WorldWideScience

Sample records for normalized difference infrared

  1. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  2. Simulating Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Data Using Hyperion and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Russell, Jeffrey; Ryan, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The success of MODIS (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) in creating unprecedented, timely, high-quality data for vegetation and other studies has created great anticipation for data from VIIRS (the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite). VIIRS will be carried onboard the joint NASA/Department of Defense/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPP (NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System) Preparatory Project). Because the VIIRS instruments will have lower spatial resolution than the current MODIS instruments 400 m versus 250 m at nadir for the channels used to generate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data, scientists need the answer to this question: how will the change in resolution affect vegetation studies? By using simulated VIIRS measurements, this question may be answered before the VIIRS instruments are deployed in space. Using simulated VIIRS products, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other operational agencies can then modify their decision support systems appropriately in preparation for receipt of actual VIIRS data. VIIRS simulations and validations will be based on the ART (Application Research Toolbox), an integrated set of algorithms and models developed in MATLAB(Registerd TradeMark) that enables users to perform a suite of simulations and statistical trade studies on remote sensing systems. Specifically, the ART provides the capability to generate simulated multispectral image products, at various scales, from high spatial hyperspectral and/or multispectral image products. The ART uses acquired ( real ) or synthetic datasets, along with sensor specifications, to create simulated datasets. For existing multispectral sensor systems, the simulated data products are used for comparison, verification, and validation of the simulated system s actual products. VIIRS simulations will be performed using Hyperion and MODIS datasets. The hyperspectral and hyperspatial properties of Hyperion

  3. Analysis of vegetation recovery surrounding a restored wetland using the normalized difference infrared index (NDII) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie R.; Norman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Watershed restoration efforts seek to rejuvenate vegetation, biological diversity, and land productivity at Cienega San Bernardino, an important wetland in southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. Rock detention and earthen berm structures were built on the Cienega San Bernardino over the course of four decades, beginning in 1984 and continuing to the present. Previous research findings show that restoration supports and even increases vegetation health despite ongoing drought conditions in this arid watershed. However, the extent of restoration impacts is still unknown despite qualitative observations of improvement in surrounding vegetation amount and vigor. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in vegetation greenness and soil moisture by applying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference infrared index (NDII) to one dry summer season Landsat path/row from 1984 to 2016. The study area was divided into zones and spectral data for each zone was analyzed and compared with precipitation record using statistical measures including linear regression, Mann– Kendall test, and linear correlation. NDVI and NDII performed differently due to the presence of continued grazing and the effects of grazing on canopy cover; NDVI was better able to track changes in vegetation in areas without grazing while NDII was better at tracking changes in areas with continued grazing. Restoration impacts display higher greenness and vegetation water content levels, greater increases in greenness and water content through time, and a decoupling of vegetation greenness and water content from spring precipitation when compared to control sites in nearby tributary and upland areas. Our results confirm the potential of erosion control structures to affect areas up to 5 km downstream of restoration sites over time and to affect 1 km upstream of the sites.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy can detect differences in vascular responsiveness to a hyperglycaemic challenge in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Reimer, Raylene A; Alenezi, Zaid; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To examine whether the near-infrared spectroscopy combined with vascular occlusion test technique could detect differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity. A total of 16 normal-weight individuals (body mass index, 21.3 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 13 individuals with obesity (body mass index, 34.4 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 ) were submitted to five vascular occlusion tests (Pre, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose challenge). Vascular responsiveness was determined by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation derived from near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test. The Slope 2 StO 2 increased from 1.07 ± 0.16%/s (Pre) to 1.53 ± 0.21%/s at 90 min ( p obese it increased from 0.71 ± 0.09%/s (Pre) to 0.92 ± 0.14%/s at 60 min ( p obesity. Near-infrared spectroscopy-vascular occlusion test technique was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness during hyperglycaemia between normal-weight individuals and individuals with obesity.

  5. Local normality properties of some infrared representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, S.; Spera, M.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the positive energy representations of the algebra of quasilocal observables for the free massless Majorana field described in preceding papers. We show that by an appropriate choice of the (partially) occupied one particle modes we can find irreducible, type IIsub(infinite) or IIIsub(lambda) representations in this class which are unitarily equivalent to the vacuum representation when restricted to any forward light cone and disjoint from it when restricted to any backward light cone, or conversely. We give an elementary explicit proof of local normality of each representation in the above class. (orig.)

  6. Interpretation of the far infrared emission of normal galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Marc

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this research thesis are to highlight what IR emission of a galaxy tells us about physical phenomena occurring within it, to identify the origin of this radiation, to see whether a high IR luminosity means a high rate of stellar formation, to see if the shape of interstellar radiation field spectrum has a detectable effect in IR emission, and to see whether we can draw constraints on dust abundance by comparing IR emission with other traces of the interstellar medium. The author proposes a synthesis of available observations, discusses the different existing dust models and indicators derived from IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) observations such as dust temperatures, IR luminosity, or dust mass. He reports the study performed on Magellanic Clouds which represents an extension of the IR study to entire galaxies. In the third part, the author reports the study of the CfA catalogue, a complete sample of optically selected galaxies. The interpretation of IR flows is compared in different environments in order to highlight the effects of distribution on dust in galaxies, and thus to try to establish relationships between the total IR emission of galaxies and their other properties (visible luminosity, colours, neutral gas mass, and so on) [fr

  7. Compressed normalized block difference for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Zhang, Dengzhuo; Cai, Donglan; Zhou, Hao; Lan, Ge

    2018-04-01

    Feature extraction is very important for robust and real-time tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time feature extraction. However, all existing compressive tracking were based on compressed Haar-like feature, and how to compress many more excellent high-dimensional features is worth researching. In this paper, a novel compressed normalized block difference feature (CNBD) was proposed. For resisting noise effectively in a highdimensional normalized pixel difference feature (NPD), a normalized block difference feature extends two pixels in the original formula of NPD to two blocks. A CNBD feature can be obtained by compressing a normalized block difference feature based on compressive sensing theory, with the sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The comparative experiments of 7 trackers on 20 challenging sequences showed that the tracker based on CNBD feature can perform better than other trackers, especially than FCT tracker based on compressed Haar-like feature, in terms of AUC, SR and Precision.

  8. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  9. IRAS far-infrared colours of normal stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. B. F. M.; Cote, J.; Aumann, H. H.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of IRAS observations at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns of bright stars of spectral type O to M is presented. The objective is to identify the 'normal' stellar population and to characterize it in terms of the relationships between (B-V) and (V-/12/), between (R-I) and (V-/12/), and as a function of spectral type and luminosity class. A well-defined relation is found between the color of normal stars in the visual (B-V), (R-I) and in the IR, which does not depend on luminosity class. Using the (B-V), (V-/12/) relation for normal stars, it is found that B and M type stars show a large fraction of deviating stars, mostly with IR excess that is probably caused by circumstellar material. A comparison of IRAS colors with the Johnson colors as a function of spectral type shows good agreement except for the K0 to M5 type stars. The results will be useful in identifying the deviating stars detected with IRAS.

  10. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  13. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ridgway, S. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gates, E. L. [UCO/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Nielsen, D. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sajina, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuffs University, 212 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Cox Drews, S. [946 Mangrove Avenue 102, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Harrison, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Seymour, N. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Storrie-Lombardi, L. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  14. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  15. Possibility of observation of polaron normal modes at the far-infrared spectrum of acetanilide and related organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalosakas, G.; Aubry, S.; Tsironis, G. P.

    1998-10-01

    We use a stationary and normal mode analysis of the semiclassical Holstein model in order to connect the low-frequency linear polaron modes to low-lying far-infrared lines of the acetanilide spectrum and through parameter fitting we comment on the validity of the polaron results in this system.

  16. Autofluorescence Imaging With Near-Infrared Excitation:Normalization by Reflectance to Reduce Signal From Choroidal Fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously developed reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging (RAFI) methods involving near-infrared (NIR) excitation to image melanin-based fluorophores and short-wavelength (SW) excitation to image lipofuscin-based flurophores. Here, we propose to normalize NIR-RAFI in order to increase the relative contribution of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorophores. Methods. Retinal imaging was performed with a standard protocol holding system parameters invariant in healthy subjects and in patients. Normalized NIR-RAFI was derived by dividing NIR-RAFI signal by NIR reflectance point-by-point after image registration. Results. Regions of RPE atrophy in Stargardt disease, AMD, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and Leber congenital amaurosis as defined by low signal on SW-RAFI could correspond to a wide range of signal on NIR-RAFI depending on the contribution from the choroidal component. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy tended to always correspond to high signal on NIR reflectance. Normalizing NIR-RAFI reduced the choroidal component of the signal in regions of atrophy. Quantitative evaluation of RPE atrophy area showed no significant differences between SW-RAFI and normalized NIR-RAFI. Conclusions. Imaging of RPE atrophy using lipofuscin-based AF imaging has become the gold standard. However, this technique involves bright SW lights that are uncomfortable and may accelerate the rate of disease progression in vulnerable retinas. The NIR-RAFI method developed here is a melanin-based alternative that is not absorbed by opsins and bisretinoid moieties, and is comfortable to view. Further development of this method may result in a nonmydriatic and comfortable imaging method to quantify RPE atrophy extent and its expansion rate. PMID:26024124

  17. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) variation among cultivars and environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for crop production, large preplant applications of fertilizer N can result in off-field loss that causes environmental concerns. Canopy reflectance is being investigated for use in variable rate (VR) N management. Normalized difference vegetation index...

  18. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.

    1988-01-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the 201 TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic 201 TI images requires gender-matched normal files

  19. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Discrimination of different red wine by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy were applied to analyze main components of liquid red wine with different sugar contents and volatilization residues of dry red wine from different manufactures. The infrared spectra, second derivative spectra of dry red wine show the typical peaks of alcohol, while the spectra of sweet wine are composed of the peaks of both alcohol and sugar, and the contribution of sugar enhanced as the increase of sugar content. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, dry and sweet wine can be readily classified. Analysis of the infrared spectra of the volatilization residues of dry red wine samples from five different manufactures indicates that dry red wine may be composed of glycerol, carboxylic acids or esters and carboxyl ate, at the same time, different dry red wine show different characteristic peaks in the second derivative spectra and 2D IR correlation spectra, which can be used to discriminate the different manufactures and evaluate the quality of wine samples. The results suggested that infrared spectroscopy is a direct and effective method for the analysis of principle components of different red wines and discrimination of different red wines.

  1. Differences in quality characteristics of normal, PSE and DFD pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P G; Bolink, A H; Merkus, G S

    1988-01-01

    Differences in water-holding capacity, colour and tenderness/toughness were studied in 21 pork loins belonging to three quality categories, i.e. dark firm dry (DFD), normal and pale soft exudative (PSE). The division into the three groups was based upon the ultimate pH-values of the loins ( 6·4). The PSE loins were characterized by a poor waterholding capacity, higher cooking loss and paler colour in contrast to the DFD category. The normal loins took an intermediate position. Neither sarcomere length, determined on fresh muscle tissue, nor Armour tenderometer values showed significant differences between the various quality categories. This was in contrast to the Warner-Bratzler (W-B) shear force values, determined on cooked loins, which had the lowest values in the DFD category. A strong relationship between the W-B values and the cooking losses was found. It was concluded that neither sarcomere length nor Armour tenderometer measurements were able to predict the shear force values of cooked pork loins. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  3. Modeling of dispersion engineered chalcogenide rib waveguide for ultraflat mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Karim, M. R.; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A rigorous numerical investigation has been carried out through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide rib waveguide for near-infrared to mid-infrared ultraflat broadband supercontinuum generation in all-normal group-velocity dispersion regime. We propose a novel design of a 1-cm-long air-clad rib waveguide which is made from {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {Se}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as the core with either silica or {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {S}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as a lower cladding separately. A broadband ultraflat supercontinuum spanning from 1300 to 1900 nm could be generated when pumped at 1.55 μ {m} with a low input peak power of 100 W. Shifting the pump to 2 μ {m}, the supercontinuum spectra extended in the mid-infrared region up to 3400 nm with a moderate-input peak power of 500 W. To achieve further extension in mid-infrared, we excite our optimized rib waveguide in both the anomalous and all-normal dispersion pumping regions at 3.1 μ {m} with a largest input peak power of 3 kW. In the case of anomalous dispersion region pumping, numerical analysis shows that supercontinuum spectrum can be extended in the mid-infrared up to 10 μ {m}, although this contains high spectral amplitude fluctuations over the entire bandwidth which limits the supercontinuum sources in the field of high precision measurement applications. On the other hand, by optimizing a rib waveguide geometry for pumping in all-normal dispersion region, we are able to generate a smooth and flat-top coherent supercontinuum spectrum with a moderate bandwidth spanning the wavelength range 2-5.5 μ {m} with less than 5 dB spectral fluctuation over the entire output bandwidth. Our proposed design is highly suitable for making on-chip SC light sources for a variety of applications such as biomedical imaging, and environmental and industrial sensing in the mid-infrared region.

  4. Electrorretinograma: Valores normales con diferentes protocolos de estudio Electroretinogram: Normal values with different study protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaralis Paneca Santiesteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En 7 investigaciones por separado se llevó a cabo, el registro, la observación y comparación de los valores normales de frecuencia macular, amplitud y latencia de las ondas A y B del electrorretinograma, por cada ojo, obtenidos con diferentes electrodos, equipos y protocolos para registrarlo, usados durante los años 1977 hasta el 2000 en el laboratorio de Electrofisiología de la Visión del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Se incluyó la metodología del electrorretinograma más recientemente utilizada, según las normas internacionales sobre el electrorretinograma estandarizado de la Sociedad Internacional para la Electrofisiología de la Visión, que fue el único protocolo de este trabajo en que se incluyó midriasis y preadaptación a la oscuridad o a la luz. Los valores de amplitud, latencia y réplica macular de cada uno de esos protocolos se exponen y se comparan entre sí los de similar protocolo. Ademàs, se presentan las curvas y valores del electrorretinograma estandarizado según las normas de la sociedad antes referidaA study was conducted in 7 separate researches, where the normal values of macular frequency, amplitude and latency of the A and B waves of the electroretinogram were recorded, observed and compared for each eye. These data were obtained with different electrodes, equipment and protocols that were used from 1977 to 2000 at the Laboratory of Vision Electrophysiology of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery. These techniques have allowed to characterize diseases and to suggest the site of the injuries causing them

  5. Unifying cancer and normal RNA sequencing data from different sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Armenia, Joshua; Zhang, Chao; Penson, Alexander V.; Reznik, Ed; Zhang, Liguo; Minet, Thais; Ochoa, Angelica; Gross, Benjamin E.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Betel, Doron; Taylor, Barry S.; Gao, Jianjiong; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    Driven by the recent advances of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and an urgent need to decode complex human diseases, a multitude of large-scale studies were conducted recently that have resulted in an unprecedented volume of whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data, such as the Genotype Tissue Expression project (GTEx) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). While these data offer new opportunities to identify the mechanisms underlying disease, the comparison of data from different sources remains challenging, due to differences in sample and data processing. Here, we developed a pipeline that processes and unifies RNA-seq data from different studies, which includes uniform realignment, gene expression quantification, and batch effect removal. We find that uniform alignment and quantification is not sufficient when combining RNA-seq data from different sources and that the removal of other batch effects is essential to facilitate data comparison. We have processed data from GTEx and TCGA and successfully corrected for study-specific biases, enabling comparative analysis between TCGA and GTEx. The normalized datasets are available for download on figshare. PMID:29664468

  6. Normalization vs. Social Role Valorization: Similar or Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Rajani Ranjan; Thressiakutty, A. T.

    2015-01-01

    The radical changes towards services for persons with disabilities were brought by Principle of Normalization, originated in 1969. As a consequence of Normalization, disability as a whole, and intellectual disability in particular, received the attention of the masses and the intelligentsia began advocating normalization ideologies which became…

  7. Monitoring 2015 drought in West Java using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrina Amalo, Luisa; Ma’rufah, Ummu; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2018-05-01

    Drought is a slow developing phenomenon that accumulates over period and affecting various sectors. It is one of natural hazards that occurs each year, particularly in Indonesia over Australian Monsoon period. During drought event, vegetation’s cover can be affected by water stress. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is a method for water resource assessment and known to be strongly related to the plant water content. NDWI is produced from MODIS bands Near-infrared (NIR) and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR). This research aims to monitor drought using NDWI in West Java during El Niño 2015 and its impact on rainfall variability. The result showed rainfall was decreased significantly starting from May-June, then increased in November. According to NDWI, it also showed that mostly West Java Region affected by drought during May-November. Very strong drought occurred on September-November. On December, areal extent of drought was decreasing significantly because rainfall had increased during November. Generally, areal extent of drought in West Java was dominated by strong and moderate drought. It implied that El Niño 2015, give great impact on increasing drought and decreasing rainfall in West Java. NDWI can be detected drought occurrence as it have good correlation with rainfall spatially.

  8. Silver nanoparticle based surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissue under near-infrared laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Shi, H; Chen, W; Yu, Y; Lin, D; Xu, Q; Feng, S; Lin, J; Huang, Z; Li, Y; Chen, R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of high spatial resolution silver nanoparticle based near-infrared surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from rat pancreatic tissue to obtain biochrmical information about the tissue. A high quality SERS signal from a mixture of pancreatic tissues and silver nanoparticles can be obtained within 10 s using a Renishaw micro-Raman system. Prominent SERS bands of pancreatic tissue were assigned to known molecular vibrations, such as the vibrations of DNA bases, RNA bases, proteins and lipids. Different tissue structures of diabetic and normal rat pancreatic tissues have characteristic features in SERS spectra. This exploratory study demonstrated great potential for using SERS imaging to distinguish diabetic and normal pancreatic tissues on frozen sections without using dye labeling of functionalized binding sites. (letter)

  9. Size distribution of interstellar particles. III. Peculiar extinctions and normal infrared extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.; Wallenhorst, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of changing the upper and lower size limits of a distribution of bare graphite and silicate particles with n(a)αa/sup -q/ is investigated. Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck showed that the normal extinction is matched very well by having the small-size cutoff, a/sub -/, roughly-equal0.005 or 0.01 μm, and the large size a/sub +/, about 0.25 μm, and q = 3.5 for both substances. We consider the progressively peculiar extinctions exhibited by the well-observed stars, sigma Sco, rho Oph, and theta 1 Ori C, with values of R/sub v/[equivalentA/sub v//E(B--V)] of 3.4, 4.4, and 5.5 compared to the normal 3.1. Two (sigma Sco, rho Oph) are in a neutral dense cloud; theta 1 Ori C is in the Orion Nebula. We find that sigma Sco has a normal graphite distribution but has had its small silicate particles removed, so that a/sub -/(sil)roughly-equal0.04 μm if q = 3.5, or q(sil) = 2.6 if the size limits are fixed. However, the upper size limit on silicates remains normal. In rho Oph, the graphite is still normal, but both a/sub -/(sil) and a/sub +/(sil) are increased, to about 0.04 μm and 0.4 or 0.5 μm, respectively, if q = 3.5, or q(sil)roughly-equal1.3 if the size limits are fixed. In theta 1 Ori, the small limit on graphite has increased to about 0.04 μm, or q(gra)roughly-equal3, while the silicates are about like those in rho Oph. The calculated lambda2175 bump is broader than the observed, but normal foreground extinction probably contributes appreciably to the observed bump. The absolute amount of extinction per H atom for rho Oph is not explained. The column density of H is so large that systematic effects might be present. Very large graphite particles (a>3 μm) are required to ''hide'' the graphite without overly affecting the visual extinction, but a normal (small) graphite size distribution is required by the lambda2175 bump. We feel that it is unlikely that such a bimodal distribution exists

  10. Differences between wavefront and subjective refraction for infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J; Copland, James; Neal, Daniel R; Thibos, Larry N

    2014-10-01

    To determine the accuracy of objective wavefront refractions for predicting subjective refractions for monochromatic infrared light. Objective refractions were obtained with a commercial wavefront aberrometer (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Subjective refractions were obtained for 30 subjects with a speckle optometer validated against objective Zernike wavefront refractions on a physical model eye (Teel et al., Design and validation of an infrared Badal optometer for laser speckle, Optom Vis Sci 2008;85:834-42). Both instruments used near-infrared (NIR) radiation (835 nm for COAS, 820 nm for the speckle optometer) to avoid correction for ocular chromatic aberration. A 3-mm artificial pupil was used to reduce complications attributed to higher-order ocular aberrations. For comparison with paraxial (Seidel) and minimum root-mean-square (Zernike) wavefront refractions, objective refractions were also determined for a battery of 29 image quality metrics by computing the correcting lens that optimizes retinal image quality. Objective Zernike refractions were more myopic than subjective refractions for 29 of 30 subjects. The population mean discrepancy was -0.26 diopters (D) (SEM = 0.03 D). Paraxial (Seidel) objective refractions tended to be hyperopically biased (mean discrepancy = +0.20 D, SEM = 0.06 D). Refractions based on retinal image quality were myopically biased for 28 of 29 metrics. The mean bias across all 31 measures was -0.24 D (SEM = 0.03). Myopic bias of objective refractions was greater for eyes with brown irises compared with eyes with blue irises. Our experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis that reflected NIR light captured by the aberrometer originates from scattering sources located posterior to the entrance apertures of cone photoreceptors, near the retinal pigment epithelium. The larger myopic bias for brown eyes suggests that a greater fraction of NIR light is reflected from choroidal melanin in brown eyes compared with blue eyes.

  11. Comparison of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A reflectance and normalized difference vegetation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Roy, D. P.; Yan, L.; Li, Z.; Huang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The moderate spatial resolution satellite data from the polar-orbiting Landsat-8 (launched 2013) and Sentinel-2A (launched 2015) sensors provide 10 m to 30 m multi-spectral global coverage with a better than 5-day revisit. Although a national laboratory traceable cross-calibration comparison of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) was undertaken pre-launch, there are a number of other sensor differences, notably due to spectral, spatial and angular differences. To examine these in a comprehensive way, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data for approximately 20° × 10° of southern Africa acquired in the summer (January to March) and winter (July to September) of 2016 were compared. Only Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A observations acquired within one-day apart were considered. The sensor data were registered and then each orbit projected into 30 m fixed global Web Enabled Landsat Data (GWELD) tiles defined in the MODIS sinusoidal equal area projection. Only corresponding sensor observations of each 30 m tile pixel that were flagged as cloud and snow-free, unsaturated, and that had no significant change in their one day separation, were compared. Both the Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A data were atmospherically corrected using the Landsat Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) and were also corrected to nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR). Top of atmosphere and surface reflectance for the spectrally corresponding visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared OLI and MSI bands, and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were compared and their differences quantified using regression analyses. The resulting statistical transformations may be used to improve the consistency between the Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2A MSI data. The importance and sensitivity of the results to correct filtering, atmospheric correction and adjustment to NBAR is demonstrated.

  12. Study on Senna alata and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiana, M. A.; Mazura, M. P.

    2011-04-01

    Senna alata L. commonly known as candle bush belongs to the family of Fabaceae and the plant has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, laxative and antiplatelet-aggregating activity. In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents of S. alata and its different extracts (extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their extracts, but also compare the components differences among similar samples. In a conclusion, FT-IR spectroscopy combined with 2D correlation analysis provides a powerful method for the quality control of traditional medicines.

  13. Differences in otosclerotic and normal human stapedial osteoblast properties are normalized by alendronate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Richardson, Yvonne L; Flynn, John; Kveton, John; Eisen, Marc; Leonard, Gerald; Aronow, Michael; Rodner, Craig; Parham, Kourosh

    2014-10-01

    Identify and compare phenotypic properties of osteoblasts from patients with otosclerosis (OSO), normal bones (HOB), and normal stapes (NSO) to determine a possible cause for OSO hypermineralization and assess any effects of the bisphosphonate, alendronate. OSO (n = 11), NSO (n = 4), and HOB (n = 13) cultures were assayed for proliferation, adhesion, mineralization, and gene expression with and without 10(-10)M-10(-8)M alendronate. Academic hospital. Cultures were matched for age, sex, and passage number. Cell attachment and proliferation + alendronate were determined by Coulter counting cells and assaying tritiated thymidine uptake, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of culture + alendronate, calcium content and gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were determined. OSO had significantly more cells adhere but less proliferation than NSO or HOB. Calcification was significantly increased in OSO compared to HOB and NSO. NSO and HOB had similar cell adhesion and proliferation rates. A dose-dependent effect of alendronate on OSO adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization was found, resulting in levels equal to NSO and HOB. All cultures expressed osteoblast-specific genes such as RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteocalcin. However, osteopontin was dramatically reduced, 9.4-fold at 14 days, in OSO compared to NSO. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG), important in bone resorption, was elevated in OSO with decreased levels of OPG levels. Alendronate had little effect on gene expression in HOB but in OSO increased osteopontin levels and decreased RANKL/OPG. OSO cultures displayed properties of hypermineralization due to decreased osteopontin (OPN) and also had increased RANKL/OPG, which were normalized by alendronate. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  14. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  15. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) in the discrimination of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most frequent type of cancer that occurs with 75000 to 80000 new cases reported every year in India. The carcinogens from tobacco and related products are the main cause for the oral cancer. ATR-FTIR method is label free, fast and cost-effective diagnostic method would allow for rapid diagnostic results in earlier stages by the minimal chemical changes occur in the biological metabolites available in the blood plasma. The present study reports the use of ATR-FTIR data with advanced statistical model (LDA-ANN) in the diagnosis of oral cancer from normal with better accuracy. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Jasco spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 5 spectra recorded from each blood plasma sample. The spectral data were routed through the multilayer perception of artificial neural network to evaluate for the statistical efficacy. Among the spectral data it was found that amide II (1486 cm-1) and lipid (1526 cm-1) affords about 90 % in the discrimination between groups using LDA. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal subject from oral cancer patients using blood plasma.

  16. Behaviour of normal reinforced concrete columns exposed to different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Laith

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete resistance to sulfate attack is one of the most important characteristics for maintaining the durability of concrete. In this study, the effect of the attack of sulfate salts on normal reinforced concrete column was investigated by burying these columns in two types of soils (sandy and clayey in two pits at a depth of 3 m in one of the agricultural areas in the holy city of Karbala, one containing sandy soil (SO3 = 10.609% and the other containing clayey soil with (SO3 = 2.61%. The tests were used (pure axial compression test of reinforced concrete columns, compressive strength test, and splitting tensile strength test, absorption, voids ratio and finally density. It`s found that the strength of RC columns decreasing by (12.51% for age (240 days, for columns buried in clayey soil, where the strength increased by (11.71% for the same period, for columns buried in sandy soils, with respect to the reference column.

  17. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  18. Characterization of sildenafil citrate tablets of different sources by near infrared chemical imaging and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Guilherme P; Lozano, Valeria A; Rocha, Werickson F C; Romão, Wanderson; Ortiz, Rafael S; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-11-01

    The chemical imaging technique by near infrared spectroscopy was applied for characterization of formulations in tablets of sildenafil citrate of six different sources. Five formulations were provided by Brazilian Federal Police and correspond to several trademarks of prohibited marketing and one was an authentic sample of Viagra. In a first step of the study, multivariate curve resolution was properly chosen for the estimation of the distribution map of concentration of the active ingredient in tablets of different sources, where the chemical composition of all excipients constituents was not truly known. In such cases, it is very difficult to establish an appropriate calibration technique, so that only the information of sildenafil is considered independently of the excipients. This determination was possible only by reaching the second-order advantage, where the analyte quantification can be performed in the presence of unknown interferences. In a second step, the normalized histograms of images from active ingredient were grouped according to their similarities by hierarchical cluster analysis. Finally it was possible to recognize the patterns of distribution maps of concentration of sildenafil citrate, distinguishing the true formulation of Viagra. This concept can be used to improve the knowledge of industrial products and processes, as well as, for characterization of counterfeit drugs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Quantifying ternary mixtures of different solid-state forms of indomethacin by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Savolainen, Marja; Rades, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    by mean centering proved to be the best approaches to pre-process the data. With four partial least squares factors, root mean square errors of prediction ranging from 5.3% to 6.5% for Raman spectroscopy and 4.0% to 5.9% for near-infrared spectroscopy were calculated. In addition, the effects of potential...... indomethacin. Partial least squares regression was employed to create quantitative models. To improve the model performance various pre-treatment algorithms and scaling methods were applied to the spectral data and different spectral regions were tested. Standard normal variate transformation and scaling...

  20. Ethnic Differences in Maternal Adipokines during Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two adipokines (adiponectin and resistin have opposite relations with insulin resistance and inflammation. Our major focus was to determine whether there were detectable ethnic differences in maternal adipokines during pregnancy. We also explored the correlation of the adipokines with maternal glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters. Pregnant women (n = 1634 were from a large prospective cohort study in Camden NJ (African-American 36.8%; Hispanic 47.6%; Caucasian 15.6%. Serum adiponectin and resistin were measured at entry (week 16.8 and the 3rd trimester (week 30.7 using the Luminex xMapTechnology. Significant differences were observed among ethnic groups, controlling for confounding variables. African American women were exceptional in that they had decreased adiponectin and increased resistin throughout the course of pregnancy (p < 0.05 to p < 0.0001 and a greater than two fold risk of simultaneously exhibiting low adiponectin (lowest tertile and high resistin (highest tertile compared to Caucasians and/or Hispanics. The cohort as a whole and each ethnic group showed similar negative correlations between adiponectin, and glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and anthropometric parameters but there was lesser correspondence with resistin. Our data underscore the need for further research on ethnic variation in adipokines and other physiologic biomarkers during complicated and uncomplicated pregnancy.

  1. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, T

    2002-01-01

    was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating...... of afferent input to the spinal cord, by EMG activity and by walking mechanics. Increasing H reflex excitability during the swing phase appears to protect the subject against unexpected perturbations around heel strike by a facilitated stretch reflex in the triceps surae muscle. Alternatively, in subjects...... with a suppressed H reflex in the swing phase the knee joint extensors seem to form the primary protection around heel strike....

  2. Nonischemic changes in right ventricular function on exercise. Do normal volunteers differ from patients with normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplin, J.L.; Maltz, M.B.; Flatman, W.D.; Dymond, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Factors other than ischemia may alter right ventricular function both at rest and on exercise. Normal volunteers differ from cardiac patients with normal coronary arteries with regard to their left ventricular response to exercise. This study examined changes in right ventricular function on exercise in 21 normal volunteers and 13 patients with normal coronary arteries, using first-pass radionuclide angiography. There were large ranges of right ventricular ejection fraction in the two groups, both at rest and on exercise. Resting right ventricular ejection fraction was 40.2 +/- 10.6% (mean +/- SD) in the volunteers and 38.6 +/- 9.7% in the patients, p = not significant, and on exercise rose significantly in both groups to 46.1 +/- 9.9% and 45.8 +/- 9.7%, respectively. The difference between the groups was not significant. In both groups some subjects with high resting values showed large decreases in ejection fraction on exercise, and there were significant negative correlations between resting ejection fraction and the change on exercise, r = -0.59 (p less than 0.01) in volunteers, and r = -0.66 (p less than 0.05) in patients. Older volunteers tended to have lower rest and exercise ejection fractions, but there was no difference between normotensive and hypertensive patients in their rest or exercise values. In conclusion, changes in right ventricular function on exercise are similar in normal volunteers and in patients with normal coronary arteries. Some subjects show decreases in right ventricular ejection fraction on exercise which do not appear to be related to ischemia

  3. Investigations of the functional states of dendritic cells under different conditioned microenvironments by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rong; Long, Jinhua; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chunlin; Wen, Zongyao; Li, Long; Yao, Weijuan; Zeng, Zhu

    2014-01-10

    Dendritic cells are potent and specialized antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The dendritic cell-based vaccination against cancer has been clinically achieved promising successes. But there are still many challenges in its clinical application, especially for how to identify the functional states. The CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood after plastic adherence and purified to approximately 98% with cocktail immunomagnetic beads. The immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were induced by traditional protocols. The resulting dendritic cells were cocultured with normal cells and cancer cells. The functional state of dendritic cells including immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) under different conditioned microenvironments were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular biological methods. The results of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that the gene transcription activity and energy states of dendritic cells were specifically suppressed by tumor cells (P Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were closely correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB (R2:0.69 and R2:0.81, respectively). Our results confirmed that the ratios of absorption intensities of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were positively correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB, suggesting that Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy technology could be clinically applied to identify the functional states of dendritic cell when performing dendritic cell-based vaccination. It's significant for the simplification and standardization of dendritic cell-based vaccination clinical preparation protocols.

  4. Evaluation of different tissue de-paraffinization procedures for infrared spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Stone, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    In infrared spectral histopathology, paraffin embedded tissues are often de-paraffinized using chemical agents such as xylene and hexane. These chemicals are known to be toxic and the routine de-waxing procedure is time consuming. A comparative study was carried out to identify alternate de-paraffinization methods by using paraffin oil and electronic de-paraffinization (using a mathematical computer algorithm) and their effectiveness was compared to xylene and hexane. Sixteen adjacent tissue sections obtained from a single block of a normal colon tissue were de-paraffinized using xylene, hexane and paraffin oil (+ hexane wash) at five different time points each for comparison. One section was reserved unprocessed for electronic de-paraffinization based on a modified extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC). IR imaging was carried out on these tissue sections. Coefficients based on the fit of a pure paraffin model to the IR images were then calculated to estimate the amount of paraffin remaining after processing. Results indicate that on average xylene removes more paraffin in comparison to hexane and paraffin oil although the differences were small. This makes paraffin oil, followed by a hexane wash, an interesting and less toxic alternative method of de-paraffinization. However, none of the chemical methods removed paraffin completely from the tissues at any given time point. Moreover, paraffin was removed more easily from the glandular regions than the connective tissue regions indicating a form of differential paraffin retention based on the histology. In such cases, the use of electronic de-paraffinization to neutralize such variances across different tissue regions might be considered. Moreover it is faster, reduces scatter artefacts by index matching and enables samples to be easily stored for further analysis if required.

  5. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  6. Comparing the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) with root zone storage in a lumped conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Gao, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Maekan, Ekkarin; Saengsawang, Sirikanya; Thianpopirug, Sansarith

    2016-01-01

    With remote sensing we can readily observe the Earth’s surface, but direct observation of the sub-surface remains a challenge. In hydrology, but also in related disciplines such as agricultural and atmospheric sciences, knowledge of the dynamics of soil moisture in the root zone of vegetation is

  7. A Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Infrared Radiation Emitted from Plain Surfaces with Different Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakilabadi K.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, infrared radiation exiting plain surfaces with different geometries is numerically simulated. Surfaces under consideration are assumed to have steady uniform heat generation inside. Moreover, the boundaries of the surfaces are considered to be at the surroundings temperature. Infrared radiation is calculated based on the temperature profile determined for the surface. The temperature profile of the surface is determined assuming the two dimensional heat conduction equations to govern the problem. The physical domain is transformed into the appropriate computational domain and the governing equation is mapped into the suitable forms in the new coordinate system of variables. After that the temperature profile of the surface is computed, the infrared radiation distribution of the surface is evaluated based on the equations given in the manuscript. The temperature profile as well as the IR images are given in the results section. It is concluded that the maximum value of infrared radiation of the surface occurs at the center. Moreover, it is concluded that among surfaces with equal areas, the one having the largest perimeter has the least value of IR at its center.

  8. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials.

  9. Histogram-based normalization technique on human brain magnetic resonance images from different acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Shi, Lin; Luo, Yishan; Yang, Wei; Li, Hongpeng; Liang, Peipeng; Li, Kuncheng; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-07-28

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step in brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis. During MR image acquisition, different scanners or parameters would be used for scanning different subjects or the same subject at a different time, which may result in large intensity variations. This intensity variation will greatly undermine the performance of subsequent MRI processing and population analysis, such as image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement. In this work, we proposed a new histogram normalization method to reduce the intensity variation between MRIs obtained from different acquisitions. In our experiment, we scanned each subject twice on two different scanners using different imaging parameters. With noise estimation, the image with lower noise level was determined and treated as the high-quality reference image. Then the histogram of the low-quality image was normalized to the histogram of the high-quality image. The normalization algorithm includes two main steps: (1) intensity scaling (IS), where, for the high-quality reference image, the intensities of the image are first rescaled to a range between the low intensity region (LIR) value and the high intensity region (HIR) value; and (2) histogram normalization (HN),where the histogram of low-quality image as input image is stretched to match the histogram of the reference image, so that the intensity range in the normalized image will also lie between LIR and HIR. We performed three sets of experiments to evaluate the proposed method, i.e., image registration, segmentation, and tissue volume measurement, and compared this with the existing intensity normalization method. It is then possible to validate that our histogram normalization framework can achieve better results in all the experiments. It is also demonstrated that the brain template with normalization preprocessing is of higher quality than the template with no normalization processing. We have proposed

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Very High Resolution...

  11. Unsupervised explorative data analysis of normal human leukocytes and BCR/ABL positive leukemic cells mid-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellisola, G.; Bolomini-Vittori, M.; Cinque, G.; Dumas, P.; Fiorini, Z.; Laudanna, C.; Mirenda, M.; Sandt, C.; Silvestri, G.; Tomasello, L.; Vezzalini, M.; Wehbe, K.; Sorio, C.

    2015-01-01

    We proved the ability of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (microFTIR) complemented by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to detect protein phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in mammalian cells. We analyzed by microFTIR human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) leukocytes, mouse-derived

  12. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P blood serum concentration was lesser in insulated rams (P = 0.03). Thus, the difference of 1.12 °C between RT and testicular temperature impacts semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. Moreover, this study shows that rams can recover testes temperature efficiently toward IN and that infrared thermography is an efficient tool to identify differences on SSMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-invasive characterization of normal and pathological tissues through dynamic infrared imaging in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María. S.; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Salva, Natalia; Padra, Claudio; Schwint, Amanda; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A.

    2017-05-01

    Biomedical infrared thermography, a non-invasive and functional imaging method, provides information on the normal and abnormal status and response of tissues in terms of spatial and temporal variations in body infrared radiance. It is especially attractive in cancer research due to the hypervascular and hypermetabolic activity of solid tumors. Moreover, healthy tissues like skin or mucosa exposed to radiation can be examined since inflammation, changes in water content, exudation, desquamation, erosion and necrosis, between others, are factors that modify their thermal properties. In this work we performed Dynamic Infrared Imaging (DIRI) to contribute to the understanding and evaluation of normal tissue, tumor and precancerous tissue response and radiotoxicity in an in vivo model, the hamster cheek pouch, exposed to Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. In this study, we particularly focused on the observation of temperature changes under forced transient conditions associated with mass moisture transfer in the tissue-air interface, in each tissue with or without treatment. We proposed a simple mathematical procedure that considerers the heat transfer from tissue to ambient through convection and evaporation to model the transient (exponential decay o recover) thermal study. The data was fitted to determined the characteristic decay and recovery time constants of the temperature as a function of time. Also this model allowed to explore the mass flux of moisture, as a degree of evaporation occurring on the tissue surface. Tissue thermal responses under provocation tests could be used as a non-invasive method to characterize tissue physiology.

  14. Host sensitized near-infrared emission in Nd3+ doped different alkaline-sodium-phosphate phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, A.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2018-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) emitting phosphors of different alkaline based sodium-phosphate (MNa[PO4], where M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba were prepared by a conventional solution combustion method with fixed doping concentration of Nd3+ (1.0 mol%). The phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescent spectrophotometry. The optical properties including reflectance, excitation and emission were investigated. The excitation spectra of the phosphors were characterized by a broadband extending from 450 to 900 nm. Upon excitation with a wavelength of 580 nm, the phosphor emits intensely infrared region at 872 nm, 1060 nm and 1325 nm which correspond to the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2, 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 and 4F3/2 → 4I13/2 transitions of Nd3+ ions and were found to vary for the different hosts. The strongest emission wavelength reaches 1060 nm. The most intense emission of Nd3+ was observed from Ca2+ incorporated host. The down conversion emissions of the material fall in the NIR region suggesting that the prepared phosphors have potential application in the development of photonic devices emitting in the NIR.

