewer than 9 cycles a year (n = 6) were compared to 14 controls with monthly menstrual cycles. Histories of eating disorder, hirsutism, severe acne, depression, or amenorrhea were cause for exclusion. Body composition and bone density were measured by total body dual x-ray absorpitometry. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption during exercise. Control subjects were matched by age, body mass index (BMI), and fitness level. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, progesterone, and estradiol were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1. Cardiovascular fitness in both groups was within normal limits for age. No significant differences in BMI, estradiol concentrations, or bone density were found, but trunk fat mass was lower in adolescents with oligomenorrhea who also reported more frequent exercise. Testosterone concentrations and LH/FSH ratios were significantly higher in participants with irregular menstrual cycles (P = 0.0018 and exercise-induced oligomenorrhea.

  7. Reversible conformational change in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B with fusion-from-without activity is triggered by mildly acidic pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Anthony V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-fusion form of the herpes simplex virus (HSV fusion protein gB undergoes pH-triggered conformational change in vitro and during viral entry (Dollery et al., J. Virol. 84:3759-3766, 2010. The antigenic structure of gB from the fusion-from-without (FFWO strain of HSV-1, ANG path, resembles wild type gB that has undergone pH-triggered changes. Together, changes in the antigenic and oligomeric conformation of gB correlate with fusion activity. We tested whether the pre-fusion form of FFWO gB undergoes altered conformational change in response to low pH. Results A pH of 5.5 - 6.0 altered the conformation of Domains I and V of FFWO gB, which together comprise the functional region containing the hydrophobic fusion loops. The ANG path gB oligomer was altered at a similar pH. All changes were reversible. In wild type HSV lacking the UL45 protein, which has been implicated in gB-mediated fusion, gB still underwent pH-triggered changes. ANG path entry was inactivated by pretreatment of virions with low pH. Conclusion The pre-fusion conformation of gB with enhanced fusion activity undergoes alteration in antigenic structure and oligomeric conformation in response to acidic pH. We propose that endosomal pH triggers conformational change in mutant gB with FFWO activity in a manner similar to wild type. Differences apart from this trigger may account for the increased fusion activity of FFWO gB.

  8. Two active molecular phenotypes of the tachykinin NK1 receptor revealed by G-protein fusions and mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, B; Hastrup, H; Raffetseder, U; Martini, L; Schwartz, T W

    2001-06-08

    The NK1 neurokinin receptor presents two non-ideal binding phenomena, two-component binding curves for all agonists and significant differences between agonist affinity determined by homologous versus heterologous competition binding. Whole cell binding with fusion proteins constructed between either Galpha(s) or Galpha(q) and the NK1 receptor with a truncated tail, which secured non-promiscuous G-protein interaction, demonstrated monocomponent agonist binding closely corresponding to either of the two affinity states found in the wild-type receptor. High affinity binding of both substance P and neurokinin A was observed in the tail-truncated Galpha(s) fusion construct, whereas the lower affinity component was displayed by the tail-truncated Galpha(q) fusion. The elusive difference between the affinity determined in heterologous versus homologous binding assays for substance P and especially for neurokinin A was eliminated in the G-protein fusions. An NK1 receptor mutant with a single substitution at the extracellular end of TM-III-(F111S), which totally uncoupled the receptor from Galpha(s) signaling, showed binding properties that were monocomponent and otherwise very similar to those observed in the tail-truncated Galpha(q) fusion construct. Thus, the heterogenous pharmacological phenotype displayed by the NK1 receptor is a reflection of the occurrence of two active conformations or molecular phenotypes representing complexes with the Galpha(s) and Galpha(q) species, respectively. We propose that these molecular forms do not interchange readily, conceivably because of the occurrence of microdomains or "signal-transductosomes" within the cell membrane.

  9. Changes in auxin activity in tumourous and normal tobacco calluses treated with morphactin IT 3233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of morphactin IT 3233 in 1-40 mg/dm3 concentrations to the medium inhibited the growth in vitro of normal and tumourous tobacco calluses. The auxin activity (estimated by the Avena coleoptile straight growth test of the acid ether extracts from these tissues increased. The activity of zone I (Rf 0.2-0.4, 0.5, solvent system: butanol:water:ammonia 10:10:1 in normal tissues increased more intensively than that of zone II (Rf 0.6-0.8, 0.9. In tumourous tissues, however, these changes were smaller and they concerned merely zone I of auxin activity (Rf 0.0-0.5. It seems that the mechanism of morphactin activity in both kinds of tissue is different. It may be supposed that the excessive accumulation of auxins induces growth inhibition of tissues. A previously found increase in the activity of IAA-oxidase influenced by morphactin might be considered as an adaptation to a higher level of IAA.

  10. NaV1.6a is required for normal activation of motor circuits normally excited by tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sean E.; Zhou, Weibin; Choong, Xinling; Saint-Amant, Louis; Sprague, Shawn M.; Hirata, Hiromi; Cui, Wilson W.; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    A screen for zebrafish motor mutants identified two non-complementing alleles of a recessive mutation that were named non-active (navmi89 and navmi130). nav embryos displayed diminished spontaneous and touch-evoked escape behaviors during the first three days of development. Genetic mapping identified the gene encoding NaV1.6a (scn8aa) as a potential candidate for nav. Subsequent cloning of scn8aa from the two alleles of nav uncovered two missense mutations in NaV1.6a that eliminated channel activity when assayed heterologously. Furthermore the injection of RNA encoding wild type scn8aa rescued the nav mutant phenotype indicating that scn8aa was the causative gene of nav. In vivo electrophysiological analysis of the touch-evoked escape circuit indicated that voltage-dependent inward current was decreased in mechanosensory neurons in mutants, but they were able to fire action potentials. Furthermore tactile stimulation of mutants activated some neurons downstream of mechanosensory neurons but failed to activate the swim locomotor circuit in accord with the behavioral response of initial escape contractions but no swimming. Thus mutant mechanosensory neurons appeared to respond to tactile stimulation but failed to initiate swimming. Interestingly fictive swimming could be initiated pharmacologically suggesting that a swim circuit was present in mutants. These results suggested that NaV1.6a was required for touch-induced activation of the swim locomotor network. PMID:20225246

  11. Most Children With Epilepsy Experience Postictal Phenomena, Often Preventing a Return to Normal Activities of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sarah J; D'Alfonso, Sabrina; McDonald, Roman J; Thornton, Nancy; Forkert, Nils D; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    After a seizure, individuals with epilepsy have reported diverse symptoms in the postictal period, especially motor and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena have not been well characterized in children, and their impact on patient well-being is not understood. We hypothesized that in a subset of epilepsy patients, postictal symptoms would affect their ability to return to normal childhood activities. To test our hypothesis, a survey-based approach was used to characterize the type, frequency, and duration, as well as the impact of these symptoms on the ability of these children to return to their normal activities. In this prospective study, data were analyzed from 208 patients seen in the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic at the Alberta Children's Hospital. We found that 86% (179 out of 208) of respondents reported postictal symptoms, with the most common symptom category being fatigue, sleepiness, and/or tiredness (90%; 161 of 179). The greatest impact resulted from weakness or being unable to move normally, which prevented 78% of those affected (71 of 91) from returning to normal activities after a seizure. Children who had focal seizures were more likely to experience postictal fatigue, sleepiness, or tiredness (P = 0.01; Bonferroni corrected), but no other postictal symptoms were significantly associated with a specific seizure type or epilepsy syndrome. The results of this study further our understanding of the frequency, type, and duration of symptoms experienced in the postictal period and how these symptoms impact children with epilepsy. It is clear that postictal phenomena often occur after epileptic seizures and have a significant impact on the lives of children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. G protein betagamma-subunits activated by serotonin mediate presynaptic inhibition by regulating vesicle fusion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photowala, Huzefa; Blackmer, Trillium; Schwartz, Eric; Hamm, Heidi E; Alford, Simon

    2006-03-14

    Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor signaling potently inhibits excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) between lamprey reticulospinal axons and their postsynaptic targets by a direct action on the vesicle fusion machinery. We show that 5-HT receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition, at this synapse, involves a reduction in EPSC quantal size. Quantal size was measured directly by comparing unitary quantal amplitudes of paired EPSCs before and during 5-HT application and indirectly by determining the effect of 5-HT on the relationship between mean-evoked EPSC amplitude and variance. Results from FM dye-labeling experiments indicate that 5-HT prevents full fusion of vesicles. 5-HT reduces FM1-43 staining of vesicles with a similar efficacy to its effect on the EPSC. However, destaining of FM1-43-labeled vesicles is abolished by lower concentrations of 5-HT that leave a substantial EPSC. The use of a water-soluble membrane impermeant quenching agent in the extracellular space reduced FM1-43 fluorescence during stimulation in 5-HT. Thus vesicles contact the extracellular space during inhibition of synaptic transmission by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT, via free Gbetagamma, prevents the collapse of synaptic vesicles into the presynaptic membrane.

  13. Role for the disulfide-bonded region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 in receptor-triggered activation of membrane fusion function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy-McIntyre, Anna K.; Baer, Severine; Ludlow, Louise; Drummer, Heidi E.; Poumbourios, Pantelis

    2010-01-01

    The conserved disulfide-bonded region (DSR) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion glycoprotein, gp41, mediates association with the receptor-binding glycoprotein, gp120. Interactions between gp120, CD4 and chemokine receptors activate the fusion activity of gp41. The introduction of W596L and W610F mutations to the DSR of HIV-1 QH1549.13 blocked viral entry and hemifusion without affecting gp120-gp41 association. The fusion defect correlated with inhibition of CD4-triggered gp41 pre-hairpin formation, consistent with the DSR mutations having decoupled receptor-induced conformational changes in gp120 from gp41 activation. Our data implicate the DSR in sensing conformational changes in the gp120-gp41 complex that lead to fusion activation.

  14. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko [Inst. for Rehabilitation and Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  15. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  16. In-vitro activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Andrej; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide with high activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections as well as gonorrhea. However, data on the activity of solithromycin against anaerobic bacteria from the normal intestinal microbiota are scarce. In this study, 1024 Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic isolates from the normal intestinal microbiota were analyzed for in-vitro susceptibility against solithromycin and compared to azithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, metronidazole and levofloxacin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Solithromycin was active against Bifidobacteria (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L) and Lactobacilli (MIC 50 , 0.008 mg/L). The MIC 50 for Clostridia, Bacteroides, Prevotella and Veillonella were 0.5, 0.5, 0.125 and 0.016 mg/L, respectively. Gram-positive anaerobes were more susceptible to solithromycin as compared to the other antimicrobials tested. The activity of solithromycin against Gram-negative anaerobes was equal or higher as compared to other tested agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of INCONEL 625 composition on the activation characteristics of the vacuum vessel of experimental fusion tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambi, G.; Cepraga, D.G.; Boeriu, S.; Maganzani, I.

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive inventory, the decay heat and the contact dose rate of permanent components such as the vacuum vessel of two experimental fusion tokamaks, the compact IGNITOR-ULT and the ITER-EDA fusion machines, are evaluated by using the ENEA-Bologna integrated methodology. The vacuum vessel material considered is the INCONEL 625. The neutron flux is calculated using the VITAMIN-C 171-group library, based on EFF-2 data and the 1-D transport code XSDRNPM in the S 8 -P 3 approximation. The ANITA-2 code, using updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EAF-3 and IRDF90 evaluation files is used for activation calculations. The fusion neutron source has been normalised to a neutron first wall load of 2 MW/m 2 and 1 MW/m 2 for IGNITOR-ULT and ITER, respectively. The material irradiation have been described by multistep time histories, resulting in the designed total fluence. Variations in the composition of INCONEL 625 have been assessed and their impact on the activation characteristics are discussed, also from the point of view of waste disposal. (orig.)

  18. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  19. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia

  20. Sleep habits, food intake, and physical activity levels in normal and overweight and obese Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Sadeghilar, Aidin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sleep habits (including bedtime, wake up time, sleep duration, and sleep disorder score) and physical characteristics, physical activity level, and food pattern in overweight and obese versus normal weight children. Case control study. 164 Malaysian boys and girls aged 6-€“12 years. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Subjects divided into normal weight (n = 82) and overweight/obese (n = 82) group based on World Health Organization 2007 BMI-for-age criteria and were matched one by one based on ethnicity, gender, and age plus minus one year. Questionnaires related to sleep habits, physical activity, and food frequency were proxy-reported by parents. Sleep disorder score was measured by Children Sleep Habit Questionnaire. Sleep disorder score and carbohydrate intake (%) to total energy intake were significantly higher in overweight/obese group (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). After adjusting for age and gender, sleep disorder score was correlated with BMI (r = 0.275, p < 0.001), weight (r = 0.253, p < 0.001), and WC (r = 0.293, p < 0.001). Based on adjusted odd ratio, children with shortest sleep duration were found to have 4.5 times higher odds of being overweight/obese (odd ratio: 4.536, 95% CI: 1.912-€“8.898) compared to children with normal sleep duration. The odds of being overweight/obese in children with sleep disorder score higher than 48 were 2.17 times more than children with sleep disorder score less than 48. Children who sleep lees than normal amount, had poor sleep quality, and consumed more carbohydrates were at higher risk of overweight/obesity. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: from central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, G

    1998-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology holds that "information" flows from the genes to the structure of the proteins that the genes bring about through the formula DNA-->RNA-->Protein. In this view, a set of master genes activates the DNA necessary to produce the appropriate proteins that the organism needs during development. In contrast to this view, probabilistic epigenesis holds that necessarily there are signals from the internal and external environment that activate DNA to produce the appropriate proteins. To support this view, a substantial body of evidence is reviewed showing that external environmental influences on gene activation are normally occurring events in a large variety of organisms, including humans. This demonstrates how genes and environments work together to produce functional organisms, thus extending the author's model of probabilistic epigenesis.

  2. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetmuen, Eamruthai; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Yutanawiboonchai, Wiboonchai; Itharat, Arunporn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion. PMID:23798879

  3. Safety considerations in next step fusion design and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent U.S. and international design studies provide insights into the potential safety and environmental advantages of fusion as well as the development needed to realize this potential. We in the Fusion Safety Program at EG ampersand G Idaho have analyzed the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER), and the Advanced Reactor Innovative Engineering Study (ARIES). I have reviewed these three designs to determine issues related to meeting the safety and the environmental goals that guide fusion development in the U.S. The paper lists safety and environmental issues that are generic to fusion and approaches to favorably resolve each issue. The technical developments that have the highest potential of contributing to improving the safety and environmental attractiveness of fusion are identified and discussed. These developments are in the areas of low-activation materials, plasma- facing components, and plasma physics relating to off-normal plasma events and tritium burn-up. 8 refs., 7 tabs

  4. Oncogenic activation of FOXR1 by 11q23 intrachromosomal deletion-fusions in neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santo, E. E.; Ebus, M. E.; Koster, J.; Schulte, J. H.; Lakeman, A.; van Sluis, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Gisselsson, D.; Øra, I.; Lindner, S.; Buckley, P. G.; Stallings, R. L.; Vandesompele, J.; Eggert, A.; Caron, H. N.; Versteeg, R.; Molenaar, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma tumors frequently show loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 11q with a shortest region of overlap in the 11q23 region. These deletions are thought to cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes leading to haploinsufficiency. Alternatively, micro-deletions could lead to gene fusion

  5. Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the 1985-1986 progress of the Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship program (MFSF). The program was established in January of 1985 by the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage talented undergraduate and first-year graduate students to enter qualified graduate programs in the sciences related to fusion energy development. The program currently has twelve fellows in participating programs. Six new fellows are being appointed during each of the program's next two award cycles. Appointments are for one year and are renewable for two additional years with a three year maximum. The stipend level also continues at a $1000 a month or $12,000 a year. The program pays all tuition and fee expenses for the fellows. Another important aspect of the fellowship program is the practicum. During the practicum fellows receive three month appointments to work at DOE designated fusion science research and development centers. The practicum allows the MFSF fellows to directly participate in on-going DOE research and development programs

  6. Sphingolipids activate membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a stereospecific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Corver, J; Erukulla, R K

    1995-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, triggered by the acid pH in endosomes, the viral envelope fuses with the endosomal membrane. Membrane fusion of SFV has been shown previously to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol ...

  7. Glycan shield and fusion activation of a deltacoronavirus spike glycoprotein fine-tuned for enteric infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Snijder, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018328; Yoshioka, Craig; Walls, Alexandra C; Li, Wentao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296272; McGuire, Andrew T; Rey, Félix A; Bosch, Berend-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Veesler, David

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to

  8. Alanine substitution of conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus gB can enhance or abolish cell fusion activity and viral entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, Nancy; Zago, Anna; Spear, Patricia G.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the four viral glycoproteins required for viral entry and cell fusion and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. Mutants of HSV type 2 gB were generated by substituting conserved residues in the cytoplasmic tail with alanine or by deleting 41 amino acids from the C-terminus. Some of the mutations abolished cell fusion activity and also prevented transport of gB to the cell surface, identifying residues in the gB cytoplasmic tail that are critical for intracellular transport of this glycoprotein. These mutations also prevented production of infectious virus, possibly because the mutant forms of gB were not transported to the site of envelopment. Other mutations, particularly the deletion, significantly enhanced cell fusion activity. These mutations, as well as others described previously, identify regions of the gB cytoplasmic domain that modulate cell fusion activity

  9. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664

  10. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs.

  11. Predicting above normal wildfire activity in southern Europe as a function of meteorological drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmundsson, L; Seneviratne, S I; Rego, F C; Rocha, M

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are a recurrent feature of ecosystems in southern Europe, regularly causing large ecological and socio-economic damages. For efficient management of this hazard, long lead time forecasts could be valuable tools. Using logistic regression, we show that the probability of above normal summer wildfire activity in the 1985–2010 time period can be forecasted as a function of meteorological drought with significant predictability (p <0.05) several months in advance. The results show that long lead time forecasts of this natural hazard are feasible in southern Europe, which could potentially aid decision-makers in the design of strategies for forest management. (letter)

  12. X-ray photographs of a solar active region with a multilayer telescope at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    An astronomical photograph was obtained with a multilayer X-ray telescope. A 4-cm tungsten-carbon multilayer mirror was flown as part of an experimental solar rocket payload, and successful images were taken of the sun at normal incidence at a wavelength of 44 A. Coronal Si XII emission from an active region was recorded on film; as expected, the structure is very similar to that observed at O VIII wavelengths by the Solar Maximum Mission flat-crystal spectrometer at the same time. The small, simple optical system used in this experiment appears to have achieved a resolution of 5 to 10 arcsec.