  15. An Assessment of Polynomial Regression Techniques for the Relative Radiometric Normalization (RRN of High-Resolution Multi-Temporal Airborne Thermal Infrared (TIR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Infrared (TIR remote sensing images of urban environments are increasingly available from airborne and satellite platforms. However, limited access to high-spatial resolution (H-res: ~1 m TIR satellite images requires the use of TIR airborne sensors for mapping large complex urban surfaces, especially at micro-scales. A critical limitation of such H-res mapping is the need to acquire a large scene composed of multiple flight lines and mosaic them together. This results in the same scene components (e.g., roads, buildings, green space and water exhibiting different temperatures in different flight lines. To mitigate these effects, linear relative radiometric normalization (RRN techniques are often applied. However, the Earth’s surface is composed of features whose thermal behaviour is characterized by complexity and non-linearity. Therefore, we hypothesize that non-linear RRN techniques should demonstrate increased radiometric agreement over similar linear techniques. To test this hypothesis, this paper evaluates four (linear and non-linear RRN techniques, including: (i histogram matching (HM; (ii pseudo-invariant feature-based polynomial regression (PIF_Poly; (iii no-change stratified random sample-based linear regression (NCSRS_Lin; and (iv no-change stratified random sample-based polynomial regression (NCSRS_Poly; two of which (ii and iv are newly proposed non-linear techniques. When applied over two adjacent flight lines (~70 km2 of TABI-1800 airborne data, visual and statistical results show that both new non-linear techniques improved radiometric agreement over the previously evaluated linear techniques, with the new fully-automated method, NCSRS-based polynomial regression, providing the highest improvement in radiometric agreement between the master and the slave images, at ~56%. This is ~5% higher than the best previously evaluated linear technique (NCSRS-based linear regression.

  16. Standardized uptake values of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: the value of different normalization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Reichel, C.; Sommer, T.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    While the evident advantages of absolute metabolic rate determinations cannot be equalled by static image analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG PET) studies, various algorithms for the normalization of static FDG uptake values have been proposed. This study was performed to compare different normalization procedures in terms of dependency on individual patient characteristics. Standardized FDG uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for liver and lung tissue in 126 patients studied with whole-body FDG PET. Uptake values were normalized for total body weight, lean body mass and body surface area. Ranges, means, medians, standard deviations and variation coefficients of these SUV parameters were calculated and their interdependency with total body weight, lean body mass, body surface area, patient height and blood sugar levels was calculated by means of regression analysis. Standardized FDG uptake values normalized for body surface area were clearly superior to SUV parameters normalized for total body weight or lean body mass. Variation and correlation coefficients of body surface area-normalized uptake values were minimal when compared with SUV parameters derived from the other normalization procedures. Normalization for total body weight resulted in uptake values still dependent on body weight and blood sugar levels, while normalization for lean body mass did not eliminate the positive correlation with lean body mass and patient height. It is concluded that normalization of FDG uptake values for body surface area is less dependent on the individual patient characteristics than are FDG uptake values normalized for other parameters, and therefore appears to be preferable for FDG PET studies in oncology. (orig.)

  17. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  18. Normalizing computed tomography data reconstructed with different filter kernels: effect on emphysema quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Estrella, Leticia; Prokop, Mathias; Lynch, David A.; Stinson, Douglas; Zach, Jordan; Judy, Philip F.; Ginneken, Bram van; Rikxoort, Eva M. van

    2016-01-01

    To propose and evaluate a method to reduce variability in emphysema quantification among different computed tomography (CT) reconstructions by normalizing CT data reconstructed with varying kernels. We included 369 subjects from the COPDGene study. For each subject, spirometry and a chest CT reconstructed with two kernels were obtained using two different scanners. Normalization was performed by frequency band decomposition with hierarchical unsharp masking to standardize the energy in each band to a reference value. Emphysema scores (ES), the percentage of lung voxels below -950 HU, were computed before and after normalization. Bland-Altman analysis and correlation between ES and spirometry before and after normalization were compared. Two mixed cohorts, containing data from all scanners and kernels, were created to simulate heterogeneous acquisition parameters. The average difference in ES between kernels decreased for the scans obtained with both scanners after normalization (7.7 ± 2.7 to 0.3 ± 0.7; 7.2 ± 3.8 to -0.1 ± 0.5). Correlation coefficients between ES and FEV 1 , and FEV 1 /FVC increased significantly for the mixed cohorts. Normalization of chest CT data reduces variation in emphysema quantification due to reconstruction filters and improves correlation between ES and spirometry. (orig.)

  19. Normalizing computed tomography data reconstructed with different filter kernels: effect on emphysema quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Estrella, Leticia; Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 10 (route 767), P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (766) (Netherlands); Lynch, David A.; Stinson, Douglas; Zach, Jordan [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Judy, Philip F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ginneken, Bram van; Rikxoort, Eva M. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 10 (route 767), P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (766) (Netherlands); Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    To propose and evaluate a method to reduce variability in emphysema quantification among different computed tomography (CT) reconstructions by normalizing CT data reconstructed with varying kernels. We included 369 subjects from the COPDGene study. For each subject, spirometry and a chest CT reconstructed with two kernels were obtained using two different scanners. Normalization was performed by frequency band decomposition with hierarchical unsharp masking to standardize the energy in each band to a reference value. Emphysema scores (ES), the percentage of lung voxels below -950 HU, were computed before and after normalization. Bland-Altman analysis and correlation between ES and spirometry before and after normalization were compared. Two mixed cohorts, containing data from all scanners and kernels, were created to simulate heterogeneous acquisition parameters. The average difference in ES between kernels decreased for the scans obtained with both scanners after normalization (7.7 ± 2.7 to 0.3 ± 0.7; 7.2 ± 3.8 to -0.1 ± 0.5). Correlation coefficients between ES and FEV{sub 1}, and FEV{sub 1}/FVC increased significantly for the mixed cohorts. Normalization of chest CT data reduces variation in emphysema quantification due to reconstruction filters and improves correlation between ES and spirometry. (orig.)

  20. Difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke JIAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite during the wound healing. Methods Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8, normal frostbite group (n=8, and high-altitude group (n=8. The normal frostbite group rats were frozen to produce mid-degree frostbite models by controlling the freezing time with liquid nitrogen penetration equipment. The high-altitude frostbite group rats were acclimated to a hypoxic and low-pressure environment for 1 week, and then the high-altitude frostbite models were constructed by the same way with liquid nitrogen penetration apparatus. On days 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23 after modeling, the recovery situation of blood circulation of each group was observed with contrast ultrasonography by injecting SonoVue micro-bubble into rats' tail. Finally, the micro-bubble concentration (MC was calculated to confirm the blood circulation recovery with software Image Pro. Results At different time points, the wound area of the high-altitude frostbite group was bigger than that of the normal frostbite group, and the MC of control group was always about (27±0.2×109/ml. On day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23, the MC was significantly lower in the high-altitude frostbite group than in the control group and normal frostbite group (P<0.05. The MC of normal frostbite group was significantly lower than that of the control group on day 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 (P<0.05. In addition, no obvious difference in MC was found between normal group and control group on the 23th day (P<0.05. Conclusion The blood microcirculation recovery after high-altitude frostbite is significantly slower than the normal frostbite. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.13

  1. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Zhifen; Guan, Guoxian; Kang, Deyong

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections. (paper)

  2. Identification of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Chen, Zhifen; Kang, Deyong; li, Lianhuang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) as a potential diagnostic tool is attractive. MPM can effectively provide information about morphological and biochemical changes in biological tissues at the molecular level. In this paper, we attempt to identify normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria by multiphoton microscopy in different sections (both in transverse and longitudinal sections). The results show that MPM can display different microstructure changes in the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. MPM also can quantitatively describe the alteration of collagen content between normal and cancerous muscle layers. These are important pathological findings that MPM images can bring more detailed complementary information about tissue architecture and cell morphology through observing the transverse and longitudinal sections of colorectal muscularis propria. This work demonstrates that MPM can be better for identifying the microstructural characteristics of normal and cancerous human colorectal muscularis propria in different sections.

  3. [A study of Boletus bicolor from different areas using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zai-Jin; Liu, Gang; Ren, Xian-Pei

    2010-04-01

    It is hard to differentiate the same species of wild growing mushrooms from different areas by macromorphological features. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis was used to identify 58 samples of boletus bicolor from five different areas. Based on the fingerprint infrared spectrum of boletus bicolor samples, principal component analysis was conducted on 58 boletus bicolor spectra in the range of 1 350-750 cm(-1) using the statistical software SPSS 13.0. According to the result, the accumulated contributing ratio of the first three principal components accounts for 88.87%. They included almost all the information of samples. The two-dimensional projection plot using first and second principal component is a satisfactory clustering effect for the classification and discrimination of boletus bicolor. All boletus bicolor samples were divided into five groups with a classification accuracy of 98.3%. The study demonstrated that wild growing boletus bicolor at species level from different areas can be identified by FTIR spectra combined with principal components analysis.

  4. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  5. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  6. Normalization of NDVI from Different Sensor System using MODIS Products as Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenxia, Gan; Liangpei, Zhang; Wei, Gong; Huanfeng, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Medium Resolution NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from different sensor systems such as Landsat, SPOT, ASTER, CBERS and HJ-1A/1B satellites provide detailed spatial information for studies of ecosystems, vegetation biophysics, and land cover. Limitation of sensor designs, cloud contamination, and sensor failure highlighted the need to normalize and integrate NDVI from multiple sensor system in order to create a consistent, long-term NDVI data set. In this paper, we used a reference-based method for NDVI normalization. And present an application of this approach which covert Landsat ETM+ NDVI calculated by digital number (NDVI DN ) to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance (NDVI SR ) using MODIS products as reference, and different cluster was treated differently. Result shows that this approach can produce NDVI with highly agreement to NDVI calculated by surface reflectance from physical approaches based on 6S (Second Simulation of the satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum). Although some variability exists, the cluster specified reference based approach shows considerable potential for NDVI normalization. Therefore, NDVI products in MODIS era from different sources can be combined for time-series analysis, biophysical parameter retrievals, and other downstream analysis

  7. Infrared studies of the superconducting energy gap and normal-state dynamics of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Z.; Collins, R.T.; Holtzberg, F.; Feild, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of infrared properties (reflectivity, conductivity, and dielectric response), emphasizing reproducible results from fully oxygenated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 crystals (T c congruent 93 K) and films, is presented. The extrapolated values of σ 1 (ω) at low frequency are roughly consistent with the measured temperature-dependent dc resistivity. Although not well understood, this infrared conductivity can be interpreted in terms of a frequency-dependent scattering rate of ∼kT+ℎω, with a low-frequency mass enhancement of roughly 2 to 4 associated with a carrier-spin related interaction. Infrared measurements polarized along the c axis suggest a conductivity anisotropy of roughly 40:1 near T c in the normal state. In the superconducting state an energy scale of 2Δ c congruent 3kT c is suggested by c-axis polarized measurements, while a much larger characteristic energy of 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c is evident in the (a-b)-plane conductivity. From the area missing from the conductivity up to this very large gap, a reasonable estimate (congruent 1700 A) for the (a-b)-plane penetration depth is obtained. Evidence for non-BCS temperature dependence, strong pair breaking scattering, and possible fluctuation effects is discussed. A comparison to infrared data from Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8-y shows a similarly large energy scale, 2Δ a-b congruent 8kT c ; for the cubic Ba 0.6 K 0.4 BiO 3 superconductor a more conventional energy scale, 2Δ congruent 4kT c is observed

  8. Differences in dietary patterns between overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the differences in the dietary patterns of Polish overweight and normal weight adolescents. The study was carried out on a group of 1906 pupils from gymnasium (lower secondary school) aged 13-15 years, of whom 953 were overweight and 953 had normal body mass. The sample was taken from a representative group of 8386 pupils. Their height and body weight were measured, and their BMI was calculated. Overweight was defined as BMI ł85 percentile for gender and age. Using the method of "selection in pairs", each overweight pupil was paired with a pupil with normal body weight. The research tool was a self-reported questionnaire, containing questions regarding how often selected food products were usually consumed during the week, how regularly basic meals (breakfast, lunch, supper) were eaten, and data on snacking. Overweight adolescents consumed unhealthy products such as sweets and crisps significantly less often than their peers with appropriate body mass. Overweight girls ate dark bread significantly more often, and consumed soft drinks less often than their peers with normal weight. Overweight adolescents had more irregular meals than those with normal weight: only 44% overweight adolescents had breakfast every day, significantly less than adolescents with normal weight. Nevertheless, overweight teenagers snacked significantly less often than young people with normal body mass. The overweight teenagers also less often chose snacks with high fat content, sugar and salt, and more often vegetables, fruits, as well as yoghurt and kefir. 1. Our study shows that compliance of low energy diet alone does not ensure the maintenance of normal body weight. Irregularity of meals and breakfast skipping play an important role in developing overweight and obesity in adolescents. 2. In future studies on dietary patterns in a larger sample of adolescents, emphasis should be placed on adding questions about portion size, food preparation and meal time. Eating

  9. Normal mammogram detection based on local probability difference transforms and support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiracharit, W.; Kumhom, P.; Chamnongthai, K.; Sun, Y.; Delp, E.J.; Babbs, C.F

    2007-01-01

    Automatic detection of normal mammograms, as a ''first look'' for breast cancer, is a new approach to computer-aided diagnosis. This approach may be limited, however, by two main causes. The first problem is the presence of poorly separable ''crossed-distributions'' in which the correct classification depends upon the value of each feature. The second problem is overlap of the feature distributions that are extracted from digitized mammograms of normal and abnormal patients. Here we introduce a new Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method utilizing with the proposed uncrossing mapping and Local Probability Difference (LPD). Crossed-distribution feature pairs are identified and mapped into a new features that can be separated by a zero-hyperplane of the new axis. The probability density functions of the features of normal and abnormal mammograms are then sampled and the local probability difference functions are estimated to enhance the features. From 1,000 ground-truth-known mammograms, 250 normal and 250 abnormal cases, including spiculated lesions, circumscribed masses or microcalcifications, are used for training a support vector machine. The classification results tested with another 250 normal and 250 abnormal sets show improved testing performances with 90% sensitivity and 89% specificity. (author)

  10. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the management of mountain meadows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašková, Z.; Zemek, František; Květ, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 417-432 ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : normalized difference vegetation index * mountain medows * mulching Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.620, year: 2008 www.borenv.net

  11. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  12. Reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in citrus genotypes under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Mafra

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family and GAPC2 (GAPDH was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin, TUB (tubulin and CtP (cathepsin were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein, GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7 to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress.

  13. Distribution of Different Sized Ocular Surface Vessels in Diabetics and Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Touka; Pourreza, Hamidreza; Doosti, Hassan; Abrishami, Mojtaba; Ehsaei, Asieh; Basiry, Mohsen; Pourreza, Reza

    2017-01-01

    To compare the distribution of different sized vessels using digital photographs of the ocular surface of diabetic and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, red-free conjunctival photographs of diabetic and normal individuals, aged 30-60 years, were taken under defined conditions and analyzed using a Radon transform-based algorithm for vascular segmentation. The image areas occupied by vessels (AOV) of different diameters were calculated. The main outcome measure was the distribution curve of mean AOV of different sized vessels. Secondary outcome measures included total AOV and standard deviation (SD) of AOV of different sized vessels. Two hundred and sixty-eight diabetic patients and 297 normal (control) individuals were included, differing in age (45.50 ± 5.19 vs. 40.38 ± 6.19 years, P distribution curves of mean AOV differed between patients and controls (smaller AOV for larger vessels in patients; P distribution curve of vessels compared to controls. Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with contraction of larger vessels in the conjunctiva. Smaller vessels dilate with diabetic retinopathy. These findings may be useful in the photographic screening of diabetes mellitus and retinopathy.

  14. Padé approximant for normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungthong, P.; Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.; Kolitawong, C.; Merger, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS), for continuum or molecular models, normally take the inexact form of the first few terms of a series expansion in the shear rate amplitude. Here, we improve the accuracy of these truncated expansions by replacing them with rational functions called Padé approximants. The recent advent of exact solutions in LAOS presents an opportunity to identify accurate and useful Padé approximants. For this identification, we replace the truncated expansion for the corotational Jeffreys fluid with its Padé approximants for the normal stress differences. We uncover the most accurate and useful approximant, the [3,4] approximant, and then test its accuracy against the exact solution [C. Saengow and A. J. Giacomin, "Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow," Phys. Fluids 29, 121601 (2017)]. We use Ewoldt grids to show the stunning accuracy of our [3,4] approximant in LAOS. We quantify this accuracy with an objective function and then map it onto the Pipkin space. Our two applications illustrate how to use our new approximant reliably. For this, we use the Spriggs relations to generalize our best approximant to multimode, and then, we compare with measurements on molten high-density polyethylene and on dissolved polyisobutylene in isobutylene oligomer.

  15. Development of Yellow Sand Image Products Using Infrared Brightness Temperature Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, J.; Kim, J.; Kwak, M.; Ha, K.

    2007-12-01

    A technique for detection of airborne yellow sand dust using meteorological satellite has been developed from various bands from ultraviolet to infrared channels. Among them, Infrared (IR) channels have an advantage of detecting aerosols over high reflecting surface as well as during nighttime. There had been suggestion of using brightness temperature difference (BTD) between 11 and 12¥ìm. We have found that the technique is highly depends on surface temperature, emissivity, and zenith angle, which results in changing the threshold of BTD. In order to overcome these problems, we have constructed the background brightness temperature threshold of BTD and then aerosol index (AI) has been determined from subtracting the background threshold from BTD of our interested scene. Along with this, we utilized high temporal coverage of geostationary satellite, MTSAT, to improve the reliability of the determined AI signal. The products have been evaluated by comparing the forecasted wind field with the movement fiend of AI. The statistical score test illustrates that this newly developed algorithm produces a promising result for detecting mineral dust by reducing the errors with respect to the current BTD method.

  16. Preparation and infrared spectra of differently deuterated tetramethyl-derivatives of the IV. main group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, S.

    1972-01-01

    19 different deuterated tetramethyl derivates of the type (CH 3 )sub(4-n)M(CH 3 )sub(n) of C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb were prepared. Gas cuvettes with polyethylene, NaCl and KBr windows were used to absorb the infra-red spectra, the IR equipment Beckman IR 11 and IR 12 were used. The infra-red spectra of the above mentioned compounds were indicated from 33 to 4,000 cm -1 , the ground, upper and combination vibrations assigned, the PR separations of the partly well resolved rotation-vibration outlines determined and were compared with the calculated PR separations. The revision of the correlations performed by Graham for γsub(s)CH 3 and γsub(as)CH 3 in the race of vibration F 2 with Sn(CH 3 ) 4 and Pb(CH 3 ) 4 and the proposed one with C(CH 3 ) 4 , Si(CH 3 ) 4 and Ge(CH 3 ) 4 could be disproved by the new experimental results. (FW) [de

  17. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  18. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean+/-standard deviation 2.3+/-1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (pright frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (pbrain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference.

  19. Respiratory functions in asthmatic and normal women during different phases of menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, D.B.; Sandhu, P.K.; Dhillon, S.; Arora, A.

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cycle is an integral part of life of women. There is widespread agreement that changes in the levels of oestrogen and progesterone associated with menstrual cycle also affect different systems of the body besides reproductive system. Levels of oestrogen and progesterone are maximum in the secretory phase and minimum just before the menstruation .Bronchial asthma is one of the commonest chronic respiratory diseases. Premenstrual worsening of asthma symptoms has been reported to affect 33-40% of asthmatic women. This exacerbation of asthma symptoms has been correlated with the oestrogen and progesterone levels. The association between menstrual cycle and lung functions in normal females has also been recognised. The pathophysiology of this process is still not proved. The purpose of our study was to confirm the probable effects of the female hormones on lung functions in normal and asthmatic women in different phases of menstrual cycle and to compare them. Methods: The study was done on 40 normal and 40 asthmatic females in the age group of 15-45 years. Pulmonary function tests were done in three phases of menstrual cycle i.e. follicular, secretory and menstrual in all the subjects. Results: The mean value of lung functions, i.e., FVC, FEV, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 200-1200 were significantly lower in asthmatic females than normal ones (p<0.01) in all three phases. The lung functions of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic females in secretory phase were significantly higher than in menstrual phase (p<0.005). The PFTs in menstrual phase were even lower than the follicular phase (p<0.04). Conclusion: Respiratory parameters of both asthmatic and non-asthmatic women in reproductive age group show significant variation in different phases of menstrual cycle. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of progesterone and probably oestrogen might have contributed to it. The lung function parameters in asthmatics were of lower value compared to normal women. (author)

  20. Investigation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during microwave and infrared-microwave combination baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-05-01

    Dielectric properties can be used to understand the behavior of food materials during microwave processing. Dielectric properties influence the level of interaction between food and high frequency electromagnetic energy. Dielectric properties are, therefore, important in the design of foods intended for microwave preparation. In this study, it was aimed to determine the variation of dielectric properties of different cake formulations during baking in microwave and infrared-microwave combination oven. In addition, the effects of formulation and temperature on dielectric properties of cake batter were examined. Dielectric constant and loss factor of cake samples were shown to be dependent on formulation, baking time, and temperature. The increase in baking time and temperature decreased dielectric constant and loss factor of all formulations. Fat content was shown to increase dielectric constant and loss factor of cakes.

  1. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  2. Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

  3. Integrated NDVI images for Niger 1986-1987. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tucker, Compton J.

    1988-01-01

    Two NOAA AVHRR images are presented which provide a comparison of the geographic distribution of an integration of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the Sahel zone in Niger for the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. The production of the images and the application of the images for resource management are discussed. Daily large area coverage with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km at nadir were transformed to the NDVI and geographically registered to produce the images.

  4. Research on the algorithm of infrared target detection based on the frame difference and background subtraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Liu, Xiaohua; Wu, Yijian

    2015-09-01

    As an important branch of infrared imaging technology, infrared target tracking and detection has a very important scientific value and a wide range of applications in both military and civilian areas. For the infrared image which is characterized by low SNR and serious disturbance of background noise, an innovative and effective target detection algorithm is proposed in this paper, according to the correlation of moving target frame-to-frame and the irrelevance of noise in sequential images based on OpenCV. Firstly, since the temporal differencing and background subtraction are very complementary, we use a combined detection method of frame difference and background subtraction which is based on adaptive background updating. Results indicate that it is simple and can extract the foreground moving target from the video sequence stably. For the background updating mechanism continuously updating each pixel, we can detect the infrared moving target more accurately. It paves the way for eventually realizing real-time infrared target detection and tracking, when transplanting the algorithms on OpenCV to the DSP platform. Afterwards, we use the optimal thresholding arithmetic to segment image. It transforms the gray images to black-white images in order to provide a better condition for the image sequences detection. Finally, according to the relevance of moving objects between different frames and mathematical morphology processing, we can eliminate noise, decrease the area, and smooth region boundaries. Experimental results proves that our algorithm precisely achieve the purpose of rapid detection of small infrared target.

  5. Evaluation of Different Normalization and Analysis Procedures for Illumina Gene Expression Microarray Data Involving Small Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Daniel M.; Riveros, Carlos; Heidari, Moones; Graham, Ross M.; Trinder, Debbie; Berretta, Regina; Olynyk, John K.; Scott, Rodney J.; Moscato, Pablo; Milward, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    While Illumina microarrays can be used successfully for detecting small gene expression changes due to their high degree of technical replicability, there is little information on how different normalization and differential expression analysis strategies affect outcomes. To evaluate this, we assessed concordance across gene lists generated by applying different combinations of normalization strategy and analytical approach to two Illumina datasets with modest expression changes. In addition to using traditional statistical approaches, we also tested an approach based on combinatorial optimization. We found that the choice of both normalization strategy and analytical approach considerably affected outcomes, in some cases leading to substantial differences in gene lists and subsequent pathway analysis results. Our findings suggest that important biological phenomena may be overlooked when there is a routine practice of using only one approach to investigate all microarray datasets. Analytical artefacts of this kind are likely to be especially relevant for datasets involving small fold changes, where inherent technical variation—if not adequately minimized by effective normalization—may overshadow true biological variation. This report provides some basic guidelines for optimizing outcomes when working with Illumina datasets involving small expression changes. PMID:27605185

  6. Comparison of Static Balance among Blind, Deaf and Normal Children in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Vali-Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory systems including proprioceptive, vestibular and visual network play an important role in motor control. Loss of information from each sensory channel can cause body sway on static positions. Materials & Methods: Seventeen blind children (9 girls, 8 boys and 30 deaf children (14 girls, 16 boys participated as the sample groups in Ardabil city. Sixteen normal children (30 girls and 30 boys also selected as the control group. One leg standing and tandem stance tests (reliability=0.87-0.99 in two condition (eyes open and closed was used for static balance evaluation. One-Way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups, and independent t-test was used for comparing sexes in each group by using SPSS (16 version software. Results: results showed there is no significant difference between blind, deaf and normal girls in any of the balance tasks (p>0.05. While the balance function of deaf and normal boys was better than blind boys in all balance tasks except for tandem stance with eyes closed (p=0.507. Blind girls were better than blind boys in all balance tasks (p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.02. Deaf boys were better than girls with deafness in one leg stance and tandem stance (eyes open tasks (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.04 but there was no significant different between deaf boys and girls in any other tasks (p=0.63, p=0.29, p=0.89. Normal boys have better performance than girls and only in tandem stance (eyes closed (p=0.21 and one leg stance (left foot eyes open (p=0.99 there was no significant difference between normal boys and girls. Conclusion: findings showed that static balance in deaf and normal children were better than the blinds. Since persons with blindness are not able to compensate the visual loss for postural stability, they show decreased postural stability in static conditions. Inclusive identifying effective factors on balance and its weakness and problems in appropriate time, attention to this factors in training

  7. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  8. Different gene expression of Normal lymphobloastoid cells which exposure to different dose of 60Co γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Yang Jian; Gao Xian; Qin Yanghua; Sun Ding; Hai Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study on the gene expression of normal lymphoblastoid cells(AHH-1) which exposure to difference dose of 60 Co γ-ray, analyses the essential different biological effect.. Methods Human AHH-1 normal line was irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays. Used human cDNA microarray to develop the transcriptional levels of the genes by hybridizing the mRNA of cells 8 h after exposured in different dose and the control cells. Cluster analysis, discrimination and bolting were used to filter the effective genes of differential expression. Results The results of data analysis showed 23 genes of differential expression closely related to biological effect of 2.0 Gy radiation, 5 genes express changed only by 0.5 Gy radiation, 5 genes express apparently both in 2.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy radiation. Conclusion: The different dose γ-rays radiation-induced significant changes in gene expression, such as PAPLN, TP53INP1, PTENP1, FOS and TPR seem to be some important components of cellular radioresponse. (authors)

  9. [Study on Different Parts of Wild and Cultivated Gentiana Rigescens with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yun-xia; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Zuo, Zhi-tian; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Qing-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their preparations have a long history. With the deepening of the research, the market demand is increasing. However, wild resources are so limited that it can not meet the needs of the market. The development of wild and cultivated samples and research on accumulation dynamics of chemical component are of great significance. In order to compare composition difference of different parts (root, stem, and leaf) of wild and cultivated G. rigescens, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and second derivative spectra were used to analyze and evaluate. The second derivative spectra of 60 samples and the rate of affinity (the match values) were measured automatically using the appropriate software (Omnic 8.0). The results showed that the various parts of wild and cultivated G. rigescens. were high similar the peaks at 1732, 1 643, 1 613, 1 510, 1 417, 1 366, 1 322, 1 070 cm(-1) were the characteristic peak of esters, terpenoids and saccharides, respectively. Moreover, the shape and peak intensity were more distinct in the second derivative spectrum of samples. In the second derivative spectrum range of 1 800-600 cm(-1), the fingerprint characteristic peak of samples and gentiopicroside standards were 1 679, 1 613, 1 466, 1 272, 1 204, 1 103, 1 074, 985, 935 cm(-1). The characteristic peak intensity of gentiopicroside of roots of wild and cultivated samples at 1 613 cm(-1) (C-C) was higher than stems and leaves which indicated the higher content of gentiopicroside in root than in stem and leaves. Stems of wild samples at 1 521, 1 462 and 1 452 cm(-1) are the skeletal vibration peak of benzene ring of lignin, and the stem of cultivated sample have stronger peak than other samples which showed that rich lignin in stems. The iInfrared spectrum of samples were similar with the average spectral of root of wild samples, and significant difference was found for the correlation between second derivative spectrum of samples

  10. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Mittermayer, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  11. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  12. MRI investigation of normal fetal lung maturation using signal intensities on different imaging sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Mittermayer, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    To purpose of this paper is to study the relation between normal lung maturation signal and changes in intensity ratios (SIR) and to determine which magnetic resonance imaging sequence provides the strongest correlation of normal lung SIs with gestational age. 126 normal singleton pregnancies (20-37 weeks) were examined with a 1.5 Tesla unit. Mean SIs for lungs, liver, and gastric fluid were assessed on six different sequences, and SIRs of lung/liver (LLSIR) and lung/gastric fluid (LGSIR) were correlated with gestational age for each sequence. To evaluate the feasibility of SIRs in the prediction of the state of the lung maturity, accuracy of the predicted SIRs (D*) was measured by calculating relative residuals (D*-D)/D for each sequence. LLSIRs showed significant changes in every sequence (p<0.05), while LGSIRs only on two sequences. Significant differences were shown for the mean of absolute residuals for both LLSIRs (p<0.001) and for LGSIRs (p=0.003). Relative residuals of LLSIRs were significantly smaller on T1-weighted sequence, whereas they were significantly higher for LGSIRs on FLAIR sequence. Fetal liver seems to be adequate reference for the investigation of lung maturation. T1-weighted sequence was the most accurate for the measurement of the lung SIs; thus, we propose to determine LLSIR on T1-weighted sequence when evaluating lung development. (orig.)

  13. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  14. A biomechanical assessment to evaluate breed differences in normal porcine medial collateral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germscheid, Niccole M; Thornton, Gail M; Hart, David A; Hildebrand, Kevin A

    2011-02-24

    Little information is available on the role of genetic factors and heredity in normal ligament behaviour and their ability to heal. Assessing these factors is challenging because of the lack of suitable animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a porcine model in order to evaluate and compare the biomechanical differences of normal medial collateral ligaments (MCLs) between Yorkshire (YK) and red Duroc (RD) breeds. It was hypothesized that biomechanical differences would not exist between normal YK and RD MCLs. Comparisons between porcine and human MCL were also made. A biomechanical testing apparatus and protocol specific to pig MCL were developed. Ligaments were subjected to cyclic and static creep tests and then elongated to failure. Pig MCL morphology, geometry, and low- and high-load mechanical behaviour were assessed. The custom-designed apparatus and protocol were sufficiently sensitive to detect mechanical property differences between breeds as well as inter-leg differences. The results reveal that porcine MCL is comparable in both shape and size to human MCL and exhibits similar structural and material failure properties, thus making it a feasible model. Comparisons between RD and YK breeds revealed that age-matched RD pigs weigh more, have larger MCL cross-sectional area, and have lower MCL failure stress than YK pigs. The effect of weight may have influenced MCL geometrical and biomechanical properties, and consequently, the differences observed may be due to breed type and/or animal weight. In conclusion, the pig serves as a suitable large animal model for genetic-related connective tissue studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Injection-seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses generated by difference frequency mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Masuda, Takahiko; Hiraki, Takahiro; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, a narrow linewidth, and a high pulse energy. These pulses are obtained by frequency mixing between injection-seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:sapphire ring laser is used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. The typical energy of the generated mid-infrared pulses is in the range of 0.4-1 mJ/pulse. The tuning wavelength ranges from 3142 to 4806 nm. A narrow linewidth of 1.4 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a rovibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide at 4587 nm.

  16. Time course of auditory streaming: Do CI users differ from normal-hearing listeners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBöckmann-Barthel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a complex acoustical environment with multiple sound sources the auditory system uses streaming as a tool to organize the incoming sounds in one or more streams depending on the stimulus parameters. Streaming is commonly studied by alternating sequences of signals. These are often tones with different frequencies. The present study investigates stream segregation in cochlear implant (CI users, where hearing is restored by electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. CI users listened to 30-s long sequences of alternating A and B harmonic complexes at four different fundamental frequency separations, ranging from 2 to 14 semitones. They had to indicate as promptly as possible after sequence onset, if they perceived one stream or two streams and, in addition, any changes of the percept throughout the rest of the sequence. The conventional view is that the initial percept is always that of a single stream which may after some time change to a percept of two streams. This general build-up hypothesis has recently been challenged on the basis of a new analysis of data of normal-hearing listeners which showed a build-up response only for an intermediate frequency separation. Using the same experimental paradigm and analysis, the present study found that the results of CI users agree with those of the normal-hearing listeners: (i the probability of the first decision to be a one-stream percept decreased and that of a two-stream percept increased as Δf increased, and (ii a build-up was only found for 6 semitones. Only the time elapsed before the listeners made their first decision of the percept was prolonged as compared to normal-hearing listeners. The similarity in the data of the CI user and the normal-hearing listeners indicates that the quality of stream formation is similar in these groups of listeners.

  17. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Risueno, E. [CIC Energigune, Parque Tecnologico, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava, Spain. (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644,48080 Bilbao, Spain. (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5-22 {mu}m spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for {lambda} > 10 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen-Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti-6Al-4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 {mu}m to about 0.10 at 22 {mu}m. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen-Rubens equation.

  18. Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in the 500–1150 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Fernández, L.; Risueño, E.; Pérez-Sáez, R.B.; Tello, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First heating cycle acts as a annealing, relieving the surface stresses. ► Stress relieving occurs mainly above 900 K. ► Emissivity decreases between 0.35 and 0.10 in the 2.5–22 μm spectral range. ► Emissivity increases linearly with temperature, with the same slope for λ > 10 μm. ► Good agreement between resistivity and emissivity by means of Hagen–Rubens relation. - Abstract: Thermal radiative emissivity is related to the optical and electrical properties of materials, and it is a key parameter required in a large number of industrial applications. In the case of Ti–6Al–4V, spectral emissivity experimental data are not available for the range of temperatures between 400 and 1200 K, where almost all industrial applications take place. The experimental results in this paper show that the normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength from a value of about 0.35 at 2.5 μm to about 0.10 at 22 μm. At the same time, the spectral emissivity shows a slight linear increase with temperature between 500 and 1150 K, with approximately the same slope for all wavelengths. Additionally, the influence of the samples thermal history on the emissivity is studied. A strong decrease in the emissivity values appears due to the effect of surface stress relaxation processes. This means that the radiative properties of this alloy strongly depend on the surface stress state. A thermal treatment to relieve the surface stress should be carried out to achieve a steady state of the radiative properties. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is found between the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity obtained using conventional measurements and the one obtained from the emissivity experimental results by using the Hagen–Rubens equation.

  19. The effect of irradiation on function in self-renewing normal tissues with differing proliferative organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Michalowski, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The primary effect of irradiation on self-renewing normal tissues is sterilisation of their proliferative cells, but how this translates into failure of tissue function depends on the mode of organisation of the tissue concerned. It has recently been suggested (Michalowski, 1981) that proliferative normal tissues may be classed as ''hierarchical'' (like haemopoietic tissues) or as ''flexible'' (like liver parenchyma) and that radiation injury to tissue function develops by different pathways in these tissues. Mathematical model studies confirm the different radiation responses of differently organized tissues. Tissues of the ''flexible'' or ''F-type'' category display a variety of novel radiobiological properties, different from those of the more familiar ''hierarchical'' or ''H-type'' tissues. The ''F-type'' responses are strongly influenced by radiation-sterilised (''doomed'') cells, and is is suggested that the role of ''doomed'' cells has been undervalued relative to that of clonogenic survivors. Since ''F-type'' tissues have characteristically low rates of cell renewal, it is possible that these tissues are preferentially responsible for late effects of irradiation in clinical radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Vibrational normal modes of diazo-dimedone: A comparative study by Fourier infrared/Raman spectroscopies and conformational analysis by MM/QM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, C. A.; Ramos, J. M.; Rianelli, R. S.; de Souza, M. C. B. V.; Ferreira, V. F.

    2007-07-01

    The 2-diazo-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione ( 3) was synthesized and the FT-IR/Raman spectra were measured with the purpose of obtain a full assignment of the vibrational modes. Singular aspects concerning the -C dbnd N dbnd N oscillator are discussed in view of two strong bands observed in the region of 2300-2100 cm -1 in both, Infrared and Raman spectra. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to obtain the geometrical structure and for assisting in the vibrational assignment joint to the traditional normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The observed wavenumbers at 2145 (IR), 2144(R) are assigned as the coupled ν(N dbnd N) + ν(C dbnd N) vibrational mode with higher participation of the N dbnd N stretching. A 2188 cm -1 (IR) and at 2186 cm -1 (R) can be assigned as a overtone of one of ν(CC) normal mode or to a combination band of the fundamentals δ(CCH) found at 1169 cm -1 and the δ (CC dbnd N) found at 1017 cm -1 enhanced by Fermi resonance.

  1. Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra, assignment, ab initio, DFT and normal co-ordinate analysis of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Mohan, S

    2009-03-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline have been measured in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100cm(-1), respectively. Utilising the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequency which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods for optimised geometries. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The normal co-ordinate analysis was also carried out on the basis of ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The manifestations of NH-pi interactions and the influence of bulky chlorine and methyl group on the vibrational modes of the amino group are investigated.

  2. An experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers of different designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Stéphane; Tombez, Lionel; Tardy, Camille; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Maulini, Richard; Terazzi, Romain; Rochat, Michel; Südmeyer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present an experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) of different designs. By quantifying the high degree of correlation occurring between fluctuations of the optical frequency and voltage between the QCL terminals, we show that electrical noise is a powerful and simple mean to study noise in QCLs. Based on this outcome, we investigated the electrical noise in a large set of 22 QCLs emitting in the range of 7.6-8 μm and consisting of both ridge-waveguide and buried-heterostructure (BH) lasers with different geometrical designs and operation parameters. From a statistical data processing based on an analysis of variance, we assessed that ridge-waveguide lasers have a lower noise than BH lasers. Our physical interpretation is that additional current leakages or spare injection channels occur at the interface between the active region and the lateral insulator in the BH geometry, which induces some extra noise. In addition, Schottky-type contacts occurring at the interface between the n-doped regions and the lateral insulator, i.e., iron-doped InP, are also believed to be a potential source of additional noise in some BH lasers, as observed from the slight reduction in the integrated voltage noise observed at the laser threshold in several BH-QCLs.

  3. Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, P.R.; Gonda, I.; Anderson, S.D.; Bailey, D.; Bautovich, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosols are frequently used in the diagnosis and therapy of lung disease. The purpose of this work was to study the difference in the pattern of deposition of aerosols containing aqueous solutions of different tonicities. 99m Technetium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA)-labelled saline aerosols, with mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.7-3.8 μm and geometric standard deviation 1.4, were inhaled under reproducible breathing conditions on two occasions. Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions were used in 11 normals subjects, isotonic and hypertonic solutions in 9 asthmatics. The regional deposition was quantified by a penetration index measured with the help of a tomographic technique. There was a small but significant increase (6.7%) in the penetration index of the hypotonic as compared to the hypertonic aerosols in the normal subjects. The region that was markedly affected was the trachea. The differences in the penetration of the isotonic and hypertonic aerosols in the asthmatics appeared to be strongly dependent on the state of the airways at the time of the study. These findings can be interpreted in terms of effects of growth or shrinkage of nonisotonic aerosols, as well as of airway narrowing, on regional deposition of aerosols. Tonicity of aerosols appears to affect their deposition both through physical and physiological mechanisms. This should be taken into account when interpreting the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions of various tonicities in patients in vivo. (au) (44 refs.)

  4. Multifractal Downscaling of Rainfall Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Andes Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffaut Espinosa, L A; Posadas, A N; Carbajal, M; Quiroz, R

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multifractal downscaling technique is applied to adequately transformed and lag corrected normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in order to obtain daily estimates of rainfall in an area of the Peruvian Andean high plateau. This downscaling procedure is temporal in nature since the original NDVI information is provided at an irregular temporal sampling period between 8 and 11 days, and the desired final scale is 1 day. The spatial resolution of approximately 1 km remains the same throughout the downscaling process. The results were validated against on-site measurements of meteorological stations distributed in the area under study.

  5. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for estimating biochemical changes associated with different pathological conditions of cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Amuthachelvi; Prakasarao, Aruna; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2018-02-01

    The molecular level changes associated with oncogenesis precede the morphological changes in cells and tissues. Hence molecular level diagnosis would promote early diagnosis of the disease. Raman spectroscopy is capable of providing specific spectral signature of various biomolecules present in the cells and tissues under various pathological conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-linear multi-class statistical methodology for discrimination of normal, neoplastic and malignant cells/tissues. The tissues were classified as normal, pre-malignant and malignant by employing Principal Component Analysis followed by Artificial Neural Network (PC-ANN). The overall accuracy achieved was 99%. Further, to get an insight into the quantitative biochemical composition of the normal, neoplastic and malignant tissues, a linear combination of the major biochemicals by non-negative least squares technique was fit to the measured Raman spectra of the tissues. This technique confirms the changes in the major biomolecules such as lipids, nucleic acids, actin, glycogen and collagen associated with the different pathological conditions. To study the efficacy of this technique in comparison with histopathology, we have utilized Principal Component followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) to discriminate the well differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with an accuracy of 94.0%. And the results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to complement the good old technique of histopathology.