  13. Proteinase-activated receptors - mediators of early and delayed normal tissue radiation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer-Jensen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are activated by proteolytic exposure of a receptor-tethered ligand. The discovery of this receptor family represents one of the most intriguing recent developments in signal transduction. PARs are involved in the regulation of many normal and pathophysiological processes, notably inflammatory and fibroproliferative responses to injury. Preclinical studies performed in our laboratory suggest that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays a critical role in the mechanism of chronicity of radiation fibrosis, while proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) may mediate important fibroproliferative responses in irradiated intestine. Specifically, activation of PAR-1 by thrombin, and PAR-2 by pancreatic trypsin and mast cell proteinases, appears to be involved in acute radiation-induced inflammation, as well as in subsequent extracellular matrix deposition, leading to the development of intestinal wall fibrosis and clinical complications. Pharmacological modulators of PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression or activation would be potentially useful as preventive or therapeutic agents in patients who receive radiation therapy, especially if blockade could be targeted to specific tissues or cellular compartments

  14. Fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry: an "active zone" of elevated Ca(2+ during the postfusion stage of lamellar body exocytosis in rat type II pneumocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pika Miklavc

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ is essential for vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in virtually all types of regulated exocytoses. However, in contrast to the well-known effects of a high cytoplasmic Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c in the prefusion phase, the occurrence and significance of Ca(2+ signals in the postfusion phase have not been described before.We studied isolated rat alveolar type II cells using previously developed imaging techniques. These cells release pulmonary surfactant, a complex of lipids and proteins, from secretory vesicles (lamellar bodies in an exceptionally slow, Ca(2+- and actin-dependent process. Measurements of fusion pore formation by darkfield scattered light intensity decrease or FM 1-43 fluorescence intensity increase were combined with analysis of [Ca(2+](c by ratiometric Fura-2 or Fluo-4 fluorescence measurements. We found that the majority of single lamellar body fusion events were followed by a transient (t(1/2 of decay = 3.2 s rise of localized [Ca(2+](c originating at the site of lamellar body fusion. [Ca(2+](c increase followed with a delay of approximately 0.2-0.5 s (method-dependent and in the majority of cases this signal propagated throughout the cell (at approximately 10 microm/s. Removal of Ca(2+ from, or addition of Ni(2+ to the extracellular solution, strongly inhibited these [Ca(2+](c transients, whereas Ca(2+ store depletion with thapsigargin had no effect. Actin-GFP fluorescence around fused LBs increased several seconds after the rise of [Ca(2+](c. Both effects were reduced by the non-specific Ca(2+ channel blocker SKF96365.Fusion-activated Ca(2+entry (FACE is a new mechanism that leads to [Ca(2+](c transients at the site of vesicle fusion. Substantial evidence from this and previous studies indicates that fusion-activated Ca(2+ entry enhances localized surfactant release from type II cells, but it may also play a role for compensatory endocytosis and other cellular functions.

  15. Prolonged activity of a recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein in hemophilia A mice and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Jennifer A.; Liu, Tongyao; Low, Susan C.; Zhang, Xin; Kamphaus, George; Sakorafas, Paul; Fraley, Cara; Drager, Douglas; Reidy, Thomas; McCue, Justin; Franck, Helen W. G.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Nichols, Timothy C.; Bitonti, Alan J.; Pierce, Glenn F.

    2012-01-01

    Despite proven benefits, prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A is hampered by the short half-life of factor VIII. A recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) was constructed to determine the potential for reduced frequency of dosing. rFVIIIFc has an ∼ 2-fold longer half-life than rFVIII in hemophilia A (HemA) mice and dogs. The extension of rFVIIIFc half-life requires interaction of Fc with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). In FcRn knockout mice, the extension of rFVIIIFc half-life is abrogated, and is restored in human FcRn transgenic mice. The Fc fusion has no impact on FVIII-specific activity. rFVIIIFc has comparable acute efficacy as rFVIII in treating tail clip injury in HemA mice, and fully corrects whole blood clotting time (WBCT) in HemA dogs immediately after dosing. Furthermore, consistent with prolonged half-life, rFVIIIFc shows 2-fold longer prophylactic efficacy in protecting HemA mice from tail vein transection bleeding induced 24-48 hours after dosing. In HemA dogs, rFVIIIFc also sustains partial correction of WBCT 1.5- to 2-fold longer than rFVIII. rFVIIIFc was well tolerated in both species. Thus, the rescue of FVIII by Fc fusion to provide prolonged protection presents a novel pathway for FVIII catabolism, and warrants further investigation. PMID:22246033

  16. Development of a low activation concrete shielding wall by multi-layered structure for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Maegawa, Toshio; Yoshimatsu, Kenji; Sato, Koichi; Nonaka, Akira; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    A multi-layered concrete structure has been developed to reduce induced activity in the shielding for neutron generating facilities such as a fusion reactor. The multi-layered concrete structure is composed of: (1) an inner low activation concrete, (2) a boron-doped low activation concrete as the second layer, and (3) ordinary concrete as the outer layer of the neutron shield. With the multi-layered concrete structure the volume of boron is drastically decreased compared to a monolithic boron-doped concrete. A 14 MeV neutron shielding experiment with multi-layered concrete structure mockups was performed at FNS and several reaction rates and induced activity in the mockups were measured. This demonstrated that the multi-layered concrete effectively reduced low energy neutrons and induced activity.

  17. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  18. Beta activity in the premotor cortex is increased during stabilized as compared to normal walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Walking on two legs is inherently unstable. Still, we humans perform remarkable well at it, mostly without falling. To gain more understanding of the role of the brain in controlling gait stability we measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG during stabilized and normal walking.Subjects walked on a treadmill in two conditions, each lasting 10 minutes; normal, and while being laterally stabilized by elastic cords. Kinematics of trunk and feet, electro-myography (EMG of neck muscles, as well as 64-channel EEG were recorded. To assess gait stability the local divergence exponent, step width, and trunk range of motion were calculated from the kinematic data. We used independent component analysis to remove movement, EMG, and eyeblink artifacts from the EEG, after which dynamic imaging of coherent sources beamformers were determined to identify cortical sources that showed a significant difference between conditions. Stabilized walking led to a significant increase in gait stability, i.e. lower local divergence exponents. Beamforming analysis of the beta band activity revealed significant sources in bilateral pre-motor cortices. Projection of sensor data on these sources showed a significant difference only in the left premotor area, with higher beta power during stabilized walking, specifically around push-off, although only significant around contralateral push-off. It appears that even during steady gait the cortex is involved in the control of stability.

  19. Effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanin synthesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Otręba, Michał; Miliński, Maciej; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

  20. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  1. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  2. The contribution of thought-action fusion and thought suppression in the development of obsession-like intrusions in normal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E

    2001-09-01

    Both thought-action fusion (TAF: i.e., a cognitive bias implying an inflated sense of responsibility for one's own thoughts) and thought suppression have been claimed to contribute to the development of obsession-like intrusions. Therefore, it seems plausible that conjunction of these phenomena results in highly intense intrusions. However, possible interactions between TAF and thought suppression have not yet been investigated experimentally. In the current study, healthy volunteers were exposed to a TAF-like intrusion. They were, then, randomly assigned to a suppression (n=21) or non-suppression condition (n=19). Next, visual analogue scales (VASs) were completed measuring anxiety, feelings of responsibility and guilt, urge to neutralise and so on. Contrary to expectation, several VAS scores were lower for participants in the suppression group than for those in the non-suppression group. Hence, it is concluded that thought suppression may, at least in the short term, alleviate discomfort caused by TAF-like intrusions.

  3. Report of the DOE panel on low activation materials for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    In February, 1982, the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, through its Division of Development and Technology, established a Panel to examine materials with attractive radioactivation characteristics for applications in fusion power reactors. Since February, the Panel has met together and in subgroups numerous times. Input from knowledgeable people was elicited via a two day workshop held at UCLA in April, 1982. The agenda, titles of talks, and speakers are given in Appendix II. We present here a synopsis of the Panel's findings based upon both external information provided to us and upon the work and deliberations of the Panel itself. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Background technical information brought together by the Panel is relegated to Appendices III and IV

  4. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  5. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  6. A comparison of low-chromium and high-chromium reduced-activation steels for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Alexander, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ferritic steels have been considered candidate structural materials for first wall and blanket structures for fusion power plants since the late 1970s. The first steels considered in the United States were the conventional Cr-Mo steels Sandvik HT9 (nominally 12Cr-1Mo-0.25V-0.5W-0.5Ni-0.2C, here designated l2Cr-1MoVW), modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (9Cr-1Mo-0.2V-0.06Nb-0. IC, designated 9Cr-1MoVNb) and, to a lesser extent, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel (2.25Cr-Mo-0.1C). All compositions are in wt. %. The normalized-and-tempered 9 and 12Cr steels had a tempered martensite microstructure, and the normalized-and-tempered 2 1/4 Cr steel had a tempered bainite microstructure. This report describes chromium steels tested in normalized and tempered conditions. Miniature tensile and Charpy specimens were tested

  7. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, P; Annapurna, A; Rao, S Nageswara

    2012-05-01

    A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. A significant (Ppaniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  8. TGF-ß Regulates Cathepsin Activation during Normal and Pathogenic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Christian, Courtney; Lu, Po-Nien; Aarnio-Peterson, Megan; Sanman, Laura; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie; Azadi, Parastoo; Bogyo, Matthew; Steet, Richard A

    2018-03-13

    Cysteine cathepsins play roles during development and disease beyond their function in lysosomal protein turnover. Here, we leverage a fluorescent activity-based probe (ABP), BMV109, to track cysteine cathepsins in normal and diseased zebrafish embryos. Using this probe in a model of mucolipidosis II, we show that loss of carbohydrate-dependent lysosomal sorting alters the activity of several cathepsin proteases. The data support a pathogenic mechanism where TGF-ß signals enhance the proteolytic processing of pro-Ctsk by modulating the expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S). In MLII, elevated C4-S corresponds with TGF-ß-mediated increases in chst11 expression. Inhibiting chst11 impairs the proteolytic activation of Ctsk and alleviates the MLII phenotypes. These findings uncover a regulatory loop between TGF-ß signaling and Ctsk activation that is altered in the context of lysosomal disease. This work highlights the power of ABPs to identify mechanisms underlying pathogenic development in living animals. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  10. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  11. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Expression and Activation of Horseradish Peroxidase-Protein A/G Fusion Protein in Silkworm Larvae for Diagnostic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xxxx, Patmawati; Minamihata, Kosuke; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-06-01

    Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems. A HRP-protein A/G fusion protein (HRP-pAG) is designed and its production in silkworm (Bombyx mori) is evaluated for the first time. HRP-pAG is expressed in a soluble apo form, and is activated successfully by incubating with hemin. The activated HRP-pAG is used directly for ELISA experiments and retains its activity over 20 days at 4 °C. Moreover, HRP-pAG is modified with biotin by the microbial transglutaminase (MTG) reaction. The biotinylated HRP-pAG is conjugated with streptavidin to form a HRP-pAG multimer and the multimeric HRP-pAG produced higher signals in the ELISA system than monomeric HRP-pAG. The successful production of recombinant HRP in silkworm will contribute to creating novel HRP-based bioconjugates as well as further functionalization of HRP by applying enzymatic post-translational modifications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  15. A high throughput Cre–lox activated viral membrane fusion assay identifies pharmacological inhibitors of HIV entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Anthony M. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Cheung, Pamela [Integrated Screening Core, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Swartz, Talia H.; Li, Hongru [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Tsibane, Tshidi [Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Durham, Natasha D. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Basler, Christopher F. [Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Felsenfeld, Dan P. [Integrated Screening Core, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Benjamin K., E-mail: benjamin.chen@mssm.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Enveloped virus entry occurs when viral and cellular membranes fuse releasing particle contents into the target cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry occurs by cell-free virus or virus transferred between infected and uninfected cells through structures called virological synapses. We developed a high-throughput cell-based assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell-free or virological synapse-mediated entry. An HIV clone carrying Cre recombinase as a Gag-internal gene fusion releases active Cre into cells upon viral entry activating a recombinatorial gene switch changing dsRed to GFP-expression. A screen of a 1998 known-biological profile small molecule library identified pharmacological HIV entry inhibitors that block both cell-free and cell-to-cell infection. Many top hits were noted as HIV inhibitors in prior studies, but not previously recognized as entry antagonists. Modest therapeutic indices for simvastatin and nigericin were observed in confirmatory HIV infection assays. This robust assay is adaptable to study HIV and heterologous viral pseudotypes. - Highlights: • Cre recombinase viral fusion assay screens cell-free or cell–cell entry inhibitors. • This Gag-iCre based assay is specific for the entry step of HIV replication. • Screened a library of known pharmacologic compounds for HIV fusion antagonists. • Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but here are classified as entry antagonists. Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but not as entry antagonists. • The assay is compatible with pseudotyping with HIV and heterologous viruses.

  16. A high throughput Cre–lox activated viral membrane fusion assay identifies pharmacological inhibitors of HIV entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Anthony M.; Cheung, Pamela; Swartz, Talia H.; Li, Hongru; Tsibane, Tshidi; Durham, Natasha D.; Basler, Christopher F.; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    Enveloped virus entry occurs when viral and cellular membranes fuse releasing particle contents into the target cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry occurs by cell-free virus or virus transferred between infected and uninfected cells through structures called virological synapses. We developed a high-throughput cell-based assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell-free or virological synapse-mediated entry. An HIV clone carrying Cre recombinase as a Gag-internal gene fusion releases active Cre into cells upon viral entry activating a recombinatorial gene switch changing dsRed to GFP-expression. A screen of a 1998 known-biological profile small molecule library identified pharmacological HIV entry inhibitors that block both cell-free and cell-to-cell infection. Many top hits were noted as HIV inhibitors in prior studies, but not previously recognized as entry antagonists. Modest therapeutic indices for simvastatin and nigericin were observed in confirmatory HIV infection assays. This robust assay is adaptable to study HIV and heterologous viral pseudotypes. - Highlights: • Cre recombinase viral fusion assay screens cell-free or cell–cell entry inhibitors. • This Gag-iCre based assay is specific for the entry step of HIV replication. • Screened a library of known pharmacologic compounds for HIV fusion antagonists. • Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but here are classified as entry antagonists. Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but not as entry antagonists. • The assay is compatible with pseudotyping with HIV and heterologous viruses.

  17. Fusing simulation and experiment: The effect of mutations on the structure and activity of the influenza fusion peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousa, Diana; Pinto, Antónia R. T.; Victor, Bruno L.; Laio, Alessandro; Veiga, Ana S.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.; Soares, Cláudio M.

    2016-01-01

    During the infection process, the influenza fusion peptide (FP) inserts into the host membrane, playing a crucial role in the fusion process between the viral and host membranes. In this work we used a combination of simulation and experimental techniques to analyse the molecular details of this process, which are largely unknown. Although the FP structure has been obtained by NMR in detergent micelles, there is no atomic structure information in membranes. To answer this question, we performed bias-exchange metadynamics (BE-META) simulations, which showed that the lowest energy states of the membrane-inserted FP correspond to helical-hairpin conformations similar to that observed in micelles. BE-META simulations of the G1V, W14A, G12A/G13A and G4A/G8A/G16A/G20A mutants revealed that all the mutations affect the peptide’s free energy landscape. A FRET-based analysis showed that all the mutants had a reduced fusogenic activity relative to the WT, in particular the mutants G12A/G13A and G4A/G8A/G16A/G20A. According to our results, one of the major causes of the lower activity of these mutants is their lower membrane affinity, which results in a lower concentration of peptide in the bilayer. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the influenza fusion process and open new routes for future studies. PMID:27302370

  18. Present status of research activities at the national institute for fusion science and its role in international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Japan, a helical magnetic confinement system named Large Helical Device (LHD) is under construction with objective of comprehensive studies of high temperature plasmas in a helical system and investigation of a helical reactor as an alternative approach. Superconducting coils of l = 2, m = 10, major radius R = 3.9 m, produce a steady state helical magnetic field for confinement, together with poloidal coils on LHD. The magnetic field strength on the axis is 3.0 T in the phase I and 4.0 T in the phase II experiment. The plasma major radius in LHD is 3.75 m, and averaged plasma radius is 0.6 m. The plasma will be produced and heated with ECH, and further heated with NBI and ICRF. It is also planned to produced a steady state plasma in LHD. It is expected to have the first plasma in 1998. Small devices such as CHS and others are under operation in the NIFS for supporting the LHD project. The Data and Planning Center of NIFS is collecting, compiling and evaluating atomic and molecular data which are necessary for nuclear fusion research. The talk will include the present status of the construction of LHD, research activities on the development of heating and diagnostic devices for LHD, and experimental results obtained on CHS, JIPP T-IIU and other devices. The role of NIFS on promoting IAEA activities to bridge large scale institutions and small and medium scale laboratories for world-wide collaborations in the field of plasma physics and fusion research will also be introduced, together with an idea of organizing a regional center in Asia. (author)

  19. The effect of postural changes on plasma renin activity during normal and pathologic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, J M; Abramovici, H; Katz, M; Diengott, D; Spindel, A; Kahana, L

    1978-11-01

    A study of the effect of posture on plasma renin activity (PRA) in the third trimester in 27 gravidas revealed a significantly greater increase in PRA in the supine position, compared to the left lateral. The women were classified into 3 groups: normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, intrauterine fetal death. There was no statistical difference in PRA among the 3 groups. It is assumed that the increase of PRA in the supine position was due mainly to mechanical pressure by the gravid uterus on the great vessels (regardless of whether the fetus was dead or alive) and that effective circulatory volume was thus reduced. However, low PRA in the left lateral position in women with preeclampsia seemed to correlate with more severe disease in these women.

  20. Soybean and tempeh total isoflvones improved antioxidant activities in normal and scopolamine-induced rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the comparative studies between total isoflavone extracts from soybean and tempeh on the neuronal oxidative stress and antioxidant activities. Methods: The total isoflavones were administered orally for 15 days with 3 selected doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg. Piracetam (400 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a standard drug while scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a drug that promoted amnesia in selected groups. The oxidative markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide were measured in brain homogenate. The antioxidant activities evaluated were catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione. Results: Our results showed that soybean and tempeh isoflavones significantly improved the levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione while decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide in both the brain of normal as well as scopolamine-induced animals. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that soybean and tempeh isoflavones could be useful in the management and prevention of age-related neurodegenerative changes including Alzheimer’s disease through its antioxidant activities.

  1. Measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products in a normally occupied home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of individuals to the presence of indoor radioactivity arising from the decay of radon, an automated, semicontinuous graded screen array system was developed to permit the measurement of the activity-weighted size distributions of the radon progeny in homes. The system has been modified so that the electronics and sampling heads can be separated from the pump by approximately 15 m. The system was placed in the living room of a one-storey house with basement in Princeton, NJ and operated for 2 weeks while the house was occupied by the home owners in their normal manner. One of the house occupants was a cigarette smoker. Radon and potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) measurements were also made, but condensation nuclei counts were not performed. PAEC values ranged from 23.4 to 461.6 mWL. In the measured activity size distributions, the amount of activity in the 0.5-1.5 nm size range can be considered to be the unattached fraction. The mean value for the 218 Po unattached fraction is 0.217 with a range of 0.054-0.549. The median value for the unattached fraction of PAEC is 0.077 with a range of 0.022-0.178. (author)

  2. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Heskamp, Linda; Simons, Esther M F; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load. After training, healthy older adults demonstrated decreased prefrontal activation at high WM load, which may indicate increased processing efficiency. Although MCI patients showed improved behavioral performance at low WM load after training, no evidence was found for training-related changes in prefrontal activation. Whole-group analyses showed that a relatively strong hemodynamic response at low WM load was related to worse behavioral performance, while a relatively strong hemodynamic response at high WM load was related to higher training gain. Therefore, a 'youth-like' prefrontal activation pattern at older age may be associated with better behavioral outcome and cognitive plasticity.

  3. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  4. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  5. Fusion reactors and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of a study group set up in 1971 by the Director of the UKAEA Culham Laboratory to investigate environmental and safety aspects of future commercial fusion reactors (1975, Carruthers, R., Dunster, H.J., Smith, R.D., Watson, C.J.H., and Mitchell, J.T.D., Culham Study Group Report on Fusion Reactors and the Environment, CLM-R148, HMSO, London). This report was originally issued in 1973 under limited distribution, but has only recently been made available for open circulation. Deuterium/tritium fusion is thought to be the most likely reaction to be used in the first generation of reactors. Estimates were made of the local and world-wide population hazards from the release of tritium, both under normal operating conditions and in the event of an accident. One serious type of accident would be a lithium metal fire in the blanket region of the reactor. The use of a fusible lithium salt (FLIBE), eliminating the lithium fire risk, is considered but the report concentrates on lithium metal in the blanket region. The main hazards to operating staff arise both from tritium and from neutron activation of the construction materials. Remote servicing of the reactor structure will be essential, but radioactive waste management seems less onerous than for fission reactors. Meaningful comparison of the overall hazards associated with fusion and fission power programmes is not yet possible. The study group emphasized the need for more data to aid the safety assessments, and the need for such assessments to keep pace with fusion power station design. (U.K.)

  6. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P fusion (P fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling.

  8. THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NORMAL GUINEA PIG SERUM AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND ITS INHIBITION BY A LISTERIAL CELL EXTRACT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal guinea pig serum contains bactericidins active against Listeria monocytogenes. The listeriocidal activity of the serum did not increase after...factor. Lysozyme was not implicated in the bactericidal system. It was suggested that the bactericidal activity of guinea pig serum might be due either to

  9. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  10. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  11. Expression and activity of arginase isoenzymes during normal and diabetes-impaired skin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Heiko; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    Within the past years, an important role for nitric oxide (NO) in skin repair has been well defined. As NO is synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOS), the availability of L-arginine might be one rate-limiting factor of NO production at the wound site. Upon injury, arginase-1 and -2 mRNA, protein, and activity were strongly induced reaching a maximum between day 3 and day 7 postwounding. Immunohistochemistry colocalized both arginases and the inducible NOS (iNOS) at epithelial sites at the margins of the wound. Notably, diabetes-impaired skin repair in leptin-deficient mice (diabetes/diabetes, db/db; and obese/obese, ob/ob) was characterized by an abnormally elevated arginase activity in wound tissue in the absence of an expression of iNOS. Expression analyses demonstrated that arginase-1 contributed to increased arginase activities in impaired repair. Interestingly, an improved healing of chronic wound situations in leptin-supplemented ob/ob mice was strongly associated with an adjustment of the dysregulated expression of L-arginine-converting enzymes: an attenuated iNOS expression was upregulated early in repair and an augmented arginase-1 expression and activity was downregulated in the presence of markedly elevated numbers of macrophages during late repair. These data suggest a coordinated consumption of L-arginine by the NOS and arginase enzymatic pathways at the wound site as a prerequisite for a balanced NO (via iNOS) and polyamine (via arginases) synthesis that drives a normal skin repair.

  12. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  13. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  14. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  15. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  16. Results from the CDE phase activity on neutron dosimetry for the international fusion materials irradiation facility test cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. E-mail: esposito@frascati.enea.it; Bertalot, L.; Maruccia, G.; Petrizzi, L.; Bignan, G.; Blandin, C.; Chauffriat, S.; Lebrun, A.; Recroix, H.; Trapp, J.P.; Kaschuck, Y

    2000-11-01

    The international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) project deals with the study of an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium source, producing high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials for fusion energy reactors. IFMIF would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator based irradiation tests. This paper describes the activity on neutron/gamma dosimetry (necessary for the characterization of the specimens' irradiation) performed in the frame of the IFMIF conceptual design evaluation (CDE) neutronics tasks. During the previous phase (conceptual design activity (CDA)) the multifoil activation method was proposed for the measurement of the neutron fluence and spectrum and a set of suitable foils was defined. The cross section variances and covariances of this set of foils have now been used for tests on the sensitivity of the IFMIF neutron spectrum determination to cross section uncertainties. The analysis has been carried out using the LSL-M2 code, which optimizes the neutron spectrum by means of a least-squares technique taking into account the variance and covariance files. In the second part of the activity, the possibility of extending to IFMIF the use of existing on-line in-core neutron/gamma monitors (to be located at several positions inside the IFMIF test cell for beam control, safety and diagnostic purposes) has been studied. A feasibility analysis of the modifications required to adapt sub-miniature fission chambers (recently developed by CEA-Cadarache) to the high flux test module of the test cell has been carried out. The verification of this application pertinence and a gross definition of the in-core detector characteristics are described. The option of using self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) is also discussed.

  17. Spine kinematics exhibited during the stop-jump by physically active individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Rumit Singh; Li, Yumeng; Brown, Cathleen N; Kim, Seock-Ho; Oswald, Timothy S; Simpson, Kathy J

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis post spinal fusion often return to exercise and sport. However, the movements that individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) use to compensate for the loss of spinal flexibility during high-effort tasks are not known. The objective of this study was to compare the spinal kinematics of the trunk segments displayed during the stop-jump, a maximal effort task, between SF-AIS and healthy control groups. The study used a case-controlled design. Ten SF-AIS (physically active, posterior-approach spinal fusion: 11.2±1.9 fused segments, postop time: 2±.6 years) and nine control individuals, pair matched for gender, age (17.4±1.3 years and 20.6±1.5 years, respectively), mass (63.50±12.2 kg and 66. 40±10.9 kg), height (1.69±.09 m and 1.72±.08 m), and level of physical activity, participated in the study. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and controls (CON) performed five acceptable trials of the stop-jump task. Spatial locations of 21 retroreflective trunk and pelvis markers were recorded via high-speed motion capture methodology. Mean differences and analysis of covariance (jump height=covariate, pjump height and RelAng were detected in the three phases of stop-jump. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis displayed 3.2° greater transverse plane RelAng of LT compared with CON (p=.059) in the stance phase. Group differences for RelAng ranged from 0° to 15.3°. For SegAng in the stance phase, LT demonstrated greater SegAng in the sagittal and frontal planes (mean difference: 3.2°-6.2°), whereas SegAng for MT was 5.1° greater in the sagittal plane and had a tendency of 2° greater displacement in the frontal plane (p=.070). In the vertical flight phase, greater LT displacement in the frontal plane was observed for SF-AIS than CON. In the flight phase, LT had a tendency for greater SegAng for SF-AIS than for CON

  18. The impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.; Vujic, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plants will probably operate in a pulsed mode. The two different schemes, however, will have quite different time periods. Typical repetition rates for IFE power plants will be 1-5 Hz. MFE power plants will ramp up in current for about 1 hour, shut down for several minutes, and repeat the process. Traditionally, activation calculations for IFE and MFE power plants have assumed continuous operation and used either the ''steady state'' (SS) or ''equivalent steady state'' (ESS) approximations. It has been suggested recently that the SS and ESS methods may not yield accurate results for all radionuclides of interest. The present work expands that of Sisolak, et al. by applying their formulae to conditions which might be experienced in typical IFE and MFE power plants. In addition, complicated, multi-step reaction/decay chains are analyzed using an upgraded version of the ACAB radionuclide generation/depletion code. Our results indicate that the SS method is suitable for application to MFE power plant conditions. We also find that the ESS method generates acceptable results for radionuclides with half-lives more than a factor of three greater than the time between pulses. For components that are subject to 0.05 Hz (or more frequent) irradiation (such as coolant), use of the ESS method is recommended. For components or materials that are subject to less frequent irradiation (such as high-Z target materials), pulsed irradiation calculations should be used

  19. Radiation hazards due to activated corrosion and neutron sputtering products in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.C.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of radioactive corrosion and neutron sputtering products on the surfaces of components in fusion reactor coolant and tritium breeding systems can cause significant personnel access problems. Remote maintenance techniques or special treatment may be required to limit the amount of radiation exposure to plant operational and maintenance personnel. A computer code, RAPTOR, has been developed to estimate the transport of this activated material throughout a fusion heat transfer and/or tritium breeding material loop. A method is devised which treats the components of the loop individually and determines the source rates, deposition and erosion rates, decay rates, and purification rates of these radioactive materials. RAPTOR has been applied to the MARS and Starfire conceptual reactor designs to determine the degree of the possible radiation hazard due to these products. Due to the very high corrosion release rate by HT-9 when exposed to LiPb in the MARS reactor design, the radiation fields surrounding the primary system will preclude direct contact maintenance even after shutdown. Even the removal of the radioactive LiPb from the system will not decrease the radiation fields to reasonable levels. The Starfire primary system will exhibit radiation fields similar to those found in present pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  20. Examination of the neighborhood activation theory in normal and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, D D; Takayanagi, S; Moshfegh, A; Noffsinger, P D; Fausti, S A

    2001-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of lexical information on word recognition among normal hearing listeners and individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. The lexical factors of interest were incorporated in the Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM). Central to this model is the concept that words are recognized relationally in the context of other phonemically similar words. NAM suggests that words in the mental lexicon are organized into similarity neighborhoods and the listener is required to select the target word from competing lexical items. Two structural characteristics of similarity neighborhoods that influence word recognition have been identified; "neighborhood density" or the number of phonemically similar words (neighbors) for a particular target item and "neighborhood frequency" or the average frequency of occurrence of all the items within a neighborhood. A third lexical factor, "word frequency" or the frequency of occurrence of a target word in the language, is assumed to optimize the word recognition process by biasing the system toward choosing a high frequency over a low frequency word. Three experiments were performed. In the initial experiments, word recognition for consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) monosyllables was assessed in young normal hearing listeners by systematically partitioning the items into the eight possible lexical conditions that could be created by two levels of the three lexical factors, word frequency (high and low), neighborhood density (high and low), and average neighborhood frequency (high and low). Neighborhood structure and word frequency were estimated computationally using a large, on-line lexicon-based Webster's Pocket Dictionary. From this program 400 highly familiar, monosyllables were selected and partitioned into eight orthogonal lexical groups (50 words/group). The 400 words were presented randomly to normal hearing listeners in speech-shaped noise (Experiment 1) and "in quiet" (Experiment 2) as

  1. Calculational models for the treatment of pulsed/intermittent activation within fusion energy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, S.E.; Sisolak, J.E.; Henderson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Two calculationally efficient methods have been developed to compute the induced radioactivity due to pulsed/intermittent irradiation histories as encountered in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy devices. The numerical algorithms are based on the linear chain method (Bateman Equations) and employ series reduction and matrix algebra. The first method models the case in which the irradiated materials are present throughout a series of irradiation pulses. The second method treats the case where a fixed amount of radioactive and transmuted material is created during each pulse. Analytical solutions are given for each method for a three nuclide linear chain. Numerical results and comparisons are presented for a select number of linear chains. (orig.)

  2. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  3. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  4. Correlation- and covariance-supported normalization method for estimating orthodontic trainer treatment for clenching activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdenur, B; Okkesum, S; Kara, S; Günes, S

    2009-11-01

    In this study, electromyography signals sampled from children undergoing orthodontic treatment were used to estimate the effect of an orthodontic trainer on the anterior temporal muscle. A novel data normalization method, called the correlation- and covariance-supported normalization method (CCSNM), based on correlation and covariance between features in a data set, is proposed to provide predictive guidance to the orthodontic technique. The method was tested in two stages: first, data normalization using the CCSNM; second, prediction of normalized values of anterior temporal muscles using an artificial neural network (ANN) with a Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm. The data set consists of electromyography signals from right anterior temporal muscles, recorded from 20 children aged 8-13 years with class II malocclusion. The signals were recorded at the start and end of a 6-month treatment. In order to train and test the ANN, two-fold cross-validation was used. The CCSNM was compared with four normalization methods: minimum-maximum normalization, z score, decimal scaling, and line base normalization. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, prevalent performance-measuring methods, and the mean square error and mean absolute error as mathematical methods, the statistical relation factor R2 and the average deviation have been examined. The results show that the CCSNM was the best normalization method among other normalization methods for estimating the effect of the trainer.

  5. Acute hypotensive and diuretic activities of Berberis vulgaris root bark aqueous extract in normal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intravenous administration of Berberis vulgaris root bark aqueous extract (BRBD on the cardiovascular and renal functions of healthy normotensive rats. The different doses of BRBD 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg were administered intravenously (i.v in normal rats. Blood pressure, diuretic activity and serum renal profile were analyzed. Intravenous injection of BRBD at the different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg showed a dose-dependent reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001. At different doses of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg, the hypotensive effect remained for more than one hour. Single dose administration of BRBD at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg caused a significant increase in urine output (P<0.001 as compared to the control rats. Serum renal profile test (albumin, Urea, Uric Acid, creatinine and BUN did not show any significant alteration. The authors conclude that the BRBD is a potent hypotensive and possesses diuretic potential

  6. A pleasant familiar odor influences perceived stress and peripheral nervous system activity during normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eJoussain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of smells on stress have been demonstrated in animals and humans, suggesting that inhaling certain odorants may counteract the negative effects of stress. Because stress plays a key role in cerebral aging, the present study set out to examine whether positive odor effects on perceived stress can be achieved in elderly individuals. To this end, two groups of aged individuals (n=36 women, aged from 55 to 65 years, were tested. The first group was exposed for 5 days to a pleasant and, by end of exposure, familiar odor (exposure odor, whereas the other was exposed to a non-scented control stimulus. Stress and mood states were assessed before and after the 5-day odor exposure period. Psychophysiological markers were also assessed at the end of exposure, in response to the exposure odor and to a new odor. Results revealed that stress on this second exposure was decreased and zygomatic EMG activity was increased specifically in the group previously exposed to the odor (p< 0.05. Taken as a whole, these findings offer a new look at the relationship between perceived stress, olfaction and normal aging, opening up new research perspectives on the effect of olfaction on quality of life and well-being in aged individuals.

  7. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Harrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD, but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex, sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus, basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a

  8. Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2005-09-08

    It is well known that estradiol derived from neural aromatization of testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of the male brain and the display of sexual behaviors in adulthood. It was recently found that male aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) deficient in estradiol due to a mutation in the aromatase gene have general deficits in coital behavior and are sexually less motivated. We wondered whether these behavioral deficits of ArKO males could be related to changes in activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology. ArKO and wild type (WT) males were subjected to open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST), after being exposed or not to chronic mild stress (CMS). CMS was used to evaluate the impact of chronic stressful procedures and to unveil possible differences between genotypes. There was no effect of genotype on OF, EPM and FST behavioral parameters. WT and ArKO mice exposed to CMS or not exhibited the same behavioral profile during these three types of tests. However, all CMS-exposed mice (ArKO and WT) spent less time in the center of the EPM. Additionally, floating duration measured in the FST increased between two tests in both WT and ArKO mice, though that increase was less prominent in mice previously subjected to CMS than in controls. Therefore, both ArKO and WT males displayed the same behavior and had the same response to CMS however CMS exposure slightly modified the behavior displayed by mice of both genotypes in the FST and EPM paradigms. These results show that ArKO males display normal levels of activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology and thus their deficits in sexual behavior are specific in nature and do not result indirectly from other behavioral changes.

  9. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  10. ITER: the first experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a multiphased project, at present proceeding under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency according to the terms of a four-party agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community, the Government of Japan, the Government of the USA and the Government of Russia (''the parties''). The project is based on the tokamak, a Russian invention which has been brought to a high level of development and progress in all major fusion programs throughout the world.The objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy for commercial energy production and to test technologies for a demonstration fusion power plant. During the extended performance phase of ITER, it will demonstrate the characteristics of a fusion power plant, producing more than 1500MW of fusion power.The objective of the engineering design activity (EDA) phase is to produce a detailed, complete and fully integrated engineering design of ITER and all technical data necessary for the future decision on the construction of ITER.The ITER device will be a major step from present fusion experiments and will encompass all the major elements required for a fusion reactor. It will also require the development and the implementation of major new components and technologies.The inside surface of the plasma containment chamber will be designed to withstand temperature of up to 500 C, although normal operating temperatures will be substantially lower. Materials will have to be carefully chosen to withstand these temperatures, and a high neutron flux. In addition, other components of the device will be composed of state-of-the-art metal alloys, ceramics and composites, many of which are now in the early stage of development of testing. (orig.)

  11. Cold fusion - todays situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the history of cold fusion is given. It is noted that it is not possible to draw any definite conclusions about all the experimental and theoretical details, but that some of the results presented do not seem to be reached according to the normal scientific methods. 6 figs

  12. The IAEA co-ordinated research programme on activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1997-07-01

    The present report summarizes the final results of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Activation Cross Section for the Generator of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology''. The goal of the CRP was to obtain reliable information (experimental and evaluated) for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology. By limiting the scope of the CRP to just 16 reactions it was possible to establish a very effective focus to the joint effort of many laboratories that has led to the generation of a set of valuable new data which provide satisfactory answers to several questions of technological concern to fusion. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  13. CD4+ T Cell Activation and Vascular Normalization: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Michele; Jain, Rakesh K

    2017-05-16

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels enhances the infiltration and functions of T cells. Tian et al. (2017) report that effector CD4 + T cells, in turn, support vascular normalization, highlighting intertwined roles for blood vessels and T cells in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Frykberg, B; Samsahl, K; Wester, P O

    1961-11-15

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed.