  6. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenia and normal controls: relation to neuroleptic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were compared in a large number of neuroleptic-resistant and -responsive schizophrenic patients (male/female = 161/46) and normal controls (67/27), and correlated with various measures of psychopathology. Psychopathology was evaluated with the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change version (SADS-C) and SADS-C Global Assessment Scale, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and the Quality of Life Scale. No significant differences in pHVA levels between neuroleptic-resistant (n = 104) or -responsive (n = 103) schizophrenic patients, and normal controls, were found; however, there was a main effect for sex, due to higher pHVA levels in women than men. There were no diagnosis x gender or age effects on pHVA levels. No significant correlations were observed between psychopathology ratings and baseline pHVA levels, except with the Hallucinations subscale of SAPS in neuroleptic-responsive patients. Neither duration of neuroleptic washout nor plasma prolactin levels correlated with pHVA levels. Further studies on the origin and significance of the gender difference in pHVA are indicated.

  7. Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin and its photoproducts regenerated with deuterated tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollinger, G.; Eisenstein, L.; Lin, S.L.; Nakanishi, K.; Termini, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy has been used to detect the vibrational modes due to tyrosine residues in the protein that change in position or intensity between light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (LA) and other species, namely, the K and M intermediates and dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (DA). To aid in the identification of the bands that change in these various species, the FTIR spectra of the free amino acids Tyr-d0, Tyr-d2 ( 2 H at positions ortho to OH), and Tyr-d4 ( 2 H at positions ortho and meta to OH) were measured in H 2 O and D 2 O at low and high pH. The characteristic frequencies of the Tyr species obtained in this manner were then used to identify the changes in protonation state of the tyrosine residues in the various bacteriorhodopsin species. The two diagnostically most useful bands were the approximately 1480-cm-1 band of Tyr(OH)-d2 and the approximately 1277-cm-1 band of Tyr(O-)-d0. Mainly by observing the appearance or disappearance of these bands in the difference spectra of pigments incorporating the tyrosine isotopes, it was possible to identify the following: in LA, one tyrosine and one tyrosinate; in the K intermediate, two tyrosines; in the M intermediate, one tyrosine and one tyrosinate; and in DA, two tyrosines. Since these residues were observed in the difference spectra K/LA, M/LA, and DA/LA, they represent the tyrosine or tyrosinate groups that most likely undergo changes in protonation state due to the conversions. These changes are most likely linked to the proton translocation process of bacteriorhodopsin

  8. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  9. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  10. Sensitivity of the normalized difference vegetation index to subpixel canopy cover, soil albedo, and pixel scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical framework is provided for examining the physically based behavior of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of the variability in bulk subpixel landscape components and with respect to variations in pixel scales, within the context of the stochastic-geometric canopy reflectance model. Analysis focuses on regional scale variability in horizontal plant density and soil background reflectance distribution. Modeling is generalized to different plant geometries and solar angles through the use of the nondimensional solar-geometric similarity parameter. Results demonstrate that, for Poisson-distributed plants and for one deterministic distribution, NDVI increases with increasing subpixel fractional canopy amount, decreasing soil background reflectance, and increasing shadows, at least within the limitations of the geometric reflectance model. The NDVI of a pecan orchard and a juniper landscape is presented and discussed.

  11. Narrowband widely tunable CW mid-infrared generator based on difference frequency generation in periodically poled KTP and KTA crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baravets, Yauhen; Honzátko, Pavel; Todorov, Filip; Gladkov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2016), May ISSN 0306-8919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14112 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber optics amplifiers * Difference-frequency generation * Mid-infrared tunable laser source Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2016

  12. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  14. Normalizing difference: Emotional intelligence and diversity management competence in healthcare managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebukola E. Oyewunmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diversity is synonymous with difference. The diverse workforce presents an array of complexities which necessitates the deployment of specific managerial competencies. Empirical evidences have indicated the role of emotional intelligence in the enhancement of abilities. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and diversity management competency amongst healthcare managers in Southwest Nigeria.  Design: The descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. A total of 360 respondents completed the structured questionnaire titled Emotional Intelligence and Diversity Management Competency Questionnaire (EIDMCQ. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as, Multiple Regression Analyses and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistical methods.  Findings: A positive correlation was found between emotional intelligence and diversity management competency. Gender, ethnicity, and age, did not moderate the relationship between emotional intelligence and diversity management competency.  Practical Implications: As difference is the reality of modern organizations, it is important to conceptualize it as normal and positive. Emotional intelligence is recommended as a critical tool to normalize the individual perceptions of difference. The re-assessment of the functions of managers must be followed by total commitment to capacity building in emotional intelligence, as well as the re-engineering of organizational and national cultures to promote equal opportunities, inclusion and diversity leveraging.  Originality/value: This study pioneers research on emotional intelligence and diversity management competency in Nigeria’s public healthcare sector. It conceptualizes diversity management on an individual- managerial level. Practical interventions are provided to enhance the application of specific competencies to optimize a diverse workplace.

  15. Emotions in overweight and normal-weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Gerer, Jutta; Ellgring, Heiner

    2003-11-01

    Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19-25 kg/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26-40 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after eating. Perceived characteristics of the foods and associations elicited by the foods were also obtained. Negative emotions (anger, fear, shame, and sadness) and sleepiness increased, while happiness decreased with energy of foods. Emotionally negative associations were more frequent, while positive emotions were less frequent the higher the energy content of the foods. Sadness, shame, fear, and sleepiness after eating high-energy food tended to be more intense in overweight women. Additional analyses demonstrated influences of eating habits, e.g., disinhibition. The higher the energy content of a food stimulus, the more it was viewed as "unhealthy" and "dangerous." It is suggested that immediate food-induced changes of emotions can be explained by activation of associative emotion networks.

  16. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same...... mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation...... and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity...

  17. Electrophysiological indices of visual food cue-reactivity. Differences in obese, overweight and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David John; Howells, Fleur Margaret; Rauch, H G Laurie; Kroff, Jacolene; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2015-02-01

    Heightened food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese individuals has been related to aberrant functioning of neural circuitry implicated in motivational behaviours and reward-seeking. Here we explore the neurophysiology of visual food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese women, as compared with normal weight women, by assessing differences in cortical arousal and attentional processing elicited by food and neutral image inserts in a Stroop task with record of EEG spectral band power and ERP responses. Results show excess right frontal (F8) and left central (C3) relative beta band activity in overweight women during food task performance (indicative of pronounced early visual cue-reactivity) and blunted prefrontal (Fp1 and Fp2) theta band activity in obese women during office task performance (suggestive of executive dysfunction). Moreover, as compared to normal weight women, food images elicited greater right parietal (P4) ERP P200 amplitude in overweight women (denoting pronounced early attentional processing) and shorter right parietal (P4) ERP P300 latency in obese women (signifying enhanced and efficient maintained attentional processing). Differential measures of cortical arousal and attentional processing showed significant correlations with self-reported eating behaviour and body shape dissatisfaction, as well as with objectively assessed percent fat mass. The findings of the present study suggest that heightened food cue-reactivity can be neurophysiologically measured, that different neural circuits are implicated in the pathogenesis of overweight and obesity, and that EEG techniques may serve useful in the identification of endophenotypic markers associated with an increased risk of externally mediated food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathologic analysis on hyperplasia of mammary gland with different syndromes based on infrared radiation temperature of acupoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Shen, Xueyong; Ying, Jian; Zheng, Juanjuan; Hu, Shengfang; Zhao, Ling; Deng, Haiping; Zhang, Haimeng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the pathologic characteristics of hyperplasia of the mammary gland (HMG) by observing differences in infrared radiation temperature of points of HMG in patients with different syndromes compared with healthy controls. A FLIR Systems Therma CAM P30 infrared thermal camera was used to detect the infrared temperature of Shanzhong (CV 17), Qimen (LR 14), Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Taixi (KI 3), and Taichong (LR 3) in 113 patients with HMG. Of these patients, 71 were placed in the Liver Qi stagnation group, 34 were placed in the Dysfunction of conception and thoroughfare vessels group, and 8 were placed in the Phlegm and blood stasis in combination group. The infrared radiation temperature of each point in the patients was compared with that of healthy controls, and the differences in the infrared radiation temperatures of the points in the patients were analyzed. Overall, the bilateral corresponding point in both the controls and patients exhibited no significant difference in infrared radiation temperature. In all cases, the infrared radiation temperature of the points from proximal to distal tended to decrease. In a comparison of the patients and controls, the infrared radiation temperature of the trunk points Shanzhong (CV 17), Qimen (LR 14), Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), and Guanyuan (CV 4) of the patients was higher than that of the controls, while the infrared radiation temperature of the lower extremity points Taixi (KI 3) and Taichong (LR 3) was lower than that of the controls. Of these points, Shanzhong (CV 17) (P=0.0368), Zhongwan (CV 12) (P=0.0028), Qihai (CV 6) (P=0.0085), and Guanyuan (CV 4) (P=0.0018) showed significant differences. In a comparison of the corresponding point on the same side in the Liver Qi stagnation group and controls, the infrared radiation temperature of Shanzhong (CV 17) (P=0.0089), right-side Qi-men (LR 14) (P=0.0382), Zhongwan (CV 12) (P= 0.0000), Qihai (CV 6) (P=0.0011), and Guanyuan (CV 4) (P=0

  19. Gender Difference in TEOAEs and Contralateral Suppression of TEOAEs in Normal Hearing Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs are sounds that originate in cochlea and are measured in external auditory canal and provide a simple, efficient and non-invasive objective indicator of healthy cochlear function. Olivo cochlear bundle (OCB or auditory efferent system is a neural feedback pathway which originated from brain stem and terminated in the inner ear and can be evaluated non-invasively by applying a contralateral acoustic stimulus and simultaneously measuring reduction of OAEs amplitude. In this study gender differences in TEOAE amplitude and suppression of TEOAE were investigated. Methods: This study was performed at Akhavan rehabilitation centre belonging to the University of Social welfare and rehabilitation sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2011. 60 young adults (30 female and 30 male between 21 and 27 years old (mean=24 years old, SD=1.661 with normal hearing criteria were selected. Right ear of all cases were tested to neutralize side effect if there is any. Results: According to Independent t-test, TEOAE amplitude was significantly greater in females with mean value of 24.98 dB (P<0.001 and TEOAE suppression was significantly greater in males with mean value of 2.07 dB (P<0.001. Discussion: This study shows that there is a significant gender difference in adult’s TEOAE (cochlear mechanisms and TEOAE suppression (auditory efferent system. The exact reason for these results is not clear. According to this study different norms for males and females might be necessary.

  20. Snow Monitoring Using Remote Sensing Data: Modification of Normalized Difference Snow Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, G.; Avdan, U.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is an important part of the Earth`s climate system so its continuous monitoring is necessary to map snow cover in high resolution. Satellite remote sensing can successfully fetch land cover and land cover changes. Although normalized difference snow index NDSI has quite good accuracy, topography shadow, water bodies and clouds can be easily misplaced as snow. Using Landsat TM, +ETM and TIRS/OLI satellite images, the NDSI was modified for more accurate snow mapping. In this paper, elimination of the misplaced water bodies was made using the high reflectance of the snow in the blue band. Afterwards, the modified NDSI (MNDSI) was used for estimating snow cover through the years on the highest mountains in Republic of Macedonia. The results from this study show that the MNDSI accuracy is bigger than the NDSI`s, totally eliminating the misplaced water bodies, and partly the one caused from topography and clouds. Also, it was noticed that the snow cover in the study area has been lowered through the years. For future studies, the MNDSI should be validated on different study areas with different characteristics.

  1. Sex differences in prefrontal hemodynamic response to mental arithmetic as assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Wang, Yiwen; Lu, Zuhong

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in cognitive tasks have been widely investigated. With brain-imaging techniques, the functions of the brain during the performance of tasks can be examined. Mental arithmetic and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to assess sex differences in prefrontal area activation in a functional brain study. Healthy college students were recruited to perform 2 mental arithmetic tasks. In the first (easy) task, students had to subtract a 1-digit number from a 3-digit number. In the second (difficult) task, they had to subtract a 2-digit number from a 3-digit number. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hgb) in the prefrontal area during the tasks were measured with NIRS. Thirty students (15 men, 15 women; mean [SD] age: 24.9 [2.2] and 24.3 [2.6] years, respectively) were recruited from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, to participate in the study. The concentration of oxy-Hgb increased during both mental arithmetic tasks (difficult task vs easy task, mean [SD] % arbitrary units: 4.36 [4.38] vs 2.26 [2.82]; F(1,28) = 222.80; P men and women were observed in the mean (SD) response time (men vs women, sec: 3.60 [0.74] vs 3.56 [0.49] for the easy task, 6.55 [0.77] vs 6.44 [0.75] for the difficult task; F(1,28) = 0.67; P = NS) or accuracy rate (men vs women, %: 95.33 [7.40] vs 92.77 [8.80] for the easy task, 62.67 [28.56] vs 54.67 [18.75] for the difficult task; F(1,28) = 0.54; P = NS). Male students showed neural efficiency (less prefrontal activation in subjects with better performance) during the difficult task. In these subjects, sex differences in prefrontal response when performing mental arithmetic were associated with the intensity of the task. Compared with men, women had greater efficiency in task performance (ie, less activation or oxygen consumption for equal performance). Copyright 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The assessment of anthropogenic impact on the environment in East Fennoscandia based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miulgauzen, Daria; Pankratova, Lubov

    2017-04-01

    Being a part of Eurasian "cold sector", ecosystems of East Fennoscandia may fit in the category of the most vulnerable to any external impact, including anthropogenic one. The productivity of plant communities can serve as an indicator representing the state of ecosystems, especially in disturbed areas. The present research is aimed at the environmental impact assessment caused by the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant based on the plant communities' productivity data on the example of ecosystems of East Fennoscandia. Vegetation productivity was assessed on the basis of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which is often used for screenings to quantify plant canopy. The essence of the method is that of the difference between the spectral reflectance of vegetation in red and near-infrared regions. The index was calculated on the satellite images of Landsat 8 in IDRISI Kilimanjaro (Clark Labs) according to the equation: N DV I = N-IR- RED-; N IR +RED NIR - spectral reflectance measurements in near-infrared region, RED - spectral reflectance measurements in red region. To compare the index calculations with the information on the state of plant communities, the field studies were carried out in the area of 380 km2 in the vicinity of the Pechenganikel Mining and Metallurgical Plant (Kola Peninsula, Nikel urban-type settlement). As a result, there was created a map in MapInfo Professional 12.5 (Pitney Bowes Software) that represents the vegetation damage at a scale of 1:100,000. The field research has revealed the morphogenetic discrepancy between the soil-plant cover of the area in question and the one of "zonal" ecosystems. Plant communities have been widely modified or destroyed because of air pollution and there are numerous disturbances in the soil profile structure. In terms of vegetation productivity, the analysis of the NDVI figures has shown that the closer the pollution source (Pechenganikel Plant) is, the more significant the

  3. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  4. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Brasil Grezzana

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. Objective: To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8, the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. Results: There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58% for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%, specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%, and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47% for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%, specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%, and kappa value of 0.103. Conclusion: The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines.

  5. Normal renal arterial anatomy assessed by multidetector CT angiography: are there differences between men and women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turba, Ulku Cenk; Uflacker, Renan; Bozlar, Ugur; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine renal arterial anatomy and gender differences in adults without renovascular disease using multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA). MDCTA datasets of 399 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Measurements of the aortorenal diameters, the angulation of the renal ostia and pedicles as well as the distance between the origins of the renal arteries were measured. Differences in measurements between genders were tested for statistical significance using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-Square tests. A total of 798 renal arteries were available for analysis in 207 female (mean age = 52.91 years) and 192 male patients (mean age = 53.04 years). Female patients were found to have smaller aortae (at the level of the right renal ostium) and bilateral renal arteries than males (mean aortic diameter M/F = 18.33/15.89 mm, mean right renal artery ostial diameter M/F = 5.06/4.59 mm, mean left ostial renal diameter M/F = 5.14/4.66 mm) (p renal ostia level in relation to the vertebrae and the majority of renal arteries originated at the L1 and L2 levels. The longitudinal distance between right and left renal artery ostia ranged from 0 to 32 mm (mean = 4,6 mm, median = 5mm). The mean anteroposterior orientation of the right renal ostia was M/F = 29.45 degrees/28.20 degrees , and M/F = -7.96 degrees/-11.14 degrees for left renal artery ostia. The mean anteroposterior orientation of the right renal pedicle was M/F = 41.37 degrees/44.34 degrees and M/F = 42.31 degrees/43.95 degrees for the left pedicle. There are some differences in normal renal arterial anatomy between genders. Normal renal arterial information is useful not only for planning and performing of endovascular and laparoscopic urologic procedures, but also for medical device development. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflective index and normalized difference vegetative index during plant senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordon, Gabriela; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Paruelo, José M

    2016-07-20

    The relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and chlorophyll fluorescence along senescence was investigated in this work. Reflectance and radiance measurements were performed at canopy level in grass species presenting different photosynthetic metabolism: Avena sativa (C3) and Setaria italica (C4), at different stages of the natural senescence process. Sun induced-chlorophyll fluorescence at 760nm (SIF 760 ) and the apparent fluorescence yield (SIF 760 /a, with a=irradiance at time of measurement) were extracted from the radiance spectra of canopies using the Fraunhofer Line Discrimination-method. The photosynthetic parameters derived from Kautsky kinetics and pigment content were also calculated at leaf level. Whilst stand level NDVI patterns were related to changes in the structure of canopies and not in pigment content, stand level PRI patterns suggested changes both in terms of canopy and of pigment content in leaves. Both SIF 760 /a and Φ PSII decreased progressively along senescence in both species. A strong increment in NPQ was evident in A. sativa while in S. italica NPQ values were lower. Our most important finding was that two chlorophyll fluorescence signals, Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a, correlated with the canopy PRI values in the two grasses assessed, even when tissues at different ontogenic stages were present. Even though significant changes occurred in the Total Chlr/Car ratio along senescence in both studied species, significant correlations between PRI and chlorophyll fluorescence signals might indicate the usefulness of this reflectance index as a proxy of photosynthetic RUE, at least under the conditions of this study. The relationships between stand level PRI and the fluorescence estimators (Φ PSII and SIF 760 /a) were positive in both cases. Therefore, an increase in PRI values as in the fluorescence parameters would indicate higher RUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All

  7. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  9. Estimating net ecosystem exchange of carbon using the normalized difference vegetation index and an ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Patyn, J.; Myneni, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation and prediction of changes in carbon dynamics at the ecosystem level is a key issue in studies of global change. An operational concept for the determination of carbon fluxes for the Belgian territory is the goal of the presented study. The approach is based on the integration of remotely sensed data into ecosystem models in order to evaluate photosynthetic assimilation and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Remote sensing can be developed as an operational tool to determine the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (feAR). A review of the methodological approach of mapping fPAR dynamics at the regional scale by means of NOAA11-A VHRR / 2 data for the year 1990 is given. The processing sequence from raw radiance values to fPAR is presented. An interesting aspect of incorporating remote sensing derived fPAR in ecosystem models is the potential for modeling actual as opposed to potential vegetation. Further work should prove whether the concepts presented and the assumptions made in this study are valid. (NEE). Complex ecosystem models with a highly predictive value for a specific ecosystem are generally not suitable for global or regional applications, since they require a substantial set of ancillary data becoming increasingly larger with increasing complexity of the model. The ideal model for our purpose is one that is simple enough to be used in global scale modeling, and which can be adapted for different ecosystems or vegetation types. The fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) during the growing season determines in part net photosynthesis and phytomass production (Ruimy, 1995). Remotely measured red and near-infrared spectral reflectances can be used to estimate fPAR. Therefore, a possible approach is to estimate net photosynthesis, phytomass, and NEE from a combination of satellite data and an ecosystem model that includes carbon dynamics. It has to be stated that some parts of the work presented in this

  10. Study on Angelica and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-xia; Sun, Su-qin; Lv, Guang-hua; Chan, Kelvin K. C.

    2006-05-01

    In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Angelica and its different extracts (extracted by petroleum ether, ethanol and water in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR spectrum can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can not only identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. This analytical method is highly rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  11. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  12. Shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to normal and caries-affected dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: According to the effect of the adhesive and substrate type on the bond strength, examination of the adhesive is required in all aspects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to normal dentin (ND and caries affected dentin (CAD in permanent teeth. METHODS: Thirty extracted molars with small occlusal caries were selected. After preparation and determination of ND and CAD by caries detector, teeth were divided into three groups and treated with one of the two tested adhesives: Single Bond 2 (SB2, Scotchbond Universal with etch (SBU-ER, and Scotchbond Universal without etch (SBU-SE. Then composite (Filtek Z-250 XT were attached to the surfaces and cured. After water storage (24 hours and thermocycling (500 cycles 5-55 °C, bond strength was calculated and failure modes were determined by stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test [Tukey HSD (honest significant difference] and with P ˂ 0.050 as the level of significance. RESULTS: Only SBU-ER had significantly higher shear bond strength than SBU-SE in ND (P = 0.027 and CAD (P = 0.046. Bond strength in SBU-ER the highest and in SBU-SE had the lowest amounts in CAD and ND. There was no significant difference in each group between ND and CAD. CONCLUSION: The 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (SBU-ER had higher bond strength to ND and CAD than the selfetch adhesive (SBU-SE.

  13. Local changes in proteoglycan synthesis during culture are different for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; van der Kraan, P. M.; van Roy, H. L.; Vitters, E. L.; Huber-Bruning, O.; van den Berg, W. B.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Proteoglycan synthesis of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritic human knee cartilage was compared with that of normal cartilage of the same donor. Immediately after cartilage was obtained, the synthesis rate of proteoglycans was higher for osteoarthritic cartilage than for normal cartilage. Proteoglycan

  14. Do Perceptions of Gifted Intelligence and Normal Intelligence Participants Differ about Social Science and Social Scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Sezgin; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to compare the perceptions of students with gifted intelligence and students with those of normal intelligence about social science and social scientists. The data obtained from 23 gifted intelligent and 23 normal participants within the same age group was analysed using content analysis and results were…

  15. The Effects of Different Doses of Ketamine on Quality of Normal Ejaculated Sperm

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    Forouzan Absalan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketamine, an injectable anesthetic in human and animal medicine, is also a recreational drug used by young adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ketamine on membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and sperm parameters in humans. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 40 males with normal semen samples over one month (August 2012. Subjects were randomly allocated to four groups (Control and case I, II and III whose semen samples were adjusted to different concentrations of ketamine (1, 3, 5 μL for one hour. Sperm analysis was performed for routine parameters, motility and morphology. Evaluation of membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation was done by eosin-Y staining and the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total sperm motility in all case groups were significantly lower compared with the control group. In case group III, progressive motility showed significant difference with case group II. After addition of ketamine, sperm had evidence of coiled tails in all case groups compared to the control group however this observation was not significant. Evaluation of membrane integrity showed the rate of necrospermia increased in all case groups. However, ketamine only significantly affected membrane integrity in case group III. SCD staining showed that in the control group nucleoids with medium halos (63.44 ± 1.2 were significantly different compared to the case groups I (15.44 ± 0.45, II (9.05±1.16 and III (10.55 ± 1.14, respectively. Between case groups, nucleoids with large and medium halos showed significant differences in case groups II and III compared with case group I. Nucleoids with medium halos were significantly different between case groups II and III. Conclusion: Ketamine, through its effect on membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation, decreased

  16. Sugarcane leaf area estimate obtained from the corrected Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moura Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large farmland areas and the knowledge on the interaction between solar radiation and vegetation canopies have increased the use of data from orbital remote sensors in sugarcane monitoring. However, the constituents of the atmosphere affect the reflectance values obtained by imaging sensors. This study aimed at improving a sugarcane Leaf Area Index (LAI estimation model, concerning the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI subjected to atmospheric correction. The model generated by the NDVI with atmospheric correction showed the best results (R2 = 0.84; d = 0.95; MAE = 0.44; RMSE = 0.55, in relation to the other models compared. LAI estimation with this model, during the sugarcane plant cycle, reached a maximum of 4.8 at the vegetative growth phase and 2.3 at the end of the maturation phase. Thus, the use of atmospheric correction to estimate the sugarcane LAI is recommended, since this procedure increases the correlations between the LAI estimated by image and by plant parameters.

  17. Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.T.; Massambani, O.; Festa, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variation

  18. Global Trends in Seasonality of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Anyamba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year series of global monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery derived from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS NDVI3g archive was analyzed for the presence of trends in changing seasonality. Using the Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA procedure, over half (56.30% of land surfaces were found to exhibit significant trends. Almost half (46.10% of the significant trends belonged to three classes of seasonal trends (or changes. Class 1 consisted of areas that experienced a uniform increase in NDVI throughout the year, and was primarily associated with forested areas, particularly broadleaf forests. Class 2 consisted of areas experiencing an increase in the amplitude of the annual seasonal signal whereby increases in NDVI in the green season were balanced by decreases in the brown season. These areas were found primarily in grassland and shrubland regions. Class 3 was found primarily in the Taiga and Tundra biomes and exhibited increases in the annual summer peak in NDVI. While no single attribution of cause could be determined for each of these classes, it was evident that they are primarily found in natural areas (as opposed to anthropogenic land cover conversions and that they are consistent with climate-related ameliorations of growing conditions during the study period.

  19. Space Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease Patients: Quantitative or Qualitative Differences from Normal Controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Natsopoulos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD and the same number of normal controls (NCs were studied on a test battery including five conceptual categories of spatial ability. The two groups of subjects were matched for age, sex, years of education, socioeconomic status and non-verbal (Raven Standard Progressive Matrices intelligence. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed that the PD patients performed less efficiently on almost all the tasks. A logistic regression analysis (LRA classified 81.48% of the subjects into the PD group and 92.59% into NC group, indicating that left-right and back-front Euclidean orientation, three dimensional mental rotation and visuospatial immediate recognition memory of mirror image patterns discriminate well between the two groups. Application of a structural model (confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that both PD patients and the NC group stemmed from a homogeneous population, suggesting that the differences found between the two groups are of a quantitative rather than of a qualitative nature.

  20. Feasibility Study of Land Cover Classification Based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Landslide Risk Assessment

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    Thilanki Dahigamuwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable land cover leads to excessive damage from landslides and other natural hazards, whereas the presence of vegetation is expected to mitigate rainfall-induced landslide potential. Hence, unexpected and rapid changes in land cover due to deforestation would be detrimental in landslide-prone areas. Also, vegetation cover is subject to phenological variations and therefore, timely classification of land cover is an essential step in effective evaluation of landslide hazard potential. The work presented here investigates methods that can be used for land cover classification based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from up-to-date satellite images, and the feasibility of application in landslide risk prediction. A major benefit of this method would be the eventual ability to employ NDVI as a stand-alone parameter for accurate assessment of the impact of land cover in landslide hazard evaluation. An added benefit would be the timely detection of undesirable practices such as deforestation using satellite imagery. A landslide-prone region in Oregon, USA is used as a model for the application of the classification method. Five selected classification techniques—k-nearest neighbor, Gaussian support vector machine (GSVM, artificial neural network, decision tree and quadratic discriminant analysis support the viability of the NDVI-based land cover classification. Finally, its application in landslide risk evaluation is demonstrated.

  1. Protoporphyrin IX formation and photobleaching in different layers of normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Idorn, Luise W; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    human skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methylaminolevulinate (MAL) or 20% hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) for 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy quantified PpIX accumulation in epidermis, superficial, mid and deep dermis, down to 2 mm. PpIX photobleaching by light-emitting diode (LED, 632 nm, 18......Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for various skin disorders, and selective targeting of specific skin structures is desirable. The objective was to assess accumulation of PpIX fluorescence and photobleaching within skin layers using different photosensitizers and light sources. Normal...... and 37 J/cm(2)), intense pulsed light (IPL, 500-650 nm, 36 and 72 J/cm(2)) and long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL, 595 nm, 7.5 and 15 J/cm(2)) was measured using fluorescence photography and microscopy. We found higher PpIX fluorescence intensities in epidermis and superficial dermis in HAL-incubated skin than...

  2. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t- test. There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P spondylolysis group. Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population.

  3. Cross-modal interactions for custard desserts differ in obese and normal weight Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Cristina; Laureati, Monica; Invitti, Cecilia; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2016-05-01

    The effects of variation in odors and thickening agents on sensory properties and acceptability of a model custard dessert were investigated in normal weight and obese women. Subjects rated their liking and the intensity of sensory properties (sweetness, vanilla and butter flavors, and creaminess) of 3 block samples (the first varied in vanilla aroma, the second varied in butter aroma and the third varied in xanthan gum). Significant differences were found in acceptability and intensity ratings in relation to body mass index. The addition of butter aroma in the custard was the most effective way to elicit odor-taste, odor-flavor and odor-texture interactions in obese women. In this group, butter aroma, signaling energy dense products, increased the perception of sweetness, vanilla flavor and creaminess, which are all desirable properties in a custard, while maintaining a high liking degree. Understanding cross-modal interactions in relation to nutritional status is interesting in order to develop new food products with reduced sugar and fat, that are still satisfying for the consumer. This could have important implications to reduce caloric intake and tackle the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR THE STUDY OF INFRARED SIGNALS OF DIFFERENT SOIL MOISTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Popov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents: structural scheme of the installation for measuring the infrared radiation of the soil in the range of 6-14 um; technical characteristics device ИКВП-01. The opportunities of use of pyroelectric sensors type MLX90614ESF were researched. Dependence of the temperature of soil from its humidity and dependence of the signal IR instrument of soil temperature and humidity are presented.

  5. Effects of Different LiDAR Intensity Normalization Methods on Scotch Pine Forest Leaf Area Index Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Haotian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The intensity data of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR are affected by many factors during the acquisition process. It is of great significance for the normalization and application of LiDAR intensity data to study the effective quantification and normalization of the effect from each factor. In this paper, the LiDAR data were normalized with range, angel of incidence, range and angle of incidence based on radar equation, respectively. Then two metrics, including canopy intensity sum and ratio of intensity, were extracted and used to estimate forest LAI, which was aimed at quantifying the effects of intensity normalization on forest LAI estimation. It was found that the range intensity normalization could improve the accuracy of forest LAI estimation. While the angle of incidence intensity normalization did not improve the accuracy and made the results worse. Although the range and incidence angle normalized intensity data could improve the accuracy, the improvement was less than the result of range intensity normalization. Meanwhile, the differences between the results of forest LAI estimation from raw intensity data and normalized intensity data were relatively big for canopy intensity sum metrics. However, the differences were relatively small for the ratio of intensity metrics. The results demonstrated that the effects of intensity normalization on forest LAI estimation were depended on the choice of affecting factor, and the influential level is closely related to the characteristics of metrics used. Therefore, the appropriate method of intensity normalization should be chosen according to the characteristics of metrics used in the future research, which could avoid the waste of cost and the reduction of estimation accuracy caused by the introduction of inappropriate affecting factors into intensity normalization.

  6. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén, E-mail: madeleine.lyckesvard@oncology.gu.se [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Lindegren, Sture [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jensen, Holger [The PET and Cyclotron Unit Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Bäck, Tom [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Swanpalmer, John [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elmroth, Kecke [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We study DNA damage response to low-LET photons and high-LET alpha particles. • Cycling primary thyrocytes are more sensitive to radiation than stationary cells. • Influence of radiation quality varies due to cell cycle status of normal cells. • High-LET radiation gives rise to a sustained DNA damage response. - Abstract: Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ({sup 211}At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as {sup 131}I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and alpha particles from {sup 211}At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24 h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to {sup 211}At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1 Gy {sup 211}At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative

  7. Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargos Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identification of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%, except in areas of woody vegetation.

  8. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  9. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  10. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  11. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  12. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  13. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (Pflour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (Pflour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Based on Different Constraints in the Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Bi, Duyan; Wu, Dongpeng

    2018-01-01

    There are many artificial parameters when fuse infrared and visible images, to overcome the lack of detail in the fusion image because of the artifacts, a novel fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images that is based on different constraints in non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) domain is proposed. There are high bands and low bands of images that are decomposed by the NSST. After analyzing the characters of the bands, fusing the high level bands by the gradient constraint, the fused image can obtain more details; fusing the low bands by the constraint of saliency in the images, the targets are more salient. Before the inverse NSST, the Nash equilibrium is used to update the coefficient. The fused images and the quantitative results demonstrate that our method is more effective in reserving details and highlighting the targets when compared with other state-of-the-art methods. PMID:29641505

  15. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Primary health care (PHC) physicians should be prepared to act appropriately in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the rates of patients with control of blood pressure (BP) remain low. The impact of the reclassification of high BP by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) can lead to different medical decisions in PHC. To evaluate the agreement between the BP measured by a conventional method by PHC physicians and by 24-hour ABPM, considering different BP normal thresholds for the 24-hour ABPM according to the V Brazilian ABPM Guidelines and the European Society of Hypertension Guidelines. A cross-sectional study including 569 hypertensive patients. The BP was initially measured by the PHC physicians and, later, by 24-hour ABPM. The BP measurements were obtained independently between the two methods. The therapeutic targets for the conventional BP followed the guidelines by the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), the V ABPM Brazilian Guidelines, and the 2013 European Hypertension Guidelines. There was an accuracy of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.51 - 0.58%) for the BP measured with the conventional method when compared with the 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 85% (95%CI 80.8 - 88.6%), specificity of 31.9% (95%CI 28.7 - 34.7%), and kappa value of 0.155, when considering the European Hypertension Guidelines. When using more stringent thresholds to characterize the BP as "normal" by ABPM, the accuracy was 45% (95%CI 0.41 - 0.47%) for conventional measurement when compared with 24-hour ABPM, with a sensitivity of 86.7% (95%CI 0.81 - 0.91%), specificity of 29% (95%CI 0.26 - 0.30%), and kappa value of 0.103. The BP measurements obtained by PHC physicians showed low accuracy when compared with those obtained by 24-hour ABPM, regardless of the threshold set by the different guidelines. A hipertensão arterial sistêmica é um fator de risco importante para

  16. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  17. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  18. Small average differences in attenuation corrected images between men and women in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: a novel normal stress database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Sjöstrand, Karl; Jakobsson, David; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology and the Society of Nuclear Medicine state that incorporation of attenuation-corrected (AC) images in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) will improve image quality, interpretive certainty, and diagnostic accuracy. However, commonly used software packages for MPS usually include normal stress databases for non-attenuation corrected (NC) images but not for attenuation-corrected (AC) images. The aim of the study was to develop and compare different normal stress databases for MPS in relation to NC vs. AC images, male vs. female gender, and presence vs. absence of obesity. The principal hypothesis was that differences in mean count values between men and women would be smaller with AC than NC images, thereby allowing for construction and use of gender-independent AC stress database. Normal stress perfusion databases were developed with data from 126 male and 205 female patients with normal MPS. The following comparisons were performed for all patients and separately for normal weight vs. obese patients: men vs. women for AC; men vs. women for NC; AC vs. NC for men; and AC vs. NC for women. When comparing AC for men vs. women, only minor differences in mean count values were observed, and there were no differences for normal weight vs. obese patients. For all other analyses major differences were found, particularly for the inferior wall. The results support the hypothesis that it is possible to use not only gender independent but also weight independent AC stress databases

  19. Differences in [14C]glycerol utilization in normal and familial hypercholesterolemic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Durieux, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that cultured fibroblasts from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients lack the normal cell receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) and that the absence of receptor-mediated transport of LDL cholesterol into these cells results in increased cellular synthesis of cholesterol. After 20 h perincubation in lipid-free medium, cultured FH fibroblasts incorporated significantly greater amounts of [ 14 C]glycerol into cellular lipids than did normal fibroblasts. Relative to the control medium which contained only bovine serum albumin (BSA), preincubation with 5% fetal bovine serum or 50 micrograms LDL/ml decreased [ 14 C]glycerol incorporation by both cell types. FH cells utilized more [ 14 C]glycerol for phospholipid synthesis and less for triglyceride synthesis than normal cells. This study indicates that LDL may be important in the transport of glycerides, as well as cholesterol, to cells

  20. Market size structure and small business lending : Are crisis times different from normal times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Allen N.; Cerqueiro, G.M.; Penas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that small banks have comparative advantages vis-à-vis large banks in serving small firms, while recent literature suggests this may not be the case. Using a panel of recent US start-ups, we investigate how small bank presence affects these firms in normal times (2004–06)

  1. Monte Carlo comparison of four normality tests using different entropy estimates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esteban, M. D.; Castellanos, M. E.; Morales, D.; Vajda, Igor

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2001), s. 761-785 ISSN 0361-0918 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : test of normality * entropy test and entropy estimator * table of critical values Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.153, year: 2001

  2. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique...... cancer cell lines (p immortalized cell line (p

  3. Even-odd charged multiplicity distributions and energy dependence of normalized multiplicity moments in different rapidity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanfang; Liu Lianshou

    1990-01-01

    The even and odd multiplicity distributions for hadron-hadron collision in different rapidity windows are calculated, starting from a simple picture for charge correlation with non-zero correlation length. The coincidence and separation of these distributions are explained. The calculated window-and energy-dependence of normalized moments recovered the behaviour found in experiments. A new definition for normalized moments is propossed, especially suitable for narrow rapidity windows

  4. Inter-subject FDG PET Brain Networks Exhibit Multi-scale Community Structure with Different Normalization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Megan M; Kartha, Sonia; Granquist, Eric J; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2018-07-01

    Inter-subject networks are used to model correlations between brain regions and are particularly useful for metabolic imaging techniques, like 18F-2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Since FDG PET typically produces a single image, correlations cannot be calculated over time. Little focus has been placed on the basic properties of inter-subject networks and if they are affected by group size and image normalization. FDG PET images were acquired from rats (n = 18), normalized by whole brain, visual cortex, or cerebellar FDG uptake, and used to construct correlation matrices. Group size effects on network stability were investigated by systematically adding rats and evaluating local network connectivity (node strength and clustering coefficient). Modularity and community structure were also evaluated in the differently normalized networks to assess meso-scale network relationships. Local network properties are stable regardless of normalization region for groups of at least 10. Whole brain-normalized networks are more modular than visual cortex- or cerebellum-normalized network (p network resolutions where modularity differs most between brain and randomized networks. Hierarchical analysis reveals consistent modules at different scales and clustering of spatially-proximate brain regions. Findings suggest inter-subject FDG PET networks are stable for reasonable group sizes and exhibit multi-scale modularity.

  5. A normalization method for combination of laboratory test results from different electronic healthcare databases in a distributed research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-03-01

    Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  7. Studying the effect of different elements in gastric emptying that produce normal variations in `healthy` individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, L. [Sydney University, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-06-01

    Maintaining the rate of emptying solids and liquids at normal levels, is an essential component for the correct functioning of the entire gastro-intestinal tract. There is no single-test available which provides a `baseline` for all gastric emptying studies. This problem arises due to many elements which normally effect the rate of gastric emptying, such as those dealing with patient factors, the composition of the liquid/solid meal used and also which radiopharmaceutical is chosen. It is therefore recommended that each Nuclear Medicine practice needs to set-up guidelines which are able to be consistently reproduced. One such guideline may be in the form of a `liquid glucose meal` which provides consistent and accurate results for gastric emptying studies 18 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  9. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  10. Use of infrared imaging to predict the developmental stages and differences in chicken embryos exposed to different photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Rebecca A.; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Palomares, Benjamin Giron

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring development of chicken embryos allows determination of when an egg is not developing and when eggs are close to hatching for more efficient production. Research has been conducted on the effects of temperature fluctuations and light exposure on embryo development; similarities between chicken and mammal embryos; and the use of MRI, tomography, and ultrasound to view specific areas and processes within the embryo. However, there has been little exploration of the use of infrared imaging as a non-destructive method for analyzing and predicting embryonic development. In this study, we built an automated loading system for image acquisition. Pilot experiments were conducted to determine the overall scanning time and scanning frequency. A batch of fertilized eggs was scanned each day as the embryos continued to grow. The captured images were analyzed and categorized into three stages: Stage 1 (days 1 to 7), Stage 2 (days 8 to 14), and Stage 3 (days 15 to 21). The temperature data abstracted from the captured images were divided into two groups. Group 1, consisting of two-thirds of the data, was used to construct a model. Group 2, consisting of one-third of the data, was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the model. A three-layer artificial neural network model was developed to predict embryo development stage given a temperature profile. Results suggest that the neural network model is sufficient to predict embryo development stage with good accuracy of 75%. Accuracy can likely be improved if more data sets for each development stage are available.