  15. Determination of Elements in Normal and Leukemic Human Whole Blood by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Frykberg, B.; Samsahl, K.; Wester, P.O.

    1961-11-01

    By means of gamma-spectrometry the following elements were simultaneously determined in normal and leukemic human whole blood: Cu, Mn, Zn, Sr, Na, P, Ca, Rb, Cd, Sb, Au, Cs and Fe. Chemical separations were performed according to a group separation method using ion-exchange technique. No significant difference between the concentrations of the elements in normal- and leukemic blood was observed

  16. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  17. Activation cross sections for the generation of long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.

    1993-11-01

    The present report contains the Summary of the Second IAEA Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) on ''Activation Cross Sections for the Generation of Long-Lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology'' which was hosted by TSI Research at Del Mar near San Diego and held from 29 to 30 April 1993. This RCM was organized by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS), with the cooperation and assistance of local organizers from TSI Research and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Tables of 14 MeV cross sections and cross sections below 14 MeV are included. The papers prepared and presented by the participants at the meeting has been published as separate report INDC(NDS)-286/L. 3 tabs

  18. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  19. Sequence of activation of template biosyntheses in normal and transformed human cells after synchronization with a double thimidine block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, S.B.; Boikov, P.Ya.; Ebralidze, L.K.; Stepanova, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The sequences of synthesis of DNA, RNA, and various groups of proteins in normal and transformed human fibroblasts was studied in the first mitotic cycle synchronization of the cells by a double thymidine block. Two peculiarities of the synthesis of acid-soluble histone and acid-insoluble proteins in the normal and transformed cells, were detected: (1) in normal fibroblasts the synthesis of the two groups of proteins is a minimum before DNA replication, and the greatest activity is achieved in the G 2 phase; in transformed cells protein synthesis is a maximum after the removal of the thymine block, while in the G 2 phase it is decreased; (2) in normal fibroblasts the synthesis of acid-insoluble proteins is a maximum before the maximum synthesis of DNA, and that of acid-soluble proteins is a maximum after the maximum of DNA synthesis. The opposite picture is observed in transformed cells. RNA synthesis in normal and transformed cells is activated at the end of the G 2 phase. In normal cells the synthesis of proteins is coupled with the activation of RNA synthesis, while in transformed cells protein synthesis is evidently transferred to the following mitotic cycle. Especially pronounced differences were detected in the expression of certain LMG proteins. Thus, in transformed cells the regulation of the coupling of the template syntheses is modified

  20. Magnetic fusion energy. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The first chapter of this part describes briefly the DOE policy for fusion energy. Subsequent chapters include: FY 1980 overview - activities of the Office of Fusion Energy; subactivity descriptions (confinement systems, development and technology, applied plasma physics, and reactor projects); field activities (DOE laboratories, educational institutions, nonprofit organizations, and commercial firms); commercialization; environmental implications; regional activities; and international programs

  1. Bioluminescence imaging of β cells and intrahepatic insulin gene activity under normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokio Katsumata

    Full Text Available In diabetes research, bioluminescence imaging (BLI has been applied in studies of β-cell impairment, development, and islet transplantation. To develop a mouse model that enables noninvasive imaging of β cells, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mouse in which a mouse 200-kbp genomic fragment comprising the insulin I gene drives luciferase expression (Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mouse. BLI of mice was performed using the IVIS Spectrum system after intraperitoneal injection of luciferin, and the bioluminescence signal from the pancreatic region analyzed. When compared with MIP-Luc-VU mice [FVB/N-Tg(Ins1-lucVUPwrs/J] expressing luciferase under the control of the 9.2-kbp mouse insulin I promoter (MIP, the bioluminescence emission from Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice was enhanced approximately 4-fold. Streptozotocin-treated Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice developed severe diabetes concomitant with a sharp decline in the BLI signal intensity in the pancreas. Conversely, mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed an increase in the signal, reflecting a decrease or increase in the β-cell mass. Although the bioluminescence intensity of the islets correlated well with the number of isolated islets in vitro, the intensity obtained from a living mouse in vivo did not necessarily reflect an absolute quantification of the β-cell mass under pathological conditions. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated gene transduction of β-cell-related transcription factors in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice generated luminescence from the hepatic region for more than 1 week. These results demonstrate that BLI in Ins1-luc BAC transgenic mice provides a noninvasive method of imaging islet β cells and extrapancreatic activity of the insulin gene in the liver under normal and pathological conditions.

  2. A multidomain fusion protein in Listeria monocytogenes catalyzes the two primary activities for glutathione biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Shubha; Borovok, Ilya; Ofer, Amos; Yanku, Michaela; Cohen, Gerald; Goebel, Werner; Kreft, Jürgen; Aharonowitz, Yair

    2005-06-01

    Glutathione is the predominant low-molecular-weight peptide thiol present in living organisms and plays a key role in protecting cells against oxygen toxicity. Until now, glutathione synthesis was thought to occur solely through the consecutive action of two physically separate enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and glutathione synthetase. In this report we demonstrate that Listeria monocytogenes contains a novel multidomain protein (termed GshF) that carries out complete synthesis of glutathione. Evidence for this comes from experiments which showed that in vitro recombinant GshF directs the formation of glutathione from its constituent amino acids and the in vivo effect of a mutation in GshF that abolishes glutathione synthesis, results in accumulation of the intermediate gamma-glutamylcysteine, and causes hypersensitivity to oxidative agents. We identified GshF orthologs, consisting of a gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GshA) domain fused to an ATP-grasp domain, in 20 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Remarkably, 95% of these bacteria are mammalian pathogens. A plausible origin for GshF-dependent glutathione biosynthesis in these bacteria was the recruitment by a GshA ancestor gene of an ATP-grasp gene and the subsequent spread of the fusion gene between mammalian hosts, most likely by horizontal gene transfer.

  3. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  4. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  5. ACT-XN: Revised version of an activation calculation code for fusion reactor analysis. Supplement of the function for the sequential reaction activation by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Konno, Chikara; Hori, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2007-09-01

    The ACT-XN is a revised version of the ACT4 code, which was developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to calculate the transmutation, induced activity, decay heat, delayed gamma-ray source etc. for fusion devices. The ACT4 code cannot deal with the sequential reactions of charged particles generated by primary neutron reactions. In the design of present experimental reactors, the activation due to sequential reactions may not be of great concern as it is usually buried under the activity by primary neutron reactions. However, low activation material is one of the important factors for constructing high power fusion reactors in future, and unexpected activation may be produced through sequential reactions. Therefore, in the present work, the ACT4 code was newly supplemented with the calculation functions for the sequential reactions and renamed the ACT-XN. The ACT-XN code is equipped with functions to calculate effective cross sections for sequential reactions and input them in transmutation matrix. The FISPACT data were adopted for (x,n) reaction cross sections, charged particles emission spectra and stopping powers. The nuclear reaction chain data library were revised to cope with the (x,n) reactions. The charged particles are specified as p, d, t, 3 He(h) and α. The code was applied to the analysis of FNS experiment for LiF and Demo-reactor design with FLiBe, and confirmed that it reproduce the experimental values within 15-30% discrepancies. In addition, a notice was presented that the dose rate due to sequential reaction cannot always be neglected after a certain period cooling for some of the low activation material. (author)

  6. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of green fluorescent fusion protein to track activation of the transcription factor osterix during early osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Guangping; Christodoulou, Ioannis; Bishop, Anne E.; Polak, Julia M.

    2005-01-01

    Osterix (Osx) is a transcription factor required for the differentiation of preosteoblasts into fully functioning osteoblasts. However, the pattern of Osx activation during preosteoblast differentiation and maturation has not been clearly defined. Our aim was to study Osx activation during these processes in osteoblasts differentiating from murine and human embryonic stem cells (ESC). To do this, we constructed an Osx-GFP fusion protein reporter system to track Osx translocation within the cells. The distribution of Osx-GFP at representative stages of differentiation was also investigated by screening primary osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, synoviocytes, and pre-adipocytes. Our experiments revealed that Osx-GFP protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of cultured, differentiated ESC 4 days after plating of enzymatically dispersed embryoid bodies. Osterix-GFP protein became translocated into the nucleus on day 7 following transfer of differentiated ESC to osteogenic medium. After 14 days of differentiation, cells showing nuclear translocation of Osx-GFP formed rudimentary bone nodules that continued to increase in number over the following weeks (through day 21). We also found that Osx translocated into the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2) and pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and showed partial activation in pre-adipocytes (MC3T3-L1). These data suggest that Osx activation occurs at a very early point in the differentiation of the mesenchymal-osteoblastic lineage

  8. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  9. Production and characterization of active recombinant interleukin-12/eGFP fusion protein in stably-transfected DF1 chicken cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsing Chieh; Chen, Yu San; Shen, Pin Chun; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw; Chiu, Hua Hsien

    2015-01-01

    The adjuvant activity of chicken interleukin-12 (chIL-12) protein has been described as similar to that of mammalian IL-12. Recombinant chIL-12 can be produced using several methods, but chIL-12 production in eukaryotic cells is lower than that in prokaryotic cells. Stimulating compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can be added to animal cell cultures to overcome this drawback. In this study, we constructed a cell line, DF1/chIL-12 which stably expressed a fusion protein, chIL-12 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) connected by a (G4 S)3 linker sequence. Fusion protein production was increased when cells were cultured in the presence of DMSO. When 1 × 10(6) DF1/chIL-12 cells were inoculated in a T-175 flask containing 30 mL of media, incubated for 15 h, and further cultivated in the presence of 4% DMSO for 48 h, the production of total fusion protein was mostly enhanced compared with the production of total fusion protein by using cell lysates induced with DMSO at other concentrations. The concentrations of the unpurified and purified total fusion proteins in cell lysates were 2,781 ± 2.72 ng mL(-1) and 2,207 ± 3.28 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The recovery rate was 79%. The fusion protein stimulated chicken splenocytes to produce IFN-γ, which was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the culture supernatant, indicating that treating DF1/chIL-12 cells with DMSO or producing chIL-12 in a fusion protein form does not have adverse effects on the bioactivity of chIL-12. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  11. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  12. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) surface blistering studies on fusion reactor materials, (2) TFTR design support activities, (3) analysis of samples bombarded in-situ in PLT, (4) chemical sputtering effects, (5) modeling of surface behavior, (6) ion migration in glow discharge tube cathodes, (7) alloy development for irradiation performance, (8) dosimetry and damage analysis, and (9) development of tritium migration in fusion devices and reactors

  13. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  14. Sea Ice Concentration Estimation Using Active and Passive Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Zhu, T.

    2017-12-01

    In this abstract, a decision-level fusion method by utilizing SAR and passive microwave remote sensing data for sea ice concentration estimation is investigated. Sea ice concentration product from passive microwave concentration retrieval methods has large uncertainty within thin ice zone. Passive microwave data including SSM/I, AMSR-E, and AMSR-2 provide daily and long time series observations covering whole polar sea ice scene, and SAR images provide rich sea ice details with high spatial resolution including deformation and polarimetric features. In the proposed method, the merits from passive microwave data and SAR data are considered. Sea ice concentration products from ASI and sea ice category label derived from CRF framework in SAR imagery are calibrated under least distance protocol. For SAR imagery, incident angle and azimuth angle were used to correct backscattering values from slant range to ground range in order to improve geocoding accuracy. The posterior probability distribution between category label from SAR imagery and passive microwave sea ice concentration product is modeled and integrated under Bayesian network, where Gaussian statistical distribution from ASI sea ice concentration products serves as the prior term, which represented as an uncertainty of sea ice concentration. Empirical model based likelihood term is constructed under Bernoulli theory, which meets the non-negative and monotonically increasing conditions. In the posterior probability estimation procedure, final sea ice concentration is obtained using MAP criterion, which equals to minimize the cost function and it can be calculated with nonlinear iteration method. The proposed algorithm is tested on multiple satellite SAR data sets including GF-3, Sentinel-1A, RADARSAT-2 and Envisat ASAR. Results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the accuracy of ASI sea ice concentration products and reduce the uncertainty along the ice edge.

  15. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  16. Development of a novel algorithm and production of new nuclear data libraries for the treatment of sequential (x,n) reactions in fusion material activation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cierjacks, S.W.; Oblozinsky, P.; Kelzenberg, S.; Rzehorz, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new algorithm and three major nuclear data libraries were developed for the kinematically complete treatment of sequential (x,n) reactions in fusion material activation calculations. The new libraries include data for virtually all isotopes with Z ≤ 84 (A ≤ 210) and half-lives exceeding 1 day; primary neutron energies E n 3 He, and α with energies E x < 24 MeV. While production cross sections of charged particles for primary (n,x) reactions can be deduced from the European activation file, the KFKSPEC data file was created for the corresponding normalized charged-particle spectra. The second data file, KFKXN, contains cross sections for secondary (x,n) reactions. The third data file, KFKSTOP, has a complete set of differential ranges for all five aforementioned light charged particles and all elements from hydrogen to uranium. The KFKSPEC and KFKXN libraries are based essentially on nuclear model calculations using the statistical evaporation model superimposed with the pre-equilibrium contribution as implemented in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ALICE code. The KFKSPEC library includes 633 isotopes, of which 55 are in their isomeric states, and contains 63,300 spectra of the (n,x) type with almost 1.5 million data points. The KFKXN library also includes 633 isotopes and contains all (x,n) and partly (x,2n) cross sections for 4431 reactions with ∼ 106,000 data points. The KFKSTOP library is considered complete and has 11,040 data points. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Progress report 1994 on fusion technology tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.T.

    1995-09-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1994. The work is organized in R and D contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Solid Breeder Blanket Programme, the Long Term Programme and in JET and NET contracts. The topics concern: irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and stress analysis on magnet coils. A list of publications and staff members is also given. (orig.)

  18. Progress report 1992 on fusion technology tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.T.

    1993-08-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1992. The work is organized in RandD contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Solid Breeder Blanket Programme, the Long Term Programme and in JET and NET contracts. The topics concern: irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and stress analysis on magnet coils. List of publications and staff members are also given. (orig.)

  19. Progress report 1994 on fusion technology tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, H T [ed.

    1995-09-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1994. The work is organized in R and D contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Solid Breeder Blanket Programme, the Long Term Programme and in JET and NET contracts. The topics concern: irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and stress analysis on magnet coils. A list of publications and staff members is also given. (orig.).

  20. Progress report 1993 on fusion technology tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, H T [ed.

    1994-09-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1993. The work is organized in RandD contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Solid Breeder Blanket Programme, the Long Term Programme and in JET and NET contracts. The topics concern: irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and stress analysis on magnet coils. List of publications and staff members are also given. (orig.).

  1. Progress report 1993 on fusion technology tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, H.T.

    1994-09-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1993. The work is organized in RandD contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Solid Breeder Blanket Programme, the Long Term Programme and in JET and NET contracts. The topics concern: irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and stress analysis on magnet coils. List of publications and staff members are also given. (orig.)

  2. Progress report 1995 on fusion technology tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1995. The work is organized in R and D contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Blanket Development Programme, the Long Term Programme and in NET contracts. The topics concern: Irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and structural analysis on magnet coils. In addition the supporting and supplementary tasks and investigations in the category underlying technology are reported. A list of publications and staff members is also given. (orig.).

  3. Progress report 1995 on fusion technology tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der

    1996-07-01

    This annual progress report describes research activities which have been performed at ECN within the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme during the period 1 January to 31 December 1995. The work is organized in R and D contracts for the next step NET/ITER Technology, the Blanket Development Programme, the Long Term Programme and in NET contracts. The topics concern: Irradiation damage in austenitic and martensitic stainless steel, weldments, low-activation vanadium alloys, first wall coatings, simulation off-normal heat loads, nuclear data and neutronics for fusion, safety studies, development of ceramic breeding material and structural analysis on magnet coils. In addition the supporting and supplementary tasks and investigations in the category underlying technology are reported. A list of publications and staff members is also given. (orig.)

  4. Activation analysis and waste management for dual-cooled lithium lead breeder (DLL) blanket of the fusion power reactor FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingliang; Huang Qunying; Li Jingjing; Zeng Qin; Wu Yican

    2005-01-01

    The calculation and analysis on the activation levels of the different regions of dual-cooled lithium-lead (DLL) breeder blanket of FDS-II, including afterheat, dose rate, activity and biological hazard potential after shutdown, were carried out with the neutronics code system VisualBUS and multi-group working library HENDL1.0/MG. The safety and environment assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) strategy for the management of activated material is here applied to the DLL blanket, to define the suitable recycling (reuse of activated material) procedure and the possibility of clearance (declassification of the material with low activity level to non-active waste). (authors)

  5. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  6. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  7. Detection of active faults using data fusion techniques : case study, Psachna Island of Evoia, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gountromichou, Chrysa; Pohl, Christine; Ehlers, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The identification of active faults (faults potentially capable to trigger an earthquake) is important for a seismically active country like Greece. Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis were used in order to detect, map and characterize the tectonic structures of Psachna town and the

  8. Magnetic fusion program summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This document outlines the current and planned research, development, and commercialization (RD and C) activities of the Offic of Fusion Energy under the Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this document is to explain the Office of Fusion Energy's activities to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public

  9. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  10. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  11. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  12. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Heskamp, L.; Simons, E.M.F.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21

  13. Ubiquitous expression of MAKORIN-2 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells and its growth promoting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Yiu Lee

    Full Text Available Makorin-2 (MKRN2 is a highly conserved protein and yet its functions are largely unknown. We investigated the expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1 in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells, and leukemia cell lines. We also attempted to delineate the role of MKRN2 in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem/progenitor cells and K562 cell line by over-expression and inhibition of MKRN2 through lentivirus transduction and shRNA nucleofection, respectively. Our results provided the first evidence on the ubiquitous expression of MKRN2 in normal hematopoietic cells, embryonic stem cell lines, primary leukemia and leukemic cell lines of myeloid, lymphoid, erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. The expression levels of MKRN2 were generally higher in primary leukemia samples compared with those in age-matched normal BM cells. In all leukemia subtypes, there was no significant correlation between expression levels of MKRN2 and RAF1. sh-MKRN2-silenced CD34+ cells had a significantly lower proliferation capacity and decreased levels of the early stem/progenitor subpopulation (CFU-GEMM compared with control cultures. Over-expression of MKRN2 in K562 cells increased cell proliferation. Our results indicated possible roles of MKRN2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

  14. Human osteoarthritic cartilage is synthetically more active but in culture less vital than normal cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; van Roy, H.; Wilbrink, B.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    The proteoglycan turnover of human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage was compared to that of normal (N) cartilage. The cartilage was obtained postmortem from human femoral knee condyles. Short term cultures were compared to longterm cultures, and proteoglycan synthesis rate, content and release

  15. Effects of fear of falling and activity restriction on normal and dual task walking in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M; O'Regan, Claire; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is associated with poor physical and psychosocial health and can have debilitating consequences especially when it leads to activity restriction. This study examined whether normal and dual task gait disruptions were independently associated with FOF and activity restriction or if they were fully explained by impaired health status. Data was obtained from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Community dwelling adults ≥65 years, with a Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥18 and who completed a gait assessment (n=1307) were divided into three groups: no FOF, FOF but no activity restriction (FOF-NAR), FOF with activity restriction (FOF-AR). Physical, psychosocial and cognitive measures were obtained and gait characteristics were assessed using a GAITRite(®) mat during normal and dual task (cognitive) walking. After adjusting for sociodemographics, physical, mental and cognitive health, FOF was associated with reduced gait speed and stride length and increased double support phase and step width in normal and dual task conditions; these changes were most pronounced in those who restrict activities as a result of FOF. These gait changes may be associated with an increased fall risk, however some changes especially increased step width may also reflect positive, compensatory adaptations to FOF. The results also highlight the importance of treating underlying health impairments and preventing the transition from FOF to activity restriction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  17. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  18. Improved efficacy of soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) fusion protein by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young Jun; Han, Jihye; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, HaHyung; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-06-01

    Soluble human receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B fusion immunoglobulin (hRANK-Ig) has been considered as one of the therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis or diseases associated with bone destruction by blocking the interaction between RANK and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, no scientific record showing critical amino acid residues within the structural interface between the human RANKL and RANK complex is yet available. In this study, we produced several mutants of hRANK-Ig by replacement of amino acid residue(s) and tested whether the mutants had increased binding affinity to human RANKL. Based on the results from flow cytometry and surface plasmon resonance analyses, the replacement of E(125) with D(125), or E(125) and C(127) with D(125) and F(127) within loop 3 of cysteine-rich domain 3 of hRANK-Ig increases binding affinity to human RANKL over the wild-type hRANK-Ig. This result may provide the first example of improvement in the efficacy of hRANK-Ig by protein engineering and may give additional information to understand a more defined structural interface between hRANK and RANKL.