  11. Infrared reflectometry of skin: Analysis of backscattered light from different skin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitez, Miguel A.; Hertzberg, Otto; Bauer, Alexander; Lieblein, Tobias; Glasmacher, Mathias; Tholl, Hans; Mäntele, Werner

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported infrared spectroscopy of human skin in vivo using quantum cascade laser excitation and photoacoustic or photothermal detection for non-invasive glucose measurement . Here, we analyze the IR light diffusely reflected from skin layers for spectral contributions of glucose. Excitation of human skin by an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser in the spectral region from 1000 to 1245 cm- 1, where glucose exhibits a fingerprint absorption, yields reflectance spectra with some contributions from glucose molecules. A simple three-layer model of skin was used to calculate the scattering intensities from the surface and from shallow and deeper layers using the Boltzmann radiation transfer equation. Backscattering of light at wavelengths around 10 μm from the living skin occurs mostly from the Stratum corneum top layers and the shallow layers of the living epidermis. The analysis of the polarization of the backscattered light confirms this calculation. Polarization is essentially unchanged; only a very small fraction (light is due to specular reflectance and to scattering from layers close to the surface. Diffusely reflected light from deeper layers undergoing one or more scattering processes would appear with significantly altered polarization. We thus conclude that a non-invasive glucose measurement based on backscattering of IR light from skin would have the drawback that only shallow layers containing some glucose at concentrations only weakly related to blood glucose are monitored.

  12. Morphometric and volumetric study of caudate and putamen nuclei in normal individuals by MRI: Effect of normal aging, gender and hemispheric differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedelahi, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Hadizadeh, Homaioon; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine age, gender, and hemispheric differences in the volume of the human neostriatum (striatum) nucleus in healthy humans. This study was performed on 120 normal human subjects (60 males, 60 females, right-handed) 15–65 years old, divided into two groups: young (<40 yrs) and old (=≥40 yrs). Sectional brain images were obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), analyzed and processed using the Image-J software, and the striatum volume was calculated using the Cavalieri’s principle, retrospectively. The analyses revealed bilateral age-related shrinkage of the putamen in both genders and the putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly smaller in older than in younger subjects (P-value <0.001). The age-related shrinkage of the caudate and putamen nucleus in men and women was about 5%, 5% and 4%, 4%, respectively, and there were statistically significant volume differences between males and females (P-value <0.05). In both genders, a significant rightward asymmetry was observed in the caudate and putamen nucleus (3.89%, 4.21% in men and 4.51%, 3.32% in women). Bilateral age-related shrinkage and rightward asymmetry of the striate nucleus was found in healthy adults and there were significant volume differences between men and women. Obtained results provide useful baseline data on age and gender-related changes of the volume of the striatum

  13. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  14. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed.

  15. SU-E-J-178: A Normalization Method Can Remove Discrepancy in Ventilation Function Due to Different Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Yu, N; Stephans, K; Xia, P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a normalization method to remove discrepancy in ventilation function due to different breathing patterns. Methods: Twenty five early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients were included in this study. For each patient, a ten phase 4D-CT and the voluntarily maximum inhale and exhale CTs were acquired clinically and retrospectively used for this study. For each patient, two ventilation maps were calculated from voxel-to-voxel CT density variations from two phases of the quiet breathing and two phases of the extreme breathing. For the quiet breathing, 0% (inhale) and 50% (exhale) phases from 4D-CT were used. An in-house tool was developed to calculate and display the ventilation maps. To enable normalization, the whole lung of each patient was evenly divided into three parts in the longitude direction at a coronal image with a maximum lung cross section. The ratio of cumulated ventilation from the top one-third region to the middle one-third region of the lung was calculated for each breathing pattern. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated on the ratios of the two breathing patterns for the group. Results: For each patient, the ventilation map from the quiet breathing was different from that of the extreme breathing. When the cumulative ventilation was normalized to the middle one-third of the lung region for each patient, the normalized ventilation functions from the two breathing patterns were consistent. For this group of patients, the correlation coefficient of the normalized ventilations for the two breathing patterns was 0.76 (p < 0.01), indicating a strong correlation in the ventilation function measured from the two breathing patterns. Conclusion: For each patient, the ventilation map is dependent of the breathing pattern. Using a regional normalization method, the discrepancy in ventilation function induced by the different breathing patterns thus different tidal volumes can be removed

  16. Seeing in a different light—using an infrared camera to teach heat transfer and optical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei Wong, Choun; Subramaniam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The infrared camera is a useful tool in physics education to ‘see’ in the infrared. In this paper, we describe four simple experiments that focus on phenomena related to heat transfer and optics that are encountered at undergraduate physics level using an infrared camera, and discuss the strengths and limitations of this tool for such purposes.

  17. Seeing in a Different Light--Using an Infrared Camera to Teach Heat Transfer and Optical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Choun Pei; Subramaniam, R.

    2018-01-01

    The infrared camera is a useful tool in physics education to 'see' in the infrared. In this paper, we describe four simple experiments that focus on phenomena related to heat transfer and optics that are encountered at undergraduate physics level using an infrared camera, and discuss the strengths and limitations of this tool for such purposes.

  18. Differences in response to conventional vitamin D therapy among obese and normal weight children and adolescents in Qazvin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saffari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D (Vit D deficiency is one of the major nutritional deficiencies in children. Obesity has inverse association with vitamin D levels. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in response to conventional treatment for Vit D deficiency and insufficiency in obese and normal weight children and adolescents.Methods: This nested case control study was conducted in 69 obese children and 133 normal weight matched control suffering from Vit D insufficiency or deficiency. Vit D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH D

  19. Determination of Chinese rice wine from different wineries by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoying; Ying, Yibin; Yu, Haiyan; Xie, Lijuan; Fu, Xiaping; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Xuesong

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, 104 samples of Chinese rice wines of the same variety (Shaoxing rice wine), collected in three winery ("guyuelongshan", "pagoda" brand, "kuaijishan"), three brewed years (2002, 2004, 2004-2006) were analyzed by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy between 800 and 2500 nm. The spectral differences were studied by principal components analysis (PCA), and Classifications, according the brand, were carried out by discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The DA model gained a total accuracy of 94.23% and when used to predict the brand of the validation set samples, a better result, correctly classified all of the three kinds of Chinese rice wine up to 100%, are obtained by PLSDA model. The work reported here is a feasibility study and requires further development with considerable samples of more different brands. Further studies are needed in order to improve the accuracy and robustness, and to extend the discrimination to other Chinese rice wine varieties or brands.

  20. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...... ventilatory modes. Also the mean airway pressures were lower with the HFV modes 8-9 cm H2O compared to 11-14 cm H2O for the other modes. The gas distribution was evaluated by N2 wash-out and a modified lung clearance index. All modes showed N2 wash-out according to a two-compartment model. The SV-20P mode had.......e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with superimposed inspiratory oscillations; and SV-20VEf, i.e. volume-controlled ventilation (IPPV) with expiratory flush of fresh gas; HFV-60 denotes low-compressive high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) and HVF-20 denotes low-compressive volume...

  1. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S.

    1998-01-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.)

  2. Sex differences in morphology of the brain stem and cerebellum with normal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguro, H.; Okada, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Internal Medicine III, Shimane Medical University, Izumo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The cerebral hemispheres become atrophic with age. The sex of the individual may affect this process. There are few studies of the effects of age and sex on the brain stem and cerebellum. We used MRI morphometry to study changes in these structures in 152 normal subjects over 40 years of age. In the linear measurements, men showed significant age-associated atrophy in the tegmentum and pretectum of the midbrain and the base of the pons. In women, only the pretectum of the midbrain showed significant ageing effects after the age of 50 years, and thereafter remained rather constant. Only men had significant age-associated reduction in area of the crebellar vermis area after the age of 70 years. Both men and women showed supratentorial brain atrophy that progressed by decades. There were significant correlations between supratentorial brain atrophy and the diameter of the ventral midbrain, pretectum, and base of the pons in men, and between brain atrophy and the diameter of the fourth ventricle in women. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs.

  3. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  4. Normal Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic experiments with thin layer chromatography spots of essential amino acids using different laser excitation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    István, Krisztina; Keresztury, Gábor; Szép, Andrea

    2003-06-01

    A comparative study of the feasibility and efficiency of Raman spectroscopic detection of thin layer chromatography (TLC) spots of some weak Raman scatterers (essential amino acids, namely, glycine and L-forms of alanine, serine, valine, proline, hydroxyproline, and phenylalanine) was carried out using four different visible and near-infrared (NIR) laser radiations with wavelengths of 532, 633, 785, and 1064 nm. Three types of commercial TLC plates were tested and the possibility of inducing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by means of Ag-sol was also investigated. The spectra obtained from spotted analytes adsorbed on TLC plates were of very different quality strongly depending on the excitation wavelength, the wetness of the samples, and the compounds examined. The best results were obtained with the simple silica TLC plate, and it has been established that the longest wavelength (lowest energy) NIR excitation of a Nd:YAG laser is definitely more suitable for generating normal Raman scattering of analyte spots than any of the visible radiations. Concerning SERS with application of Ag-sol to the TLC spots, 1-3 orders of magnitude enhancement was observed with wet samples, the greatest with the 532 nm radiation and gradually smaller with the longer wavelength excitations. It is shown, however, that due to severe adsorption-induced spectral distortions and increased sensitivity to microscopic inhomogeneity of the sample, none of the SERS spectra obtained with the dispersive Raman microscope operating in the visible region were superior to the best NIR normal FT-Raman spectra, as far as sample identification is concerned.

  5. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  6. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Pdata) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  8. Far infrared near normal specular reflectivity of Nix(SiO2)1-x (x = 1.0, 0.84, 0.75, 0.61, 0.54, 0.28) granular films

    KAUST Repository

    Massa, Né stor E.; Denardin, Juliano C.; Socolovsky, Leandro M.; Knobel, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Fernando Pablo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2010-01-01

    of transition metal granular films with different metal fractions against what is known for conducting oxides. Films for Nix(SiO2)1-x (x = 1.0, 0.84, 0.75, 0.61, 0.54, 0.28) were studied by temperature dependent far infrared measurements. While for pure Ni

  9. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshoorn, Nieke E; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Biermasz, Nienke R; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Smit, Johannes W A; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as an important cause of hypopituitarism. However, considerable variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism are reported. These can partly be explained by severity of trauma and timing of hormonal evaluation, but may also be dependent on endocrine tests and criteria used for diagnosis of hypopituitarism. Systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of hypopituitarism in adults >or=1 year after TBI focusing on used (dynamic) tests and biochemical criteria. We included data from 14 studies with a total of 931 patients. There was considerable variation in definition of hypopituitarism. Overall, reported prevalences of severe GH deficiency varied between 2 and 39%. Prevalences were 8-20% using the GHRH-arginine test (cutoff hypopituitarism after TBI are in part caused by differences in definitions, endocrine assessments of hypopituitarism, and confounding factors. These methodological issues prohibit simple generalizations of results of original studies on TBI-associated hypopituitarism in the perspective of meta-analyses or reviews.

  10. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series of idle agriculture lands: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.; Piamduaytham, S.; Vaiphasa, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into

  11. Normal human immunoglobulin G4 is bispecific: it has two different antigen-combining sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, J.; van Ree, R.; Perdok, G. J.; van Doorn, H. R.; Tan, K. Y.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike other immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, IgG4 antibodies in plasma have been reported to be functionally monovalent. In this paper we show that the apparent monovalency of circulating IgG4 is caused by asymmetry of plasma IgG4. A large fraction of plasma IgG4 molecules have two different

  12. Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles.

  13. Evaluating the normal individual cardiac function in different imaging phases post exercise and rest by gated SPECT myocardial perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, W.; Li, S.J.; Liu, J.Z.; Li, X.F.; Jin, C.R.; Hu, G.; Wang, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: To evaluate the normal individual cardiac function in the different imaging phases post-exercise and rest by GSPECT. Methods: 46 normal individuals underwent exercise/rest GSPECT using 99mTc-MIBI by 2- day program. Sequential imaging was started 15, 35 and 120 minutes after exercise and rest imaging was performed the following day. The left ventricular EF and EDV, ESV values were calculated with the Cedars-Sinai program. Results: The EF values of post- exercise at 15, 35, and 120m was 64.48±7.43%, 65.02±7.66%, and 60.98±7.28% respectively, and the rest EF value was 61.46±7.23%. The post exercise EF at 15m and 35m was higher than EF at post- exercise 120m and rest, but there is a significant difference only between post exercise 35m and rest (P< 0.05), and all post exercise EF did not increase at least 5% from EF at-rest. The EDV and ESV values did not have statistically significant differences at 15, 35,120m post-exercise and rest. The heart rate at 15,35m post- exercise was higher significantly than at rest. Conclusions: The different imaging phases after exercise with 99mTc-MIBI GSPECT affects LVEF in normal individuals, the 35m post- exercise EF is highest. (author)

  14. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  15. Comparison of Different Levels of Reading Comprehension between Hearing-Impaired Loss and Normal-Hearing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Sharifi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading skill is one of the most important necessities of students' learning in everyday life. This skill is referred to the ability of comprehension, comment and conclusion from texts and receiving the meaning of the massage which is composed. Educational development in any student has a direct relation with the ability of the comprehension. This study is designed to investigate the effects of hearing loss on reading comprehension in hearing-impaired students compared to normal-hearing ones.Methods: Seventeen hearing-impaired students in 4th year of primary exceptional schools in Karaj, Robatkarim and Shahriyar, Iran, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Seventeen normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to exceptional ones as control group. They were compared for different levels of reading comprehension using the international standard booklet (PIRLS 2001. Results: There was a significant difference in performance between hearing-impaired and normal- hearing students in different levels of reading comprehension (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hearing loss has negative effects on different levels of reading comprehension, so in exceptional centers, reconsideration in educational planning in order to direct education from memorizing to comprehension and deeper layers of learning seems necessary.

  16. Effect of different BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissues in an experimental model of oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, Elisa M.; Aromando, Romina; Trivillin, Veronica A.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Kreimann, Erica L.; Schwint, Amanda E.; Nigg, David W.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the therapeutic success of different BNCT protocols in the treatment of oral cancer, employing the hamster cheek pouch model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these BNCT protocols on DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal tissue in this model and assess the potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue. The data are relevant to potential control of field cancerized tissue and tolerance of normal tissue. We evaluated DNA synthesis in precancerous and normal pouch tissue 1-30 days post-BNCT mediated by BPA, GB-10 or BPA + GB-10 employing incorporation of bromo-deoxyuridine as an end-point. The BNCT-induced potential lag in the development of second primary tumors in precancerous tissue was monitored. A drastic, statistically significant reduction in DNA synthesis occurred in pacancerous tissue as early as 1 day post-BNCT and was sustained at virtually all time points until 30 days post-BNCT for all protocols. The histological categories evaluated individually within precancerous tissue (dysplasia, hyperplasia and NUMF [no unusual microscopic features]) responded similarly. DNA synthesis in normal tissue treated with BNCT oscillated around the very low pre-treatment values. A BNCT-induced lag in the development of second primary tumors was observed. BNCT induced a drastic fall in DNA synthesis in precancerous tissue that would be associated to the observed lag in the development of second primary tumors. The minimum variations in DNA synthesis in BNCT-treated normal tissue would correlate with the absence of normal tissue radiotoxicity. The present data would contribute to optimize therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of field-cancerized areas. (author)

  17. 1H-MR-spectroscopy in Anorexia nervosa; characteristic differences between patients and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Moeckel, R.; Schlemmmer, H.P.; Gueckel, F.; Koepke, J.; Georgi, M.; Markus, A.; Goepel, C.; Schmidt, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Results: The ratio of NAA/PCr in both voxels were not significantly different when comparing patients vs. controls. Patients showed significantly higher ratios of choline-containing components (Cho) or, respectively Cho/PCr and NAA/PCr in the white matter. Distinct, but not significant differences were detected both for m-Ino and m-Ino/PCr in the parieto-occipital region and for the Cho- and m-Ino cotained ratios in the thalamus. Conclusion: AN is not associated with neuronal damage. The ratio of Cho/PCr and NAA/Cho may reflect the disturbance of membrane-turnover. It is possible that the increase of membrane catabolism leads to a hyperosmolar state. The change of m-Ino/PCr ratio may reflect the regulation of osmolarity. (orig.) [de

  18. Effect of different types of music on exercise performance in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anuprita M; Yardi, Sujata S

    2013-01-01

    While exercising, people seem to enjoy listening to music believing that it relaxes them or helps give the necessary rhythm for exercise. But is music really beneficial? In view of different people listening to different types of music, this study was intended to assess effect of different types of music on exercise performance. 30 healthy female college students in the age group of 18 to 25 years were made to walk on the treadmill 3 times at one week interval: without music (A), with slow music (B), with fast music (C). Duration of exercise and rate of perceived exertion were recorded at the end of each session. The results showed an increase in the duration of exercise in Group B and Group C as compared to Group A and the increase was more in Group C as compared to Group B. It was observed that level of RPE was the same at the end of every exercise session. The reason for increase in exercise duration with music could be because of various factors like dissociation, arousal, motivation, etc. It can be thus suggested that exercises can be performed for longer duration with music than without music and the effect is more with fast music than with slow music. Also with music, the same level of exertion is perceived though the walking duration is considerably increased.

  19. Radioimmunoassays for lg classes G, A, M, D, and E in spinal fluids: normal values of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerenberg, S.T.; Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay procedures of sufficient sensitivity (lgG, 0.5 μg per 100 μl; lgA, 25.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgM, 10.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgD, 0.5 U.* per 100 μl; and lgE, 1.0 U.* per 100 μl) were developed to detect and quantitate all 5 immunoglobulin classes in the cerebrospinal fluid on small aliquots (1 ml.) of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid. All 5 immunoglobulin classes were routinely detected in normal individuals for the first time, the levels varying with different age groups for lgG and A but not for the remaining immunoglobulin classes. Race and sex had no effect. Standardization of techniques and establishment of normal values for different age groups sets the stage for determination of immunoglobulin changes related to central nervous system disease

  20. Hand function with touch screen technology in children with normal hand formation, congenital differences, and neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, David H; Bohn, Deborah K; Agel, Julie; Lindstrom, Katy A; Cronquist, Sara M; Van Heest, Ann E

    2015-05-01

    To measure and compare hand function for children with normal hand development, congenital hand differences (CHD), and neuromuscular disease (NMD) using a function test with touch screen technology designed as an iPhone application. We measured touch screen hand function in 201 children including 113 with normal hand formation, 43 with CHD, and 45 with NMD. The touch screen test was developed on the iOS platform using an Apple iPhone 4. We measured 4 tasks: touching dots on a 3 × 4 grid, dragging shapes, use of the touch screen camera, and typing a line of text. The test takes 60 to 120 seconds and includes a pretest to familiarize the subject with the format. Each task is timed independently and the overall time is recorded. Children with normal hand development took less time to complete all 4 subtests with increasing age. When comparing children with normal hand development with those with CHD or NMD, in children aged less than 5 years we saw minimal differences; those aged 5 to 6 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; those aged 7 to 8 years with NMD took significantly longer total time; those aged 9 to 11 years with CHD took significantly longer total time; and those aged 12 years and older with NMD took significantly longer total time. Touch screen technology has becoming increasingly relevant to hand function in modern society. This study provides standardized age norms and shows that our test discriminates between normal hand development and that in children with CHD or NMD. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  2. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  3. Predicting memory performance in normal ageing using different measures of hippocampal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lye, T.C.; Creasey, H.; Kril, J.J.; Grayson, D.A.; Piguet, O.; Bennett, H.P.; Ridley, L.J.; Broe, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life. (orig.)

  4. Obese motorcycle riders have a different injury pattern and longer hospital length of stay than the normal-weight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang-Tsung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-04-14

    The adverse effects of obesity on the physical health have been extensively studied in the general population, but not in motorcycle riders (includes both drivers and pillions). The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns, injury severities, mortality rates, and in-hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) between obese and normal-weight patients who were hospitalized for the treatment of trauma following motorcycle accidents in a level I trauma center. Detailed data of 466 obese adult patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and 2701 normal-weight patients (25 > BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2)) who had sustained motorcycle accident-related injuries were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. We used the Pearson's chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and independent Student's t-test to analyze differences between the two groups. Compared to normal-weight motorcycle riders, more obese riders were men and drivers as opposed to pillions. In addition, fewer obese motorcycle riders showed alcohol intoxication. Analyses of the patients' Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores revealed that obese motorcycle riders presented with a higher rate of injury to the thorax, but a lower rate of injury to the face than normal-weight patients. In addition, obese motorcycle riders had a 2.7-fold greater incidence of humeral, 1.9-fold greater incidence of pelvic, and 1.5-fold greater incidence of rib fractures. In contrast, normal-weight motorcycle riders sustained a significantly higher rate of maxillary and clavicle fractures. Obese motorcycle riders had a significant longer in-hospital LOS than normal-weight motorcycle riders did (10.6 days vs. 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.044), with an increase in in-hospital LOS of 0.82 days associated with every 10-unit increase in BMI. No statistically significant differences in Injury Severity Score (ISS), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), Trauma

  5. Automatic development of normal zone in composite MgB2/CuNi wires with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, A.; Kajikawa, K.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, M.

    2010-06-01

    One of the promising applications with superconducting technology for hydrogen utilization is a sensor with a magnesium-diboride (MgB2) superconductor to detect the position of boundary between the liquid hydrogen and the evaporated gas stored in a Dewar vessel. In our previous experiment for the level sensor, the normal zone has been automatically developed and therefore any energy input with the heater has not been required for normal operation. Although the physical mechanism for such a property of the MgB2 wire has not been clarified yet, the deliberate application might lead to the realization of a simpler superconducting level sensor without heater system. In the present study, the automatic development of normal zone with increasing a transport current is evaluated for samples consisting of three kinds of MgB2 wires with CuNi sheath and different diameters immersed in liquid helium. The influences of the repeats of current excitation and heat cycle on the normal zone development are discussed experimentally. The aim of this paper is to confirm the suitability of MgB2 wire in a heater free level sensor application. This could lead to even more optimized design of the liquid hydrogen level sensor and the removal of extra heater input.

  6. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  7. Atmospheric effects on the NDVI - Strategies for its removal. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Markham, B.; Gitelson, A.

    1992-01-01

    The compositing technique used to derive global vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR radiances reduces the residual effect of water vapor and aerosol on the NDVI. The reduction in the atmospheric effect is shown using a comprehensive measured data set for desert conditions, and a simulation for grass with continental aerosol. A statistical analaysis of the probability of occurrence of aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor measured in different climatic regimes is used for this simulation. It is concluded that for a long compositing period (e.g., 27 days), the residual aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water vapor are usually too small to be corrected. For a 9-day compositing, the residual average aerosol effect may be about twice the correction uncertainty. For Landsat TM or Earth Observing System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (EOS-MODIS) data, the newly defined atmospherically resistant vegetation index (ARVI) is more promising than possible direct atmospheric correction schemes, except for heavy desert dust conditions.

  8. Atmospheric Circulation, Chemistry, and Infrared Spectra of Titan-like Exoplanets around Different Stellar Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Juan M.; Kataria, Tiffany; Gao, Peter

    2018-01-01

    With the discovery of ever smaller and colder exoplanets, terrestrial worlds with hazy atmospheres must be increasingly considered. Our solar system’s Titan is a prototypical hazy planet, whose atmosphere may be representative of a large number of planets in our Galaxy. As a step toward characterizing such worlds, we present simulations of exoplanets that resemble Titan but orbit three different stellar hosts: G, K, and M dwarf stars. We use general circulation and photochemistry models to explore the circulation and chemistry of these Titan-like planets under varying stellar spectra, in all cases assuming a Titan-like insolation. Due to the strong absorption of visible light by atmospheric haze, the redder radiation accompanying later stellar types produces more isothermal stratospheres, stronger meridional temperature gradients at mbar pressures, and deeper and stronger zonal winds. In all cases, the planets’ atmospheres are strongly superrotating, but meridional circulation cells are weaker aloft under redder starlight. The photochemistry of hydrocarbon and nitrile species varies with stellar spectra, with variations in the FUV/NUV flux ratio playing an important role. Our results tentatively suggest that column haze production rates could be similar under all three hosts, implying that planets around many different stars could have similar characteristics to Titan’s atmosphere. Lastly, we present theoretical emission spectra. Overall, our study indicates that, despite important and subtle differences, the circulation and chemistry of Titan-like exoplanets are relatively insensitive to differences in the host star. These findings may be further probed with future space-based facilities, like WFIRST, LUVOIR, HabEx, and OST.

  9. Site-specific differences of insulin action in adipose tissue derived from normal prepubertal children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Malcolm; Stewart, Claire; Welsh, Gavin; Hunt, Linda; Tavare, Jeremy; Holly, Jeff; Shield, Julian; Sabin, Matt; Crowne, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Body fat distribution determines obesity-related morbidity in adults but little is known of the aetiology or pathophysiology in children. This study investigates differences in insulin-mediated metabolism in primary cell cultures of subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes derived from prepubertal children. The impact of differentiation and responses to TNFα exposure was also investigated. Proliferation rates were greater in subcutaneous versus visceral preadipocytes (41 h(3) versus 69 h(4); P = 0.008). Insulin caused a dose-dependent increase in GSK-3 phosphorylation and an increase in MAPK phosphorylation over time, with increased sensitivity in subcutaneous preadipocytes. Post-differentiation, dose-dependent increases in GSK-3 phosphorylation were maintained, while MAPK phosphorylation was identical in both subtypes. No changes were observed in insulin receptor abundance pre-/post-differentiation. GLUT4 abundance was significantly increased in visceral versus subcutaneous adipocytes by 76(4)%; P = 0.03), coincidental with increased insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-glucose transport (+150(26)% versus +79(10)%; P = 0.014) and further elevated by acute exposure to TNFα (+230(52)%; P = 0.019 versus +123(24)%; P = 0.025, respectively). TNFα also significantly increased basal glucose transport rates (+44(14)%; P = 0.006 versus +34(11)%; P = 0.007) and GLUT1 localisation to the plasma membrane. These data establish site-specific differences in subcutaneous and visceral fat cells from children. Responses to insulin varied with differentiation and TNFα exposure in the two depots, consistent with parallel changes in GLUT1/4 abundance and localisation

  10. In vitro tests for aerosol deposition II: IVIVCs for different dry powder inhalers in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvadia, Renishkumar; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth; Byron, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    A new in vitro test method for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) was recently found to be predictive of the published in vivo results for Budelin Novolizer. The present study was intended to assess the method's robustness by evaluating correlations between average drug deposition in vitro and in vivo from five different DPIs. In vitro drug deposition from five marketed DPIs was assessed in a realistic physical airway model of a "medium" sized adult in an experimental setup that allowed deposition to be characterized regionally for carefully selected simulated air flow rate versus time profiles. The DPIs studied were Spiriva(®) HandiHaler(®), Relenza(®) Diskhaler(®), Salbutamol Easyhaler(®), Pulmicort(®) Turbuhaler(®), and Foradil(®) Aerolizer(®). In vitro regional deposition results were compared with those reported in the literature in order to create in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVCs) for each inhaler. Mean percent total lung deposition (TLD ± SD) in vitro for Spiriva HandiHaler, Relenza Diskhaler, Salbutamol Easyhaler, Pulmicort Turbuhaler, and Foradil Aerolizer were 17.3 ± 1.2, 22.6 ± 1.1, 29.0 ± 1.1, 28.0 ± 3.0, and 21.7 ± 1.2, respectively. These results showed excellent agreement with reported in vivo values, with absolute prediction errors in TLD of ≤ 2% for all DPIs except Relenza Diskhaler. Similarly, in vitro mouth-throat and device deposition results were stoichiometrically comparable to those reported in vivo for all DPIs except Relenza Diskhaler and Turbuhaler. Inspection of the scintigraphy studies for Relenza Diskhaler and Turbohaler revealed possible problems with powder labeling and result interpretation in their in vivo clinical assessments. A characteristic physical airway model representing a medium-sized adult, when coupled to carefully chosen characteristic inhalation maneuvers used in the clinic, produced results that correlated with regional drug deposition estimates from scintigraphy across a group of different DPIs.

  11. Infrared-metabolomics approach in detecting changes in Andrographis paniculata metabolites due to different harvesting ages and times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Nur A'thifah; Isha, Azizul; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Khatib, Alfi; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Rukayadi, Yaya

    2015-09-01

    The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm). OPLS-DA successfully discriminated the A. paniculata crude extracts into groups of which the main constituents - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - could be mainly observed in the morning session of 120 DAT for P and T, while H gave the highest intensities of these constituents at 150 DAT. The information extracted from ATR-FTIR data through OPLS-DA could be useful in tailoring this plant harvest stage in relation to the content of its two major diterpene lactones: andrographolide and neoandrographolide. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. TNF-α in CRPS and 'normal' trauma--significant differences between tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H; Eberle, Tatiana; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Wagner, Ina; Klonschinsky, Thomas; Müller, Lars P; Sommer, Claudia; Birklein, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic TNF-alpha signaling may be one of the factors responsible for pain and hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). In order to further specify the role of TNF-alpha we investigated tissue (skin) and serum concentrations in three different patient groups: patients with osteoarthritis and planned surgery, with acute traumatic upper limb bone fracture waiting for surgery, and with CRPS I. Thirty patients (10 in each group) were recruited. Mean CRPS duration was 36.1 ± 8.1 weeks (range 8- 90 weeks). Skin punch biopsies were taken at the beginning of the surgery in osteoarthritis and fracture patients and from the affected side in CRPS patients. Blood samples were taken before the respective procedures. Skin and serum TNF-alpha levels were quantified by ELISA. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, skin TNF-alpha was significantly elevated in CRPS (pCRPS patients was higher than in patients with acute bone fracture (pCRPS, and lower in fracture patients (pCRPS patients. This increase persists for months after limb trauma and may offer the opportunity for targeted treatment. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in center of pressure trajectory between normal and steppage gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Nima; Rostami, Mostafa; Najarian, Siamak; Menhaj, Mohammad Bagher; Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salami, Firooz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This pilot study aimed to assess the differences in center of pressure trajectory in neuropathic patients with steppage gait. Steppage gait has previously been evaluated by several biomechanical methods, but plantar pressure distribution has been much less studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in center of pressure trajectory using a force plate. METHODS: The steppage gait group was selected from the patients using drop foot brace (25 male) and the control group was selected from Isfahan university students (20 male). They walked at self- selected speed at a mean of ten trials (+2) to collect the center of pressure using a force plate. Center of pressure patterns were categorized into four patterns based on the center of pressure displacement magnitude (spatial features) through time (temporal features) when the longitudinal axis of the insole was plotted as the Y- axis and the transverse axis of the insole as X- axis during stance phase. RESULTS: The horizontal angle measured from center of pressure linear regression was positive in the control group (4.6 ± 2.4) (p < 0.005), but negative in the patient group (- 2.3 ± 1.6) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this research measured center of pressure trajectory in steppage gait over time, which is useful for designing better shoe sole and also orthopaedic device and better understanding of stability in patients with drop foot. PMID:21526056

  14. Differences in center of pressure trajectory between normal and steppage gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jamshidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This pilot study aimed to assess the differences in center of pressure trajectory in neuropathic patients with steppage gait. Steppage gait has previously been evaluated by several biomechanical methods, but plantar pressure distribution has been much less studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in center of pressure tra-jectory using a force plate. Methods: The steppage gait group was selected from the patients using drop foot brace (25 male and the control group was selected from Isfahan university students (20 male. They walked at self- selected speed at a mean of ten tri-als (+2 to collect the center of pressure using a force plate. Center of pressure patterns were categorized into four pat-terns based on the center of pressure displacement magnitude (spatial features through time (temporal features when the longitudinal axis of the insole was plotted as the Y- axis and the transverse axis of the insole as X- axis during stance phase. Results: The horizontal angle measured from center of pressure linear regression was positive in the control group (4.6 ± 2.4 (p < 0.005, but negative in the patient group (- 2.3 ± 1.6 (p < 0.005. Conclusions: The finding of this research measured center of pressure trajectory in steppage gait over time, which is useful for designing better shoe sole and also orthopaedic device and better understanding of stability in patients with drop foot.

  15. Classification of different tomato seed cultivars by multispectral visible-near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2016-01-01

    nm were extracted from multispectral images of tomato seeds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data exploration, while partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine discriminant analysis (SVM-DA) were used to classify the five different tomato cultivars....... The results showed very good classification accuracy for two independent test sets ranging from 94% to 100% for all tomato cultivars irrespective of chemometric methods. The overall classification error rates were 3.2% and 0.4% for the PLS-DA and SVM-DA calibration models, respectively. The results indicate...

  16. Effect of normal and tumor factors on different phases of cell populations cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, A M; García, A L; Errecalde, A L; Badrán, A F

    1999-12-01

    In the present experiments we studied the effect of extracts from intact liver (LE), ES2 tumor extract (TE), plasmas from intact mice (PI), and from tumor bearing animals (PT) on different phases of hepatocytes and renocytes cell cycles. C3HS 28-day-old male mice, standardized for periodicity analysis, were injected at 16:00 hours and killed every 4 hours during a circadian cycle at 20:00/04; 00:00/08; 04:00/12; 08:00/16; 12:00/20 and 16:00/24 (time of day/hours post treatment). Colchicine (2 microg/g) was injected 4 hours before killing them. Samples of livers and kidneys were processed for histology and mitotic index determinations. The results were expressed as colchicine arrested metaphases per 1000 nuclei. The TE, LE and PI had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of hepatocytes during the first 12 hours post treatment. During the subsequent 12 hours, not only these treatments but also the PI had an inhibiting effect on the mitotic activity of the same cell population. Also the TE and the PT had a promoting effect on the mitotic activity of the renocytes during the first 12 hours while the effect of all treatments showed a clear inhibition of the mitotic activity studied during the last 12 hours. Taking into account the time elapsed between the injections and the measurements made in these light-dark synchronized animals, we conclude that the increase in mitotic index observed in those tissues stemmed from a reinitiation of cell-cycle traverse in a subpopulation of G2-arrested, noncycling cells.

  17. Expression profiles are different in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Imadome, Kaori; Funayama, Tomoo; Sakashita, Testuya; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Imai, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that ionizing radiation induces biological effects in non-irradiated bystander cells having received signals from directly irradiated cells; however, energetic heavy ion-induced bystander response is incompletely characterized. Here we performed microarray analysis of irradiated and bystander fibroblasts in confluent cultures. To see the effects in bystander cells, each of 1, 5 and 25 sites was targeted with 10 particles of carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 103 keV/μm) using microbeams, where particles traversed 0.00026, 0.0013 and 0.0066% of cells, respectively. diated cells, cultures were exposed to 10% survival dose (D), 0.1D and 0.01D of corresponding broadbeams (108 keV/μm). Irrespective of the target numbers (1, 5 or 25 sites) and the time (2 or 6 h postirradiation), similar expression changes were observed in bystander cells. Among 874 probes that showed more than 1.5-fold changes in bystander cells, 25% were upregulated and the remainder downregulated. These included genes related to cell communication (PIK3C2A, GNA13, FN1, ANXA1 and IL1RAP), stress response (RAD23B, ATF4 and EIF2AK4) and cell cycle (MYCN, RBBP4 and NEUROG1). Pathway analysis revealed serial bystander activation of G protein/PI-3 kinase pathways. Instead, genes related to cell cycle or death (CDKN1A, GADD45A, NOTCH1 and BCL2L1), and cell communication (IL1B, TCF7 and ID1) were upregulated in irradiated cells, but not in bystander cells. Our results indicate different expression profiles in irradiated and bystander cells, and imply that intercellular signaling between irradiated and bystander cells activate intracellular signaling, leading to the transcriptional stress response in bystander cells

  18. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  19. Determination of Leaf Area Index, Total Foliar N, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Arctic Ecosystems Dominated by Cassiope tetragona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, M; Street, LE; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    have not been accurately quantified. We address this knowledge gap by (i) direct measurements of LAI and TFN for C. tetragona, and (ii) determining TFN-LAI and LAI–normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships for typical C. tetragona tundras in the subarctic (Sweden) and High Arctic...... leaf N and biomass. The LAI-NDVI and TFN-LAI relationships showed high correlation and can be used to estimate indirectly LAI and TFN. The LAI-NDVI relationship for C. tetragona vegetation differed from a generic LAI-NDVI relationship for arctic tundra, whereas the TFN-LAI relationship did not. Overall...

  20. Predicting and Mapping Soil Carbon Using Visible Near Infrared Spectroscopy at Different Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fan

    . The third objective was to test whether SOC calibration models built for different subdivisions of the Danish soil spectral library according to pedological or geological stratification would improve estimation of SOC content from Vis-NIR scans. The fourth objective was to explore the use of Vis...... in situ measurements for soil spectra may be obtained in spring and autumn, when soils are slightly drier than field capacity. We assumed that the prediction capabilities of the Danish soil spectra library could be improved by dividing it into rather homogeneous subpopulations and building separate...... in these soil cores, but did not improve the calibration of SOC. Interestingly, the prediction ability for SOC increased when the Danish spectral library was spiked with local samples from Vindum. This indicates that the full variation in Danish soils is not yet fully represented in the library. The 3...

  1. Difference in ocular surface temperature by infrared thermography in phakic and pseudophakic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sniegowski M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Sniegowski, Michael Erlanger, Raul Velez-Montoya, Jeffrey L Olson Ophthalmology Department, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Purpose: To assess the change in ocular surface temperature between healthy phakic and pseudophakic patients.Methods: We included patients with no history of ocular disease other than cataract. Patients were divided into three groups: clear lens, cataract, and pseudophakic. All patients had two ocular surface digital thermal scans. An average of five surface points was used as the mean ocular surface temperature. Results were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance and a Tukey’s least significance difference test. The patients were further divided into phakic and pseudophakic groups. Correlation coefficients between several variables were done in order to assess dependencies.Results: Fifty-six eyes (28 cataracts, 12 clear lenses, 16 pseudophakic were enrolled. The mean ocular surface temperature in the cataract group was 34.14°C±1.51°C; clear lens: 34.43°C±2.27°C; and pseudophakic: 34.97°C±1.57°C. There were no statistical differences among the study groups (P=0.3. There was a nonsignificant negative correlation trend between age and surface temperature in the phakic group. The trend inverted in the pseudophakic group but without statistical significance.Conclusion: Although cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation seem to induce a mild increase in ocular surface temperature, the effect is not clear and not significant. Keywords: digital thermal scans, intraocular lens implantation, cataract extraction

  2. Mandibulary dental arch form differences between level four polynomial method and pentamorphic pattern for normal occlusion sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yuliana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of an orthodontic treatment is to achieve aesthetic, dental health and the surrounding tissues, occlusal functional relationship, and stability. The success of an orthodontic treatment is influenced by many factors, such as diagnosis and treatment plan. In order to do a diagnosis and a treatment plan, medical record, clinical examination, radiographic examination, extra oral and intra oral photos, as well as study model analysis are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in dental arch form between level four polynomial and pentamorphic arch form and to determine which one is best suitable for normal occlusion sample. This analytic comparative study was conducted at Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran on 13 models by comparing the dental arch form using the level four polynomial method based on mathematical calculations, the pattern of the pentamorphic arch and mandibular normal occlusion as a control. The results obtained were tested using statistical analysis T student test. The results indicate a significant difference both in the form of level four polynomial method and pentamorphic arch form when compared with mandibular normal occlusion dental arch form. Level four polynomial fits better, compare to pentamorphic arch form.