  19. The effect of tranilast on fibroblast activation protein α (FAP-α expression in normal and keloid fibroblasts in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł P. Antończak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Tranilast (N-(3’,4’-demethoxycinnamoyl-anthranilic acid is an anti-allergic drug. Its mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of antigen-induced release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. It also reveals antifibroproliferative activities. These properties of tranilast are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Keloids are characterized by incorrect extracellular matrix components turnover. Fibroblasts derived from keloids reveal overproduction of collagen type I and decreased degradation of extracellular matrix in comparison with normal fibroblasts. Fibroblast activation protein α (FAP-α may play an important role in remodeling of extracellular matrix and the invasive properties of keloids. Objective . In the present study, the effect of tranilast on expression of FAP-α gene and its protein was evaluated in normal human dermal fibroblasts and fibroblasts derived from keloids cultured in vitro . Materials and methods. In the first stage of the study, the influence of tranilast on cell viability was estimated. The second stage of the study included the quantitative evaluation of FAP-α mRNA expression in normal and keloid fibroblasts treated with tranilast. The third stage of the study comprised fibroblast activation protein α expression analysis in the examined cells treated with tranilast. Results and conclusions . The expression of FAP-α gene and fibroblast activation protein α is higher in keloid fibroblasts. Tranilast at concentrations of 3 μM and 30 μM up-regulated mRNA FAP-α expression in normal fibroblasts but did not influence keloid fibroblasts. The drug, at concentrations of 30 μM and 300 μM up-regulated fibroblast activation protein α expression in normal fibroblasts and did not influence keloid fibroblasts. Tranilast antiproliferative effect is not associated with FAP-α expression in keloid fibroblasts.

  20. Activity Recognition Using Fusion of Low-Cost Sensors on a Smartphone for Mobile Navigation Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saeedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost inertial and motion sensors embedded on smartphones have provided a new platform for dynamic activity pattern inference. In this research, a comparison has been conducted on different sensor data, feature spaces and feature selection methods to increase the efficiency and reduce the computation cost of activity recognition on the smartphones. We evaluated a variety of feature spaces and a number of classification algorithms from the area of Machine Learning, including Naive Bayes, Decision Trees, Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine classifiers. A smartphone app that performs activity recognition is being developed to collect data and send them to a server for activity recognition. Using extensive experiments, the performance of various feature spaces has been evaluated. The results showed that the Bayesian Network classifier yields recognition accuracy of 96.21% using four features while requiring fewer computations.

  1. Using a data fusion-based activity recognition framework to determine surveillance system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A technique is proposed to extract system requirements for a maritime area surveillance system, based on an activity recognition framework originally intended for the characterisation, prediction and recognition of intentional actions for threat...

  2. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  3. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  4. Normal and abnormal electrical activation of the heart. Imaging patterns obtained by phase analysis of equilibrium cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.

    1981-01-01

    By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)

  5. Analysis of cathepsin and furin proteolytic enzymes involved in viral fusion protein activation in cells of the bat reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah El Najjar

    Full Text Available Bats of different species play a major role in the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic viruses including Ebola virus, SARS-like coronavirus and the henipaviruses. These viruses require proteolytic activation of surface envelope glycoproteins needed for entry, and cellular cathepsins have been shown to be involved in proteolysis of glycoproteins from these distinct virus families. Very little is currently known about the available proteases in bats. To determine whether the utilization of cathepsins by bat-borne viruses is related to the nature of proteases in their natural hosts, we examined proteolytic processing of several viral fusion proteins in cells derived from two fruit bat species, Pteropus alecto and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our work shows that fruit bat cells have homologs of cathepsin and furin proteases capable of cleaving and activating both the cathepsin-dependent Hendra virus F and the furin-dependent parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins. Sequence analysis comparing Pteropus alecto furin and cathepsin L to proteases from other mammalian species showed a high degree of conservation; however significant amino acid variation occurs at the C-terminus of Pteropus alecto furin. Further analysis of furin-like proteases from fruit bats revealed that these proteases are catalytically active and resemble other mammalian furins in their response to a potent furin inhibitor. However, kinetic analysis suggests that differences may exist in the cellular localization of furin between different species. Collectively, these results indicate that the unusual role of cathepsin proteases in the life cycle of bat-borne viruses is not due to the lack of active furin-like proteases in these natural reservoir species; however, differences may exist between furin proteases present in fruit bats compared to furins in other mammalian species, and these differences may impact protease usage for viral glycoprotein processing.

  6. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  7. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  8. Fusion environment sensitive flow and fracture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    As a planning activity, the objectives of the workshop were to list, prioritize and milestone the activities necessary to understand, interpret and control the mechanical behavior of candidate fusion reactor alloys. Emphasis was placed on flow and fracture processes which are unique to the fusion environment since the national fusion materials program must evaluate these effects without assistance from other reactor programs

  9. Multi-Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Contextual Awareness of Everyday Activities with Ubiquitous Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Guiry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate the role that smart devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, can play in identifying activities of daily living. A feasibility study involving N = 10 participants was carried out to evaluate the devices’ ability to differentiate between nine everyday activities. The activities examined include walking, running, cycling, standing, sitting, elevator ascents, elevator descents, stair ascents and stair descents. The authors also evaluated the ability of these devices to differentiate indoors from outdoors, with the aim of enhancing contextual awareness. Data from this study was used to train and test five well known machine learning algorithms: C4.5, CART, Naïve Bayes, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and finally Support Vector Machines. Both single and multi-sensor approaches were examined to better understand the role each sensor in the device can play in unobtrusive activity recognition. The authors found overall results to be promising, with some models correctly classifying up to 100% of all instances.

  10. Acid-activated structural reorganization of the Rift Valley fever virus Gc fusion protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de S.M.; Kortekaas, J.A.; Spel, L.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Bosch, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Entry of the enveloped Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into its host cell is mediated by the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc. We investigated the RVFV entry process and its pH-dependent activation mechanism in particular using our recently developed nonspreading RVFV particle system. Entry of the virus

  11. Biogenic amines as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1987-01-01

    The role of extracellular amines such as noradrenaline and serotonin and their interaction with cyclic nucleotides and intracellular polyamines in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is reviewed with particular reference to the differences between normal and neoplastic cells. In respect to the normal epithelium of the small intestine there is a strong case to support the notion that cell proliferation is controlled by, amongst other things, sympathetic nerves. In colonic carcinomas, antagonists for certain serotonin receptors, for histamine H2 receptors and for dopamine D2 receptors inhibit both cell division and tumour growth. Because of the reproducible variations between tumour lines in the response to these antagonists, this inhibition appears to be due to a direct effect on the tumour cells rather than an indirect effect via the tumour host or stroma. This conclusion is supported by the cytocidal effects of toxic congeners of serotonin on the tumour cells. The most salient difference between the amine responses of normal and neoplastic cells relates to the issue of amine uptake. Proliferation of crypt cells is promoted by amine uptake inhibitors, presumably because they block amine re-uptake by the amine secreting cells--sympathetic neurones and enteroendocrine cells. However, tumour cell proliferation is strongly inhibited by amine uptake inhibitors, suggesting that neoplastic cells can, and need to take up the amine before being stimulated by it. Recent revelations in the field of oncogenes also support an important association between amines, cyclic nucleotides and cell division. The ras oncogenes code for a protein that is a member of a family of molecules which relay information from extracellular regulators, such as biogenic amines, to the intracellular regulators, including cyclic nucleotides. Evidence is presented suggesting that enteroendocrine cells, enterocytes, carcinoid tumour cells and adenocarcinoma cells all have the same

  12. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  13. Magnetic fusion research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article is a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme. 6 figs, 1 tab

  14. Activation characteristics of candidate structural materials for a near-term Indian fusion reactor and the impact of their impurities on design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, L. SWAMI; C, DANANI; A, K. SHAW

    2018-06-01

    Activation analyses play a vital role in nuclear reactor design. Activation analyses, along with nuclear analyses, provide important information for nuclear safety and maintenance strategies. Activation analyses also help in the selection of materials for a nuclear reactor, by providing the radioactivity and dose rate levels after irradiation. This information is important to help define maintenance activity for different parts of the reactor, and to plan decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal strategies. The study of activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors or ITER is equally essential, due to the presence of a high-energy neutron environment which makes decisive demands on material selection. This study comprises two parts; in the first part the activation characteristics, in a fusion radiation environment, of several elements which are widely present in structural materials, are studied. It reveals that the presence of a few specific elements in a material can diminish its feasibility for use in the nuclear environment. The second part of the study concentrates on activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors and their comparison in fusion radiation conditions. The structural materials selected for this study, i.e. India-specific Reduced Activation Ferritic‑Martensitic steel (IN-RAFMS), P91-grade steel, stainless steel 316LN ITER-grade (SS-316LN-IG), stainless steel 316L and stainless steel 304, are candidates for use in ITER either in vessel components or test blanket systems. Tungsten is also included in this study because of its use for ITER plasma-facing components. The study is carried out using the reference parameters of the ITER fusion reactor. The activation characteristics of the materials are assessed considering the irradiation at an ITER equatorial port. The presence of elements like Nb, Mo, Co and Ta in a structural material enhance the activity level as well

  15. Effect of amino acid sequence variations at position 149 on the fusogenic activity of the subtype B avian metapneumovirus fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes. These membrane fusion reactions are mediated by virus-encoded glycoproteins. In the case of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the fusion (F) protein alone can mediate virus entry and induce syncytium formation in vitro. To investigate the fusogenic activity of the aMPV F protein, we compared the fusogenic activities of three subtypes of aMPV F proteins using a TCSD50 assay developed in this study. Interestingly, we found that the F protein of aMPV subtype B (aMPV/B) strain VCO3/60616 (aMPV/vB) was hyperfusogenic when compared with F proteins of aMPV/B strain aMPV/f (aMPV/fB), aMPV subtype A (aMPV/A), and aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C). We then further demonstrated that the amino acid (aa) residue 149F contributed to the hyperfusogenic activity of the aMPV/vB F protein. Moreover, we revealed that residue 149F had no effect on the fusogenic activities of aMPV/A, aMPV/C, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) F proteins. Collectively, we provide the first evidence that the amino acid at position 149 affects the fusogenic activity of the aMPV/B F protein, and our findings will provide new insights into the fusogenic mechanism of this protein.

  16. Activation of TZM and stainless steel divertor materials in the NET fusion machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepraga, D.G.; Menapace, E.; Cambi, G.; Ciattaglia, S.; Petrizzi, L.; Cavallone, G.; Costa, M.; Broccoli, U.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the activation and decay heat calculations for the divertor plate materials of the Next European Torus (NET). The basic option assessed enables molybdenum alloy TZM and AISI 316L as material for divertor cooling channels. Burn time, effective irradiation time history, and fluence dependence on activation, decay heat, and contact dose is assessed. Impact of the material impurity level on the radioactive inventory is also investigated. The ANITA code is used, with updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EFF-2 and EAF-3 evaluation files. The flux-weighted spectrum provided by XSDRNPM or ANISN 1-D codes has been used. The real NET geometry was modelled with the 3-D MCNP Monte Carlo neutron transport code. ((orig.))

  17. Activation of TZM and stainless steel divertor materials in the NET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepraga, D G [ENEA, INN-FIS, 8 Viale Ercolani, 40138, Bologna (Italy); Menapace, E [ENEA, INN-FIS, 8 Viale Ercolani, 40138, Bologna (Italy); Cambi, G [Bologna University, Physics Department, 33 Via Irnerio, 40126, Bologna (Italy); Ciattaglia, S [ENEA, NUC-FUS, 27 Via E. Fermi, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Petrizzi, L [ENEA, NUC-FUS, 27 Via E. Fermi, 00044, Frascati (Italy); Cavallone, G [NIER S.r.l., 16 Via S. Stefano, 40125, Bologna (Italy); Costa, M [NIER S.r.l., 16 Via S. Stefano, 40125, Bologna (Italy); Broccoli, U [ENEA, NUC-RIN, 4 Via Martiri del Sole, 40100, Bologna (Italy)

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the activation and decay heat calculations for the divertor plate materials of the Next European Torus (NET). The basic option assessed enables molybdenum alloy TZM and AISI 316L as material for divertor cooling channels. Burn time, effective irradiation time history, and fluence dependence on activation, decay heat, and contact dose is assessed. Impact of the material impurity level on the radioactive inventory is also investigated. The ANITA code is used, with updated cross sections and decay data libraries based on EFF-2 and EAF-3 evaluation files. The flux-weighted spectrum provided by XSDRNPM or ANISN 1-D codes has been used. The real NET geometry was modelled with the 3-D MCNP Monte Carlo neutron transport code. ((orig.))

  18. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G. [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Affranchino, Jose L., E-mail: jose.affranchino@comunidad.ub.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  20. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Silvia A.; Paladino, Mónica G.; Affranchino, José L.

    2012-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  1. A recombinant bivalent fusion protein rVE confers active and passive protection against Yersinia enterocolitica infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kingston, Joseph Jeyabalaji; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-03-05

    In the present study, a bivalent chimeric protein rVE comprising immunologically active domains of Yersinia pestis LcrV and YopE was assessed for its prophylactic abilities against Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infection in murine model. Mice immunized with rVE elicited significantly higher antibody titers with substantial contribution from the rV component (3:1 ratio). Robust and significant resistance to Y. enterocolitica infection with 100% survival (Penterocolitica O:8 against the 75%, 60% and 75% survival seen in mice immunized with rV, rE, rV+rE, respectively. Macrophage monolayer supplemented with anti-rVE polysera illustrated efficient protection (89.41% survival) against challenge of Y. enterocolitica O:8. In contrast to sera from sham-immunized mice, immunization with anti-rVE polysera provided complete protection to BALB/c mice against I.P. challenge with 10(8)CFU of Y. enterocolitica O:8 and developed no conspicuous signs of infection in necropsy. The histopathological analysis of microtome sections confirmed significantly reduced lesion size or no lesion in liver and intestine upon infection in anti-rVE immunized mice. The findings from this study demonstrated the fusion protein rVE as a potential candidate subunit vaccine and showed the functional role of antibodies in protection against Y. enterocolitica infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of protoplast fusion between two Trichoderma spp. on extracellular enzymes production and antagonistic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed M

    2014-11-02

    Biological control plays a crucial role in grapevine pathogens disease management. The cell-wall degrading enzymes chitinase, cellulase and β-glucanase have been suggested to be essential for the mycoparasitism activity of Trichoderma species against grapevine fungal pathogens. In order to develop a useful strain as a single source of these vital enzymes, it was intended to incorporate the characteristics of two parental fungicides tolerant mutants of Trichoderma belonging to the high chitinase producing species T. harzianum and the high cellulase producing species T. viride , by fusing their protoplasts. The phylogeny of the parental strains was carried out using a sequence of the 5.8S-ITS region. The BLAST of the obtained sequence identified these isolates as T. harzianum and T. viride . Protoplasts were isolated using lysing enzymes and were fused using polyethylene glycol. The fused protoplasts have been regenerated on protoplast regeneration minimal medium supplemented with two selective fungicides. Among the 40 fast growing fusants, 17 fusants were selected based on their enhanced growth on selective media for further studies. The fusant strains were growing 60%-70% faster than the parents up to third generation. All the 17 selected fusants exhibited morphological variations. Some fusant strains displayed threefold increased chitinase enzyme activity and twofold increase in β-glucanase enzyme activity compared to the parent strains. Most fusants showed powerful antagonistic activity against Macrophomin aphaseolina , Pythium ultimum and Sclerotium rolfsii pathogens. Fusant number 15 showed the highest inhibition percentage (92.8%) against M. phaseolina and P. ultimum, while fusant number 9 showed the highest inhibition percentage (98.2%) against the growth of S. rolfsii. A hyphal intertwining and degradation phenomenon was observed by scanning electron microscope. The Trichoderma antagonistic effect against pathogenic fungal mycelia was due to the

  3. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-01-01

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the .sup.16 O(n,p).sup.16 N reaction using .sup.14 -MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the .sup.3 H(d,n).sup.4 He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second .sup.16 N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1-2 minutes.

  4. The Putative PAX8/PPARγ Fusion Oncoprotein Exhibits Partial Tumor Suppressor Activity through Up-Regulation of Micro-RNA-122 and Dominant-Negative PPARγ Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Honey V; Madde, Pranathi; Milosevic, Dragana; Hackbarth, Jennifer S; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; McIver, Bryan; Grebe, Stefan K G; Eberhardt, Norman L

    2011-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that the PAX8/PPARγ fusion protein (PPFP), which occurs frequently in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), exhibits oncogenic activity. However, paradoxically, a meta-analysis of extant tumor outcome studies indicates that 68% of FTC-expressing PPFP are minimally invasive compared to only 32% of those lacking PPFP (χ(2) = 6.86, P = 0.008), suggesting that PPFP favorably impacts FTC outcomes. In studies designed to distinguish benign thyroid neoplasms from thyroid carcinomas, the previously identified tumor suppressor miR-122, a major liver micro-RNA (miR) that is decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma, was increased 8.9-fold (P negative PPARγ mutant in WRO cells was less effective than PPFP at inhibiting xenograft tumor progression (1.8-fold [P negative PPARγ activity. Up-regulation of miR-122 negatively regulates ADAM-17, a known downstream target, in thyroid cells, suggesting an antiangiogenic mechanism in thyroid carcinoma. This latter inference is directly supported by reduced CD-31 expression in WRO xenografts expressing PPFP, miR-122, and DN-PPARγ. We conclude that, in addition to its apparent oncogenic potential in vitro, PPFP exhibits paradoxical tumor suppressor activity in vivo, mediated by multiple mechanisms including up-regulation of miR-122 and dominant-negative inhibition of PPARγ activity.

  5. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  6. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  7. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  8. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  9. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  10. Biologically-inspired robust and adaptive multi-sensor fusion and active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Dow, Paul A.; Huber, David J.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a method and system for robust and efficient goal-oriented active control of a machine (e.g., robot) based on processing, hierarchical spatial understanding, representation and memory of multimodal sensory inputs. This work assumes that a high-level plan or goal is known a priori or is provided by an operator interface, which translates into an overall perceptual processing strategy for the machine. Its analogy to the human brain is the download of plans and decisions from the pre-frontal cortex into various perceptual working memories as a perceptual plan that then guides the sensory data collection and processing. For example, a goal might be to look for specific colored objects in a scene while also looking for specific sound sources. This paper combines three key ideas and methods into a single closed-loop active control system. (1) Use high-level plan or goal to determine and prioritize spatial locations or waypoints (targets) in multimodal sensory space; (2) collect/store information about these spatial locations at the appropriate hierarchy and representation in a spatial working memory. This includes invariant learning of these spatial representations and how to convert between them; and (3) execute actions based on ordered retrieval of these spatial locations from hierarchical spatial working memory and using the "right" level of representation that can efficiently translate into motor actions. In its most specific form, the active control is described for a vision system (such as a pantilt- zoom camera system mounted on a robotic head and neck unit) which finds and then fixates on high saliency visual objects. We also describe the approach where the goal is to turn towards and sequentially foveate on salient multimodal cues that include both visual and auditory inputs.

  11. Diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes activate cell death in human cancer cell lines but not normal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Sansone

    Full Text Available Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs that induce abortions or malformations in the offspring of invertebrates exposed to them during gestation. Here we compare the effects of the PUAs 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal (DD, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal (OD and 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal (HD on the adenocarcinoma cell lines lung A549 and colon COLO 205, and the normal lung/brunch epithelial BEAS-2B cell line. Using the viability MTT/Trypan blue assays, we show that PUAs have a toxic effect on both A549 and COLO 205 tumor cells but not BEAS-2B normal cells. DD was the strongest of the three PUAs tested, at all time-intervals considered, but HD was as strong as DD after 48 h. OD was the least active of the three PUAs. The effect of the three PUAs was somewhat stronger for A549 cells. We therefore studied the death signaling pathway activated in A549 showing that cells treated with DD activated Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1 and Fas Associated Death Domain (FADD leading to necroptosis via caspase-3 without activating the survival pathway Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP. The TNFR1/FADD/caspase pathway was also observed with OD, but only after 48 h. This was the only PUA that activated RIP, consistent with the finding that OD causes less damage to the cell compared to DD and HD. In contrast, cells treated with HD activated the Fas/FADD/caspase pathway. This is the first report that PUAs activate an extrinsic apoptotic machinery in contrast to other anticancer drugs that promote an intrinsic death pathway, without affecting the viability of normal cells from the same tissue type. These findings have interesting implications also from the ecological viewpoint considering that HD is one of the most common PUAs produced by diatoms.

  12. Enhance field water-color measurements with a Secchi disk and its implication for fusion of active and passive ocean-color remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Du, Keping; Liu, Bingyi; Lin, Gong; Wei, Jianwei; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-01

    Inversion of the total absorption (a) and backscattering coefficients of bulk water through a fusion of remote sensing reflectance (R rs ) and Secchi disk depth (Z SD ) is developed. An application of such a system to a synthesized wide-range dataset shows a reduction of ∼3 folds in the uncertainties of inverted a(λ) (in a range of ∼0.01-6.8  m -1 ) from R rs (λ) for the 350-560 nm range. Such a fusion is further proposed to process concurrent active (ocean LiDAR) and passive (ocean-color) measurements, which can lead to nearly "exact" analytical inversion of an R rs spectrum. With such a fusion, it is found that the uncertainty in the inverted total a in the 350-560 nm range could be reduced to ∼2% for the synthesized data, which can thus significantly improve the derivation of a coefficients of other varying components. Although the inclusion of Z SD places an extra constraint in the inversion of R rs , no apparent improvement over the quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) was found when the fusion of Z SD and R rs was applied to a field dataset, which calls for more accurate determination of the absorption coefficients from water samples.

  13. Relevance of Wnt10b and activation of β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin-1 pathway in BeWo cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Banerjee, Priyanka; Chaudhary, Piyush; Pal, Rahul; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2017-10-01

    To study the involvement of specific Wnt(s) ligand during trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation. BeWo cells on treatment with forskolin/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were studied for cell fusion by desmoplakin I+II staining and/or hCG secretion by ELISA. Levels of Wnt10b/β-catenin/glial cell missing a (GCMa)/syncytin-1 were studied by qPCR/Western blotting in forskolin-/hCG-treated control siRNA and Wnt10b silenced BeWo cells. BeWo cells on treatment with hCG (5 IU/mL) led to a 94-fold increase in Wnt10b transcript. Wnt10b silencing showed significant decrease in forskolin-/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. It led to down-regulation of β-catenin (nuclear and cytoplasmic), GCMa and syncytin-1 expression. Treatment of BeWo cells with H89, protein kinase A (PKA) signaling inhibitor, significantly reduced forskolin-/hCG-induced Wnt10b, β-catenin, and syncytin-1 expression, which also resulted in reduced cell fusion. Wnt10b is involved in forskolin/hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion via β-catenin/GCMa/syncytin pathway, which may also involve activation of PKA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hydrogen behaviour in the aged low activation martensitic steel F82H for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamati, G.

    1997-10-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in the low activation martensitic steel F82H aged for 2000 h under vacuum at 773 K. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 723 K which includes the onset of hydrogen trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for hydrogen in the aged F82H steel are determined. These data are compared with those obtained for deuterium in F82H steel

  15. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuyuki; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Millay, Douglas P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge regarding cellular fusion and nuclear reprogramming may aid in cell therapy strategies for skeletal muscle diseases. An issue with cell therapy approaches to restore dystrophin expression in muscular dystrophy is obtaining a sufficient quantity of cells that normally fuse with muscle. Here we conferred fusogenic activity without transdifferentiation to multiple non-muscle cell types and tested dystrophin restoration in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. We previously demonstrated that myomaker, a skeletal muscle-specific transmembrane protein necessary for myoblast fusion, is sufficient to fuse 10T 1/2 fibroblasts to myoblasts in vitro. Whether myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion is functional in vivo and whether the newly introduced nonmuscle nuclei undergoes nuclear reprogramming has not been investigated. We showed that mesenchymal stromal cells, cortical bone stem cells, and tail-tip fibroblasts fuse to skeletal muscle when they express myomaker. These cells restored dystrophin expression in a fraction of dystrophin-deficient myotubes after fusion in vitro. However, dystrophin restoration was not detected in vivo although nuclear reprogramming of the muscle-specific myosin light chain promoter did occur. Despite the lack of detectable dystrophin reprogramming by immunostaining, this study indicated that myomaker could be used in nonmuscle cells to induce fusion with muscle in vivo, thereby providing a platform to deliver therapeutic material.-Mitani, Y., Vagnozzi, R. J., Millay, D. P. In vivo myomaker-mediated heterologous fusion and nuclear reprogramming. © FASEB.

  16. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  17. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance – Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Andersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    % of expected learning within one school year (P breakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three...

  18. Cytidine triphosphate synthase activity and mRNA expression in normal human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, A. C.; van Gennip, A. H.; Muller, E. J.; Voûte, P. A.; Vreken, P.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthase is one of the key enzymes in pyrimidine nucleotide anabolic pathways. The activity of this enzyme is elevated in various malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). In this study we investigated the activity of CTP synthase in various human blood

  19. Telomere dynamics, end-to-end fusions and telomerase activation during the human fibroblast immortalization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducray, C; Pommier, J P; Martins, L; Boussin, F D; Sabatier, L

    1999-07-22

    Loss of telomeric repeats during cell proliferation could play a role in senescence. It has been generally assumed that activation of telomerase prevents further telomere shortening and is essential for cell immortalization. In this study, we performed a detailed cytogenetic and molecular characterization of four SV40 transformed human fibroblastic cell lines by regularly monitoring the size distribution of terminal restriction fragments, telomerase activity and the associated chromosomal instability throughout immortalization. The mean TRF lengths progressively decreased in pre-crisis cells during the lifespan of the cultures. At crisis, telomeres reached a critical size, different among the cell lines, contributing to the peak of dicentric chromosomes, which resulted mostly from telomeric associations. We observed a direct correlation between short telomere length at crisis and chromosomal instability. In two immortal cell lines, although telomerase was detected, mean telomere length still continued to decrease whereas the number of dicentric chromosomes associated was stabilized. Thus telomerase could protect specifically telomeres which have reached a critical size against end-to-end dicentrics, while long telomeres continue to decrease, although at a slower rate as before crisis. This suggests a balance between elongation by telomerase and telomere shortening, towards a stabilized 'optimal' length.

  20. Manufacturing of reliable actively cooled fusion components - a challenge for non-destructive inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, N.; Zabernig, A.; Ploechl, L.

    1994-01-01

    Actively cooled in-vessel components like divertors or limiters require high quality and reliability to ensure safe operation during long term use. Such components are subjected to very severe thermal and mechanical cyclic loads and high power densities. Key requirements for materials in question are e.g. high melting point and thermal conductivity and low atomic mass number. Since no single material can simultaneously meet all of these requirements the selection of materials to be combined in composite components as well as of manufacturing and non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods is a particularly challenging task. Armour materials like graphite intended to face the plasma and help to maintain its desired properties, are bonded to metallic substrates like copper, molybdenum or stainless steel providing cooling and mechanical support. Several techniques such as brazing and active metal casting have been developed and successfully applied for joining materials with different thermophysical properties, pursuing the objective of sufficient heat dissipation from the hot, plasma facing surface to the coolant. NDI methods are an integral part of the manufacturing schedule of these components, starting in the design phase and ending in the final inspection. They apply all kinds of divertor types (monobloc and flat-tile concept). Particular focus is put on the feasibility of detecting small flaws and defects in complex interfaces and on the limits of these techniques. Special test pieces with defined defects acting as standards were inspected. Accompanying metallographic investigations were carried out to compare actual defects with results recorded during NDI

  1. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  2. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  3. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  4. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation

  5. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jerala, Roman, E-mail: roman.jerala@ki.si [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation.

  6. Study on cerebral activation areas during repetition with functional MRI in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yohju

    2009-01-01

    For cerebral activation of speech areas in functional MRI (f-MRI) study, the usefulness of an optical microphone, which made it possible to perform task repetition at real time during scanning, was examined. Subjects were 25 healthy adults (mean age, 27.1±5.6 years), who consisted of 15 right-handed and 10 left-handed or ambidextrous persons. Tasks comprised repetition of monosyllables, non-words, words and sentences. The repetition tasks were covertly performed during scanning of f-MRI by using an optical microphone. In both the right-handed and non-right-handed groups, activations in the left superior temporal gyrus (sensory speech area) were most frequently observed during all of the tasks. In the right-handed group, activations in the left inferior frontal (motor speech area) and superior temporal gyri were significantly more often observed than those in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. From an assessment of the laterality index (LI), left-side dominant activation was frequently seen in most of the cerebral regions including sensory and motor speech areas, although right-side and bilateral dominant activations were observed in a few cases. In both groups, activations in regions associated with sensory speech were significantly more often seen than those in regions associated with motor speech. The present predominant activations in regions involved in sensory speech indicate that the optical microphone is useful in f-MRI studies using task repetition. (author)

  7. Recent research activities on functional ceramics for insulator, breeder and optical sensing systems in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, S., E-mail: nagata@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Katsui, H.; Hoshi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Tsuchiya, B. [Meijo University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Toh, K. [J-PARC Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Zhao, M.; Shikama, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hodgson, E.R. [Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents a brief overview of current research activities on functional ceramic materials for insulating components, tritium breeder and optical sensing systems, mainly carried out at Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University. Topics include recent experimental results related to the electrical degradation and optical changes in typical oxide ceramics (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}) concerning radiolytic effects. Hydrogen effects on the electrical conductivity in the Perovskite-type oxide ceramics and the interaction between hydrogen and irradiation induced defects in ternary Li oxides used as breeder materials, were dynamically observed under the irradiation environment. Further attention is focused on several challenging qualifications required for an advanced sensing system using optical characteristics (e.g., thermoluminescence in SiO{sub 2} core fiber, neutron-induced long lasting emission from oxides doped with rare-earth elements, and gasochromic coloration phenomenon of WO{sub 3})

  8. Aldosterone breakthrough with benazepril in furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantis, A C; Ames, M K; Atkins, C E; DeFrancesco, T C; Keene, B W; Werre, S R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot studies in our laboratory revealed that furosemide-induced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation was not attenuated by the subsequent co-administration of benazepril. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of benazepril on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation. Our hypothesis was that benazepril suppression of ACE activity would not suppress furosemide-induced circulating RAAS activation, indicated by urinary aldosterone concentration. Ten healthy hound dogs were used in this study. The effect of furosemide (2 mg/kg p.o., q12h; Group F; n = 5) and furosemide plus benazepril (1 mg/kg p.o., q24h; Group FB; n = 5) on circulating RAAS was determined by plasma ACE activity, 4-6 h posttreatment, and urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) on days -1, -2, 1, 3, and 7. There was a significant increase in the average UAldo:C (μg/g) after the administration of furosemide (Group F baseline [average of days -1 and -2] UAldo:C = 0.41, SD 0.15; day 1 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.56; day 3 UAldo:C = 0.85, SD 0.50; day 7 UAldo:C = 1.1, SD 0.80, P Benazepril suppressed ACE activity (U/L) in Group FB (Group FB baseline ACE = 16.4, SD 4.2; day 1 ACE = 3.5, SD 1.4; day 3 ACE = 1.6, SD 1.3; day 7 ACE = 1.4, SD 1.4, P Benazepril decreased plasma ACE activity but did not prevent furosemide-induced RAAS activation, indicating aldosterone breakthrough (escape). This is particularly noteworthy in that breakthrough is observed at the time of initiation of RAAS suppression, as opposed to developing after months of therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Low-activation W–Si–C composites for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iveković, A.; Galatanu, A.; Novak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effect of W fraction on pressureless densification of W–Si–C composites. • Full densification of high-W composite in a single PIP cycle. • High-W composite exhibits increase in thermal conductivity with temperature. • Low-W composites densified with six PIP cycles. • Low-W composites exhibit high mechanical and thermal properties. - Abstract: W–Si–C composites were fabricated by active filler controlled pyrolysis of W powder (high tungsten content) and W–SiC powder mixtures (low tungsten content), infiltrated by a preceramic polymer and heat treated at temperatures from 1600 to 2000 °C. Material with high volume fraction of W in initial powder–polymer mixture, formed a composite material composed of W, W_2C and W_5Si_3 with closed porosity in a single polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) cycle. After heat treatment at 1700 °C the material exhibited flexural strength above 350 MPa, hardness of 7.8 GPa and indentation modulus of 250 GPa. Room temperature thermal conductivity of the composite was rather low, 23 W m"−"1 K"−"1, however, thermal conductivity increased with increasing temperature achieving 35 W m"−"1 K"−"1 at 1000 °C. The effect of W as active filler in W–SiC powder mixtures with low volume fraction of tungsten was negligible. Therefore, six polymer infiltration and pyrolysis cycles were used to achieve significant densification with 15% porosity. The material fabricated at 1800 °C was composed of SiC, WC and WSi_2 and exhibited flexural strength of ∼400 MPa and room temperature thermal conductivity of 100 W m"−"1 K"−"1, which decreased to 32 W m"−"1 K"−"1 at 1000 °C.

  10. Selection of low activation materials for fusion power plants using ACAB system: the effect of computational methods and cross section uncertainties on waste management assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, M.; Sanz, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Falquina, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Dept. of Power Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O.; Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (UPM) (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of nuclear fusion as a realistic option for energy generation depends on its radioactive waste management assessment. In this respect, the production of high level waste is to be avoided and the reduction of low level waste volumes is to be enhanced. Three different waste management options are commonly regarded in fusion plants: Hands-on Recycling, Remote Recycling and Shallow Land Burial (SLB). Therefore, important research work has been undertaken to find low activation structural materials. In performing this task, a major issue is to compute the concentration limits (CLs) for all natural elements, which will be used to select the intended constituent elements of a particular Low Activation Material (LAM) and assess how much the impurities can deteriorate the waste management properties. Nevertheless, the reliable computation of CLs depends on the accuracy of nuclear data (mainly activation cross-sections) and the suitability of the computational method both for inertial and magnetic fusion environments. In this paper the importance of nuclear data uncertainties and mathematical algorithms used in different activation calculations for waste management purposes will be studied. Our work is centred on the study of {sup 186}W activation under first structural wall conditions of Hylife-II inertial fusion reactor design. The importance of the dominant transmutation/decay sequence has been documented in several publications. From a practical point of view, W is used in low activation materials for fusion applications: Cr-W ferritic/martensitic steels, and the need to better compute its activation has been assessed, in particular in relation to the cross-section uncertainties for reactions leading to Ir isotopes. {sup 192n}Ir and {sup 192}Ir reach a secular equilibrium, and {sup 192n}Ir is the critical one for waste management, with a half life of 241 years. From a theoretical point of view, this is one of the most complex chains appearing in

  11. An assessment of the relationship of physical activity, obesity, and chronic diseases/conditions between active/obese and sedentary/ normal weight American women in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J R; Coughenour, C A; Bungum, T J

    2018-03-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases and conditions. However, the 'fit but fat' theory posits that cardiopulmonary fitness (or physical activity) can mitigate risks to health associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to compare chronic diseases and conditions of highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. This was a cross-sectional study of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the demographic characteristics of the two groups. We calculated odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases and conditions comparing highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. Highly active/obese women were more likely to report risk factors (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than inactive/normal weight women; however, they did not have increased rates of CVD, CHD, or heart attack and had decreased risk for stroke. Highly active/obese women had increased risk for asthma, arthritis, and depression, but not for cancer, kidney disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Highly active/obese women appear to be staving off the actual development of CHD and CVD; however, further research is needed to understand the long-term health benefits of physical activity among obese women. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  13. Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila C Kumavat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day. Statistical analysis was done by ′Student′s ′t′ test′ and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62% in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%. The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent.