  3. Comparative study of two different Bombesin derivates labeled with 111In and biodistribution in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Correa, Beatriz L.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Couto, Renata M.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses radioactive compounds (radiopharmaceuticals), consisting of a substrate and a radioactive isotope, for diagnostic. Among the peptides of interest for Nuclear Medicine, bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid neuropeptide analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide, is one of the highlights. This is a comparative study aiming to establish the best condition to radiolabel two BBN derivatives, (DTPA-Phe-Gly 5 -BBN (6-14) ) and (DTPA-Phe-Gly 2 -BBN (6-14 )) with 111-indium. Specific objectives of this study were evaluate a good condition of radiolabelling in search excellent specific activity the bombesin derivatives and determinate the biodistribution in health mice model. Ten micrograms (10μg) of the derivative DTPA-Phe-Gly2-BBN (6-14) was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of 111 InCl 3 at 25°C for different times (5, 15 and 30 minutes). The best condition was applied to peptide mass variation (10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 μg), keeping all other parameters fixed. Finally, the influence of 111 InCl 3 activity in the radiolabeling process (18.5, 37, 55.5, 74, 185 MBq) was evaluated. The best conditions were repeated for the second derivate, DTPA-Phe-Gly 5 -BBN (6-14 ). The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using 0.2 M EDTA pH 5 as solvent, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column with linear gradient 10% A to 90% A (v/v) (A: 0,1% of TFA in CH3CN; B: 0,1% of TFA in H2O) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute for 15 minutes. Considering the reaction time, the higher radiochemical purity was obtained when 10μg of the peptide was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of 111 In for 15 minutes at 25°C (97.33 ± 0.50%, n=3). In the mass variation study, the best results of radiochemical purity were obtained when 10 μg of the peptide was employed (97.69 ± 0.4%, n = 4). Finally, the maximum specific activity of the radiolabelled peptides was 1.85 MBq/ μg. The maximum specific

  4. Lateralized speech perception with small interaural time differences in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    and two-talker babble in terms of SRTs, HI listeners could utilize ITDs to a similar degree as NH listeners to facilitate the binaural unmasking of speech. A slight difference was observed between the group means when target and maskers were separated from each other by large ITDs, but not when separated...... SRMs are elicited by small ITDs. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and SRM due to ITDs were measured over headphones for 10 young NH and 10 older HI listeners, who had normal or close-to-normal hearing below 1.5 kHz. Diotic target sentences were presented in diotic or dichotic speech-shaped noise...... or two-talker babble maskers. In the dichotic conditions, maskers were lateralized by delaying the masker waveforms in the left headphone channel. Multiple magnitudes of masker ITDs were tested in both noise conditions. Although deficits were observed in speech perception abilities in speechshaped noise...

  5. Normalization of cortical thickness measurements across different T1 magnetic resonance imaging protocols by novel W-Score standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinyong; Yoo, Kwangsun; Lee, Peter; Kim, Chan Mi; Roh, Jee Hoon; Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Sang Joon; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Jeong-Hyeon; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Jeong, Yong

    2017-10-01

    The use of different 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (T1 MR) imaging protocols induces image incompatibility across multicenter studies, negating the many advantages of multicenter studies. A few methods have been developed to address this problem, but significant image incompatibility still remains. Thus, we developed a novel and convenient method to improve image compatibility. W-score standardization creates quality reference values by using a healthy group to obtain normalized disease values. We developed a protocol-specific w-score standardization to control the protocol effect, which is applied to each protocol separately. We used three data sets. In dataset 1, brain T1 MR images of normal controls (NC) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from two centers, acquired with different T1 MR protocols, were used (Protocol 1 and 2, n = 45/group). In dataset 2, data from six subjects, who underwent MRI with two different protocols (Protocol 1 and 2), were used with different repetition times, echo times, and slice thicknesses. In dataset 3, T1 MR images from a large number of healthy normal controls (Protocol 1: n = 148, Protocol 2: n = 343) were collected for w-score standardization. The protocol effect and disease effect on subjects' cortical thickness were analyzed before and after the application of protocol-specific w-score standardization. As expected, different protocols resulted in differing cortical thickness measurements in both NC and AD subjects. Different measurements were obtained for the same subject when imaged with different protocols. Multivariate pattern difference between measurements was observed between the protocols. Classification accuracy between two protocols was nearly 90%. After applying protocol-specific w-score standardization, the differences between the protocols substantially decreased. Most importantly, protocol-specific w-score standardization reduced both univariate and multivariate differences in the images while

  6. Analysis of Different Classification Techniques for Two-Class Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Naseer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse and compare the classification accuracies of six different classifiers for a two-class mental task (mental arithmetic and rest using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS signals. The signals of the mental arithmetic and rest tasks from the prefrontal cortex region of the brain for seven healthy subjects were acquired using a multichannel continuous-wave imaging system. After removal of the physiological noises, six features were extracted from the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO signals. Two- and three-dimensional combinations of those features were used for classification of mental tasks. In the classification, six different modalities, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA, k-nearest neighbour (kNN, the Naïve Bayes approach, support vector machine (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANN, were utilized. With these classifiers, the average classification accuracies among the seven subjects for the 2- and 3-dimensional combinations of features were 71.6, 90.0, 69.7, 89.8, 89.5, and 91.4% and 79.6, 95.2, 64.5, 94.8, 95.2, and 96.3%, respectively. ANN showed the maximum classification accuracies: 91.4 and 96.3%. In order to validate the results, a statistical significance test was performed, which confirmed that the p values were statistically significant relative to all of the other classifiers (p < 0.005 using HbO signals.

  7. Identification of the traditional Tibetan medicine "Shaji" and their different extracts through tri-step infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Jingyi; Fan, Gang; Sun, Suqin; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Ya

    2016-11-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis Rousi, Hippophae gyantsensis (Rousi) Y. S. Lian, Hippophae neurocarpa S. W. Liu & T. N. He and Hippophae tibetana Schlechtendal are typically used under one name "Shaji", to treat cardiovascular diseases and lung disorders in Tibetan medicine (TM). A complete set of infrared (IR) macro-fingerprints of these four Hippophae species should be characterized and compared simply, accurately, and in detail for identification. In the present study, tri-step IR spectroscopy, which included Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, second derivative IR (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-IR) spectroscopy, was employed to discriminate the four Hippophae species and their corresponding extracts using different solvents. The relevant spectra exhibited the holistic chemical compositions and variations. Flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were found to be the main chemical components. Characteristic peak positions, intensities and shapes derived from FT-IR, SD-IR and 2D-IR spectra provided valuable information for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis (PCA) of spectral differences was performed to illustrate the objective identification. Results showed that the species and their extracts can be clearly distinguished. Thus, a quick, precise and effective tri-step IR spectroscopy combined with PCA can be applied to identify and discriminate medicinal materials and their extracts in TM research.

  8. Differences in the perceived music pleasantness between monolateral cochlear implanted and normal hearing children assessed by EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Graziani, I; Cherubino, P; Astolfi, L; Marsella, P; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The perception of the music in cochlear implanted (CI) patients is an important aspect of their quality of life. In fact, the pleasantness of the music perception by such CI patients can be analyzed through a particular analysis of EEG rhythms. Studies on healthy subjects show that exists a particular frontal asymmetry of the EEG alpha rhythm which can be correlated with pleasantness of the perceived stimuli (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we describe differences between EEG activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a monolateral CI group of children and a normal hearing one during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns related to the normal hearing group refers to a higher pleasantness perception when compared to the cerebral activity of the monolateral CI patients. In fact, the present results support the statement that a monolateral CI group could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to normal hearing children.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Toxicity of Graphene Oxide by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability under different Genetic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Xiaoming; Jia, Ruhan; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is safe and useful for food and feed fermentation. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible beneficial effect of LAB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) pretreatment against toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and the underlying mechanisms. LAB prevented GO toxicity on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in wild-type nematodes. LAB blocked translocation of GO into secondary targeted organs through intestinal barrier by maintaining normal intestinal permeability in wild-type nematodes. Moreover, LAB prevented GO damage on the functions of both primary and secondary targeted organs in exposed nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes (sod-2, sod-3, gas-1, and aak-2) to GO toxicity by sustaining normal intestinal permeability. LAB also sustained the normal defecation behavior in both wild-type nematodes and nematodes with mutations of susceptible genes. Therefore, the beneficial role of LAB against GO toxicity under different genetic backgrounds may be due to the combinational effects on intestinal permeability and defecation behavior. Moreover, the beneficial effects of LAB against GO toxicity was dependent on the function of ACS-22, homologous to mammalian FATP4 to mammalian FATP4. Our study provides highlight on establishment of pharmacological strategy to protect intestinal barrier from toxicity of GO.

  10. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  11. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  12. Spatial selective auditory attention in the presence of reverberant energy: individual differences in normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2011-06-01

    Listeners can selectively attend to a desired target by directing attention to known target source features, such as location or pitch. Reverberation, however, reduces the reliability of the cues that allow a target source to be segregated and selected from a sound mixture. Given this, it is likely that reverberant energy interferes with selective auditory attention. Anecdotal reports suggest that the ability to focus spatial auditory attention degrades even with early aging, yet there is little evidence that middle-aged listeners have behavioral deficits on tasks requiring selective auditory attention. The current study was designed to look for individual differences in selective attention ability and to see if any such differences correlate with age. Normal-hearing adults, ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, were asked to report a stream of digits located directly ahead in a simulated rectangular room. Simultaneous, competing masker digit streams were simulated at locations 15° left and right of center. The level of reverberation was varied to alter task difficulty by interfering with localization cues (increasing localization blur). Overall, performance was best in the anechoic condition and worst in the high-reverberation condition. Listeners nearly always reported a digit from one of the three competing streams, showing that reverberation did not render the digits unintelligible. Importantly, inter-subject differences were extremely large. These differences, however, were not significantly correlated with age, memory span, or hearing status. These results show that listeners with audiometrically normal pure tone thresholds differ in their ability to selectively attend to a desired source, a task important in everyday communication. Further work is necessary to determine if these differences arise from differences in peripheral auditory function or in more central function.

  13. Spectrophotometer is useful for assessing vitiligo and chemical leukoderma severity by quantifying color difference with surrounding normally pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Okamura, K; Araki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tanaka, T; Abe, Y; Nakano, S; Yoshizawa, J; Hozumi, Y; Inoie, M; Suzuki, T

    2018-05-01

    Acquired skin hypopigmentation has many etiologies, including autoimmune melanocyte destruction, skin aging, inflammation, and chemical exposure. Distinguishing lesions from normally pigmented skin is clinically important to precisely assess disease severity. However, no gold standard assessment method has been reported. We aimed to investigate whether spectrophotometers are useful for assessing vitiligo and rhododendrol (4-(4-hydroxyphenol)-2-butanol) (Rhododenol ® )-induced leukoderma disease severity by quantifying skin color. Mexameter ® MX18 and CM-700d spectrophotometer were used for assessing vitiligo/leukoderma by measuring melanin index, L*a*b* color space, and ΔE*ab value, which represents the color difference between two subjects and is calculated by the values of L*a*b*. MX18 and CM-700d can quantitatively distinguish vitiligo/leukoderma from normally pigmented skin based on melanin index. CM-700d consistently quantified the color of vitiligo/leukoderma lesions and surrounding normally pigmented skin in L*a*b* color spaces and ΔE*ab. ΔE*ab is well correlated with melanin index and clinical appearance. ΔE*ab has been frequently used in aesthetic dentistry; however, current study is the first to use it in the measurement of skin color. ΔE*ab seems to be a useful parameter to evaluate the color contrast between vitiligo/leukoderma and surrounding normally pigmented skin and can be used to evaluate disease severity and patient's quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differences in aortic vortex flow pattern between normal and patients with stroke: qualitative and quantitative assessment using transesophageal contrast echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jang-Won; Hong, Geu-Ru; Hong, Woosol; Kim, Minji; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Chung, Namsik

    2016-06-01

    The flow in the aorta forms a vortex, which is a critical determinant of the flow dynamics in the aorta. Arteriosclerosis can alter the blood flow pattern of the aorta and cause characteristic alterations of the vortex. However, this change in aortic vortex has not yet been studied. This study aimed to characterize aortic vortex flow pattern using transesophageal contrast echocardiography in normal and stroke patients. A total of 85 patients who diagnosed with ischemic stroke and 16 normal controls were recruited for this study. The 16 normal control subjects were designated as the control group, and the 85 ischemic stroke patients were designated as the stroke group. All subjects underwent contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and particle image velocimetry was used to assess aortic vortex flow. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of vortex flow morphology, location, phasic variation, and pulsatility were undertaken and compared between the groups. In the control group, multiple irregularly-shaped vortices were observed in a peripheral location in the descending thoracic aorta. In contrast, the stroke group had a single, round, merged, and more centrally located aortic vortex flow. In the quantitative analysis of vortex, vortex depth, which represents the location of the major vortex in the aorta, was significantly higher in the control group than in the stroke group (0.599 ± 0.159 vs. 0.522 ± 0.101, respectively, P = 0.013). Vortex relative strength, which is the pulsatility parameter of the vortex itself, was significantly higher in the stroke group than in the control group (0.367 ± 0.148 vs. 0.304 ± 0.087, respectively, P = 0.025). It was feasible to visualize and quantify the characteristic morphology and pulsatility of the aortic vortex flow using contrast TEE, and aortic vortex pattern significantly differed between normal and stroke patients.

  15. Differences in kata performance time and distance from a marker for experienced Shotokan karateka under normal sighted and blindfolded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Clive; Avenell, Leon

    2002-08-01

    10 experienced Shotokan karateka were tested on performance time and distance from a marker on the five Heian kata under normal sighted and blind-folded conditions. Whilst each kata's line of movement is different, it is the intention to start and finish at the same location. Analysis showed that despite an average of 16.8 yr. of training, whilst timing was not significantly affected on four of the kata by subjects being deprived of the visual sense, the group's mean change in distance from an original marker was significant for performances on three of the kata.

  16. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  17. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  18. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  19. Postprocedural pain in shoulder arthrography: differences between using preservative-free normal saline and normal saline with benzyl alcohol as an intraarticular contrast diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Troy F; Gilbride, George; Clifford, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of benzyl alcohol, a common preservative in normal saline, on postprocedural pain after intraarticular injection for direct shoulder MR arthrography. From April 2011 through January 2013, 138 patients underwent direct shoulder MR arthrography. Using the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale, patients were asked to report their shoulder pain level immediately before and immediately after the procedure and then were contacted by telephone 6, 24, and 48 hours after the procedure. Fourteen patients did not receive the prescribed amount of contrast agent for diagnostic reasons or did not complete follow-up. Sixty-two patients received an intraarticular solution including preservative-free normal saline (control group) and 62 patients received an intraarticular solution including normal saline with 0.9% benzyl alcohol as a contrast diluent (test group). Patients were randomized as to which intraarticular diluent they received. Fluoroscopic and MR images were reviewed for extracapsular contrast agent administration or extravasation, full-thickness rotator cuff tears, and adhesive capsulitis. The effect of preservative versus control on pain level was estimated with multiple regression, which included time after procedure as the covariate and accounted for repeated measures over patients. Pain scale scores were significantly (p = 0.0382) higher (0.79 units; 95% CI, 0.034-1.154) with benzyl alcohol preservative compared with control (saline). In both study arms, the pain scale scores decreased slightly after the procedure, increased by roughly 1 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.3 unit over baseline for the control group by 6 hours after the procedure, were 0.50 unit over baseline for the test group and 0.12 unit over baseline for the control group at 24 hours, then fell to be slightly greater than baseline at 48 hours with benzyl alcohol and slightly less than baseline without benzyl alcohol. These trends

  20. Assessment of genetically modified soybean crops and different cultivars by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Braz Alcantara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potentiality of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy associated to chemometric analysis for assessment of conventional and genetically modified soybean crops. Recently, genetically modified organisms have been queried about their influence on the environment and their safety as food/feed. In this regard, chemical investigations are ever more required. Thus three different soybean cultivars distributed in transgenic Roundup ReadyTM soybean and theirs conventional counterparts were directly investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The application of PCA and KNN methods permitted the discrimination and classification of the genetically modified samples from conventional ones when they were separately analysed. The analyses showed the chemical variation according to genetic modification. Furthermore, this methodology was efficient for cultivar grouping and highlights cultivar dependence for discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. According to this study, FT-IR and chemometrics could be used as a quick, easy and low cost tool to assess the chemical composition variation in genetically modified organisms.

  1. Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Oldroyd 8-constant framework for continuum constitutive theory contains a rich diversity of popular special cases for polymeric liquids. In this paper, we use part of our exact solution for shear stress to arrive at unique exact analytical solutions for the normal stress difference responses to large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow. The nonlinearity of the polymeric liquids, triggered by LAOS, causes these responses at even multiples of the test frequency. We call responses at a frequency higher than twice the test frequency higher harmonics. We find the new exact analytical solutions to be compact and intrinsically beautiful. These solutions reduce to those of our previous work on the special case of the corotational Maxwell fluid. Our solutions also agree with our new truncated Goddard integral expansion for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. The limiting behaviors of these exact solutions also yield new explicit expressions. Finally, we use our exact solutions to see how η∞ affects the normal stress differences in LAOS.

  2. Immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et S. Imai) singer (higher basidiomycetes) on normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai

    2012-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activities of different solvent extracts from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Tricholoma matsutake were studied in vivo in normal mice. The extracts were prepared using different solvents in an order of increasing polarity. The immunomodulatory activities were investigated by measuring the thymus and spleen index, phagocytic rate of macrophage phagocytosis, delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cell, and proliferation of splenocytes. Results demonstrated that water extract (WE) and n-butyl alcohol extract (BAE) of T. matsutake could enhance the immunity of mice significantly compared with the control group. Main components of WE and BAE were polysaccharides, proteins, and flavonoids; we presume that these may be the main immunomodulating and immuno-enhancing agents in T. matsutake.

  3. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  4. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  5. Changes in the infrared microspectroscopic characteristics of DNA caused by cationic elements, different base richness and single-stranded form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza S Mello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infrared (IR analysis of dried samples of DNA and DNA-polypeptide complexes is still scarce. Here we have studied the FT-IR profiles of these components to further the understanding of the FT-IR signatures of chromatin and cell nuclei. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Calf thymus and salmon testis DNA, and complexes of histone H1, protamine, poly-L-lysine and poly-L-arginine (histone-mimic macromolecules with DNA were analyzed in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an attenuated total reflection diamond objective and Grams software. Conditions including polypeptides bound to the DNA, DNA base composition, and single-stranded form were found to differently affect the vibrational characteristics of the chemical groups (especially, PO(2(- in the nucleic acid. The antisymmetric stretching (ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- was greater than the symmetric stretching (ν(s of these groups and increased in the polypeptide-DNA complexes. A shift of the ν(as of the DNA PO(2(- to a lower frequency and an increased intensity of this vibration were induced especially by lysine-rich histones. Lysine richness additionally contributed to an increase in the vibrational stretching of the amide I group. Even in simple molecules such as inorganic phosphates, the vibrational characteristics of the phosphate anions were differently affected by different cations. As a result of the optimization of the DNA conformation by binding to arginine-rich polypeptides, enhancements of the vibrational characteristics in the FT-IR fingerprint could be detected. Although different profiles were obtained for the DNA with different base compositions, this situation was no longer verified in the polypeptide-DNA complexes and most likely in isolated chromatin or cell nuclei. However, the ν(as PO(2(-/ν(s PO(2(- ratio could discriminate DNA with different base compositions and DNA in a single-stranded form. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FT-IR spectral profiles are a valuable tool

  6. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of microvasculature detects difference in lower limb vascular responsiveness in obese compared to lean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogério Nogueira; Murias, Juan M

    2018-07-01

    Microvascular dysfunction is an early complication in obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) that can lead to changes in hemodynamic function and endothelial cell expression throughout the vasculature that is vessel specific. This study aimed to evaluate whether the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with a vascular occlusion (VOT) assessment was capable of detecting differences in vascular responsiveness within the microvasculature of the lower limb between lean and obese individuals. Twenty lean (BMI = 21.6 ± 1.3) and 17 obese individuals (BMI = 33.9 ± 1.1) participated in the study. Individuals underwent a VOT (5 min of baseline, 5 min of occlusion, and 8 min following cuff release) and vascular responsiveness was evaluated by the Slope 2 (Slope 2 StO 2 ) and the area under the curve (StO 2AUC ) of oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) signal during reperfusion. The difference between the minimal and the maximal value of StO 2 was calculated as the Amplitude of the StO 2 response. The Slope 2 StO 2 of the obese individuals was smaller (0.68 ± 0.07%·s -1 ) than the Slope 2 StO 2 of the lean individuals (1.08 ± 0.13%·s -1 ;P lean individuals (1708 ± 168%·s -1 ; P lean ones (30.4 ± 2.9 vs 21.6 ± 1.3 StO 2 (%), respectively; P lean individuals (r = 0.745; P lean and obese individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability Among Listeners With Normal Hearing Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-10-17

    This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. In noisy settings, listeners focus their attention by engaging cortical brain networks to suppress unimportant sounds; they then can analyze and understand an important sound, such as speech, amidst competing sounds. Differences in the efficacy of top-down control of attention can affect communication abilities. In addition, subclinical deficits in sensory fidelity can disrupt the ability to perceptually segregate sound sources, interfering with selective attention, even in listeners with NHTs. Studies of variability in control of attention and in sensory coding fidelity may help to isolate and identify some of the causes of communication disorders in individuals presenting at the clinic with "normal hearing." How well an individual with NHTs can understand speech amidst competing sounds depends not only on the sound being audible but also on the integrity of cortical control networks and the fidelity of the representation of suprathreshold sound. Understanding the root cause of difficulties experienced by listeners with NHTs ultimately can lead to new, targeted interventions that address specific deficits affecting communication in noise. http://cred.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2601617.

  9. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Weight preoccupation as a function of observed physical attractiveness: ethnic differences among normal-weight adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabianchi, Natalie; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Borawski, Elaine A

    2006-09-01

    To examine the association between observer ratings of physical attractiveness and weight preoccupation for female adolescents, and to explore any ethnic differences between Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic females. Normal-weight female adolescents who had participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-home Wave II survey were included (n = 4,324). Physical attractiveness ratings were made in vivo by interviewers. Using logistic regression models stratified by ethnicity, the associations between observer-rated attractiveness and weight preoccupation were examined after controlling for demographics, measured body mass index (BMI) and psychosocial factors. Caucasian female adolescents perceived as being more attractive reported significantly greater weight preoccupation compared with those rated as being less attractive. Observed attractiveness did not relate to weight preoccupation among African-American or Hispanic youth when controlling for other factors. For Caucasian female adolescents, being perceived by others as more attractive may be a risk factor for disordered eating.

  11. Kinetics of different 123-I and 14-C fatty acids in normal and diabetic rat myocardium in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, T.E.; Shreeve, W.W.; Machulla, H.-J.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    For measuring myocardial metabolism by single photon scintigraphy various iodinated substrate analogues have been proposed. The present study compares in normal and diabetic rats the metabolic pathways of 14-C-palmitic acid (PA), 123-I-para-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-pPPDA), 123-I-ortho-phenylpentadecanoic acid (I-oPPDA), 14-C-stearic acid (SA) and 123-I-w-heptadecanoic acid (I-ωHDA). In normal and diabetic rats free fatty acids showed a rapid tracer accumulation and an initial rapid, then a slow rate component of release. PA and I-pPPDA were preferentially esterified into triglycerides, whereas SA and I-ωHDA equally distributed between triglycerides and phospholipids. I-oPPDA nearly exclusively labelled the free fatty acid pool. - Turnover of SA and I-ωHDA was similar in triglycerides and phospholipids; yet PA and I-pPPDA continued to increase in triglycerides for 3-5 minutes after injection but decreased in phospholipids. - Following induction of diabetes by Streptocotocin, the primary effect was an inhibition of incorporation of all substrates tested into triglycerides and phospholipids with an initial rapid turnover in the total lipid fraction. - Of the total myocardial activities a considerable fraction was water soluble and another bound to solid tissue residue, with an early maximum and subsequent decline; the values for 14-C-labelled substrates remained below those of radioiodine. Thus different labelled fatty acids behave metabolically differently and promise to be useful for differentiating various intracellular metabolic pathways. External analysis of myocardial fatty acids metabolism requires correction for labelled catabolites. (Author)

  12. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  13. Automated Land Cover Change Detection and Mapping from Hidden Parameter Estimates of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, A.; Gupta, S. K. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Papandreou-Suppappola, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multitemporal observations acquired frequently by satellites with short revisit periods such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is an important source for modeling land cover. Due to the inherent seasonality of the land cover, harmonic modeling reveals hidden state parameters characteristic to it, which is used in classifying different land cover types and in detecting changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. In this work, we use an eight day MODIS composite to create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of ten years. Improved hidden parameter estimates of the nonlinear harmonic NDVI model are obtained using the Particle Filter (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo estimator. The nonlinear estimation based on PF is shown to improve parameter estimation for different land cover types compared to existing techniques that use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), due to linearization of the harmonic model. As these parameters are representative of a given land cover, its applicability in near real-time detection of land cover change is also studied by formulating a metric that captures parameter deviation due to change. The detection methodology is evaluated by considering change as a rare class problem. This approach is shown to detect change with minimum delay. Additionally, the degree of change within the change perimeter is non-uniform. By clustering the deviation in parameters due to change, this spatial variation in change severity is effectively mapped and validated with high spatial resolution change maps of the given regions.

  14. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised and normal endodontically treated teeth restored with different post systems: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of developing methods that could increase the fracture resistance of structurally compromised endodontically treated teeth, this study was conducted to compare the effect of three esthetic post systems on the fracture resistance and failure modes of structurally compromised and normal roots. Materials and Methods: Forty five extracted and endodontically treated maxillary central teeth were assigned to 5 experimental groups (n=9. In two groups, the post spaces were prepared with the corresponding drills of the post systems to be restored with double taper light posts (DT.Light-Post (group DT.N and zirconia posts (Cosmopost (group Zr.N. In other 3 groups thin wall canals were simulated to be restored with Double taper Light posts (DT.W, double taper Light posts and Ribbond fibers (DT+R.W and Zirconia posts (Zr.W. After access cavity restoration and thermocycling, compressive load was applied and the fracture strength values and failure modes were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher exact tests (P<0.05. Results: The mean failure loads (N were 678.56, 638.22, 732.44, 603.44 and 573.67 for groups DT.N, Zr.N, DT.W, DT+R.W and Zr.w respectively. Group DT+R.W exhibited significantly higher resistance to fracture compared to groups Zr.N, DT.W and Zr.w (P<0.05. A significant difference was detected between groups DT.N and Zr.W (P=0.027. Zirconia posts showed significantly higher root fracture compared to fiber posts (P=0.004. Conclusion: The structurally compromised teeth restored with double taper light posts and Ribbond fibers showed the most fracture resistance and their strengths were comparable to those of normal roots restored with double taper light posts. More desirable fracture patterns were observed in teeth restored with fiber posts.

  15. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; García-Carral, Cristina; Manzano, Susana; McGuire, Michelle K.; Meehan, Courtney L.; McGuire, Mark A.; Williams, Janet E.; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W.; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W.; Kamundia, Egidioh W.; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E.; Kvist, Linda J.; Otoo, Gloria E.; Lackey, Kimberly A.; Flores, Katherine; Pareja, Rossina G.; Bode, Lars; Rodríguez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β), growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not) common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278. PMID:28713365

  16. What’s Normal? Immune Profiling of Human Milk from Healthy Women Living in Different Geographical and Socioeconomic Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human milk provides a very wide range of nutrients and bioactive components, including immune factors, human milk oligosaccharides, and a commensal microbiota. These factors are essential for interconnected processes including immunity programming and the development of a normal infant gastrointestinal microbiome. Newborn immune protection mostly relies on maternal immune factors provided through milk. However, studies dealing with an in-depth profiling of the different immune compounds present in human milk and with the assessment of their natural variation in healthy women from different populations are scarce. In this context, the objective of this work was the detection and quantification of a wide array of immune compounds, including innate immunity factors (IL1β, IL6, IL12, INFγ, TNFα, acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17, chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1β, growth factors [IL5, IL7, epidermal growth factor (EGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, TGFβ2], and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM, in milk produced by healthy women of different ethnicities living in different geographic, dietary, socioeconomic, and environmental settings. Among the analyzed factors, IgA, IgG, IgM, EGF, TGFβ2, IL7, IL8, Groα, and MIP1β were detected in all or most of the samples collected in each population and, therefore, this specific set of compounds might be considered as the “core” soluble immune factors in milk produced by healthy women worldwide. This approach may help define which immune factors are (or are not common in milk produced by women living in various conditions, and to identify host, lifestyle, and environmental factors that affect the immunological composition of this complex biological fluid.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02670278.

  17. Interannual variability of the normalized difference vegetation index on the Tibetan Plateau and its relationship with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dingwen; Fan, Guangzhou; Huang, Ronghui; Fang, Zhifang; Liu, Yaqin; Li, Hongquan

    2007-05-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, or Tibetan Plateau, is a sensitive region for climate change, where the manifestation of global warming is particularly noticeable. The wide climate variability in this region significantly affects the local land ecosystem and could consequently lead to notable vegetation changes. In this paper, the interannual variations of the plateau vegetation are investigated using a 21-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset to quantify the consequences of climate warming for the regional ecosystem and its interactions. The results show that vegetation coverage is best in the eastern and southern plateau regions and deteriorates toward the west and north. On the whole, vegetation activity demonstrates a gradual enhancement in an oscillatory manner during 1982 2002. The temporal variation also exhibits striking regional differences: an increasing trend is most apparent in the west, south, north and southeast, whereas a decreasing trend is present along the southern plateau boundary and in the central-east region. Covariance analysis between the NDVI and surface temperature/precipitation suggests that vegetation change is closely related to climate change. However, the controlling physical processes vary geographically. In the west and east, vegetation variability is found to be driven predominantly by temperature, with the impact of precipitation being of secondary importance. In the central plateau, however, temperature and precipitation factors are equally important in modulating the interannual vegetation variability.

  18. Semantic Differences of Definitional skills between Persian Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Normal Language Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge are the effective factors for definitional skills. This study investigated definitional skills both content and form in children with specific language impairment. Materials and Method: The participants were 32 Children in two groups of 16 SLI and 16 normal children, matched with age, sex and educational level. The SLI group was referred from Learning Difficulties Centers and Zarei Rehabilitation Center in Tehran, as well as the control group who was selected by randomized sampling from normal primary schools. The stimuli were 14 high frequency nouns from seven different categories. The reliability was calculated by interjudge agreement and the validity was assessed by content. Data was analyzed using independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences between mean scores of content and form of the definitional skills in two groups. The mean and SD scores of the content of word definition were M= 45.87, SD=12.22 in control group and M=33.18, SD= 17.60 for SLI one, out of possible 70 points (P= 0.025. The mean and SD scores of the form of word definition were M= 48.87, SD= 9.49 in control group and M= 38.18, SD= 12.85 for SLI one, out of 70 points (P= 0.012. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that, language problems of the SLI children may not let them semantic represention in order to form and present a complete process of word definition. Although this skill in children with SLI is inadequate, all the definitions given by SLI children were consistent with the categories of content and form of word definition used in this study. Therefore, an exact planning and intervention by speech and language pathologist can be effective for this skill. Linguistic intervention especially in semantic and grammatical aspects not only improves the definition of familiar words but also it might be useful for the definition of new words, consequently lead to educational and

  19. Water Bodies’ Mapping from Sentinel-2 Imagery with Modified Normalized Difference Water Index at 10-m Spatial Resolution Produced by Sharpening the SWIR Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring open water bodies accurately is an important and basic application in remote sensing. Various water body mapping approaches have been developed to extract water bodies from multispectral images. The method based on the spectral water index, especially the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MDNWI calculated from the green and Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR bands, is one of the most popular methods. The recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite can provide fine spatial resolution multispectral images. This new dataset is potentially of important significance for regional water bodies’ mapping, due to its free access and frequent revisit capabilities. It is noted that the green and SWIR bands of Sentinel-2 have different spatial resolutions of 10 m and 20 m, respectively. Straightforwardly, MNDWI can be produced from Sentinel-2 at the spatial resolution of 20 m, by upscaling the 10-m green band to 20 m correspondingly. This scheme, however, wastes the detailed information available at the 10-m resolution. In this paper, to take full advantage of the 10-m information provided by Sentinel-2 images, a novel 10-m spatial resolution MNDWI is produced from Sentinel-2 images by downscaling the 20-m resolution SWIR band to 10 m based on pan-sharpening. Four popular pan-sharpening algorithms, including Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS, High Pass Filter (HPF and À Trous Wavelet Transform (ATWT, were applied in this study. The performance of the proposed method was assessed experimentally using a Sentinel-2 image located at the Venice coastland. In the experiment, six water indexes, including 10-m NDWI, 20-m MNDWI and 10-m MNDWI, produced by four pan-sharpening algorithms, were compared. Three levels of results, including the sharpened images, the produced MNDWI images and the finally mapped water bodies, were analysed quantitatively. The results showed that MNDWI can enhance water bodies and suppressbuilt

  20. Validation and comparison of reference genes for qPCR normalization of celery (Apium graveolens at different development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A suitable reference gene is an important prerequisite for guarantying accurate and reliable results in qPCR analysis. Celery is one of the representative vegetable in Apiaceae and is widely cultivated and consumed in the world. However, no reports have been previously published concerning reference genes in celery. In this study, the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes in leaf blade and petiole at different development stages were evaluated using three statistics algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results showed that TUB-B, TUB-A, and UBC were the most reference genes among all tested samples. GAPDH represented the maximum stability for most individual sample, while the UBQ displayed the minimum stability. To further validate the stability of reference genes, the expression pattern of AgAP2-2 was calculated by using the selected genes for normalization. In addition, the expression patterns of several development-related genes were studied using the selected reference gene. Our results will be beneficial for further studies on gene transcription in celery.

  1. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  2. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A; Akhtar, A; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  3. Fusing MODIS with Landsat 8 data to downscale weekly normalized difference vegetation index estimates for central Great Basin rangelands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Dahal, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    Data fused from distinct but complementary satellite sensors mitigate tradeoffs that researchers make when selecting between spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data. We integrated data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra satellite and the Operational Land Imager sensor aboard the Landsat 8 satellite into four regression-tree models and applied those data to a mapping application. This application produced downscaled maps that utilize the 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat in conjunction with daily acquisitions of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) that are composited and temporally smoothed. We produced four weekly, atmospherically corrected, and nearly cloud-free, downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions (maps) built from these models. Model results were strong with R2 values ranging from 0.74 to 0.85. The correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.89) were strong for all predictions when compared to corresponding original MODIS NDVI data. Downscaled products incorporated into independently developed sagebrush ecosystem models yielded mixed results. The visual quality of the downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions were remarkable when compared to the original 250-m MODIS NDVI. These 30-m maps improve knowledge of dynamic rangeland seasonal processes in the central Great Basin, United States, and provide land managers improved resource maps.

  4. Isotope-selective dissociation of the OsO4 molecule by two pulses of infrared radiation at different frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambartzumian, R.V.; Furzikov, N.P.; Gorokhov, Y.A.; Letokhov, V.S.; Makarov, G.N.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The dissociation of the OsO 4 molecule in a two-frequency infrared laser field has been investigated. A twentyfold increase in the dissociation rate was obtained when the dissociation frequency was shifted to the ''red'' side of the linear absorption spectrum of OsO 4 . Osmium isotope separation was carried out by this two-frequency method. Optimal conditions for a scalable isotope separation process have been formulated

  5. Far infrared near normal specular reflectivity of Nix(SiO2)1-x (x = 1.0, 0.84, 0.75, 0.61, 0.54, 0.28) granular films

    KAUST Repository

    Massa, Néstor E.

    2010-04-01

    One of the current issues at the basis of the understanding of novel materials is the degree of the role played by spatial inhomogeneities due to subtle phase separations. To clarify this picture here we compare the plain glass network response of transition metal granular films with different metal fractions against what is known for conducting oxides. Films for Nix(SiO2)1-x (x = 1.0, 0.84, 0.75, 0.61, 0.54, 0.28) were studied by temperature dependent far infrared measurements. While for pure Ni the spectrum shows a flat high reflectivity, those for x ∼ 0.84 and ∼0.75 have a Drude component, vibrational modes mostly carrier screened, and a long tail that extents toward near infrared. This is associated with hopping electron conductivity and strong electron-phonon interactions. The relative reduction of the number of carriers in Ni0.75(SiO2)0.25 allows less screened phonon bands on the top of a continuum and a wide and overdamped oscillator at mid-infrared frequencies. Ni0.54(SiO2)0.46 and Ni0.28(SiO2)0.72 have well defined vibrational bands and a sharp threshold at ∼1450 cm-1. It is most remarkable that a distinctive resonant peak at ∼1250 cm-1 found for p-polarized angle dependent specular reflectivity. It originates in an electron cloud traced to electrons that are not able to overcome the metal-dielectric interface that, beating against the positive background, generates the electric dipole. Overall, we conclude that the spectra are analogous to those regularly found in conducting oxides where with a suitable percolating network polarons are formed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Responses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to precipitation changes on the grassland of Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Peng; Zhang, Xian Zhou; He, Yong Tao; Li, Meng; Shi, Pei Li; Zu, Jia Xing; Niu, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation change is an important factor in the inter-annual variation of grassland growth on the Tibetan Plateau. The total amount, distribution pattern and concentration time are three basic characteristics of precipitation change. The temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation change were analyzed based on climate data of 145 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau and nearby areas from 2000 to 2015. The total precipitation amount was characterized by annual precipitation, distribution pattern of precipitation during the year was characterized by improved precipitation concentration index (PCI), and precipitation centroid (PC) was defined to indicate the change in precipitation concentrated time. To better illustrate the response of grassland to precipitation change, vegetation growth status was characterized by the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI max ). Results indicated that the annual precipitation and PCI had an apparent gradient across the whole plateau and the latest PC occurred in the southern plateau. NDVI max of alpine shrub grassland was significantly correlated with the change of PCI,increased with even distribution of precipitation during growth period, and limited by the total annual precipitation. Alpine meadow did not show significantly correlations with these three indices. The inter-annual variability of NDVI max of steppe was controlled by both PCI and PC. NDVI max of alpine desert grassland was mainly controlled by annual precipitation. In addition to annual total amount of precipitation, the distribution characteristics of precipitation should be further considered when the influence of precipitation change on different types of vegetation on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was studied.

  7. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  8. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  9. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il; Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2003-01-01

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 ∼ 15 ys, mean age: 8 ± 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 ∼ 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 ± 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe

  10. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  11. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  12. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  13. Differentiation of different mixed Listeria strains and also acid-injured, heat-injured, and repaired cells of Listeria monocytogenes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond; Donnelly, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate mixed strains of Listeria monocytogenes and mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied to investigate the hypothesis that heat-injured and acid-injured cells would return to their original physiological integrity following repair. Thin smears of cells on infrared slides were prepared from cultures for mixed strains of L. monocytogenes, mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, and each individual strain. Heat-injured and acid-injured cells were prepared by exposing harvested cells of L. monocytogenes strain R2-764 to a temperature of 56 ± 0.2°C for 10 min or lactic acid at pH 3 for 60 min, respectively. Cellular repair involved incubating aliquots of acid-injured and heat-injured cells separately in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract for 22 to 24 h; bacterial thin smears on infrared slides were prepared for each treatment. Spectral collection was done using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared wavelength region. Application of multivariate discriminant analysis to the wavelength region from 1,800 to 900 cm(-1) separated the individual L. monocytogenes strains. Mixed strains of L. monocytogenes and L. monocytogenes cocultured with L. innocua were successfully differentiated from the individual strains when the discriminant analysis was applied. Different mixed strains of L. monocytogenes were also successfully separated when the discriminant analysis was applied. A data set for injury and repair analysis resulted in the separation of acid-injured, heat-injured, and intact cells; repaired cells clustered closer to intact cells when the discriminant analysis (1,800 to 600 cm(-1)) was applied. FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid source tracking of L. monocytogenes strains because it can differentiate between different mixed strains and individual strains of the pathogen.

  14. The ultraviolet to infrared energy distribution of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0422+00 at two different brightness levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falomo, R.; Bouchet, P.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E.G. (Padova, Osservatorio Astronomico, Padua (Italy) European Southern Observatory, La Silla (Chile) Milano Universita, Milan (Italy) CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Milan (Italy))

    1989-10-01

    The BL Lacertae object PKS 0422+00 was observed with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) on August 31-September 1, 1987, when the visual magnitude of the object was V = 16.2, and again about 4 months later (January 10, 1988) during an active state (V = 15.6). Quasi-simultaneous optical to infrared observations allow deriving a detailed spectral flux distribution from 8 x 10 to the 13th to 2.5 x 10 the 15th Hz, for each epoch. Fits in terms of broken power laws and logarithmic parabolas are discussed. 32 refs.