  14. Knockdown of GAD67 protein levels normalizes neuronal activity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Lazlo; van Marion, Ingrid; Taï, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine depletion of the striatum is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The loss of dopamine upregulates GAD67 expression in the striatal projection neurons and causes other changes in the activity of the basal ganglia circuit.......Dopamine depletion of the striatum is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The loss of dopamine upregulates GAD67 expression in the striatal projection neurons and causes other changes in the activity of the basal ganglia circuit....

  15. Gene expression profiling of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma indicates fusion protein-mediated activation of the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyl, Joanna; Kidzinski, Lukasz; Hastie, Trevor; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nusse, Roel; van de Rijn, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESS) harbor chromosomal translocations that affect proteins associated with chromatin remodeling Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), including SUZ12, PHF1 and EPC1. Roughly half of LGESS also demonstrate nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, which is a hallmark of Wnt signaling activation. However, the targets affected by the fusion proteins and the role of Wnt signaling in the pathogenesis of these tumors remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a meta-analysis of three independent gene expression profiling studies on LGESS and immunohistochemical evaluation of nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 112 uterine sarcoma specimens obtained from 20 LGESS and 89 LMS patients. Our results demonstrate that 143 out of 310 genes overexpressed in LGESS are known to be directly regulated by SUZ12. In addition, our gene expression meta-analysis shows activation of multiple genes implicated in Wnt signaling. We further emphasize the role of the Wnt signaling pathway by demonstrating concordant nuclear expression of β-catenin and Lef1 in 7/16 LGESS. Based on our findings, we suggest that LGESS-specific fusion proteins disrupt the repressive function of the PRC2 complex similar to the mechanism seen in synovial sarcoma, where the SS18-SSX fusion proteins disrupt the mSWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex. We propose that these fusion proteins in LGESS contribute to overexpression of Wnt ligands with subsequent activation of Wnt signaling pathway and formation of an active β-catenin/Lef1 transcriptional complex. These observations could lead to novel therapeutic approaches that focus on the Wnt pathway in LGESS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs.

  17. Estimation of accumulated individual doses from waterborne pulse releases of tritium and activation products into the Baltic Sea from a hypothetical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, O.

    1995-04-01

    The committed effective dose to a critical group during 50 years attributed to pulse unit releases of tritium and activation products (in total 66 nuclides) from a thought postulated fusion power plant into Tvaeren Bay, a part of the Baltic Sea with brackish water, outside Studsvik, Sweden, is calculated. The purpose of this work is to obtain (simple) relationships between release and dose for relevant nuclides for use in the future when realistic source terms are known. 26 refs, 8 tabs, 4 figs

  18. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  19. Recent fusion research in the National Institute for Fusion Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Akio; Sakakibara, Satoru; Sagara, Akio; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takeiri, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), which was established in 1989, promotes academic approaches toward the exploration of fusion science for steady-state helical reactor and realizes the establishment of a comprehensive understanding of toroidal plasmas as an inter-university research organization and a key center of worldwide fusion research. The Large Helical Device (LHD) Project, the Numerical Simulation Science Project, and the Fusion Engineering Project are organized for early realization of net current free fusion reactor, and their recent activities are described in this paper. The LHD has been producing high-performance plasmas comparable to those of large tokamaks, and several new findings with regard to plasma physics have been obtained. The numerical simulation science project contributes understanding and systemization of the physical mechanisms of plasma confinement in fusion plasmas and explores complexity science of a plasma for realization of the numerical test reactor. In the fusion engineering project, the design of the helical fusion reactor has progressed based on the development of superconducting coils, the blanket, fusion materials and tritium handling. (author)

  20. Development of lithium target system in engineering validation and engineering design activity of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF/EVEDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, Eiichi; Kondo, Hiroo; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Ida, Mizuho; Kanemura, Takuji; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Fujishiro, Kouji; Edao, Yuuki; Niitsuma, Shigeto; Kimura, Haruyuki; Fukada, Satoshi; Hiromoto, Tetsushi; Shigeharu, Satoshi; Yagi, Jyuro; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi; Hoashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Sachiko; Yamaoka, Nobuo; Serizawa, Hisashi; Kawahito, Yosuke; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Takeo, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Engineering validation and engineering design activity (EVEDA) for the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) has been conducted since 2007. Research and development of the Lithium target facility is an important part of this activity. We constructed a world largest liquid Lithium test loop with a capacity of 5000 L in 2010 and successfully completed the first stage validation tests (functional tests of components and Lithium flow test (flow velocity 15 m/s at the target). In the present article, recent results of the EVEDA activity for the Lithium target facility and related technologies on liquid Lithium are reviewed. (author)

  1. Biomagnetic and bioelectric detection of gastric slow wave activity in normal human subjects—a correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarajan, S; Muszynski, N D; Obioha, C; Bradshaw, L A; Richards, W O

    2012-01-01

    We measured gastric slow wave activity simultaneously with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer, mucosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in 18 normal human subjects (11 women and 7 men). We processed signals with Fourier spectral analysis and SOBI blind-source separation techniques. We observed a high waveform correlation between the mucosal electromyogram (EMG) and multichannel SQUID magnetogastrogram (MGG). There was a lower waveform correlation between the mucosal EMG and cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG), but the correlation improved with the application of SOBI. There was also a high correlation between the frequency of the electrical activity recorded in the MGG and in mucosal electrodes (r = 0.97). We concluded that SQUID magnetometers noninvasively record gastric slow wave activity that is highly correlated with the activity recorded by invasive mucosal electrodes. (paper)

  2. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  3. Mitogenic activity of pine cone extracts against cultured splenocytes from normal and tumor-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakata, Y; Sakagami, H; Takeda, M; Konno, K; Kitajima, K; Ichikawa, S; Hata, N; Sato, T

    1989-01-01

    An acidic pine cone extract, Fr. V. of Pinus parviflora Sieb. et Zucc. significantly stimulated DNA synthesis of isolated splenocytes from both mice and rats, but only marginally affected the DNA synthesis of leukemic cell lines. The maximum stimulation level attained by Fr. V slightly exceeded that of plant lectins, whereas much weaker stimulating activity was found in natural and chemically modified antitumor polysaccharides, sialic acid-rich glycoproteins, and polyphenolic compounds such as lignin and tannic acid. In mice with subcutaneously transplanted sarcoma-180, responses of splenocytes against Con A declines in the terminal stage of tumor development, whereas responses against Fr. V remained relatively constant throughout all periods of tumor progression. The suppression of Fr. V activity by acetylation or methylation suggests the importance of the hydroxyl group in the expression of its stimulation activity.

  4. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity....... visceral fat compared to the active group. Following the two-week period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycaemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive...

  5. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tienari, Jukka [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, 05850 Hyvinkää (Finland); Nyman, Tuula A. [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtonen, Eero [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory Animal Centre, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Groop, Per-Henrik [Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Abdominal Center Nephrology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 000290 Helsinki (Finland); Diabetes& Obesity Research Program, Research Program´s Unit, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, 3004 Melbourne (Australia); Lehtonen, Sanna, E-mail: sanna.h.lehtonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-15

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  6. Septin 7 reduces nonmuscle myosin IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex and hinders GLUT4 storage vesicle docking and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasik, Anita A.; Dumont, Vincent; Tienari, Jukka; Nyman, Tuula A.; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Forsblom, Carol; Lehto, Markku; Lehtonen, Eero; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Glomerular epithelial cells, podocytes, are insulin responsive and can develop insulin resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the small GTPase septin 7 forms a complex with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA; encoded by MYH9), a component of the nonmuscle myosin IIA (NM-IIA) hexameric complex. We observed that knockdown of NMHC-IIA decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Both septin 7 and NM-IIA associate with SNAP23, a SNARE protein involved in GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. We observed that insulin decreases the level of septin 7 and increases the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex, as visualized by increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain. Also knockdown of septin 7 increases the activity of NM-IIA in the complex. The activity of NM-IIA is increased in diabetic rat glomeruli and cultured human podocytes exposed to macroalbuminuric sera from patients with type 1 diabetes. Collectively, the data suggest that the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex plays a key role in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into podocytes. Furthermore, we observed that septin 7 reduces the activity of NM-IIA in the SNAP23 complex and thereby hinders GSV docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. - Highlights: • Septin 7, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) and SNAP23 form a complex. • Knockdown of septin 7 increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Insulin decreases septin 7 level and increases NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex. • Septin 7 hinders GSV docking/fusion by reducing NM-IIA activity in the SNAP23 complex.

  7. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  8. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, D.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  9. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  10. Activation of apoptotic pathway in normal, cancer ovarian cells by epothilone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Aneta; Szula, Ewa; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka; Jóźwiak, Zofia

    2013-09-01

    The epothilones, a new class of microtubule-targeting agents, seem to be a very promising alternative to the current strategy of cancer treatment. We have analyzed the aspects of epothilone B (Epo B) on cellular metabolism of tumor (OV-90) and normal (MM 14) ovarian cells. The observed effects were compared with those of paclitaxel (PTX), which is now a standard for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The results provide direct evidence that Epo B is considerably more cytotoxic to human OV-90 ovarian cancer cells than PTX. We have found, that antitumor efficacy of this new drug is related to its apoptosis-inducing ability, which was confirmed during measurements typical markers of the process. Epo B induced changes in morphology of cells, mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Also a slight increase of the intracellular calcium level was observed. Moreover, we have found that ROS production, stimulated by Epo B, is directly involved in the induction of apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  12. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  13. Changes of cognition and regional cerebral activity during acute hypoglycemia in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Kjaer, Troels W; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a marker of cerebral activity. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous insulin infusion in 19 healthy men performing two different cognitive tasks of varying complexity. The hypoglycemic stimulus [plasma glucose 2.2 mmol/liter (0.4)] produced a significant hormonal...

  14. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  15. Towards the normalization of cybercrime victimization : A routine activities analysis of cybercrime in europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Montoya, L.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Heydari, Maliheh

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between users' routine activities and socio-economic characteristics and three forms of cybercrime victimization of 1) online shopping fraud, 2) online banking fraud and 3) cyber-attacks (i.e. DDoS attacks). Data from the Eurobarometer, containing a sample

  16. Ubiquitin-fusion as a strategy to modulate protein half-life: A3G antiviral activity revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadima-Couto, Iris; Freitas-Vieira, Acilino; Nowarski, Roni; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe; Goncalves, Joao

    2009-01-01

    The human APOBEC3G (A3G) is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication and its activity is suppressed by HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif). Vif neutralizes A3G mainly by inducing its degradation in the proteasome and blocking its incorporation into HIV-1 virions. Assessing the time needed for A3G incorporation into virions is, therefore, important to determine how quickly Vif must act to induce its degradation. We show that modelling the intracellular half-life of A3G can induce its Vif-independent targeting to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. By using various amino acids (X) in a cleavable ubiquitin-X-A3G fusion, we demonstrate that the half-life (t1/2) of X-A3G can be manipulated. We show that A3G molecules with a half-life of 13 min are incorporated into virions, whereas those with a half-life shorter than 5 min were not. The amount of X-A3G incorporated into virions increases from 13 min (Phe-A3G) to 85 min (Asn-A3G) and remains constant after this time period. Interestingly, despite the presence of similar levels of Arg-A3G (t1/2 = 28 min) and Asp-A3G (t1/2 = 65 min) into HIV-1 Δvif virions, inhibition of viral infectivity was only evident in the presence of A3G proteins with a longer half-life (t1/2 ≥ 65 min).

  17. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  18. Fusion and its future in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Illinois Fusion Power Task Force under the sponsorship of the Governor's Commission on Sciences and Technology. The report presents the findings and recommendations of the Task Force, an explanation of the basic concepts of fusion, a summary of national and international programs and a description of ongoing fusion activities in Illinois

  19. Inertial fusion research: Annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.T.; Terry, N.C.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research activities undertaken at KMS Fusion (KMSF) during 1985. It is organized into three main technical sections; the first covers fusion experiments and theoretical physics, the second is devoted to progress in materials development and target fabrication, and the third describes laser technology research. These three individual sections have been cataloged separately

  20. Active normal faults and submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hui Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The westernmost Okinawa Trough back-arc basin is located to the north of the Ryukyu islands and is situated above the northward dipping Ryukyu subducted slab. In the northern continental margin of the Okinawa Trough, the continental slope between the Keelung Valley and the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon shows a steep angle and future slope failures are expected. The question is how slope failures will proceed? A sudden deep-seated slump or landslide would probably cause local tsunami and hit northern coast of Taiwan. To understand the probable submarine landslides, we conducted multi-channel seismic reflection, sub-bottom profilers, and multi-beam bathymetry surveys off NE Taiwan. Two general trends of shallow crustal faults are observed. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the main structural trend of the Taiwan mountain belt. These faults are products of inversion tectonics of reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to post-collisional normal faults. Another trend of roughly E-W faults is consistent with the current N-S extension of the southern Okinawa Trough. The fault offsets in the eastern portion of the study area are more pronounced. No obvious basal surface of sliding is found beneath the continental margin. We conclude that the movement of the submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off northeastern Taiwan could be in a spread type. The submarine landslides mainly occur in the continental slope area and it is more obvious in the east than in the west of the Keelung Shelf.

  1. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  2. Fusion energy 2000. Fusion energy 1998 (2001 Edition). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains the Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Fusion Energy. It also contains an updated version of the Fusion Energy Conference 1998 Proceedings (38 additional papers included) as well as information on how to use this CD-ROM. The 18th International Atomic Energy Agency Fusion Energy Conference (FEC-2000) was held in Sorrento, Italy, 4-10 October 2000. 573 participants from over thirty countries and three international organizations took part in this Conference. The Conference was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment (ENEA). Around 400 papers were presented in 22 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts, fusion technology, and safety and environment aspects. The 17th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference was held in Yokohama, Japan, 19-24 October 1999. This 6-day conference, which was attended by 835 participants from over 30 countries and two international organizations, was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). More than 360 papers plus 5 summary talks were presented in 23 oral and 8 poster sessions on magnetic confinement and experiments, inertial fusion energy, plasma heating and current drive, ITER engineering design activities, magnetic confinement theory, innovative concepts and fusion technology

  3. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  5. Fusion Canada issue 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro`s contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs.

  6. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  7. Fusion Canada issue 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro's contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs

  8. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  9. Food intake during the normal activity phase prevents obesity and circadian desynchrony in a rat model of night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Angeles-Castellanos, Manuel; Saderi, Nadia; Buijs, Ruud M; Escobar, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Shift work or night work is associated with hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and other diseases. The cause for these pathologies is proposed to be the dissociation between the temporal signals from the biological clock and the sleep/activity schedule of the night worker. We investigated the mechanisms promoting metabolic desynchrony in a model for night work in rats, based on daily 8-h activity schedules during the resting phase. We demonstrate that the major alterations leading to internal desynchrony induced by this working protocol, flattened glucose and locomotor rhythms and the development of abdominal obesity, were caused by food intake during the rest phase. Shifting food intake to the normal activity phase prevented body weight increase and reverted metabolic and rhythmic disturbances of the shift work animals to control ranges. These observations demonstrate that feeding habits may prevent or induce internal desynchrony and obesity.

  10. Global Bi-ventricular endocardial distribution of activation rate during long duration ventricular fibrillation in normal and heart failure canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingzhi; Jin, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Han, Yanxin; Wang, Yilong; Huang, Shangwei; Lin, Changjian; Ling, Tianyou; Chen, Kang; Pan, Wenqi; Wu, Liqun

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to detect differences in the distribution of the left and right ventricle (LV & RV) activation rate (AR) during short-duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF, 1 min) in normal and heart failure (HF) canine hearts. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in six healthy dogs (control group) and six dogs with right ventricular pacing-induced congestive HF (HF group). Two 64-electrode basket catheters deployed in the LV and RV were used for global endocardium electrical mapping. The AR of VF was estimated by fast Fourier transform analysis from each electrode. In the control group, the LV was activated faster than the RV in the first 20 s, after which there was no detectable difference in the AR between them. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the posterior LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was slowest. In the HF group, a detectable AR gradient existed between the two ventricles within 3 min of VF, with the LV activating more quickly than the RV. When analyzing the distribution of the AR within the bi-ventricles at 3 min of LDVF, the septum of the LV was activated fastest, while the anterior was activated slowest. A global bi-ventricular endocardial AR gradient existed within the first 20 s of VF but disappeared in the LDVF in healthy hearts. However, the AR gradient was always observed in both SDVF and LDVF in HF hearts. The findings of this study suggest that LDVF in HF hearts can be maintained differently from normal hearts, which accordingly should lead to the development of different management strategies for LDVF resuscitation.

  11. ANGIOTONIN-ACTIVATOR, RENIN- AND ANGIOTONIN-INHIBITOR, AND THE MECHANISM OF ANGIOTONIN TACHYPHYLAXIS IN NORMAL, HYPERTENSIVE, AND NEPHRECTOMIZED ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, I H; Helmer, O M

    1940-03-31

    1. Angiotonin does not exert its vasoconstrictor effect in the absence of a substance contained in red blood cells and serum which we have called "angiotonin-activator." A fraction has been separated from blood in which angiotonin-activator is concentrated. It contains little or no reninactivator. 2. Repeated intravenous injections of angiotonin into animals causes the pressor response gradually to lessen and finally to disappear (the phenomenon of tachyphylaxis), but much more slowly than when renin is injected. When the response to angiotonin is abolished, renin also fails to act. Large doses of renin reduce and finally abolish the responsiveness to angiotonin. Exhaustion of renin-activator in the blood abolishes the response to renin without abolishing the response to angiotonin. 3. Blood from animals made tachyphylactic by infusion of angiotonin contains greatly reduced amounts of angiotonin-activator. An inhibitor also appears in the blood. 4. Bilateral nephrectomy prolongs and greatly enhances the rise of arterial pressure following injection of angiotonin and renin. The enhancement reaches a maximum in from 24 to 30 hours after operation. Blood from these animals exhibits greatly increased ability to activate angiotonin and renin when tested in isolated perfused organs. Large amounts of angiotonin are required to reduce the amount of activator in their blood. Renin-activator is simultaneously but little affected. 5. Tranfusion of blood from an animal made tachyphylactic to angiotonin into a nephrectomized dog reduces the response of the latter to angiotonin. Angiotonin when added to the blood of the recipient of the transfusion and perfused through a rabbit's ear also exhibits greatly reduced vasoconstrictor action. 6. Transfusion of normal blood in large amounts into nephrectomized or hypertensive dogs reduces the recipient's response to renin. If renintachyphylaxis is established in the donor, transfusion abolishes the response to renin in the recipient

  12. In-vitro secretion of inhibin-like activity by Sertoli cells from normal and prenatally irradiated immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultee-van Gessel, A.M.; Leemborg, F.G.; Jong, F.H. de; Molen, H.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    The influence of in-vitro conditions on the production of inhibin by Sertoli cells from 21-day-old normal and prenatally irradiated rat testes was studied by measuring inhibin activity in culture media, using the suppression of the release of FSH from cultured rat pituitary cells. Sertoli cells secreted inhibin-like activity during at least 21 days of culture, and cells cultured at 37 0 C produced significantly more inhibin than those cultured at 32 0 C. The presence of fetal calf serum had no significant effect on inhibin production at 32 0 C, while at 37 0 C the production was decreased. The presence of ovine FSH stimulated inhibin secretion, while inhibin concentrations in Sertoli cell culture media were decreased after the addition of testosterone. Testosterone, added together with ovine FSH, suppressed inhibin secretion when compared with the levels found in the presence of FSH alone. The presence of spermatogenic cells decreased the release of inhibin. From these results it was concluded that both Sertoli cells isolated from normal immature rat testes and those from testes without spermatogenic cells can secrete inhibin-like activity in culture. A number of discrepancies with in-vivo observations was observed. (author)

  13. Neutrons and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  14. LRRK2 phosphorylates pre-synaptic N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion (NSF) protein enhancing its ATPase activity and SNARE complex disassembling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Elisa; Gonnelli, Adriano; Cirnaru, Maria-Daniela; Marte, Antonella; Plotegher, Nicoletta; Russo, Isabella; Civiero, Laura; Cogo, Susanna; Carrion, Maria Perèz; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Onofri, Franco; Piccoli, Giovanni; Greggio, Elisa

    2016-01-13

    Lrrk2, a gene linked to Parkinson's disease, encodes a large scaffolding protein with kinase and GTPase activities implicated in vesicle and cytoskeletal-related processes. At the presynaptic site, LRRK2 associates with synaptic vesicles through interaction with a panel of presynaptic proteins. Here, we show that LRRK2 kinase activity influences the dynamics of synaptic vesicle fusion. We therefore investigated whether LRRK2 phosphorylates component(s) of the exo/endocytosis machinery. We have previously observed that LRRK2 interacts with NSF, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase that couples ATP hydrolysis to the disassembling of SNARE proteins allowing them to enter another fusion cycle during synaptic exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that NSF is a substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity. LRRK2 phosphorylates full-length NSF at threonine 645 in the ATP binding pocket of D2 domain. Functionally, NSF phosphorylated by LRRK2 displays enhanced ATPase activity and increased rate of SNARE complex disassembling. Substitution of threonine 645 with alanine abrogates LRRK2-mediated increased ATPase activity. Given that the most common Parkinson's disease LRRK2 G2019S mutation displays increased kinase activity, our results suggest that mutant LRRK2 may impair synaptic vesicle dynamics via aberrant phosphorylation of NSF.

  15. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, pphysical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on helping parents and children to be physically active together. PMID:22456036

  16. Accelerometer profiles of physical activity and inactivity in normal weight, overweight, and obese U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Brashear, Meghan M; Johnson, William D; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-08-03

    The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is used to describe an accelerometer-derived physical activity/inactivity profile in normal weight (BMI /= 30 kg/m2) U.S. adults. We computed physical activity volume indicators (activity counts/day, uncensored and censored steps/day), rate indicators (e.g., steps/minute), time indicators (employing NHANES activity counts/minute cut points to infer time in non-wear, sedentary, low, light, moderate, and vigorous intensities), the number of breaks in sedentary time (occasions when activity counts rose from /= 100 activity counts in the subsequent minute), achievement of public health guidelines, and classification by step-defined physical activity levels. Data were examined for evidence of consistent and significant gradients across BMI-defined categories. In 2005-2006, U.S adults averaged 6,564 +/- SE 107 censored steps/day, and after considering non-wear time, they spent approximately 56.8% of the rest of the waking day in sedentary time, 23.7% in low intensity, 16.7% in light intensity, 2.6% in moderate intensity, and 0.2% in vigorous intensity. Overall, approximately 3.2% of U.S. adults achieved public health guidelines. The normal weight category took 7,190 +/- SE 157 steps/day, and spent 25.7 +/- 0.9 minutes/day in moderate intensity and 7.3 +/- 0.4 minutes/day in vigorous intensity physical activity. The corresponding numbers for the overweight category were 6,879 +/- 140 steps/day, 25.3 +/- 0.9 minutes/day, and 5.3 +/- 0.5 minutes/day and for the obese category 5,784 +/- 124 steps/day, 17.3 +/- 0.7 minutes/day and 3.2 +/- 0.4 minutes/day. Across BMI categories, increasing gradients and significant trends were apparent in males for sedentary time and decreasing gradients and significant trends were evident in time spent in light intensity, moderate intensity, and vigorous intensity. For females, there were only consistent gradients and significant trends apparent for decreasing amounts of

  17. Two active molecular phenotypes of the tachykinin NK1 receptor revealed by G-protein fusions and mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Hastrup, H; Raffetseder, U

    2001-01-01

    The NK1 neurokinin receptor presents two non-ideal binding phenomena, two-component binding curves for all agonists and significant differences between agonist affinity determined by homologous versus heterologous competition binding. Whole cell binding with fusion proteins constructed between ei...

  18. Circumferential fusion improves outcome in comparison with instrumented posterolateral fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Christensen, Finn B; Soegaard, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    with respect to all four DPQ categories: daily activities, work/leisure, anxiety/depression, and social interest. The Oswestry Disability Index supported these results (P ...STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized clinical study with a 5- to 9-year follow-up period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the long-term outcome with respect to functional disability, pain, and general health of patients treated by means of circumferential lumbar fusion...... in comparison with those treated by means of instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Circumferential fusion has become a common procedure in lumbar spinal fusion both as a primary and salvage procedure. However, the claimed advantages of circumferential fusion over conventional...

  19. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  20. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  1. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  2. ‘Successful Ageing’ in Practice: Reflections on Health, Activity and Normality in Old Age in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Alftberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the critical examination of the notions of health and activity, and to discuss how these cultural and social constructs have impact on elderly people’s lives. An ethnographic perspective gives fruitful inputs to explore how old people deal with the image of old age as one of decay and decline, while they simultaneously relate to the normative idea of so-called successful ageing. The focus is thus on how elderly people create meaning, and how they manage and make use of the contradictory cultural beliefs that are both understood as normality: old age as a passive period of life involving decline and disease, and activity as an individual responsibility in order to stay healthy. The study sample is created with two different methods, qualitative interviews and two different questionnaires, and the majority of the respondents are 65+ years old. The article demonstrates the intersection between old age and a health-promoting active lifestyle. The notion of activity includes moral values, which shape the beliefs and narratives of being old. This forms part of the concept of self-care management, which in old age is also called successful ageing. The idea that activities are health promoting is the framework in which activities are performed, but significance and meaning are rather created from practice.

  3. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  4. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  5. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  6. Benefits of game-based leisure activities in normal aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of dementia and the limited efficacy of pharmacological treatments, it is crucial to improve the knowledge of the factors that might delay the onset of dementia for developing non-pharmacological interventions. Recent studies have provided evidence that game-based interventions, especially the practice of video games, could improve the cognitive functioning (e.g. executive functions) in older adults and in demented patients. The positive effects of these games have also been demonstrated on physical health (e.g. improvement of balance and gait). Video gamed-based interventions may also alleviate mood or behavioral disorders, and increase interactions with friends, family, caregivers or other patients. The positive impact of games on these domains (cognitive and physical decline, social isolation) suggests that game-based interventions might contribute to delay the onset of dementia. Thus, playing games might be considered as a protective factor in dementia and even more as a potential non-pharmacological strategy in dementia rather than leisure activity.

  7. Ameloblasts require active RhoA to generate normal dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Li, Yong; Everett, Eric T; Ryan, Kathleen; Peng, Li; Porecha, Rakhee; Yan, Yan; Lucchese, Anna M; Kuehl, Melissa A; Pugach, Megan K; Bouchard, Jessica; Gibson, Carolyn W

    2013-08-01

    RhoA plays a fundamental role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, intercellular attachment, and cell proliferation. During amelogenesis, ameloblasts (which produce the enamel proteins) undergo dramatic cytoskeletal changes and the RhoA protein level is up-regulated. Transgenic mice were generated that express a dominant-negative RhoA transgene in ameloblasts using amelogenin gene-regulatory sequences. Transgenic and wild-type (WT) molar tooth germs were incubated with sodium fluoride (NaF) or sodium chloride (NaCl) in organ culture. Filamentous actin (F-actin) stained with phalloidin was elevated significantly in WT ameloblasts treated with NaF compared with WT ameloblasts treated with NaCl or with transgenic ameloblasts treated with NaF, thereby confirming a block in the RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway in the transgenic mice. Little difference in quantitative fluorescence (an estimation of fluorosis) was observed between WT and transgenic incisors from mice provided with drinking water containing NaF. We subsequently found reduced transgene expression in incisors compared with molars. Transgenic molar teeth had reduced amelogenin, E-cadherin, and Ki67 compared with WT molar teeth. Hypoplastic enamel in transgenic mice correlates with reduced expression of the enamel protein, amelogenin, and E-cadherin and cell proliferation are regulated by RhoA in other tissues. Together these findings reveal deficits in molar ameloblast function when RhoA activity is inhibited. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Engaging in extreme activism in support of others’ political struggles: The role of politically motivated fusion with out-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Beverly; Kimel, Sasha Y.; Obaidi, Milan; Shani, Maor; Thomsen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Humans are a coalitional, parochial species. Yet, extreme actions of solidarity are sometimes taken for distant or unrelated groups. What motivates people to become solidary with groups to which they do not belong originally? Here, we demonstrate that such distant solidarity can occur when the perceived treatment of an out-group clashes with one’s political beliefs (e.g., for Leftists, oppressive occupation of the out-group) and that it is driven by fusion (or a feeling of oneness) with distant others with whom one does not share any common social category such as nationality, ethnicity or religion. In Study 1, being politically Leftist predicted European-Americans’ willingness to engage in extreme protest on behalf of Palestinians, which was mediated by fusion with the out-group. Next, in Study 2, we examined whether this pattern was moderated by out-group type. Here, Norwegian Leftists fused more with Palestinians (i.e., a group that, in the Norwegian context, is perceived to be occupied in an asymmetrical conflict) rather than Kurds (i.e., a group for which this perception is less salient). In Study 3, we experimentally tested the underlying mechanism by framing the Kurdish conflict in terms of an asymmetrical occupation (vs. symmetrical war or control conditions) and found that this increased Leftist European-Americans’ fusion with Kurds. Finally, in Study 4, we used a unique sample of non-Kurdish aspiring foreign fighters who were in the process of joining the Kurdish militia YPG. Here, fusion with the out-group predicted a greater likelihood to join and support the Kurdish forces in their fight against ISIS, insofar as respondents experienced that their political orientation morally compelled them to do so (Study 4). Together, our findings suggest that politically motivated fusion with out-groups underpins the extreme solidary action people may take on behalf of distant out-groups. Implications for future theory and research are discussed. PMID:29304156

  9. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  10. Evaluation of a UCMK/dCK fusion enzyme for gemcitabine-mediated cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Adam J.; Brown, Melissa N.; Black, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Goal was to enhance dFdC cytotoxicity by the creation of a UCMK/dCK fusion enzyme. ► The UCMK/dCK fusion enzyme possesses both native activities. ► The fusion renders cells equally sensitive to dFdC relative to dCK expression alone. ► Dual activities of fusion not sufficient to augment cell dFdC sensitivity in vitro. ► Data may warrant the implementation of UCMK mutagenesis studies. -- Abstract: While gemcitabine (2′-2′-difluoro-2′-deoxycytidine, dFdC) displays wide-ranging antineoplastic activity as a single agent, variable response rates and poor intracellular metabolism often limit its clinical efficacy. In an effort to enhance dFdC cytotoxicity and help normalize response rates, we created a bifunctional fusion enzyme that combines the enzymatic activities of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase (UCMK) in a single polypeptide. Our goal was to evaluate whether the created fusion could induce beneficial, functional changes toward dFdC, expedite dFdC conversion to its active antimetabolites and consequently amplify cell dFdC sensitivity. While kinetic analyses revealed the UCMK/dCK fusion enzyme to possess both native activities, the fusion rendered cells sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of dFdC at the same level as dCK expression alone. These results suggest that increased wild-type UCMK expression does not provide a significant enhancement in dFdC-mediated cytotoxicity and may warrant the implementation of studies aimed at engineering UCMK variants with improved activity toward gemcitabine monophosphate.

  11. The Padul normal fault activity constrained by GPS data: Brittle extension orthogonal to folding in the central Betic Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Antonio J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Borque, Maria Jesús; Sánchez-Alzola, Alberto; Martinez-Martos, Manuel; Alfaro, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    The Padul Fault is located in the Central Betic Cordillera, formed in the framework of the NW-SE Eurasian-African plate convergence. In the Internal Zone, large E-W to NE-SW folds of western Sierra Nevada accommodated the greatest NW-SE shortening and uplift of the cordillera. However, GPS networks reveal a present-day dominant E-W to NE-SW extensional setting at surface. The Padul Fault is the most relevant and best exposed active normal fault that accommodates most of the NE-SW extension of the Central Betics. This WSW-wards dipping fault, formed by several segments of up to 7 km maximum length, favored the uplift of the Sierra Nevada footwall away from the Padul graben hanging wall. A non-permanent GPS network installed in 1999 constrains an average horizontal extensional rate of 0.5 mm/yr in N66°E direction. The fault length suggests that a (maximum) 6 magnitude earthquake may be expected, but the absence of instrumental or historical seismic events would indicate that fault activity occurs at least partially by creep. Striae on fault surfaces evidence normal-sinistral kinematics, suggesting that the Padul Fault may have been a main transfer fault of the westernmost end of the Sierra Nevada antiform. Nevertheless, GPS results evidence: (1) shortening in the Sierra Nevada antiform is in its latest stages, and (2) the present-day fault shows normal with minor oblique dextral displacements. The recent change in Padul fault kinematics will be related to the present-day dominance of the ENE-WSW regional extension versus NNW-SSE shortening that produced the uplift and northwestwards displacement of Sierra Nevada antiform. This region illustrates the importance of heterogeneous brittle extensional tectonics in the latest uplift stages of compressional orogens, as well as the interaction of folding during the development of faults at shallow crustal levels.

  12. Insulin receptor binding and tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Handberg, A.; Kühl, C.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the decreased glucose tolerance and insulin resistance found in normal and gestational diabetic pregnancy might be associated with changes in insulin receptor function. METHODS: Eight nonpregnant healthy women (nonpregnant controls), eight healthy pregnant women...... (pregnant controls), and eight women with gestational diabetes were investigated. All were non-obese. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle, and insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activities in partially purified skeletal muscle insulin receptors were studied. The pregnant controls...... with gestational diabetes compared to nonpregnant controls (P pregnant women did not differ from the other two groups. Postpartum, no differences in insulin binding were found between the groups. Basal and maximal tyrosine kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate poly(Glu4Tyr1) were...

  13. Immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et S. Imai) singer (higher basidiomycetes) on normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake were studied in vivo in normal mice. The extracts were prepared using different solvents in an order of increasing polarity. The immunomodulatory activities were investigated by measuring the thymus and spleen index, phagocytic rate of macrophage phagocytosis, delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cell, and proliferation of splenocytes. Results demonstrated that water extract (WE) and n-butyl alcohol extract (BAE) of T. matsutake could enhance the immunity of mice significantly compared with the control group. Main components of WE and BAE were polysaccharides, proteins, and flavonoids; we presume that these may be the main immunomodulating and immuno-enhancing agents in T. matsutake.

  14. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  15. Uptake of elemental mercury and activity of catalase in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, normal and acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of elemental mercury after inhalation (3.5 mg/m 3 ) and the activity of catalase in brain, liver, kidney and blood were investigated in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, and normal and acatalasemic mice. The uptake of mercury in the species investigated varied considerably, being highest in the two strains of mice, followed by rat and hamster, and lowest in the guinea-pig. The uptake seemed to be more dependent on pulmonary ventilation than on the activity of catalase. The two strains of mice were exposed to a wide range of mercury concentrations in air (0.002-3.5 mg/m 3 ). The content of mercury in brain, liver and kidney was linearly dependent on the mercury concentration in the air, whereas in blood this relationship was exponential. At the lower concentraions of mercury in the inhaled air, the mercury level in blood was significantly lower, and in kidney higher in the acatalasemic mice compared to the normal ones. In acatalasemic mice the mercury content in the liver has higher at all concentrations investigated, whereas in brain no difference between the two strains was found. (author)

  16. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Trans-activation function of a 3' truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3' end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product

  18. Building the US National Fusion Grid: results from the National Fusion Collaboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Burruss, J.R.; Finkelstein, A.; Flanagan, S.M.; Foster, I.T.; Fredian, T.W.; Greenwald, M.J.; Johnson, C.R.; Keahey, K.; Klasky, S.A.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Papka, M.; Peng, Q.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Stevens, R.; Thompson, M.R.; Wallace, G.

    2004-01-01

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory Project is developing a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for all aspects of magnetic fusion research. The project is creating a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and making it available to more than 1000 fusion scientists in 40 institutions who perform magnetic fusion research in the United States. In particular, the project is developing and deploying a national Fusion Energy Sciences Grid (FusionGrid) that is a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The FusionGrid goal is to allow scientists at remote sites to fully participate in experimental and computational activities as if they were working at a common site thereby creating a virtual organization of the US fusion community. The project is funded by the USDOE Office of Science, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program and unites fusion and computer science researchers to directly address these challenges

  19. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  20. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.