  15. The ultraviolet to infrared energy distribution of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0422+00 at two different brightness levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falomo, R.; Bouchet, P.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object PKS 0422+00 was observed with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) on August 31-September 1, 1987, when the visual magnitude of the object was V = 16.2, and again about 4 months later (January 10, 1988) during an active state (V = 15.6). Quasi-simultaneous optical to infrared observations allow deriving a detailed spectral flux distribution from 8 x 10 to the 13th to 2.5 x 10 the 15th Hz, for each epoch. Fits in terms of broken power laws and logarithmic parabolas are discussed. 32 refs

  16. Differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J; Koes, B W; Paulis, W D; van Middelkoop, M

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and children with overweight or obesity. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies (published up to 22 June 2016) on the differences in bone mineral density between normal-weight children and overweight and obese children was performed. Results were pooled when possible and mean differences (MDs) were calculated between normal-weight and overweight and normal-weight and obese children for bone content and density measures at different body sites. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 5,958 children, were included. There was moderate and high quality of evidence that overweight (MD 213 g; 95% confidence interval [CI] 166, 261) and obese children (MD 329 g; 95%CI [229, 430]) have a significantly higher whole body bone mineral content than normal-weight children. Similar results were found for whole body bone mineral density. Sensitivity analysis showed that the association was stronger in girls. Overweight and obese children have a significantly higher bone mineral density compared with normal-weight children. Because there was only one study included with a longitudinal design, the long-term impact of childhood overweight and obesity on bone health at adulthood is not clear. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Skin flora: Differences between people affected by Albinism and those with normally pigmented skin in Northern Tanzania - cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprono, Samson K; Masenga, John E; Chaula, Baraka M; Naafs, Bernard

    2012-07-30

    Skin flora varies from one site of the body to another. Individual's health, age and gender determine the type and the density of skin flora. A 1  cm² of the skin on the sternum was rubbed with sterile cotton swab socked in 0.9% normal saline and plated on blood agar. This was cultured at 35 °C. The bacteria were identified by culturing on MacConkey agar, coagulase test, catalase test and gram staining. Swabs were obtained from 66 individuals affected by albinism and 31 individuals with normal skin pigmentation. Those with normal skin were either relatives or staying with the individuals affected by albinism who were recruited for the study. The mean age of the 97 recruited individuals was 30.6 (SD ± 14.9) years. The mean of the colony forming units was 1580.5 per cm2. Those affected by albinism had a significantly higher mean colony forming units (1680  CFU per cm²) as compared with 453.5  CFU per cm² in those with normally pigmented skin (p = 0.023). The skin type and the severity of sun- damaged skin was significantly associated with a higher number of colony forming units (p = 0.038). Individuals affected by albinism have a higher number of colony forming units which is associated with sun- damaged skin.

  18. Cortical and Sensory Causes of Individual Differences in Selective Attention Ability among Listeners with Normal Hearing Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their…

  19. Normal breast tissue DNA methylation differences at regulatory elements are associated with the cancer risk factor age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin C; Houseman, E Andres; King, Jessica E; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-07-10

    The underlying biological mechanisms through which epidemiologically defined breast cancer risk factors contribute to disease risk remain poorly understood. Identification of the molecular changes associated with cancer risk factors in normal tissues may aid in determining the earliest events of carcinogenesis and informing cancer prevention strategies. Here we investigated the impact cancer risk factors have on the normal breast epigenome by analyzing DNA methylation genome-wide (Infinium 450 K array) in cancer-free women from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (n = 100). We tested the relation of established breast cancer risk factors, age, body mass index, parity, and family history of disease, with DNA methylation adjusting for potential variation in cell-type proportions. We identified 787 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites that demonstrated significant associations (Q value breast cancer risk factors. Age-related DNA methylation changes are primarily increases in methylation enriched at breast epithelial cell enhancer regions (P = 7.1E-20), and binding sites of chromatin remodelers (MYC and CTCF). We validated the age-related associations in two independent populations, using normal breast tissue samples (n = 18) and samples of normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue (n = 97). The genomic regions classified as age-related were more likely to be regions altered in both pre-invasive (n = 40, P = 3.0E-03) and invasive breast tumors (n = 731, P = 1.1E-13). DNA methylation changes with age occur at regulatory regions, and are further exacerbated in cancer, suggesting that age influences breast cancer risk in part through its contribution to epigenetic dysregulation in normal breast tissue.

  20. Analysis and identification of two similar traditional Chinese medicines by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy: Ligusticum chuanxiong, Angelica sinensis and their different extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Wang, Jingjuan; Zhang, Guijun; Rong, Lixin; Wu, Haozhong; Sun, Suqin; Guo, Yizhen; Yang, Yanfang; Lu, Lina; Qu, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Rhizoma Chuanxiong (CX) and Radix Angelica sinensis (DG) are very important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and usually used in clinic. They both are from the Umbelliferae family, and have almost similar chemical constituents with each other. It is complicated, time-consuming and laborious to discriminate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, to find a fast, applicable and effective identification method for two herbs is urged in quality research of TCM. In this paper, by using a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)), we analyzed and discriminated CX, DG and their different extracts (aqueous extract, alcoholic extract and petroleum ether extract). In FT-IR, all the CX and DG samples' spectra seemed similar, but they had their own unique macroscopic fingerprints to identify. Through comparing with the spectra of sucrose and the similarity calculation, we found the content of sucrose in DG raw materials was higher than in CX raw materials. The significant differences in alcoholic extract appeared that in CX alcoholic extract, the peaks at 1743 cm-1 was obviously stronger than the peak at same position in DG alcoholic extract. Besides in petroleum ether extract, we concluded CX contained much more ligustilide than DG by the similarity calculation. With the function of SD-IR, some tiny differences were amplified and overlapped peaks were also unfolded in FT-IR. In the range of 1100-1175 cm-1, there were six peaks in the SD-IR spectra of DG and the intensity, shape and location of those six peaks were similar to that of sucrose, while only two peaks could be observed in that of CX and those two peaks were totally different from sucrose in shape and relative intensity. This result was consistent with that of the

  1. A strong adaptable autofocusing approach of off-axis infrared digital holography under different quality conditions of holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative autofocusing criterion for the reconstruction of infrared digital holograms. This criterion has the advantages of fast, efficient and precision when determining the reconstruction distance of off-axis digital holography. This criterion is a mean-free high frequency calculation process. We focus on the problem of mean value drifting found in previous published methods and design our new approach to solve it. Unlike the previous methods perform well only with high quality holograms, our method is effective for both high and low quality holograms. Even when hologram is degraded by destructive interference, our method still performs well. This method helps to automatically determine the precise reconstruction distance, and we are sure that this technology can be applied in industrial applications in the future.

  2. Inter- and intra-individual differences in skin hydration and surface lipids measured with mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Varghese, B.

    2016-03-01

    Skin health is characterized by heterogeneous system of water and lipids in upper layers providing protection from external environment and preventing loss of vital components of the body. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance between these components is an indication of healthy skin and plays a central role in protecting and preserving skin integrity. In this manuscript we present inter- and intra-individual variation in skin hydration and surface lipids measured with a home-built experimental prototype based on infrared spectroscopy. Results show good agreement with measurements performed by commercially available instruments Corneometer and Sebumeter used for skin hydration and sebum measurements respectively.

  3. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  4. Detection of Parathyroid Autofluorescence Using Near-Infrared Imaging: A Multicenter Analysis of Concordance Between Different Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramangil, Bora; Dip, Fernando; Benmiloud, Fares; Falco, Jorge; de La Fuente, Martin; Verna, Silvina; Rosenthal, Raul; Berber, Eren

    2018-04-01

    Parathyroid glands (PGs) exhibit autofluorescence (AF) when excited by near-infrared laser. This multicenter study aims to analyze how this imaging could facilitate the detection of PGs during thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy procedures. This was a retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved analysis of prospectively collected data at three centers. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFI) was used to detect AF from PGs during thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy procedures. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the utility of NIFI to identify PGs and concordance at these centers. Overall, 210 patients underwent total thyroidectomy (n = 95), thyroid lobectomy (n = 41), and parathyroidectomy (n = 74) (n = 70 per center). Using NIFI, AF was detected from 98% of visually identified PGs. Upon initial exploration, 46% of PGs were not visible to the naked eye due to coverage by soft tissue, but AF from these glands could be detected by NIFI without any further dissection. Overall, a median of one PG per patient was detected by NIFI in this fashion before being identified visually (p = nonsignificant between centers). On logistic regression, smaller PGs were more likely to be missed visually, but localized by AF on NIFI (odds ratio with increasing size, 0.91; p = 0.02). In our experience, NIFI facilitated PG identification by detecting their AF, before conventional recognition by the surgeon, in 37-67% of the time. Despite the variability in this rate across centers, there was a concordance in detecting AF from 97 to 99% of the PGs using NIFI. We suggest the incorporation of AF on NIFI alongside conventional visual cues to aid identification of PGs during neck operations.

  5. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Perceived Sentence Clarity for Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Morgan, Shae D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine talker differences for subjectively rated speech clarity in clear versus conversational speech, to determine whether ratings differ for young adults with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners), and to explore effects of certain talker characteristics…

  6. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants.

  7. Pilot study on quantitative assessment of muscle imbalance: differences of muscle synergies, equilibrium-point trajectories, and endpoint stiffness in normal and pathological upper-limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takanori; Uno, Kanna; Nishi, Tomoki; Kageyama, Masayuki; Phatiwuttipat, Pipatthana; Koba, Keitaro; Yamashita, Yuto; Murakami, Kenta; Uemura, Mitsunori; Hirai, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Fumio; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for assessment of muscle imbalance based on muscle synergy hypothesis and equilibrium point (EP) hypothesis of motor control. We explain in detail the method for extracting muscle synergies under the concept of agonist-antagonist (AA) muscle pairs and for estimating EP trajectories and endpoint stiffness of human upper limbs in a horizontal plane using an electromyogram. The results of applying this method to the reaching movement of one normal subject and one hemiplegic subject suggest that (1) muscle synergies (the balance among coactivation of AA muscle pairs), particularly the synergies that contributes to the angular directional kinematics of EP and the limb stiffness, are quite different between the normal subject and the hemiplegic subject; (2) the concomitant EP trajectory is also different between the normal and hemiplegic subjects, corresponding to the difference of muscle synergies; and (3) the endpoint (hand) stiffness ellipse of the hemiplegic subject becomes more elongated and orientation of the major axis rotates clockwise more than that of the normal subject. The level of motor impairment would be expected to be assessed from a comparison of these differences of muscle synergies, EP trajectories, and endpoint stiffness among normal and pathological subjects using the method.

  8. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  9. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s ...

  10. Age and gender effects on normal regional cerebral blood flow studied using two different voxel-based statistical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirson, A.S.; George, J.; Krug, B.; Vander Borght, T.; Van Laere, K.; Jamart, J.; D'Asseler, Y.; Minoshima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Fully automated analysis programs have been applied more and more to aid for the reading of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT study. They are increasingly based on the comparison of the patient study with a normal database. In this study, we evaluate the ability of Three-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection (3 D-S.S.P.) to isolate effects of age and gender in a previously studied normal population. The results were also compared with those obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping (S.P.M.99). Methods Eighty-nine 99m Tc-E.C.D.-SPECT studies performed in carefully screened healthy volunteers (46 females, 43 males; age 20 - 81 years) were analysed using 3 D-S.S.P.. A multivariate analysis based on the general linear model was performed with regions as intra-subject factor, gender as inter-subject factor and age as co-variate. Results Both age and gender had a significant interaction effect with regional tracer uptake. An age-related decline (p < 0.001) was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal association cortex and left insula. Bilateral occipital association and left primary visual cortical uptake showed a significant relative increase with age (p < 0.001). Concerning the gender effect, women showed higher uptake (p < 0.01) in the parietal and right sensorimotor cortices. An age by gender interaction (p < 0.01) was only found in the left medial frontal cortex. The results were consistent with those obtained with S.P.M.99. Conclusion 3 D-S.S.P. analysis of normal r.C.B.F. variability is consistent with the literature and other automated voxel-based techniques, which highlight the effects of both age and gender. (authors)

  11. DIFFERENCE IN THE INTENSITY OF DEPRESSION BETWEEN PARENTS HAVING CHILDREN WITH CONDUCT DISORDER AND PARENTS HAVING NORMAL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Meethale Veettil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parents experience psychological trauma if they recognise that their children are having conduct disorder, which is unacceptable to the society and against the social norms. The intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder is included in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS Exploratory research was used in this study as the method of study. A sample was selected from parents having children with conduct disorder reported in various psychiatric settings in Kerala, India, and also from parents having normal children. Random sampling was used for selecting the sample. All the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder in the age group of 6 to 12 reported in the psychiatric settings on a random day is selected as sample. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Depression in parents affect their skills in caregiving, support to their children, nurturance and it will affect proper development of children physically and mentally. Similarly, conduct disorder in children will affect their parents mental and social functioning and their life functioning and the parents maybe suffering from depression. Mothers of children with conduct disorders are reported to have exhibit more depressed and they show very poor parenting skills and negative interactions with their children compared to normal mothers. Parents having children with conduct disorder did have higher intensity of depression compared to parents having normal children. CONCLUSION The study hopes to make contributions in identifying the intensity of depression in parents having children with conduct disorder and it’s serious and least recognised impact on their parents. The study will also help to find out the areas in which parents need intervention and to decide which type of therapy will be more helpful to the family as a whole. Identifying and understanding the relevant and feasible components of therapy can then facilitate

  12. Left and right reaction time differences to the sound intensity in normal and AD/HD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Rostami, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Right hemisphere, which is attributed to the sound intensity discrimination, has abnormality in people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). However, it is not studied whether the defect in the right hemisphere has influenced on the intensity sensation of AD/HD subjects or not. In this study, the sensitivity of normal and AD/HD children to the sound intensity was investigated. Nineteen normal and fourteen AD/HD children participated in the study and performed a simple auditory reaction time task. Using the regression analysis, the sensitivity of right and left ears to various sound intensity levels was examined. The statistical results showed that the sensitivity of AD/HD subjects to the intensity was lower than the normal group (p Left and right pathways of the auditory system had the same pattern of response in AD/HD subjects (p > 0.05). However, in control group the left pathway was more sensitive to the sound intensity level than the right one (p = 0.0156). It can be probable that the deficit of the right hemisphere has influenced on the auditory sensitivity of AD/HD children. The possible existent deficits of other auditory system components such as middle ear, inner ear, or involved brain stem nucleuses may also lead to the observed results. The development of new biomarkers based on the sensitivity of the brain hemispheres to the sound intensity has been suggested to estimate the risk of AD/HD. Designing new technique to correct the auditory feedback has been also proposed in behavioral treatment sessions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Executive functions differences in normal scholars, with Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, disorder of arithmetical skills and comorbid condition

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Chipatecua, Alexandra; Rey-Anacona, César-Armando

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio descriptivo-comparativo fue comparar el desempeño en funciones ejecutivas de escolares entre ocho y trece años con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), trastorno del cálculo (TC), TDAH+TC y controles normales. Los diagnósticos se confirmaron a través de una entrevista clínica semiestructurada, un cuestionario clínico de déficit atencional y pruebas de cálculo matemático. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los...

  14. A comparison of three different ray trace programs for x-ray and infrared synchrotron beamline designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irick, S.C.; Jung, C.R.

    1997-07-01

    There are a number of ray trace programs currently used for the design of synchrotron beamlines. While several of these programs have been written and used mostly within the programmer''s institution, many have also been available to the general public. This paper discusses three such programs. One is a commercial product oriented for the general optical designer (not specifically for synchrotron beamlines). One is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is free with restricted availability. Finally, one is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is used primarily in one institution. The wealth of information from general optical materials and components catalogs is readily available in the commercial program for general optical designs. This makes the design of an infrared beamline easier from the standpoint of component selection. However, this program is not easily configured for synchrotron beamline designs, particularly for a bending magnet source. The synchrotron ray trace programs offer a variety of sources, but generally are not as easy to use from the standpoint of the user interface. This paper shows ray traces of the same beamline Optikwerks, SHADOW, and RAY, and compares the results

  15. Transcriptional differences between normal and glioma-derived glial progenitor cells identify a core set of dysregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvergne, Romane M; Sim, Fraser J; Wang, Su; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Burch, Jaclyn; Al Fanek, Yazan; Davis, Danielle; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Walter, Kevin; Achanta, Pragathi; Johnson, Mahlon; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Natesan, Sridaran; Ford, Heide L; Goldman, Steven A

    2013-06-27

    Glial progenitor cells (GPCs) are a potential source of malignant gliomas. We used A2B5-based sorting to extract tumorigenic GPCs from human gliomas spanning World Health Organization grades II-IV. Messenger RNA profiling identified a cohort of genes that distinguished A2B5+ glioma tumor progenitor cells (TPCs) from A2B5+ GPCs isolated from normal white matter. A core set of genes and pathways was substantially dysregulated in A2B5+ TPCs, which included the transcription factor SIX1 and its principal cofactors, EYA1 and DACH2. Small hairpin RNAi silencing of SIX1 inhibited the expansion of glioma TPCs in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a critical and unrecognized role of the SIX1-EYA1-DACH2 system in glioma genesis or progression. By comparing the expression patterns of glioma TPCs with those of normal GPCs, we have identified a discrete set of pathways by which glial tumorigenesis may be better understood and more specifically targeted. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Spinal Tap Test on Different Sensory Modalities of Postural Stability in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Abram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Postural instability in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is a most crucial symptom leading to falls with secondary complications. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of spinal tap on postural stability in these patients. Methods: Seventeen patients with clinical symptoms of NPH were examined using gait scale, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP, and neuropsychological assessment. Examinations were done before and after spinal tap test. Results: The gait score showed a significant improvement 24 h after spinal tap test in all subtests and in the sum score (p Conclusion: Postural stability in NPH is predominantly affected by deficient vestibular functions, which did not improve after spinal tap test. Conditions which improved best were mainly independent from visual control and are based on proprioceptive functions.

  17. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  18. Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present at young-to-middle but not at older age in normal adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, K.K.; Muller, M.L.; Kuwabara, H.; Studenski, S.A.; Bohnen, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in brain dopaminergic activity have been variably reported in the literature. We performed an evaluation for gender effects on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in a group of normal subjects. Community-dwelling adults (n = 85, 50F/35M, mean age 62.7 +/- 16.2 SD, range

  19. Similarities and differences between eating disorders and obese patients in a virtual environment for normalizing eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María

    2016-05-01

    Virtual reality has demonstrated promising results in the treatment of eating disorders (ED); however, few studies have examined its usefulness in treating obesity. The aim of this study was to compare ED and obese patients on their reality judgment of a virtual environment (VE) designed to normalize their eating pattern. A second objective was to study which variables predicted the reality of the experience of eating a virtual forbidden-fattening food. ED patients, obese patients, and a non-clinical group (N=62) experienced a non-immersive VE, and then completed reality judgment and presence measures. All participants rated the VE with similar scores for quality, interaction, engagement, and ecological validity; however, ED patients obtained the highest scores on emotional involvement, attention, reality judgment/presence, and negative effects. The obese group gave the lowest scores to reality judgment/presence, satisfaction and sense of physical space, and they held an intermediate position in the attribution of reality to virtually eating a "fattening" food. The palatability of a virtual food was predicted by attention capturing and belonging to the obese group, while the attribution of reality to the virtual eating was predicted by engagement and belonging to the ED group. This study offers preliminary results about the differential impact on ED and obese patients of the exposure to virtual food, and about the need to implement a VE that can be useful as a virtual lab for studying eating behavior and treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  1. Transcriptome Profiles in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells after Exposure to gamma-rays and different HZE particles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distinct transcriptome profiles in response to low-LET and high-LET and different radiation qualities of HZE particles. Total RNA obtained from HBEC3KT cells after 1...

  2. Comparison of different methods of spatial normalization of FDG-PET brain images in the voxel-wise analysis of MCI patients and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, M.E.; Villoria, J.G. de; Lacalle-Aurioles, M.; Olazaran, J.; Navarro, E.; Desco, M.; Cruz, I.; Garcia-Vazquez, V.; Carreras, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most interesting clinical applications of 18F-fluorodexyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in neurodegenerative pathologies is that of establishing the prognosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), some of whom have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). One method of analyzing these images is to perform statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Spatial normalization is a critical step in such an analysis. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of using different methods of spatial normalization on the results of SPM analysis of 18F-FDG PET images by comparing patients with MCI and controls. We evaluated the results of three spatial normalization methods in an SPM analysis by comparing patients diagnosed with MCI with a group of control subjects. We tested three methods of spatial normalization: MRI-diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) and MRI-SPM8, which combine structural and functional images, and FDG-SPM8, which is based on the functional images only. The results obtained with the three methods were consistent in terms of the main pattern of functional alterations detected; namely, a bilateral reduction in glucose metabolism in the frontal and parietal cortices in the patient group. However, MRI-SPM8 also revealed differences in the left temporal cortex, and MRI-DARTEL revealed further differences in the left temporal cortex, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate. The results obtained with MRI-DARTEL were the most consistent with the pattern of changes in AD. When we compared our observations with those of previous reports, MRI-SPM8 and FDG-SPM8 seemed to show an incomplete pattern. Our results suggest that basing the spatial normalization method on functional images only can considerably impair the results of SPM analysis of 18F-FDG PET studies. (author)

  3. Generating shaped femtosecond pulses in the far infrared using a spatial light modulator and difference frequency generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...

  4. [ I - 123 ] IPT SPECT Dopamine Reuptake Site Imaging : Differences in Normal Controls and Parkinson's Patients by Semiquantitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Hee Kyung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Joo Hyuck; Lee, Myung Chong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Dopamine transporter concentrations have been known to decrease in Parkinson's disease (PD) or increase in Tourette's disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of [I-123]N-(3-iodopropene-2-yl)-2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane (IPT) as an imaging agent for measuring changes in transporter concentrations with PD. IPT labelled with 6.69+/-0.64 mCi (247.53+/-23.68 MBq) of I-123 was intravenously injected into ten patients(age: 55+/-11) with PD, and six normal controls(NC)(age: 46+/-14) as a bolus. Dynamic SPECT scans of the brain were then performed for 5 minutes each over 120 minutes on a triple headed camera. Time activity curves were generated for the left basal ganglia(LBG), right basal ganglia(RBG), and occipital cortex(OCC). The statistical parameters included the time to peak activity, the contrast ratio of LEG and RBG to OCC at several time points, and the accumulated specific binding counts/mCi/pixel (ASBC) from 0 to 115 minutes. The uptake of IPT in the brains of PD and NC peaked within 10 minutes of injection in all subjects. The maximum target to background ratio in the basal ganglia of PD and NC occurred at 85+/-20 min and 110-+/-6 min of injection, respectively. The BG/OCC ratios at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 2.15+/-0.54 and 4.26+/-0.73, respectively. The ASBC at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 152.91+/-50.09 and 289.51+/-49.00, respectively. The ratio of BG/OCC for the NC was significantly higher than the ratio for PD. SPECT data matched with clinical diagnosis for PDs. The ratio between BG and OCC and the ASBC for PD were clearly separated from NC and may be useful outcome measures for clinical diagnosis. The findings suggest that IPT may be a very useful tracer for early diagnosis of PD and study of dopamine reuptake site.

  5. [ I - 123 ] IPT SPECT Dopamine Reuptake Site Imaging : Differences in Normal Controls and Parkinson's Patients by Semiquantitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Joung; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Hee Kyung; Im, Joo Hyuck; Lee, Myung Chong

    1996-01-01

    Dopamine transporter concentrations have been known to decrease in Parkinson's disease (PD) or increase in Tourette's disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of [I-123]N-(3-iodopropene-2-yl)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl) tropane (IPT) as an imaging agent for measuring changes in transporter concentrations with PD. IPT labelled with 6.69+/-0.64 mCi (247.53+/-23.68 MBq) of I-123 was intravenously injected into ten patients(age: 55+/-11) with PD, and six normal controls(NC)(age: 46+/-14) as a bolus. Dynamic SPECT scans of the brain were then performed for 5 minutes each over 120 minutes on a triple headed camera. Time activity curves were generated for the left basal ganglia(LBG), right basal ganglia(RBG), and occipital cortex(OCC). The statistical parameters included the time to peak activity, the contrast ratio of LEG and RBG to OCC at several time points, and the accumulated specific binding counts/mCi/pixel (ASBC) from 0 to 115 minutes. The uptake of IPT in the brains of PD and NC peaked within 10 minutes of injection in all subjects. The maximum target to background ratio in the basal ganglia of PD and NC occurred at 85+/-20 min and 110-+/-6 min of injection, respectively. The BG/OCC ratios at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 2.15+/-0.54 and 4.26+/-0.73, respectively. The ASBC at 115 minutes for PD and NC were 152.91+/-50.09 and 289.51+/-49.00, respectively. The ratio of BG/OCC for the NC was significantly higher than the ratio for PD. SPECT data matched with clinical diagnosis for PDs. The ratio between BG and OCC and the ASBC for PD were clearly separated from NC and may be useful outcome measures for clinical diagnosis. The findings suggest that IPT may be a very useful tracer for early diagnosis of PD and study of dopamine reuptake site.

  6. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Short separation regression improves statistical significance and better localizes the hemodynamic response obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy for tasks with differing autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Petkov, Mike P; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Boas, David A

    2015-07-01

    Autonomic nervous system response is known to be highly task-dependent. The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to superficial layers, particularly to the scalp, makes it highly susceptible to systemic physiological changes. Thus, one critical step in NIRS data processing is to remove the contribution of superficial layers to the NIRS signal and to obtain the actual brain response. This can be achieved using short separation channels that are sensitive only to the hemodynamics in the scalp. We investigated the contribution of hemodynamic fluctuations due to autonomous nervous system activation during various tasks. Our results provide clear demonstrations of the critical role of using short separation channels in NIRS measurements to disentangle differing autonomic responses from the brain activation signal of interest.

  8. Soluble CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 are differently expressed in blood serum of pregnant women during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Pawel; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Prager, Sebastian; Moore, Tom; Wennemuth, Gunther; Kimmig, Rainer; Köninger, Angela; Singer, Bernhard B

    2017-10-01

    CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 belong to the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family and may play an immune-modulatory role during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the blood serum levels of soluble CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 over the course of pregnancy and postpartum. CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 levels were determined with customized in-house Sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems. The study population (n=125) was divided into four groups according to the pregnancy trimester and postpartum. Additionally, samples of non-pregnant women (n=14) were analyzed. Serum levels of CEACAM1 in healthy pregnant women were much lower than in non-pregnant women, a difference not seen for CEACAM6. Comparison between the trimesters and postpartum revealed a significant difference in CEACAM1 serum levels. The highest CEACAM1 levels were detected in third trimester. These levels were statistically significantly different from the CEACAM1 levels in first trimester and second trimester. The lowest levels were observed in the second trimester. Postpartum CEACAM1 serum concentrations were slightly lower than in the third trimester, but higher than in the first trimester and significantly higher compared to levels in the second trimester. Decreased concentration of CEACAM1 during the pregnancy suggests its regulatory role in the immune tolerance during the course of pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage

  10. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  11. Strontium-Doped Calcium Phosphate and Hydroxyapatite Granules Promote Different Inflammatory and Bone Remodelling Responses in Normal and Ovariectomised Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Emanuelsson, Lena; Norlindh, Birgitta; Omar, Omar; Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The healing of bone defects may be hindered by systemic conditions such as osteoporosis. Calcium phosphates, with or without ion substitutions, may provide advantages for bone augmentation. However, the mechanism of bone formation with these materials is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process in bone defects implanted with hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped calcium phosphate (SCP) granules, in non-ovariectomised (non-OVX) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. After 0 (baseline), six and 28d, bone samples were harvested for gene expression analysis, histology and histomorphometry. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), at six days, was higher in the HA, in non-OVX and OVX, whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6), at six and 28d, was higher in SCP, but only in non-OVX. Both materials produced a similar expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Higher expression of osteoclastic markers, calcitonin receptor (CR) and cathepsin K (CatK), were detected in the HA group, irrespective of non-OVX or OVX. The overall bone formation was comparable between HA and SCP, but with topological differences. The bone area was higher in the defect centre of the HA group, mainly in the OVX, and in the defect periphery of the SCP group, in both non-OVX and OVX. It is concluded that HA and SCP granules result in comparable bone formation in trabecular bone defects. As judged by gene expression and histological analyses, the two materials induced different inflammatory and bone remodelling responses. The modulatory effects are associated with differences in the spatial distribution of the newly formed bone. PMID:24376855

  12. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric...... mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions...

  13. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds: relationship to release and degradation in subjects with normal and decreased kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schwartz, T W; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    a significantly higher level of circulating PP than controls (n = 10): median PP = 52 (range 21 to 352) v 20 (6 to 143) pmol/L, respectively (P less than 0.02). Circulating PP was inversely correlated to 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance (r = -0.57, P less than 0.02, n = 14) and directly correlated to serum creatinine...... a progressively increasing rate of PP secretion in subjects with raised circulating PP. No statistically significant difference could be detected between systemic and renal venous PP or across the lung, left adrenal gland, or lower limb. Assuming steady state between secretion and biodegradation, the metabolic...

  14. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (? 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  15. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β 42, Total Tau and Phosphorylated Tau are Low in Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Analogies and Differences with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Roberto; Cecchetti, Giordano; Bernasconi, Maria Paola; Cardamone, Rosalinda; Barbieri, Alessandra; Pinto, Patrizia; Passerini, Gabriella; Scomazzoni, Francesco; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Co-existence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a frequent finding, thus a common pathophysiological basis between AD and NPH has been postulated. We measured CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in a sample of 294 patients with different types of dementia and 32 subjects without dementia. We then compared scores on neuropsychological tests of NPH patients with pathological and normal CSF Aβ42 values. Aβ42 levels were significantly lower in NPH than in control patients, with no significant differences between AD and NPH. On the contrary, t-tau and p-tau levels were significantly lower in NPH than in AD, with no differences between NPH and controls. NPH patients with pathological Aβ42 levels did not perform worse than NPH patients with normal Aβ42 levels in any cognitive domains. Our data seem to support the hypothesis of amyloid accumulation in brains of NPH patients. Nevertheless, amyloid does not seem to play a pathogenetic role in the development of cognitive deficits in NPH.

  16. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  17. Evaluation of different near-infrared spectroscopy technologies for assessment of tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhaut, Kevin; Lapage, Koen; Bové, Thierry; De Hert, Stefan; Moerman, Annelies

    2017-12-01

    An increasing number of NIRS devices are used to provide measurements of peripheral tissue oxygen saturation (S t O 2 ). The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that despite technological differences between devices, similar trend values will be obtained during a vascular occlusion test. The devices compared are NIRO-200NX, which measures S t O 2 and oxyhemoglobin by spatially resolved spectroscopy and the Beer-Lambert law, respectively, and INVOS 5100C and Foresight Elite, which both measure S t O 2 with the Beer-Lambert law, enhanced with the spatial resolution technique. Forty consenting adults scheduled for CABG surgery were recruited. The respective sensors of the three NIRS devices were applied over the brachioradial muscle. Before induction of anesthesia, 3 min of ischemia were induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff at the upper arm, whereafter cuff pressure was rapidly released. Tissue oxygenation measurements included baseline, minimum and maximum values, desaturation and resaturation slopes, and rise time. Comparisons between devices were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc Mann-Whitney pairwise comparisons. Agreement was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Oxyhemoglobin measured with NIRO responded faster than the other NIRS technologies to changes in peripheral tissue oxygenation (20 vs. 27-40 s, p ≤ 0.01). When comparing INVOS with Foresight, oxygenation changes were prompter (upslope 311 [92-523]%/min vs. 114[65-199]%/min, p ≤ 0.01) and more pronounced (minimum value 36 [21-48] vs. 45 [40-51]%, p ≤ 0.01) with INVOS. Significant differences in tissue oxygen saturation measurements were observed, both within the same device as between different devices using the same measurement technology.

  18. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Azzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15 participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15 isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC to peritumoral (ptumTEC, tumoral (RCC, and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105+. RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15 isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα. This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105+, where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105+ from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, “apparently normal” ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral “preneoplastic” environment committed to favor tumor progression.

  19. Differences in knowledge of dementia among older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: A representative nationwide sample of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Soowon; Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Ji Eyon; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about a disease could impede early diagnosis and may lead to delays in seeking appropriate medical care. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge of dementia (KOD) and to find the determinants of KOD among three groups: older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A representative nationwide sample of 6141 Korean elders aged 65 years or older participated in face-to-face interviews and answered 14 questions pertaining to general information, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of dementia. Stepwise multiple regressions and path analyses probed the relationships between various sociodemographic variables and KOD. The percentage of correct responses was only 62%. The item 'A person who remembers things that happened in the past does not have dementia' was answered correctly (false) by only 24.8-27% of the respondents in all groups. Older adults with normal cognition had higher KOD scores than those with MCI or dementia. In the normal-cognition group, KOD scores were higher among highly educated, younger, and literate women with no depression and a family history of dementia. In contrast with the determinants in the normal-cognition group, only the ability to read and write predicted KOD scores in the dementia group. Efforts to enhance KOD in elder adults are needed. Public education regarding the differences between dementia and healthy aging may increase KOD among normal elders and those with MCI. Among elders with dementia, educational materials that do not require literacy may be more helpful in increasing KOD with the aim of preventing treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of malnutrition inflammation score, anthropometry and biochemical parameters in assessing the difference in protein-energy wasting between normal weight and obese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipoor, Elham; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Yaseri, Mehdi; Zahed, Narges S

    2017-07-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is prevalent in haemodialysis. Obesity is an independent risk factor of kidney insufficiency, but it is proposed to have beneficial roles in better outcomes in the final stage of disease. Better nutritional status and body reserves are among probable mechanisms, but direct examinations are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether obese patients have preferable nutritional status compared to normal weight patients based on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and other PEW parameters in haemodialysis. This case-control study investigated 52 normal weight (18.5 < body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m 2 ) and 48 obese (BMI≥30 kg/m 2 ) patients on regular haemodialysis. PEW was assessed based on anthropometric and biochemical factors, recent weight changes, appetite, anorexia, dietary intake and MIS. Obese patients had better MIS compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.001), although varying degrees of wasting were prevalent among this group too (75% mild and 25% moderate wasting). The obese group had less significant weight loss (4.2 vs 8%) and anorexia and better appetite. However, a considerable percentage of patients in both groups showed muscle (94.6% of normal weight and 19.5% of obese) and peripheral fat tissue (89.2% of normal weight and 31.7% of obese) losses compared to the 50th percentile. Biochemical parameters were not significantly different between groups except for triglyceride (P = 0.001), transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.028). MIS was significantly better in obese patients; however, both groups showed degrees of wasting based on MIS and other PEW parameters. Nutritional status of obese haemodialysis patients should be monitored regularly because of high risk of PEW like other BMI categories. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  1. Proton transfers in a channelrhodopsin-1 studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, John I; Yi, Adrian; Mamaev, Sergey; Li, Hai; Spudich, John L; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2015-05-15

    Channelrhodopsin-1 from the alga Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) is a low-efficiency light-activated cation channel that exhibits properties useful for optogenetic applications such as a slow light inactivation and a red-shifted visible absorption maximum as compared with the more extensively studied channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR2). Previously, both resonance Raman and low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy revealed that unlike CrChR2, CaChR1 under our conditions exhibits an almost pure all-trans retinal composition in the unphotolyzed ground state and undergoes an all-trans to 13-cis isomerization during the primary phototransition typical of other microbial rhodopsins such as bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Here, we apply static and rapid-scan FTIR difference spectroscopy along with site-directed mutagenesis to characterize the proton transfer events occurring upon the formation of the long-lived conducting P2 (380) state of CaChR1. Assignment of carboxylic C=O stretch bands indicates that Asp-299 (homolog to Asp-212 in BR) becomes protonated and Asp-169 (homolog to Asp-85 in BR) undergoes a net change in hydrogen bonding relative to the unphotolyzed ground state of CaChR1. These data along with earlier FTIR measurements on the CaChR1 → P1 transition are consistent with a two-step proton relay mechanism that transfers a proton from Glu-169 to Asp-299 during the primary phototransition and from the Schiff base to Glu-169 during P2 (380) formation. The unusual charge neutrality of both Schiff base counterions in the P2 (380) conducting state suggests that these residues may function as part of a cation selective filter in the open channel state of CaChR1 as well as other low-efficiency ChRs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  3. Comparative study of two different Bombesin derivates labeled with {sup 111}In and biodistribution in normal mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Alcarde, Lais F.; Correa, Beatriz L.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Couto, Renata M.; Mengatti, Jair; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: ricardooliveira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical speciality that uses radioactive compounds (radiopharmaceuticals), consisting of a substrate and a radioactive isotope, for diagnostic. Among the peptides of interest for Nuclear Medicine, bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid neuropeptide analog of human gastrin-releasing peptide, is one of the highlights. This is a comparative study aiming to establish the best condition to radiolabel two BBN derivatives, (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14)}) and (DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 2}-BBN{sub (6-14})) with 111-indium. Specific objectives of this study were evaluate a good condition of radiolabelling in search excellent specific activity the bombesin derivatives and determinate the biodistribution in health mice model. Ten micrograms (10μg) of the derivative DTPA-Phe-Gly2-BBN (6-14) was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} at 25°C for different times (5, 15 and 30 minutes). The best condition was applied to peptide mass variation (10, 5, 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 μg), keeping all other parameters fixed. Finally, the influence of {sup 111}InCl{sub 3} activity in the radiolabeling process (18.5, 37, 55.5, 74, 185 MBq) was evaluated. The best conditions were repeated for the second derivate, DTPA-Phe-Gly{sub 5}-BBN{sub (6-14}). The radiochemical purity was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), using 0.2 M EDTA pH 5 as solvent, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column with linear gradient 10% A to 90% A (v/v) (A: 0,1% of TFA in CH3CN; B: 0,1% of TFA in H2O) at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute for 15 minutes. Considering the reaction time, the higher radiochemical purity was obtained when 10μg of the peptide was labeled with 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of {sup 111}In for 15 minutes at 25°C (97.33 ± 0.50%, n=3). In the mass variation study, the best results of radiochemical purity were obtained when 10 μg of the peptide was employed (97.69 ± 0.4%, n = 4). Finally, the maximum specific activity of the radiolabelled

  4. How different is the borazine-acetylene dimer from the benzene-acetylene dimer? A matrix isolation infrared and ab initio quantum chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kanupriya; Viswanathan, K. S.; Majumder, Moumita; Sathyamurthy, N.

    2017-11-01

    The 1:1 dimer of borazine-acetylene has been studied for the first time, both experimentally and computationally. The borazine-acetylene dimer was trapped in Ar and N2 matrices, and studied using infrared spectroscopy. Our experiments clearly revealed two isomers of the borazine-acetylene complex, one in which the N-H of borazine interacted with the carbon of acetylene, and another in which the C-H of acetylene formed a hydrogen bond with a nitrogen atom of borazine. The formation of both isomers in the matrix was evidenced by shifts in the vibrational frequencies of the appropriate modes. Reassuringly, the experimental observations were corroborated by our computations using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theoretic method and coupled-cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples method in conjunction with different Dunning basis sets, which indicated both these isomers to be stable minima, with the N-HṡṡṡC complex being the global minimum. Atoms-in-molecules and energy decomposition analysis were also carried out for the different isomers of the dimer. These studies reveal that replacing the three C-C linkages in benzene with three B-N linkages in borazine modifies the interaction in the dimer sufficiently, to result in a different potential energy landscape for the borazine-acetylene system when compared with the benzene-acetylene system.

  5. Different apoptotic effects of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin on normal and cancerous human epithelial breast cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Carla; Muscella, Antonella; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Cossa, Luca Giulio; Migoni, Danilo; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether [platinum (Pt)(O,O'-acetylacetonate (acac))(γ-acac)(dimethylsulphide (DMS))] is differentially cytotoxic in normal and cancer cells, and to measure comparative levels of cytotoxicity compared with cisplatin in the same cells. We performed experiments on cancerous and normal epithelial breast cells in primary culture obtained from the same patients. The apoptotic effects [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin in cancerous and normal breast cells were compared. Cancer cells were more sensitive to [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (IC50 = 5.22 ± 1.2 μmol·L(-1)) than normal cells (IC50 = 116.9 ± 8.8 μmol·L(-1)). However, the difference was less strong when cisplatin was used (IC50 = 96.0 ± 6.9 and 61.9 ± 6.1 μmol·L(-1) for cancer and normal cells respectively). Both compounds caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with different mechanisms: [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] quickly activated NAD(P)H oxidase while cisplatin caused a slower formation of mitochondrial ROS. Cisplatin and [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused activation of caspases, proteolysis of PARP and modulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Bid. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] also caused leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Overall, these processes proceeded more quickly in cells treated with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] compared with cisplatin. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] effects were faster and quantitatively greater in cancer than in normal cells. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused a fast decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cancer cells. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was specific to breast cancer cells in primary culture, and this observation makes this compound potentially more interesting than cisplatin. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Different apoptotic effects of [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin on normal and cancerous human epithelial breast cells in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Carla; Muscella, Antonella; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Cossa, Luca Giulio; Migoni, Danilo; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether [platinum (Pt)(O,O′-acetylacetonate (acac))(γ-acac)(dimethylsulphide (DMS))] is differentially cytotoxic in normal and cancer cells, and to measure comparative levels of cytotoxicity compared with cisplatin in the same cells. Experimental Approach We performed experiments on cancerous and normal epithelial breast cells in primary culture obtained from the same patients. The apoptotic effects [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin in cancerous and normal breast cells were compared. Key Results Cancer cells were more sensitive to [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (IC50 = 5.22 ± 1.2 μmol·L−1) than normal cells (IC50 = 116.9 ± 8.8 μmol·L−1). However, the difference was less strong when cisplatin was used (IC50 = 96.0 ± 6.9 and 61.9 ± 6.1 μmol·L−1 for cancer and normal cells respectively). Both compounds caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with different mechanisms: [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] quickly activated NAD(P)H oxidase while cisplatin caused a slower formation of mitochondrial ROS. Cisplatin and [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused activation of caspases, proteolysis of PARP and modulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Bid. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] also caused leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Overall, these processes proceeded more quickly in cells treated with [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] compared with cisplatin. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] effects were faster and quantitatively greater in cancer than in normal cells. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused a fast decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cancer cells. Conclusions and Implications [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was specific to breast cancer cells in primary culture, and this observation makes this compound potentially more interesting than cisplatin. PMID:24990093

  7. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  9. Age- and gender-related difference of vocal fold vibration and glottal configuration in normal speakers: analysis with glottal area waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2014-09-01

    Glottal area waveform (GAW) analysis is widely used in the assessment of vocal fold vibration by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI). Because normative GAW data obtained from a large number of subjects have not been reported, we conducted a prospective study to obtain normative results for GAW analysis of HSDI findings and clarify normal variations associated with gender and age. Vocally healthy adults were divided into a young group (aged ≤ 35 years) and an elderly group (aged ≥ 65 years). The configuration and size of the glottal area were assessed at different phases of the glottal cycle, and gender- and age-related differences were evaluated. A total of 26 young subjects (nine men and 17 women; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (eight men and 12 women; mean age: 73 years) were investigated. The glottal area at different points of the glottal cycle showed a negative correlation with frequency. Although the GAW parameters of young women appeared to be different from those of the other subgroups, the differences were not statistically significant. Young women predominantly had a triangular- or vase-shaped glottal configuration at all frequencies, whereas the other subgroups showed various glottal shapes. The present study clarified gender- and age-related differences of GAW parameters obtained with HSDI. Young women were likely to show different glottal configurations and different responses to frequency changes from those of young men, elderly men, and elderly women. Phonosurgeons should pay attention to the normal variations detected in the present study. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark1200 high-temperature coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuyao; Huan, Kewei; Dong, Wei; Wang, Jinghui; Zang, Yanzhe; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2014-11-01

    Pyromark 1200 (Tempil Co, USA), which is a type of high-temperature high-emissivity coating, is silicon-based with good thermal radiation performance. Its stably working condition is at the temperature range 589~922 K thus a wide range of applications in industrial, scientific research, aviation, aerospace and other fields. Infrared emissivity is one of the most important factors in infrared radiation characteristics. Data on infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 is in shortage, as well as the reports on its infrared radiation characteristics affected by its spray painting process, microstructure and thermal process. The results of this research show that: (1) The coating film critical thickness on the metal base is 10μm according to comparison among different types of spray painting process, coating film thickness, microstructure, which would influence the infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark 1200 coating. The infrared spectral emissivity will attenuate when the coating film thickness is lower or much higher than that. (2) Through measurements, the normal infrared radiation characteristics is analyzed within the range at the temperature range 573~873 K under normal atmospheric conditions, and the total infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 coating is higher than 0.93 in the 3~14 μm wavelength range. (3) The result of 72-hour aging test at the temperature 673 K which studied the effect of thermal processes on the infrared radiation characteristics of the coating shows that the infrared spectral emissivity variation range is approximately 0.01 indicating that Pyromark 1200 coating is with good stability. Compared with Nextel Velvet Coating (N-V-C) which is widely used in optics field, Pyromark 1200 high-temperature coating has a higher applicable temperature and is more suitable for spraying on the material surface which is in long-term operation under high temperature work conditions and requires high infrared spectral emissivity.

  11. The Chicago Classification 3.0 Results in More Normal Findings and Fewer Hypotensive Findings With No Difference in Other Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrroy, H; Cisternas, D; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Remes-Troche, J; Meixueiro, A; Zavala, M A; Serra, J; Marín, I; Ruiz de León, A; Pérez de la Serna, J; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A; Abrahao, L; Coello, R; Valdovinos, M A

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the preferred method for the evaluation of motility disorders. Recently, an update of the diagnostic criteria (Chicago 3.0) has been published. The aim of this study was to compare the performance criteria of Chicago version 2.0 (CC2.0) vs. 3.0 (CC3.0) in a cohort of healthy volunteers and symptomatic patients. HRM studies of asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals from several centers of Spain and Latin America were analyzed using both CC2.0 and CC3.0. The final diagnosis was grouped into hierarchical categories: obstruction (achalasia and gastro-esophageal junction obstruction), major disorders (distal esophageal spasm, absent peristalsis, and jackhammer), minor disorders (failed frequent peristalsis, weak peristalsis with small or large defects, ineffective esophageal motility, fragmented peristalsis, rapid contractile with normal latency and hypertensive peristalsis) and normal. The results were compared using McNemar's and Kappa tests. HRM was analyzed in 107 healthy volunteers (53.3% female; 18-69 years) and 400 symptomatic patients (58.5% female; 18-90 years). In healthy volunteers, using CC2.0 and CC3.0, obstructive disorders were diagnosed in 7.5% and 5.6%, respectively, major disorders in 1% and 2.8%, respectively, minor disorders in 25.2% and 15%, respectively, and normal in 66.4% and 76.6%, respectively. In symptomatic individuals, using CC2.0 and CC3.0, obstructive disorders were diagnosed in 11% and 11.3%, respectively, major disorders in 14% and 14%, respectively, minor disorders in 33.3% and 24.5%, respectively, and normal in 41.8% and 50.3%, respectively. In both groups of individuals, only an increase in normal and a decrease in minor findings using CC3.0 were statistically significant using McNemar's test. CC3.0 increases the number of normal studies when compared with CC2.0, essentially at the expense of fewer minor disorders, with no significant differences in major or obstructive disorders. As the relevance

  12. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  14. A Preliminary Study on Racial Differences in HMOX1, NFE2L2, and TGFβ1 Gene Polymorphisms and Radiation-Induced Late Normal Tissue Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Asim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D. [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Ning, Yi [Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Reshko, Leonid B.; Cardnell, Robert J.G.; Alam, Omair; Rabender, Christopher S.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Walker, Linda; Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Mikkelsen, Ross B., E-mail: rmikkels@vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study tested whether racial differences in genetic polymorphisms of 4 genes involved in wound repair and response to radiation can be used to predict the occurrence of normal tissue late effects of radiation therapy and indicate potential therapeutic targets. Methods and Materials: This prospective study examined genetic polymorphisms that modulate the expression of 4 genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis and response to radiation (HMOX1, NFE2L2, NOS3, and TGFβ1). DNA from blood samples of 179 patients (∼80% breast and head and neck) collected at the time of diagnosis by their radiation oncologist as exhibiting late normal tissue toxicity was used for the analysis. Patient demographics were as follows: 56% white, 43% African American, 1% other. Allelic frequencies of the different polymorphisms of the participants were compared with those of the general American population stratified by race. Twenty-six additional patients treated with radiation, but without toxicity at 3 months or later after therapy, were also analyzed. Results: Increased frequency of a long GT repeat in the HMOX1 promoter was associated with late effects in both African American and white populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs1800469 in the TGFβ1 promoter and the rs6721961 SNP in the NFE2L2 promoter were also found to significantly associate with late effects in African Americans but not whites. A combined analysis of these polymorphisms revealed that >90% of African American patients with late effects had at least 1 of these minor alleles, and 58% had 2 or more. No statistical significance was found relating the studied NOS3 polymorphisms and normal tissue toxicity. Conclusions: These results support a strong association between wound repair and late toxicities of radiation. The presence of these genetic risk factors can vary significantly among different ethnic groups, as demonstrated for some of the SNPs. Future studies should account for the

  15. A Preliminary Study on Racial Differences in HMOX1, NFE2L2, and TGFβ1 Gene Polymorphisms and Radiation-Induced Late Normal Tissue Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Asim; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Ning, Yi; Reshko, Leonid B.; Cardnell, Robert J.G.; Alam, Omair; Rabender, Christopher S.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Walker, Linda; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested whether racial differences in genetic polymorphisms of 4 genes involved in wound repair and response to radiation can be used to predict the occurrence of normal tissue late effects of radiation therapy and indicate potential therapeutic targets. Methods and Materials: This prospective study examined genetic polymorphisms that modulate the expression of 4 genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis and response to radiation (HMOX1, NFE2L2, NOS3, and TGFβ1). DNA from blood samples of 179 patients (∼80% breast and head and neck) collected at the time of diagnosis by their radiation oncologist as exhibiting late normal tissue toxicity was used for the analysis. Patient demographics were as follows: 56% white, 43% African American, 1% other. Allelic frequencies of the different polymorphisms of the participants were compared with those of the general American population stratified by race. Twenty-six additional patients treated with radiation, but without toxicity at 3 months or later after therapy, were also analyzed. Results: Increased frequency of a long GT repeat in the HMOX1 promoter was associated with late effects in both African American and white populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs1800469 in the TGFβ1 promoter and the rs6721961 SNP in the NFE2L2 promoter were also found to significantly associate with late effects in African Americans but not whites. A combined analysis of these polymorphisms revealed that >90% of African American patients with late effects had at least 1 of these minor alleles, and 58% had 2 or more. No statistical significance was found relating the studied NOS3 polymorphisms and normal tissue toxicity. Conclusions: These results support a strong association between wound repair and late toxicities of radiation. The presence of these genetic risk factors can vary significantly among different ethnic groups, as demonstrated for some of the SNPs. Future studies should account for the

  16. Metabolism of 3H- and 14C-labeled glutamate, proline, and alanine in normal and adrenalectomized rats using different sites of tracer administration and sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, H.M.; Chenoweth, M.; Dunn, A.

    1989-01-01

    Alanine, glutamate and proline labeled with 14C and 3H were infused into fasted normal and adrenalectomized rats. Alanine was administered by the A-V mode (arterial administration-venous sampling), and glutamate and proline by both the A-V and V-A (venous administration-arterial sampling) modes. The kinetics of 14C alanine and 14C glutamate differed markedly from those of the tritium-labeled compounds, but there was little difference in the kinetics of 3H and 14C proline. The replacement rate calculated from the A-V mode for glutamate was about half that obtained in the V-A mode, but there was little difference with proline. The masses of the amino acids (total content of amino acids in the body) were calculated from the washout curves of the tritium-labeled compounds after the infusion of tracer was terminated. The masses for the normal rats were 407 mumol/kg for alanine, 578 mumol/kg for glutamate and 296 mumol/kg for proline. The so-called distribution spaces calculated conventionally from total masses and the amino acid concentrations in plasma are much greater than the volume of the body, reflecting the fact that amino acid concentrations in tissues greatly exceed those in plasma. Adrenalectomy markedly affected the kinetics of the three amino acids, and their replacement rates were greatly reduced. The proline and glutamate masses were reduced by at least one half, while that of alanine was unchanged. Adrenalectomy markedly reduced the conversion of proline to glutamate. The hydrocortisone regimen used in this study restored the metabolism of alanine and glutamate to normal, but had no effect on that of proline

  17. Dynamic changes of anterior segment in patients with different stages of primary angle-closure in both eyes and normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiu Lin

    Full Text Available To compare changes in anterior segment parameters under light and dark (light-to-dark conditions among eyes with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG, fellow eyes with confirmed or suspect primary angle-closure (PAC or PACS, and age-matched healthy eyes.Consecutive patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye, as well as age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions, and anterior chamber, lens, and iris parameters compared. Demographic and biometric factors associated with light-to-dark change in iris area were analyzed by linear regression.Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.6±8.9 years and 30 normal subjects matched for age (60.6±9.3 years and sex ratio were recruited. In regards to differences under light-to-dark conditions, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500μm and iris area during light-to-dark transition were smaller in CPACG eyes than fellow PACS/PAC eyes and normal eyes (P<0.017. Pupil diameter change was largest in normal eyes, and larger in PACS/PAC eyes than CPACG eyes (P<0.017. There was an average reduction of 0.145 mm2 in iris area for each millimeter of pupil diameter increase in CPACG eyes, 0.161 mm2 in fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and 0.165 mm2 in normal eyes. Larger iris curvature in the dark and diagnosis of PACG were significantly associated with less light-to-dark iris area changes.Dynamic changes in iris parameters with light-to-dark transition differed significantly among CPACG eyes, fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and normal eyes. Greater iris curvature under dark conditions was correlated with reduced light-to-dark change in iris area and pupil diameter, which may contribute to disease progression.

  18. Quarter-Sweep Iteration Concept on Conjugate Gradient Normal Residual Method via Second Order Quadrature - Finite Difference Schemes for Solving Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruchunan, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness of the quarter-sweep iteration concept on conjugate gradient normal residual (CGNR) iterative method by using composite Simpson's (CS) and finite difference (FD) discretization schemes in solving Fredholm integro-differential equations. For comparison purposes, Gauss- Seidel (GS) and the standard or full- and half-sweep CGNR methods namely FSCGNR and HSCGNR are also presented. To validate the efficacy of the proposed method, several analyses were carried out such as computational complexity and percentage reduction on the proposed and existing methods. (author)

  19. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  20. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  1. Raman spectroscopy analysis of differences in composition of spent culture media of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Dušan; Kačmarová, Martina; Kubandová, Janka; Čikoš, Štefan; Koppel, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare overall patterns of metabolic activity of in vitro cultured preimplantation embryos isolated from normal and fat mice dams by means of non-invasive profiling of spent culture media using Raman spectroscopy. To produce females with two different types of body condition (normal and fat), a previously established two-generation model was used, based on overfeeding of experimental mice during prenatal and early postnatal development. Embryos were isolated from spontaneously ovulating and naturally fertilized dams at the 2-cell stage of development and cultured to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal medium KSOMaa. Embryos from fat mice (displaying significantly elevated body weight and fat) showed similar developmental capabilities in vitro as embryos isolated from normal control dams (displaying physiological body weight and fat). The results show that alterations in the composition of culture medium caused by the presence of developing mouse preimplantation embryos can be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Metabolic activity of embryos was reflected in evident changes in numerous band intensities in the 1620-1690cm(-1) (amide I) region and in the 1020-1140cm(-1) region of the Raman spectrum for KSOMaa. Moreover, multivariate analysis of spectral data proved that the composition of proteins and other organic compounds in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos isolated from fat dams was different from that in spent samples obtained after the culture of embryos from control dams. This study demonstrates that metabolic activity of cultured preimplantation embryos might depend on the body condition of their donors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. VISIBE AND INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISATION OF CHINESE CABBAGE (BRASSICA RAPA L. SUBSPECIES CHINENSIS, GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Mokoatsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  3. Women have farther to fall: gender differences between normal elderly and Alzheimer's disease in verbal memory engender better detection of Alzheimer's disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N; Sandoval, Tiffany C; McCrary, John W; Guillily, Maria D; Reilly, Lindsey A; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2011-07-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women's scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men's did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD versus Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men.

  4. EEG activation differences in the pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area between normal individuals with high and low traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo

    2010-06-25

    The human mirror neuron system (hMNS) is believed to provide a basic mechanism for social cognition. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) in alpha (8-12Hz) and low beta band (12-20Hz) over sensori-motor cortex has been suggested to index mirror neurons' activity. We tested whether autistic traits revealed by high and low scores on the Autistic Quotient (AQ) in the normal population are linked to variations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) over motor, pre-motor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) during action observation. Results revealed that in the low AQ group, the pre-motor cortex and SMA were more active during hand action than static hand observation whereas in the high AQ group the same areas were active both during static and hand action observation. In fact participants with high traits of autism showed greater low beta ERD while observing the static hand than those with low traits and this low beta ERD was not significantly different when they watched hand actions. Over primary motor cortex, the classical alpha and low beta ERD during hand actions relative to static hand observation was found across all participants. These findings suggest that the observation-execution matching system works differently according to the degree of autism traits in the normal population and that this is differentiated in terms of the EEG according to scalp site and bandwidth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Saliva composition in three selected groups with normal stimulated salivary flow rates, but yet major differences in caries experience and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardow, Allan; Lykkeaa, Joan; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim; Twetman, Svante; Fiehn, Niels-Erik

    2014-08-01

    It was hypothesized that, by comparing matched subjects with major differences in these dental diseases, but yet normal saliva flow rates, it would be possible to obtain data on the effect of saliva composition on dental disease isolated from the effect of the flow rate. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare the major physicochemical characteristics of stimulated whole saliva in three groups of 85 subjects, each with normal saliva flow rates and at least 24 remaining teeth. A group with very little dental disease (healthy), a group with dental erosion (erosion) and a group with very high caries experience (caries) were chosen. Furthermore, the aim was to determine whether differences among groups could also be found on an individual level. Although it was not possible to retrieve three groups whose members were completely identical, the present study points in the direction that, on a group level, subjects with very little dental disease seemed to have a more favorable physicochemical saliva composition with respect to higher calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, pH, degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a lower critical pH (p dental erosion (p dental caries and erosion in single individuals.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, P.

    1978-01-01

    Storage rings are normally used as sources of radiation in the X-ray and the u.v. part of the spectrum. It is shown that, with a specially designed component, a storage ring like ACO at Orsay is a very powerful far-infrared source, whose advantages over classical wide band sources are reviewed. (author)

  7. Evidence of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties for two-state protein folding/unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Khan, Md. Khurshid Alam; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties is consistence with the two-state protein folding/unfolding. ► DSC measurements of denaturation show a two-state behavior of g-cyt-c at pH 6.0. ► Urea-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a variable two- state process at pH 6.0. ► GdmCl-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a fixed two- state process at pH 6.0. -- Abstract: In practice, the observation of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal transition curves measured by two different structural properties constitutes a proof of existence of thermodynamically stable intermediate(s) on the folding ↔ unfolding pathway of a protein. Here we give first experimental evidence that this non-coincidence is also observed for a two-state protein denaturation. Proof of this evidence comes from our studies of denaturation of goat cytochrome-c (g-cyt-c) at pH 6.0. These studies involve differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the absence of urea and measurements of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by observing changes in absorbance at 405, 530, and 695 nm and circular dichroism (CD) at 222, 405, and 416 nm. DSC measurements showed that denaturation of the protein is a two-state process, for calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy changes are, within experimental errors, identical. Normalization of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by optical properties leads to noncoincident sigmoidal curves. Heat-induced transition of g-cyt-c in the presence of different urea concentrations was monitored by CD at 222 nm and absorption at 405 nm. It was observed that these two different structural probes gave not only identical values of T m (transition temperature), ΔH m (change in enthalpy at T m ) and ΔC p (constant-pressure heat capacity change), but these thermodynamic parameters in the absence of urea are also in agreement with those obtained from DSC measurements

  8. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  9. Differing effects of attention in single-units and populations are well predicted by heterogeneous tuning and the normalization model of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Pestilli, Franco; Gardner, Justin L

    2014-01-01

    Single-unit measurements have reported many different effects of attention on contrast-response (e.g., contrast-gain, response-gain, additive-offset dependent on visibility), while functional imaging measurements have more uniformly reported increases in response across all contrasts (additive-offset). The normalization model of attention elegantly predicts the diversity of effects of attention reported in single-units well-tuned to the stimulus, but what predictions does it make for more realistic populations of neurons with heterogeneous tuning? Are predictions in accordance with population-scale measurements? We used functional imaging data from humans to determine a realistic ratio of attention-field to stimulus-drive size (a key parameter for the model) and predicted effects of attention in a population of model neurons with heterogeneous tuning. We found that within the population, neurons well-tuned to the stimulus showed a response-gain effect, while less-well-tuned neurons showed a contrast-gain effect. Averaged across the population, these disparate effects of attention gave rise to additive-offsets in contrast-response, similar to reports in human functional imaging as well as population averages of single-units. Differences in predictions for single-units and populations were observed across a wide range of model parameters (ratios of attention-field to stimulus-drive size and the amount of baseline response modifiable by attention), offering an explanation for disparity in physiological reports. Thus, by accounting for heterogeneity in tuning of realistic neuronal populations, the normalization model of attention can not only predict responses of well-tuned neurons, but also the activity of large populations of neurons. More generally, computational models can unify physiological findings across different scales of measurement, and make links to behavior, but only if factors such as heterogeneous tuning within a population are properly accounted for.

  10. Quantification of differences between nailfold capillaroscopy images with a scleroderma pattern and normal pattern using measures of geometric and algorithmic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Samuel George; Griffiths, Bridget; Allen, John

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify and investigate differences in the geometric and algorithmic complexity of the microvasculature in nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) images displaying a scleroderma pattern and those displaying a 'normal' pattern. 11 NFC images were qualitatively classified by a capillary specialist as indicative of 'clear microangiopathy' (CM), i.e. a scleroderma pattern, and 11 as 'not clear microangiopathy' (NCM), i.e. a 'normal' pattern. Pre-processing was performed, and fractal dimension (FD) and Kolmogorov complexity (KC) were calculated following image binarisation. FD and KC were compared between groups, and a k-means cluster analysis (n  =  2) on all images was performed, without prior knowledge of the group assigned to them (i.e. CM or NCM), using FD and KC as inputs. CM images had significantly reduced FD and KC compared to NCM images, and the cluster analysis displayed promising results that the quantitative classification of images into CM and NCM groups is possible using the mathematical measures of FD and KC. The analysis techniques used show promise for quantitative microvascular investigation in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  11. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  12. Parametric normalization for full-energy peak efficiency of HPGe γ-ray spectrometers at different counting positions for bulky sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nie; Bang-Fa, Ni; Wei-Zhi, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Application of effective interaction depth (EID) principle for parametric normalization of full energy peak efficiencies at different counting positions, originally for quasi-point sources, has been extended to bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with arbitrary matrices. It is also proved that the EID function for quasi-point source can be directly used for cylindrical bulky sources (within ∅30 mm×40 mm) with the geometric center as effective point source for low atomic number (Z) and low density (D) media and high energy γ-rays. It is also found that in general EID for bulky sources is dependent upon Z and D of the medium and the energy of the γ-rays in question. In addition, the EID principle was theoretically verified by MCNP calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Palau, Aina [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: busquet@ice.cat [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated.

  14. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Inoue

    Full Text Available There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank. In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  15. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Shimamura, Keiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Megumi; Otani, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Sakuta, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face) and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face) in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years) and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years) participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank). In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  16. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel; Estalella, Robert; Palau, Aina; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pillai, Thushara; Anglada, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated

  17. Thermal evaluation by infrared measurement of implant site preparation between single and gradual drilling in artificial bone blocks of different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlhenrich, S C; Abouridouane, M; Heussen, N; Hölzle, F; Klocke, F; Modabber, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of bone density and drilling protocol on heat generation during implant bed preparation. Ten single and 10 gradual implant sites with diameters of 2.8, 3.5, and 4.2mm were prepared in four artificial bone blocks (density types I-IV; D1-D4). Drilling was done at constant speed (1500rpm) and with external irrigation (50ml/min); vertical speed was set at 2mm/s. An infrared camera was used for temperature measurements. Significantly higher temperatures for single drilling were found between 2.8-mm drills in D1 (P=0.0014) and D4 (P<0.0001) and between 3.5-mm drills in D3 (P=0.0087) and D4 (P<0.0001), as well as between 4.2-mm drills in D1 (P<0.0001) and D4 (P=0.0014). Low bone density led to a thermal decrease after single drilling and a thermal increase after gradual drilling. Burs with a large diameter always showed a higher temperature generation. In comparisons between 2.8- and 4.2-mm diameters for both single and gradual drills, significant differences (P<0.001) were noted for bone types II, III, and IV. Single drilling could generate more heat than traditional sequential drilling, and bone density, as well as drill diameter, influenced thermal increases. Particularly in lower-density bone, conventional sequential drilling seems to raise the temperature less. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HUBUNGAN ANTARA INDEKS VEGETASI NDVI (NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX DAN KOEFISIEN RESESI BASEFLOW PADA BEBERAPA SUBDAS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH DAN DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokiraiya Latuamury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research is the decrease of environment capacity in cacthment ecosystem, especially impact of vegetation forest on behavior streamflow. The indicators of cacthment destruction can be seen through hydrograph characteristics. Evaluation of cactment respons of flow hydrographic as an evaluation tools of river catchment responses becomes very important to analyze because it is a benchmark in determination several policy about flood, drough, sedimentation and landslide handling. The research purpose is to analyze the relationship between vegetation index NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the characteristic of baseflow recession coefficient at several subcatchment areas in province of Central Java and Specific District of Yogjakarta.The method of this research is surveillance on data recording of AWLR (Automatic Water Level Recorder and data of River Flow Measuring Stations in order to separate the baseflow by calibration curve, and image interpretation of Landsat ETM+ for the transformation of vegetation index (NDVI-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index.The analysis on recession coefficient data (Krb and NDVI were correlated to analyze the strength of relationship between these two parameters. The results of statistical analysis on index NDVI and recession coefficient showsthat NDVI and recession coefficient value at R2 is 0.1427, F = 2.17 which is not significant at 1% significance level of 0.1646. The result shows a very weak correlation of 0.077 which mean that vegetation density (NDVI indexhas a very weak control on low flows. Basically, river baseflow is a genetic component of river flow which comes from aquifer storage and/or other low flow sources. Thus, geology and soil have a significant effect on baseflow.

  19. On the characterization of vegetation recovery after fire disturbance using Fisher-Shannon analysis and SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    Time series can fruitfully support fire monitoring and management from statistical analysis of fire occurrence (Tuia et al. 2008) to danger estimation (lasaponara 2005), damage evaluation (Lanorte et al 2014) and post fire recovery (Lanorte et al. 2014). In this paper, the time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers. Reference Lanorte A, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to

  20. Evaluation on the concentration change of paeoniflorin and glycyrrhizic acid in different formulations of Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang by the tri-level infrared macro-fingerprint spectroscopy and the whole analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aoxue; Wang, Jingjuan; Guo, Yizhen; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Yue; Sun, Suqin; Chen, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    As a kind of common prescriptions, Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang (SGT) contains two Chinese herbs with four different proportions which have different clinical efficacy because of their various components. In order to investigate the herb-herb interaction mechanisms, we used the method of tri-level infrared macro-fingerprint spectroscopy to evaluate the concentration change of active components of four SGTs in this research. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) can recognize the multiple prescriptions directly and simultaneously. 2D-IR spectra enhance the spectral resolution and obtain much new information for discriminating the similar complicated samples of SGT. Furthermore, the whole analysis method from the analysis of the main components to the specific components and the relative content of the components may evaluate the quality of TCM better. Then we concluded that paeoniflorin and glycyrrhizic acid were the highest proportion in active ingredients in SGT-12:1 and the lowest one in SGT-12:12, which matched the HPLC-DAD results. It is demonstrated that the method composed by the tri-level infrared macro-fingerprint spectroscopy and the whole analysis can be applicable for effective, visual and accurate analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. A Dose-Response Strategy Reveals Differences between Normal-Weight and Obese Men in Their Metabolic and Inflammatory Responses to a High-Fat Meal123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A.; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G.; Piya, Milan K.; Gijs, Martin A. M.; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-01-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20–25 kg/m2) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m2) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. PMID:24812072

  2. A dose-response strategy reveals differences between normal-weight and obese men in their metabolic and inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwander, Flurina; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Buri, Caroline; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Piya, Milan K; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2014-10-01

    A dose-response strategy may not only allow investigation of the impact of foods and nutrients on human health but may also reveal differences in the response of individuals to food ingestion based on their metabolic health status. In a randomized crossover study, we challenged 19 normal-weight (BMI: 20-25 kg/m(2)) and 18 obese (BMI: >30 kg/m(2)) men with 500, 1000, and 1500 kcal of a high-fat (HF) meal (60.5% energy from fat). Blood was taken at baseline and up to 6 h postprandially and analyzed for a range of metabolic, inflammatory, and hormonal variables, including plasma glucose, lipids, and C-reactive protein and serum insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endotoxin. Insulin was the only variable that could differentiate the postprandial response of normal-weight and obese participants at each of the 3 caloric doses. A significant response of the inflammatory marker IL-6 was only observed in the obese group after ingestion of the HF meal containing 1500 kcal [net incremental AUC (iAUC) = 22.9 ± 6.8 pg/mL × 6 h, P = 0.002]. Furthermore, the net iAUC for triglycerides significantly increased from the 1000 to the 1500 kcal meal in the obese group (5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 6.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.015) but not in the normal-weight group (4.3 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h vs. 4.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L × 6 h; P = 0.31). We propose that caloric dose-response studies may contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic impact of food on the human organism. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01446068. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Differences in energy expenditure, amount of physical activity and physical exertion level during a Zumba fitness class among adult women who are normal weight, overweight and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza-Gómez, Fernando; Báez-San Martin, Eduardo; Araneda, Oscar F; Zavala, Juan P; Hecht, Gernot K; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    One of the most popular expressions of massive group classes of aerobic physical activity is Zumba fitness. The aim of the study was to compare and relate the energy expenditure and the amount and intensity of physical effort during a Zumba fitness class in women with different Body Mass Index (BMI). Body displacements of 61 adult women who performed a one-hour Zumba session were evaluated with triaxial accelerometers. In order to observe the effect of BMI women were divided into normal weight (N.=26), overweight (N.=21) and obese groups (N.=14). The average number of steps was 4533.3±1351 and the percentage of total class time of moderate to vigorous intensity (% MVPA) was 53.8±14.4%. The metabolic intensity average was 3.64±1.1 MET, with an energy expenditure by total body mass of 3.9±1.6 kcal/kg. When analyzing groups, the normal weight group had a greater number of steps (5184.2±1561.1 steps/class) compared to overweight (4244.8±1049.3 steps/class) and obese women (3756.9±685.7 steps/class) with Plower percentage of class time at the lower levels of intensity (sedentary and lifestyle activity levels) and more time at the highest levels (vigorous and very vigorous) compared to obese women (Plower energy expenditure values per kilo of weight (r=-0.40; Plower intensity of effort, energy expenditure and amount of physical activity during a one-hour Zumba class, restricting to overweight and obese women to achieving the effort parameters recommended to control weight and improve cardiovascular fitness.

  4. [Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation of Different Layers of "Tianshu" (ST 25) Region on Changes of Intra-colonic Pressure in Normal Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Yi; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Xu, Bin

    2018-02-25

    To observe the effect of manual acupuncture stimulation of different layers (skin, muscle, peritoneum, sub-peritoneum) of "Tianshu" (ST 25) region on proximal colonic pressure in normal rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were divided into 6 groups: all layer-needling, brushing, cutaneous needling, muscular needling, peritoneum-needling and sub-peritoneum-needling groups ( n =8 in each group). Manual needling or brushing was applied to "Tianshu" (ST 25) region. The colonic internal pressure was measured by using an amplifier and a pressure transducer-connected balloon which was implanted into the colonic cavity about 6 cm from the ileocecal valve. For rats of the all-layer needling group, an acupuncture needle was inserted into ST 25 about 1 cm deep and rotated for a while, for rats of the brushing group, a Chinese calligraphy brush pen was used to brush the skin hair for 1 min. For rats of the rest 4 groups, an acupuncture needle was inserted into the skin, muscle layer after cutting open the skin (about 0.1 cm), the peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin and muscle layers, and the sub-peritoneum layer after cutting open the skin, muscle and peritoneum layers, respectively, and rotated using the uniform reinforcing-reducing technique for about 1 min at a frequency of 120 twirlings per minute every time. During manual needling stimulation of the full layers, cutaneous layer, muscle layer, peritoneum layer and the sub-peritoneum layer of bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25), the internal pressure of proximal colon was significantly decreased relevant to pre-stimulation in each group ( P 0.05). During hair brushing of ST 25 region, the colonic pressure was observably increased relevant to pre-needling stimulation ( P ST 25 on both sides may lower internal pressure of proximal colon in normal rats, suggesting their involvement of acupuncture effect in relaxing proximal colonic contraction.

  5. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  6. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in Normal Tissue Response in the Esophagus Between Proton and Photon Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using In Vivo Imaging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Joshua S; Yang, Jinzhong; Mohan, Radhe; Titt, Uwe; Mirkovic, Dragan; Stingo, Francesco; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R; Martel, Mary K; Briere, Tina M; Court, Laurence E

    2017-11-15

    To determine whether there exists any significant difference in normal tissue toxicity between intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. A total of 134 study patients (n=49 treated with proton therapy, n=85 with IMRT) treated in a randomized trial had a previously validated esophageal toxicity imaging biomarker, esophageal expansion, quantified during radiation therapy, as well as esophagitis grade (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0), on a weekly basis during treatment. Differences between the 2 modalities were statically analyzed using the imaging biomarker metric value (Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance), as well as the incidence and severity of esophagitis grade (χ 2 and Fisher exact tests, respectively). The dose-response of the imaging biomarker was also compared between modalities using esophageal equivalent uniform dose, as well as delivered dose to an isotropic esophageal subvolume. No statistically significant difference in the distribution of esophagitis grade, the incidence of grade ≥3 esophagitis (15 and 11 patients treated with IMRT and proton therapy, respectively), or the esophageal expansion imaging biomarker between cohorts (P>.05) was found. The distribution of imaging biomarker metric values had similar distributions between treatment arms, despite a slightly higher dose volume in the proton arm (P>.05). Imaging biomarker dose-response was similar between modalities for dose quantified as esophageal equivalent uniform dose and delivered esophageal subvolume dose. Regardless of treatment modality, there was high variability in imaging biomarker response, as well as esophagitis grade, for similar esophageal doses between patients. There was no significant difference in esophageal toxicity from either proton- or photon-based radiation therapy as quantified by esophagitis grade or the esophageal expansion imaging biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  8. Comparative studies of cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of different extracts and the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia on malignant and normal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Amiri, Atefeh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is a bush-like shrub from Lamiaceae. The herb has been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the mechanisms of cell death induced by 3 different extracts of aerial parts and the essential oil of L. angustifolia were compared in normal and cancerous human cells. Malignant (HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines) and nonmalignant (human fibroblasts) cells were incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The molecules as apoptotic signal translation, including Bax and cleaved PARP, were identified by Western blot. Ethanol and n-hexane extracts and essential oil exhibited significant cytotoxicity to malignant cells but marginal cytotoxicity to human fibroblasts in vitro and induced a sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to the control. Western blot analysis demonstrated that EtOH and n-hexane extracts upregulated Bax expression, also it induced cleavage of PARP in HeLa cells compared to the control. In conclusion, L. angustifolia has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, and apoptosis is proposed as the possible mechanism of action.

  9. Effect of second to first normal stress difference ratio at the die exit on neck-in phenomenon in polymeric flat film production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barborik, Tomas; Zatloukal, Martin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, viscoelastic modeling of the extrusion film casting process, based on the lD membrane model and modified Leonov constitutive equation, was conducted and the effect of the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (captured here via second to first normal stress difference ratio) on the unwanted neck-in phenomenon has been analyzed for wide range of Deborah numbers and materials having different level of uniaxial and planar extensional strain hardening. Relevant experimental data for LDPE and theoretical predictions based on multimode eXtended Pom-Pom model acquired from the open literature were used for the validation purposes. It was found that firstly, the predicting capabilities of both constitutive equations for given material and processing conditions are comparable even if the single mode modified Leonov model was used and secondly, the agreement between theoretical and experimental data on neck-in is fairly good. Results of the theoretical study revealed that the viscoelastic stress state at the die exit (i.e. -N2/N1 ratio) increases the level of neck-in if uniaxial extensional strain hardening, planar to uniaxial extensional viscosity ratio and Deborah number increases. It has also been revealed that there exists threshold value for Deborah number and extensional strain hardening below which the neck-in becomes independent on the die exit stress state.

  10. Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present at young-to-middle but not at older age in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Kit; Müller, Martijn L T M; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Studenski, Stephanie A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in brain dopaminergic activity have been variably reported in the literature. We performed an evaluation for gender effects on striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in a group of normal subjects. Community-dwelling adults (n = 85, 50F/35M, mean age 62.7 ± 16.2 SD, range 20-85) underwent DAT [(11)C]2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane (β-CFT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Gender effects for DAT binding were compared using ANCOVA for two subgroups; young-to-middle aged adults and older adults, using an age threshold of 60 years. There were 54 subjects (24M/30F; mean age 72.9 ± 7.3) 60 years and older and 31 (11M/20F; mean age 45.0 ± 11.4) subjects younger than 60. Age-adjusted striatal DAT gender effects were present in the young-to-middle (F = 10.4, P = 0.003) but not in the elderly age group (F = 0.5, ns). Gender differences in nigrostriatal dopaminergic innervation are present, with higher levels of DAT binding in young-to-middle age women compared to men, but not present in the elderly. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Is obesity becoming the new normal? Age, gender and racial/ethnic differences in parental misperception of obesity as being 'About the Right Weight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarog, J P; Politis, M D; Woods, E L; Daniel, L M; Sonneville, K R

    2016-07-01

    Younger children, non-Hispanic Black and male children who are overweight (body mass index (BMI) ⩾85th percentile) are at greater risk for being misperceived by their parents as having a healthy or normal weight, but less is known about the risk for weight misperception in the subpopulation of children with obesity (BMI⩾95th percentile). We assessed the gender, age and racial/ethnic differences in parental misperception of healthy or normal weight status in children with obesity. We analyzed the data of 1445 children and adolescents aged 6-15 years with obesity obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 2005 to 2012. Parental perception of the child's weight was obtained during an in-home interview. Anthropometric data on body weight were collected from the children during their physical and used to calculate gender and age-specific BMI percentiles. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios for parental misperception of their child's obesity as being 'about the right weight', using parents who perceived their children with obesity as being 'overweight' for reference. Boys aged 6-15 years with obesity were more likely to be misperceived as being 'about the right weight' by their parents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.40 (1.12-1.76) vs girls, P=0.0038). The subpopulations of children with obesity who were significantly less likely to be misperceived included girls aged 11-15 years (aOR: 0.46 (0.29-0.74) vs girls 6-10 years, P=0.0016) and Hispanic males (aOR: 0.58 (0.36-0.93) vs White males, P=0.02). Significant age differences in the odds for parental misclassification of obesity as 'about the right weight' were detected in female children, but not males. Hispanic males with obesity were significantly less likely to be misperceived as being 'about the right weight' when compared with their non-Hispanic White peers.

  12. Differences between the chewing and non-chewing sides of the mandibular first molars and condyles in the closing phase during chewing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kwon, Sangho; Kuninori, Takaharu; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess differences between the closing paths of the chewing and non-chewing sides of mandibular first molars and condyles during natural mastication, using standardized model food in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy young adults (age: 19-25 years; 22 men, 10 women) with normal occlusion and function chewed on standardized gummy jelly. Using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with six degrees of freedom, we recorded the path of the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides for 10 strokes during unilateral chewing. Variables were compared between the chewing side and the non-chewing side of first molars and condyles on frontal, sagittal, and horizontal views during the early-, middle- and late-closing phases. On superior/inferior displacements, the chewing side first molar and condyle were positioned superior to those on the non-chewing side during the early- and middle-closing phases. Conversely, the first molar and condyle on the non-chewing side were positioned significantly superior to those on the chewing side during the late-closing phase. On anterior/posterior displacements, the chewing side mandibular first molar and condyle were positioned significantly posterior to those on the non-chewing side throughout all closing phases. Our results showed the differences between the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides with respect to masticatory path during natural chewing of a model food. These differences can be useful for informing initial diagnostic tests for impaired masticatory function in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  15. Infrared observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The infrared energy distributions of the Seyfert galaxies apparently contain three components: a galactic stellar component, a thermal component from heated dust, plus a nonthermal component. The appearance of the infrared energy distribution depends on which component dominates. There is also a correlation observed between the infrared energy distribution and the Khachikian Weedman class. Preliminary data on bright quasars are given. The infrared energy distributions generally increase into the infrared with a power law slope of approximately 1. In detail they differ from power laws with a significant fraction emitting most of their energy near 3μm. No differences in radio loud and radio quiet are obvious from the infrared energy distributions. The variability of the quasars in the infrared is generally correlated with the variability in the visible, although significant exceptions have been observed. (Auth.)

  16. T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal adult knee meniscus at 3T: analysis of zonal differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Shoichiro; Nguyen, Tan B; Yu, Hon J; Hagiwara, Shigeo; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Nozaki, Taiki; Iwamoto, Seiji; Otomo, Maki; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2017-05-18

    Prior studies describe histological and immunohistochemical differences in collagen and proteoglycan content in different meniscal zones. The aim of this study is to evaluate horizontal and vertical zonal differentiation of T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the entire meniscus from volunteers without symptom and imaging abnormality. Twenty volunteers age between 19 and 38 who have no knee-related clinical symptoms, and no history of prior knee surgeries were enrolled in this study. Two T1rho mapping (b-FFE T1rho and SPGR T1rho) and T2 mapping images were acquired with a 3.0-T MR scanner. Each meniscus was divided manually into superficial and deep zones for horizontal zonal analysis. The anterior and posterior horns of each meniscus were divided manually into white, red-white and red zones for vertical zonal analysis. Zonal differences of average relaxation times among each zone, and both inter- and intra-observer reproducibility were statistically analyzed. In horizontal zonal analysis, T1rho relaxation times of the superficial zone tended to be higher than those of the deep zone, and this difference was statistically significant in the medial meniscal segments (84.3 ms vs 76.0 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus (88.4 ms vs 77.1 ms on b-FFE, p meniscus, p = 0.011). T2 relaxation times of the white zone were significantly higher than those of the red zone in the medial meniscus posterior horn (96.8 ms vs 84.3 ms, p meniscus anterior horn (104.6 ms vs 84.2 ms, p 0.74) or good (0.60-0.74) in all meniscal segments on both horizontal and vertical zonal analysis, except for inter-class correlation coefficients of the lateral meniscus on SPGR. Compared with SPGR T1rho images, b-FFE T1rho images demonstrated more significant zonal differentiation with higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There are zonal differences in T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal meniscus.

  17. A NEW MULTI-SPECTRAL THRESHOLD NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE WATER INDEX (MST-NDWI WATER EXTRACTION METHOD – A CASE STUDY IN YANHE WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate remote sensing water extraction is one of the primary tasks of watershed ecological environment study. Since the Yanhe water system has typical characteristics of a small water volume and narrow river channel, which leads to the difficulty for conventional water extraction methods such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. A new Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation of the NDWI (MST-NDWI water extraction method is proposed to achieve the accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed. In the MST-NDWI method, the spectral characteristics of water bodies and typical backgrounds on the Landsat/TM images have been evaluated in Yanhe watershed. The multi-spectral thresholds (TM1, TM4, TM5 based on maximum-likelihood have been utilized before NDWI water extraction to realize segmentation for a division of built-up lands and small linear rivers. With the proposed method, a water map is extracted from the Landsat/TM images in 2010 in China. An accuracy assessment is conducted to compare the proposed method with the conventional water indexes such as NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Enhanced Water Index (EWI, and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI. The result shows that the MST-NDWI method generates better water extraction accuracy in Yanhe watershed and can effectively diminish the confusing background objects compared to the conventional water indexes. The MST-NDWI method integrates NDWI and Multi-Spectral Threshold segmentation algorithms, with richer valuable information and remarkable results in accurate water extraction in Yanhe watershed.

  18. Greenup and evapotranspiration following the Minute 319 pulse flow to Mexico: An analysis using Landsat 8 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Christopher J.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    In the southwestern U.S., many riparian ecosystems have been altered by dams, water diversions, and other anthropogenic activities. This is particularly true of the Colorado River, where numerous dams and agricultural diversions have affected this water course, especially south of the U.S.–Mexico border. In the spring of 2014, 130 million cubic meters of water was released to the lower Colorado River Delta in Mexico. To understand the impact of this pulse flow release on vegetation in the delta’s riparian corridor, we analyzed a modified form of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI*) data. We assessed greenup during the growing period and estimated actual evapotranspiration (ETa) for the period prior to (yr. 2013) and following (i.e., yr. 2014 and 2015) the pulse flow. We found a significant increase in NDVI* from 2013 to 2014 (P NDVI*. As a long term solution to the declining condition of vegetation, additional pulse releases are likely needed for restoration and survival of riparian plant communities in the Colorado River Delta.

  19. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri S. Bhunia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI based on data from the thematic mapper (TM sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with the concurrent incidence of kala-azar and the vector density. Maximum and mean NDVI values (R2 = 0.55 and R2 = 0.60, respectively, as well as the season likelihood ratio (X2 = 17.51; P <0.001, were found to be strongly associated with kala-azar, while the correlation with between minimum NDVI values and kala-azar was weak (R2 = 0.25. Additionally, a strong association was found between the mean and maximum NDVI values with seasonal vector abundance (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.55, respectively but there was only a marginal association between minimum NDVI value and the spatial distribution of kala-azar vis-à-vis P. argentipes density.

  20. Spatiotemporal changes of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and response to climate extremes and ecological restoration in the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Anzhou; Zhang, Anbing; Liu, Xianfeng; Cao, Sen

    2018-04-01

    Extreme drought, precipitation, and other extreme climatic events often have impacts on vegetation. Based on meteorological data from 52 stations in the Loess Plateau (LP) and a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the third-generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset, this study investigated the relationship between vegetation change and climatic extremes from 1982 to 2013. Our results showed that the vegetation coverage increased significantly, with a linear rate of 0.025/10a ( P NDVI revealed an increasing trend from the northwest to the southeast, with about 61.79% of the LP exhibiting a significant increasing trend ( P NDVI at the yearly time scale ( P NDVI during the spring and autumn ( P NDVI and RX1day, TMAXmean, TXn, and TXx was insignificant in summer. Vegetation exhibited a significant negative relationship with precipitation extremes in winter ( P NDVI in Yan'an and Yulin during 1998-2013, r = 0.859 and 0.85, n = 16, P < 0.001.

  1. 31P-MR-spectroscopy of the skeletal muscles under load: demonstration of normal energy metabolism compared to different neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, W.; Traeber, F.; Kuhl, C.K.; Keller, E.; Rink, H.; Schild, H.H.; Karitzky, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: 31 P-MR spectroscopy of skeletal muscle under ecercise was used to obtain the range of normal variation and comparison was made for different neuromascular diseases. Methods: 41 examinations of 24 volunteers and 41 investigations in 35 patients were performed on 1.5 T MR systems (Gyroscan S15 und S15/ACSII, Philips). Localised 31 P-MR spectra of the calf muscle were obtained in time series with a resolution of 12 s. Results: Two types of muscle energy metabolism were identified from the pattern of spectroscopic time course in volunteers: While the first group was characterised by a remarkable decline to lower pH values during exercise, the second group showed only small pH shifts (minimum pH: 6.48±0.13 vs 6.87±0.07, p -6 ) although comparable workload conditions were maintained. The pH-values correlated well with blood lactate analysis. Patients with metabolic disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) showed decreased resting values of PCr/(PCr+P i ) and increased pH levels during exercise. PCr recovery was significantly delayed (0.31 vs 0.65 min -1 , p i ), altered pH time courses, and decreased PCr recovery seem to be helpful indicators for diagnosis of metabolic muscle disorders. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  3. Supercooling of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solution at normal and high pressures: Evidence for the coexistence of phase-separated aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solutions of different water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, H.; Kajiwara, K.; Miyata, K.

    2010-05-01

    Supercooling behavior of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution was investigated as a function of DMSO concentration and at high pressures. A linear relationship was observed for TH (homogeneous ice nucleation temperature) and Tm (melting temperature) for the supercooling of aqueous DMSO solution at normal pressure. Analysis of the DTA (differential thermal analysis) traces for homogeneous ice crystallization in the bottom region of the TH curve for a DMSO solution of R =20 (R: moles of water/moles of DMSO) at high pressures supported the contention that the second critical point (SCP) of liquid water should exist at Pc2=˜200 MPa and at Tc2pressure of SCP, Tc2: temperature of SCP). The presence of two TH peaks for DMSO solutions (R =15, 12, and 10) suggests that phase separation occurs in aqueous DMSO solution (R ≤15) at high pressures and low temperatures (pressure dependence of the two TH curves for DMSO solutions of R =10 and 12 indicates that the two phase-separated components in the DMSO solution of R =10 have different liquid water structures [LDL-like and HDL-like structures (LDL: low-density liquid water, HDL: high-density liquid water)] in the pressure range of 120-230 MPa.

  4. Quartz substrate infrared photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Khosrow; Rejeb, Jalel; Vitchev, Vladimir N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a planar photonic crystal (p2c) made of a square array of dielectric rods embedded in air, operating in the infrared spectrum. A quartz substrate is employed instead of the commonly used silicon or column III-V substrate. Our square structure has a normalized cylinder radius-to-pitch ratio of r/a = 0.248 and dielectric material contrast ɛr of 4.5. We choose a Z-cut synthetic quartz for its cut (geometry), and etching properties. Then a particular Z-axis etching process is employed in order to ensure the sharp-edged verticality of the rods and fast etching speed. We also present the computer simulations that allowed the establishment of the photonic band gaps (PBG) of our photonic crystal, as well as the actual measurements. An experimental measurement have been carried out and compared with different simulations. It was found that experimental results are in good agreement with different simulation results. Finally, a frequency selective device for optical communication based on the introduction of impurity sites in the photonic crystal is presented. With our proposed structure Optical System on a Chip (OsoC) with micro-cavity based active devices such as lasers, diodes, modulators, couplers, frequency selective emitters, add-drop filters, detectors, mux/demuxes and polarizers connected by passive waveguide links can be realized.

  5. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  6. Novel absorptivity centering method utilizing normalized and factorized spectra for analysis of mixtures with overlapping spectra in different matrices using built-in spectrophotometer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Omran, Yasmin Rostom

    2018-07-05

    A novel, simple, rapid, accurate, and economical spectrophotometric method, namely absorptivity centering (a-Centering) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mixtures with partially and completely overlapping spectra in different matrices using either normalized or factorized spectrum using built-in spectrophotometer software without a need of special purchased program. Mixture I (Mix I) composed of Simvastatin (SM) and Ezetimibe (EZ) is the one with partial overlapping spectra formulated as tablets, while mixture II (Mix II) formed by Chloramphenicol (CPL) and Prednisolone acetate (PA) is that with complete overlapping spectra formulated as eye drops. These procedures do not require any separation steps. Resolution of spectrally overlapping binary mixtures has been achieved getting recovered zero-order (D 0 ) spectrum of each drug, then absorbance was recorded at their maxima 238, 233.5, 273 and 242.5 nm for SM, EZ, CPL and PA, respectively. Calibration graphs were established with good correlation coefficients. The method shows significant advantages as simplicity, minimal data manipulation besides maximum reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, it was validated according to ICH guidelines. Selectivity was tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures. Accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The proposed method is good enough to be applied to an assay of drugs in their combined formulations without any interference from excipients. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported and official methods by applying t-test and F-test at 95% confidence level concluding that there is no significant difference with regard to accuracy and precision. Generally, this method could be used successfully for the routine quality control testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The assessment of four different correction models applied to the diffuse radiation measured with a shadow ring using global and normal beam radiation measurements for Beer Sheva, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, Avraham I.; Evseev, Efim G. [Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, E D Bergmann Campus, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    The measurement of the diffuse radiation incident on a horizontal surface, a priori a straightforward task, is fraught with difficulties. It is possible to measure the diffuse radiation by three different techniques: two of which measure it directly and the third indirectly. The most accurate is the indirect one, which is based upon the concurrent measurements of the horizontal global and the normal incidence beam radiation. The disadvantage of this being the relatively expensive tracking system required for measuring the latter. The diffuse radiation can be measured directly with a pyranometer outfitted with either an occulting disk or shadow ring, which prevent the beam radiation from impinging on the pyranometer sensor. The occulting disk can provide accurate measurements of the diffuse radiation but it requires a relatively expensive sun tracking system in the east-west axis. The shadow ring is a stationary device with regard to the east-west axis and blocks the beam radiation component by creating a permanent shadow on the pyranometer sensor. The major disadvantage of the shadow ring is that it also blocks that portion of the diffuse radiation obscured by the shadow ring. This introduces a measurement error that must be corrected to account for that portion of the sky obscured by the shadow band. In addition to this geometric correction factor there is a need to correct for anisotropic sky conditions. Four correction models have been applied to the data for Beer Sheva, Israel and the results have been evaluated both graphically and statistically. An attempt has been made to score the relative performance of the models under different sky conditions. (author)

  8. Is liver perfusion CT reproducible? A study on intra- and interobserver agreement of normal hepatic haemodynamic parameters obtained with two different software packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretas, Elisa Almeida Sathler; Torres, Ulysses S; Torres, Lucas Rios; Bekhor, Daniel; Saito Filho, Celso Fernando; Racy, Douglas Jorge; Faggioni, Lorenzo; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the agreement between the measurements of perfusion CT parameters in normal livers by using two different software packages. This retrospective study was based on 78 liver perfusion CT examinations acquired for detecting suspected liver metastasis. Patients with any morphological or functional hepatic abnormalities were excluded. The final analysis included 37 patients (59.7 ± 14.9 y). Two readers (1 and 2) independently measured perfusion parameters using different software packages from two major manufacturers (A and B). Arterial perfusion (AP) and portal perfusion (PP) were determined using the dual-input vascular one-compartmental model. Inter-reader agreement for each package and intrareader agreement between both packages were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial for AP using software A (ICC = 0.82) and B (ICC = 0.85-0.86), fair for PP using software A (ICC = 0.44) and fair to moderate for PP using software B (ICC = 0.56-0.77). Intrareader agreement between software A and B ranged from slight to moderate (ICC = 0.32-0.62) for readers 1 and 2 considering the AP parameters, and from fair to moderate (ICC = 0.40-0.69) for readers 1 and 2 considering the PP parameters. At best there was only moderate agreement between both software packages, resulting in some uncertainty and suboptimal reproducibility. Advances in knowledge: Software-dependent factors may contribute to variance in perfusion measurements, demanding further technical improvements. AP measurements seem to be the most reproducible parameter to be adopted when evaluating liver perfusion CT.

  9. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  10. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  11. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  12. The examination of biophysical parameters of skin (transepidermal water loss, skin hydration and pH value) in different body regions of normal cats of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Lukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and skin pH in normal cats. Twenty shorthaired European cats of both sexes were examined in the study. Measurements were taken from five different sites: the lumbar region, the axillary fossa, the inguinal region, the ventral abdominal region and the left thoracic region. In each of the regions, TEWL, skin hydration and skin pH were measured. The highest TEWL value was observed in the axillary fossa (18.22g/h/m(2)) and the lowest in the lumbar region (10.53g/h/m(2)). The highest skin hydration was found in the inguinal region (18.29CU) and the lowest in the lumbar region (4.62CU). The highest skin pH was observed in the inguinal region (6.64) and the lowest in the lumbar region (6.39). Statistically significant differences in TEWL were observed between the lumbar region and the left side of the thorax region (P=0.016), the axillary fossa (P=0.0004), the ventral region (P=0.005), and the inguinal region (P=0.009). There were significant differences in skin hydration between the lumbar region and the left thorax (P=0.000003), the axillary fossa (P=0.002), the ventral abdomen (P=0.03), and the inguinal region (P=0.0003) as well as between the thorax and the ventral abdomen (P=0.005). TEWL was higher in females (15g/h/m(2)) than in males (4.57g/h/m(2)). Skin hydration was higher in females (13.89CU) than in males (12.28CU). Significant differences were not found between males and females for TEWL and skin hydration. Skin pH was higher in males (6.94) than in females (6.54), which was significant (P=0.004). Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  14. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H; Xing, L [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Liang, Z [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  15. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H; Xing, L; Liang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E; Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G; Epstein, H E; Yu, Q; Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E; Comiso, J C; Jia, G J; Kaplan, J O; Kumpula, T; Kuss, P; Matyshak, G

    2009-01-01

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  17. Evaluating and Quantifying the Climate-Driven Interannual Variability in Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) at Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanwei; Collatz, George James; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of surface reflected solar radiation contain informationabout variability in the absorption of solar radiation by vegetation. Understanding thecauses of variability is important for models that use these data to drive land surface fluxesor for benchmarking prognostic vegetation models. Here we evaluated the interannualvariability in the new 30.5-year long global satellite-derived surface reflectance index data,Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies normalized difference vegetation index(GIMMS NDVI3g). Pearsons correlation and multiple linear stepwise regression analyseswere applied to quantify the NDVI interannual variability driven by climate anomalies, andto evaluate the effects of potential interference (snow, aerosols and clouds) on the NDVIsignal. We found ecologically plausible strong controls on NDVI variability by antecedent precipitation and current monthly temperature with distinct spatial patterns. Precipitation correlations were strongest for temperate to tropical water limited herbaceous systemswhere in some regions and seasons 40 of the NDVI variance could be explained byprecipitation anomalies. Temperature correlations were strongest in northern mid- to-high-latitudes in the spring and early summer where up to 70 of the NDVI variance was explained by temperature anomalies. We find that, in western and central North America,winter-spring precipitation determines early summer growth while more recent precipitation controls NDVI variability in late summer. In contrast, current or prior wetseason precipitation anomalies were correlated with all months of NDVI in sub-tropical herbaceous vegetation. Snow, aerosols and clouds as well as unexplained phenomena still account for part of the NDVI variance despite corrections. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that GIMMS NDVI3g represents real responses of vegetation to climate variability that are useful for global models.

  18. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  20. Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument concept and first test results obtained for different breadboards models at the end of phase C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud

    2016-01-01

    program with its launch planned for 2020 (ref [1]). The NISP (Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer) is one of the two Euclid instruments and is operating in the near-IR spectral region (900- 2000nm) as a photometer and spectrometer. The instrument is composed of: - a cold (135K) optomechanical...... subsystem consisting of a Silicon carbide structure, an optical assembly (corrector and camera lens), a filter wheel mechanism, a grism wheel mechanism, a calibration unit and a thermal control system - a detection subsystem based on a mosaic of 16 HAWAII2RG cooled to 95K with their front-end readout...

  1. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  2. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  3. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...

  4. Measurements of transition probabilities in the range from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza Fernandez, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this memory we describe the design, testing and calibration of different spectrometers to measure transition probabilities from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared spectral region. For the infrared measurements we have designed and performed a phase sensitive detection system, using an InGaAs photodiode like detector. With this system we have determined the transition probabilities of infrared lines of KrI and XeI. For these lines we haven't found previous measurements. In the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region we have designed a 3 m normal incidence monochromator where we have installed an optical multichannel analyzer. We have tested its accurate working, obtaining the absorption spectrum of KrI. In the visible region we have obtained the emission spectrum of Al using different spectral: hallow-cathode lamp and Nd: YAG laser produced Al plasma. With these spectra we have determined different atomic parameters like transition probabilities and electron temperatures.(author). 83 refs

  5. Evaluation of factors in development of Vis/NIR spectroscopy models for discriminating PSE, DFD and normal broiler breast meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. To evaluate the performance of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopic models for discriminating true pale, soft and exudative (PSE), normal and dark, firm and dry (DFD) broiler breast meat in different conditions of preprocessing methods, spectral ranges, characteristic wavelength sele...

  6. Replication and virus-induced transcriptome of HAdV-5 in normal host cells versus cancer cells--differences of relevance for adenoviral oncolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik E Dorer

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (Ads, especially HAdV-5, have been genetically equipped with tumor-restricted replication potential to enable applications in oncolytic cancer therapy. Such oncolytic adenoviruses have been well tolerated in cancer patients, but their anti-tumor efficacy needs to be enhanced. In this regard, it should be considered that cancer cells, dependent on their tissue of origin, can differ substantially from the normal host cells to which Ads are adapted by complex virus-host interactions. Consequently, viral replication efficiency, a key determinant of oncolytic activity, might be suboptimal in cancer cells. Therefore, we have analyzed both the replication kinetics of HAdV-5 and the virus-induced transcriptome in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC in comparison to cancer cells. This is the first report on genome-wide expression profiling of Ads in their native host cells. We found that E1A expression and onset of viral genome replication are most rapid in HBEC and considerably delayed in melanoma cells. In squamous cell lung carcinoma cells, we observed intermediate HAdV-5 replication kinetics. Infectious particle production, viral spread and lytic activity of HAdV-5 were attenuated in melanoma cells versus HBEC. Expression profiling at the onset of viral genome replication revealed that HAdV-5 induced the strongest changes in the cellular transcriptome in HBEC, followed by lung cancer and melanoma cells. We identified prominent regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and DNA metabolism, replication and packaging in HBEC, which is in accord with the necessity to induce S phase for viral replication. Strikingly, in melanoma cells HAdV-5 triggered opposing regulation of said genes and, in contrast to lung cancer cells, no weak S phase induction was detected when using the E2F promoter as reporter. Our results provide a rationale for improving oncolytic adenoviruses either by adaptation of viral infection to target tumor cells or by

  7. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  8. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  9. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  12. An assessment of radiance in Landsat TM middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the detection of tropical forest regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.S.; Foody, G.M.; Curran, P.J.; Lucas, R.M.; Honzak, M.

    1996-01-01

    It has been postulated that tropical forests regenerating after deforestation constitute an unmeasured terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon, and that the strength of this sink is a function of regeneration stage. Such regeneration stages can be characterized by biophysical properties, such as leaf and wood biomass, which influence the radiance emitted and/or reflected from the forest canopy. Remotely sensed data can therefore be used to estimate these biophysical properties and thereby determine the forest regenerative stage. Studies conducted on temperate forests have related biophysical properties successfully with red and near-infrared radiance, particularly within the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). However, only weak correlations have generally been observed for tropical forests and it is suggested here that the relationship between forest biophysical properties and middle and thermal infrared radiance may be stronger than that between those properties and visible and near-infrared radiance.An assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data revealed that radiance acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands contained significant information for the detection of regeneration stages in Amazonian tropical forests. It was demonstrated that tropical forest regeneration stages were most separable using middle infrared and thermal infrared wavebands and that the correlation with regeneration stage was stronger with middle infrared, thermal infrared or combinations of these wavebands than they were with visible, near infrared or combinations of these wavebands. For example, correlation coefficients increased from — 0·26 (insignificant at 95 per cent confidence level) when using the NDVI, to up to 0·93 (significant at 99 per cent confidence level) for a vegetation index containing data acquired in the middle and thermal infrared wavebands. These results point to the value of using data acquired in middle and thermal infrared wavebands for the

  13. Cortical fMRI activation to opponents' body kinematics in sport-related anticipation: expert-novice differences with normal and point-light video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M J; Bishop, D T; Jackson, R C; Abernethy, B

    2011-08-18

    Badminton players of varying skill levels viewed normal and point-light video clips of opponents striking the shuttle towards the viewer; their task was to predict in which quadrant of the court the shuttle would land. In a whole-brain fMRI analysis we identified bilateral cortical networks sensitive to the anticipation task relative to control stimuli. This network is more extensive and localised than previously reported. Voxel clusters responding more strongly in experts than novices were associated with all task-sensitive areas, whereas voxels responding more strongly in novices were found outside these areas. Task-sensitive areas for normal and point-light video were very similar, whereas early visual areas responded differentially, indicating the primacy of kinematic information for sport-related anticipation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The circadian variation in Anti-Müllerian hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome differs significantly from normally ovulating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bungum, Leif Johan; Franssohn, Florencia; Bungum, Mona Berger Håkonsen

    2013-01-01

    To improve the biologic understanding of the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) condition by examining the circadian variation and relationship between Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH), gonadotropins and ovarian steroids in PCOS patients compared to normally ovulating and menstruating women....... By comparing the pattern of co-variation between AMH and Luteinizing Hormone, two compounds closely linked to hyperandrogenism and anovulation in PCOS, the involvement of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian axis in PCOS pathology could be elucidated....

  15. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.cn; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  16. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  17. Infrared spectra of jennite and tobermorite from first-principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidmer, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre@vidmer.com; Sclauzero, Gabriele; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of jennite, tobermorite 14 Å, anomalous tobermorite 11 Å, and normal tobermorite 11 Å are simulated within a density-functional-theory scheme. The atomic coordinates and the cell parameters are optimized resulting in structures which agree with previous studies. The vibrational frequencies and modes are obtained for each mineral. The vibrational density of states is analyzed through extensive projections on silicon tetrahedra, oxygen atoms, OH groups, and water molecules. The coupling with the electric field is achieved through the use of density functional perturbation theory, which yields Born effective charges and dielectric constants. The simulated absorption spectra reproduce well the experimental spectra, thereby allowing for a detailed interpretation of the spectral features in terms of the underlying vibrational modes. In the far-infrared part of the absorption spectra, the interplay between Ca and Si related vibrations leads to differences which are sensitive to the calcium/silicon ratio of the mineral.

  18. Different shape normal metal interlayers between niobium based SIS junctions and niobium titanium nitride leads and their influence on the electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, S; Westig, M P; Jacobs, K; Honingh, C E

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the reduction of heating in a niobium superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction with aluminum-oxide tunnel barrier embedded in a niobium-titanium-nitride circuit. Nonequilibrium quasiparticles which are created due to the Andreev trap at the interface between the niobium and the niobium-titanium-nitride layers are relaxed by inserting a normal-metal conductor of gold between these two layers. In an earlier work we explained the observed relaxation of nonequilibrium quasiparticles due to the geometrically assisted cooling effect. In this paper we investigate this cooling effect in dependence of the normal-metal layer shape and size. We expect that an adapted normal-metal layer is necessary for implementation in practical terahertz SIS heterodyne mixer circuits. We observe in DC-measurements of a large number of devices a clear relation between the volume of the gold layer and the effective electron temperature in the device. Our central finding is that the shape of the gold layer does not influence the cooling provided that the volume is sufficient.

  19. Marked differences in immunocytological localization of [3H]estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar tumor cells compared to normal acinar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoin, A.R.; Grondin, G.; St Jean, P.; Pettengill, O.; Longnecker, D.S.; Grossman, A.

    1991-01-01

    [ 3 H]Estradiol can bind to a specific protein in normal rat pancreatic acinar cells. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical analysis has shown this protein to be localized primarily in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Rat exocrine pancreatic tumor cell lines, whether grown in tissue culture (AR42J) or as a tumor mass after sc injection into rats (DSL-2), lacked detectable amounts of this [ 3 H]estradiol-binding protein (EBP), as determined by the dextran-coated charcoal assay. Furthermore, primary exocrine pancreatic neoplasms induced with the carcinogen azaserine contained little or no detectable [ 3 H]estradiol-binding activity. However, electron immunocytochemical studies of transformed cells indicated the presence of material that cross-reacted with antibodies prepared against the [ 3 H]EBP. The immunopositive reaction in transformed cells was localized almost exclusively in lipid granules. Such lipid organelles in normal acinar cells, although present less frequently than in transformed cells, have never been observed to contain EBP-like immunopositive material. Presumably, the aberrant localization of EBP in these acinar tumor cells results in loss of function of this protein, which in normal pancreatic acinar cells appears to exert a modulating influence on zymogen granule formation and the process of secretion

  20. Comparison of conventional and cadmium-zinc-telluride single-photon emission computed tomography for analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: an exploratory study in normal databases for different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masaru; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Shibutani, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in thallium-201-chloride (thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans evaluated by conventional anger-type single-photon emission computed tomography (conventional SPECT) versus cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) imaging in normal databases for different ethnic groups. MPI scans from 81 consecutive Japanese patients were examined using conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT and analyzed with the pre-installed quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) software. We compared the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) for the two SPECT devices. For a normal MPI reference, we usually use Japanese databases for MPI created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, which can be used with conventional SPECT but not with CZT SPECT. In this study, we used new Japanese normal databases constructed in our institution to compare conventional and CZT SPECT. Compared with conventional SPECT, CZT SPECT showed lower SSS (p < 0.001), SRS (p = 0.001), and SDS (p = 0.189) using the pre-installed SPECT database. In contrast, CZT SPECT showed no significant difference from conventional SPECT in QPS analysis using the normal databases from our institution. Myocardial perfusion analyses by CZT SPECT should be evaluated using normal databases based on the ethnic group being evaluated.

  1. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  2. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  3. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  4. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesentini Nicoletta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  5. Infrared radiation from dark globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.; Leung, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed by which to study the infrared emission from dark globules heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). The effects of cloud parameters (grain type, optical depth, and density inhomogeneity) on the emergent spectrum and infrared surface brightnesses are studied. Compared with clouds which have internal heat sources, the emergent flux for globules is found to be at least a factor of 10 smaller and to peak at wavelengths 100 μm< or =lambda< or =130 μm for graphite clouds and 310 μm< or =lambda< or =550 μm for silicate clouds. Either limb brightening or limb darkening in the infrared can occur, which depends sensitively on the optical depth. For globules of moderate extinction (greater than approx.10 in the visible), significant infrared limb brightening occurs at wavelengths of grain emission (20 μm< or =lambda< or =600 μm). A physical interpretation of these results is presented. To help remove ambiguities from interpretations of future observations, the observable effects of a grain mixture, variation of the ISRF, as well as beam dilution are examined in detail. The presence of a second grain component alters the emergent spectrum significantly. For a variation of the ISRF within wide limits, the ratio of surface to central temperature (T/sub s//T/sub c/) of an optically thick cloud remains fairly constant (3< or approx. =T/sub s//T/sub c/< or approx. =4). Infrared limb brightening may be smoothed out by beam dilution as well as by density inhomogeneities. Finally, the expected flux densities in the infrared of a typical globule are presented for different beam sizes. The predicted fluxes are within the detection threshold of currently available infrared detectors, using either ground-based or balloon-borne telescopes

  6. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis using infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frize, Monique; Adéa, Cynthia; Payeur, Pierre; Di Primio, Gina; Karsh, Jacob; Ogungbemile, Abiola

    2011-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and loss of function in joints; it is difficult to diagnose in early stages. An early diagnosis and treatment can delay the onset of severe disability. Infrared (IR) imaging offers a potential approach to detect changes in degree of inflammation. In 18 normal subjects and 13 patients diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), thermal images were collected from joints of hands, wrists, palms, and knees. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually selected from all subjects and all parts imaged. For each subject, values were calculated from the temperature measurements: Mode/Max, Median/Max, Min/Max, Variance, Max-Min, (Mode-Mean), and Mean/Min. The data sets did not have a normal distribution, therefore non parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Ranksum) were applied to assess if the data from the control group and the patient group were significantly different. Results indicate that: (i) thermal images can be detected on patients with the disease; (ii) the best joints to image are the metacarpophalangeal joints of the 2nd and 3rd fingers and the knees; the difference between the two groups was significant at the 0.05 level; (iii) the best calculations to differentiate between normal subjects and patients with RA are the Mode/Max, Variance, and Max-Min. We concluded that it is possible to reliably detect RA in patients using IR imaging. Future work will include a prospective study of normal subjects and patients that will compare IR results with Magnetic Resonance (MR) analysis.

  7. Properties in the middle and far infrared radiation of spiral and irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contursi, Alessandra

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this research thesis, the author reports the study in the middle infrared of H II regions belonging to Magellanic clouds. For this purpose, he presents different aspects of infrared emission by the interstellar medium: origin and evolution of interstellar grains, dust studied by astrophysical observations, dust models, infrared observations made by COBE and IRAS satellites, exploitation of the ISO satellite. He also presents the Small and Large Magellanic clouds, and reports the study of the H II N4 region of the large one, imagery and spectroscopy of the H II N66 region of the small one, and the study of silicate emission in the central region of N66. The second part reports the study of cluster normal spiral galaxies in the middle and far infrared. For this purpose, the author discusses the colours in the middle infrared of Virgo's and Coma's galaxies, discusses the properties in the infrared of spiral galaxies (Coma and A1367), based on observations made by ISO [fr

  8. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  9. Experimental evidence of infrared scintillation in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Belogurov, S; Carugno, Giovanni; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa

    2000-01-01

    We present experimental results on infrared emission induced by protons in some solid-state samples. Infrared scintillation occurs in many crystals, with different yield values and time-response behaviours. A rough measurement of the emission wavelength of CsI(Tl) is also reported.

  10. Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan

    2009-02-01

    Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.

  11. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements.

  12. Age-related differences in metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of normal ageing brain: A 1H-MRS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyngoudt, Harmen; Claeys, Tom; Vlerick, Leslie; Verleden, Stijn; Acou, Marjan; Deblaere, Karel; De Deene, Yves; Audenaert, Kurt; Goethals, Ingeborg; Achten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study age-related metabolic changes in N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (Ins). Materials and methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) was performed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the left hippocampus (HC) of 90 healthy subjects (42 women and 48 men aged 18–76 years, mean ± SD, 48.4 ± 16.8 years). Both metabolite ratios and absolute metabolite concentrations were evaluated. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Metabolite ratios Ins/tCr and Ins/H 2 O were found significantly increased with age in the PCC (P 2 O was only observed in the PCC (P 1 H-MRS results in these specific brain regions can be important to differentiate normal ageing from age-related pathologies such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Hemopoietic regeneration in murine spleen following transfusion of normal and irradiated marrow: different response of granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangenheim, K.-H. von; Peterson, H.-P.; Huebner, G.E.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate cell proliferation in regenerating spleen, bone marrow of normal and gamma-irradiated donor mice (3 weeks after 5 Gy) was transfused into lethally irradiated recipients. In the donors and in the recipient spleens numbers of CFU-S and progenitor cells were determined. In the irradiated donors the progenitors were at control level after 3 weeks of recovery although CFU-S were still at 50% of control. Recipients of the irradiated marrow received therefore an increased proportion of progenitors. CFU-C appeared to be self-renewing and/or increased in number due to enhanced CFU-S differentiation, but not the erythroid progenitors. CFU-S self-renewal was reduced after 5 Gy. The data suggest that cell differentiation and maturation proceed during early splenic regeneration. The quantity of CFU-C does not necessarily mirror the situation in the stem cell compartment. (author)

  14. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  15. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF POST-AGB STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAIJER, RD; WATERS, LBFM; VANDERVEEN, WECJ; GEBALLE, TR

    The results of a medium resolution near-infrared spectral survey of 18 post-AGB candidate stars are presented. Most of the stars have near-infrared hydrogen lines in absorption, which is normal for their spectral types. Three stars, HD 101584, HD 179821 and HD 170756 have the CO first overtone bands

  16. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  18. Effects of a preemptive alveolar recruitment strategy on arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation with different tidal volumes in patients with normal pulmonary function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Dal; Kim, Sang Hun; Yu, Byung Sik; Kim, Hye Ji

    2014-08-01

    Hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) remains a major concern. The present study compared the effect of alveolar recruitment strategy (ARS) on arterial oxygenation during OLV at varying tidal volumes (Vt) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). In total, 120 patients undergoing wedge resection by video assisted thoracostomy were randomized into four groups comprising 30 patients each: those administered a 10 ml/kg tidal volume with or without preemptive ARS (Group H and Group H-ARS, respectively) and those administered a 6 ml/kg tidal volume and a 8 cmH2O PEEP with or without preemptive ARS (Group L and Group L-ARS, respectively). ARS was performed using pressure-controlled ventilation with a 40 cmH2O plateau airway pressure and a 15 cmH2O PEEP for at least 10 breaths until OLV began. Preemptive ARS significantly improved the PaO2/FiO2 ratio compared to the groups that did not receive ARS (P volume combined with 8 cmH2O PEEP after preemptive ARS may reduce the risk of pulmonary injury caused by high tidal volume during one-lung ventilation in patients with normal pulmonary function.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  1. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  3. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  4. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda J.; Hoveling, Richelle J. M.; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of

  5. Shelf-life of infrared dry-roasted almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared heating was recently used to develop a more efficient roasting technology than traditional hot air roasting. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the shelf-life of almonds roasted with three different approaches, namely infrared [IR], sequential infrared and hot air [SIRHA], and regular h...

  6. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  7. How fractional counting of citations affects the impact factor: normalization in terms of differences in citation potentials among fields of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Impact Factors (IFs) of the Institute for Scientific Information suffer from a number of drawbacks, among them the statistics—Why should one use the mean and not the median?—and the incomparability among fields of science because of systematic differences in citation behavior among fields. Can

  8. Creating a Different Kind of Normal: Parent and Child Perspectives on Sibling Relationships when One Child in the Family Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachraz, Vijetta; Grace, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that explored the nature of sibling relationships when one child in the family has autism. It employs a collective case study approach to capture the perspectives of parents and young children (aged four to seven years) from three different families. A multifaceted exploration of sibling relationships was…

  9. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  10. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 hertz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take data during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 revolutions per minute).

  11. Principal component analysis of normalized full spectrum mass spectrometry data in multiMS-toolbox: An effective tool to identify important factors for classification of different metabolic patterns and bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejnar, Pavel; Kuckova, Stepanka; Prochazka, Ales; Karamonova, Ludmila; Svobodova, Barbora

    2018-06-15

    Explorative statistical analysis of mass spectrometry data is still a time-consuming step. We analyzed critical factors for application of principal component analysis (PCA) in mass spectrometry and focused on two whole spectrum based normalization techniques and their application in the analysis of registered peak data and, in comparison, in full spectrum data analysis. We used this technique to identify different metabolic patterns in the bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii, an important foodborne pathogen. Two software utilities, the ms-alone, a python-based utility for mass spectrometry data preprocessing and peak extraction, and the multiMS-toolbox, an R software tool for advanced peak registration and detailed explorative statistical analysis, were implemented. The bacterial culture of Cronobacter sakazakii was cultivated on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar, Blood Agar Base and Tryptone Soya Agar for 24 h and 48 h and applied by the smear method on an Autoflex speed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. For three tested cultivation media only two different metabolic patterns of Cronobacter sakazakii were identified using PCA applied on data normalized by two different normalization techniques. Results from matched peak data and subsequent detailed full spectrum analysis identified only two different metabolic patterns - a cultivation on Enterobacter sakazakii Isolation Agar showed significant differences to the cultivation on the other two tested media. The metabolic patterns for all tested cultivation media also proved the dependence on cultivation time. Both whole spectrum based normalization techniques together with the full spectrum PCA allow identification of important discriminative factors in experiments with several variable condition factors avoiding any problems with improper identification of peaks or emphasis on bellow threshold peak data. The amounts of processed data remain still manageable. Both implemented software utilities are available

  12. Gastric cancer differentiation using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with unsupervised pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei-song; Cui, Dian-sheng; Li, Zhi; Wu, Lan-lan; Shen, Ai-guo; Hu, Ji-ming

    2013-01-01

    The manuscript has investigated the application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiation gastric cancer. The 90 spectra from cancerous and normal tissues were collected from a total of 30 surgical specimens using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) equipped with a fiber-optic probe. Major spectral differences were observed in the CH-stretching second overtone (9000-7000 cm-1), CH-stretching first overtone (6000-5200 cm-1), and CH-stretching combination (4500-4000 cm-1) regions. By use of unsupervised pattern recognition, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), all spectra were classified into cancerous and normal tissue groups with accuracy up to 81.1%. The sensitivity and specificity was 100% and 68.2%, respectively. These present results indicate that CH-stretching first, combination band and second overtone regions can serve as diagnostic markers for gastric cancer.

  13. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  14. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Beer, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN), to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  15. Group normalization for genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    Full Text Available Data normalization is a crucial preliminary step in analyzing genomic datasets. The goal of normalization is to remove global variation to make readings across different experiments comparable. In addition, most genomic loci have non-uniform sensitivity to any given assay because of variation in local sequence properties. In microarray experiments, this non-uniform sensitivity is due to different DNA hybridization and cross-hybridization efficiencies, known as the probe effect. In this paper we introduce a new scheme, called Group Normalization (GN, to remove both global and local biases in one integrated step, whereby we determine the normalized probe signal by finding a set of reference probes with similar responses. Compared to conventional normalization methods such as Quantile normalization and physically motivated probe effect models, our proposed method is general in the sense that it does not require the assumption that the underlying signal distribution be identical for the treatment and control, and is flexible enough to correct for nonlinear and higher order probe effects. The Group Normalization algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to implement. We also describe a variant of the Group Normalization algorithm, called Cross Normalization, which efficiently amplifies biologically relevant differences between any two genomic datasets.

  16. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.

  17. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  18. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted a