WorldWideScience

Sample records for normal state transport

  1. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  2. Normal-state transport parameters of epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub δ/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.; Levi, A.F.J.; Baldwin, K.W.; Anzlowar, M.; Boebinger, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a striking correlation in the electrical transport behavior of very high-quality (j/sub c/∼3.4 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at T = 77 K) epitaxial thin films of high-T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O in the normal state. With increasing superconducting performance, as characterized by the transition temperature, transition-temperature width, and critical current density, the resistivity rho, and the Hall coefficient R/sub H/, both assume remarkably simple temperature dependences rho = αT and R/sub H//sup -1/ = βT leading to a Hall mobility μ/sub H/proportionalT/sup -2/. The magnetoresistance at 10 T is less than Δrho/rho<10/sup -3/. We discuss an extreme two-carrier model to assess the T dependence of R/sub H/. .AE

  3. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  5. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  6. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  7. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  8. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  9. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-29

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  10. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-01

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to

  11. Extravascular transport in normal and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R K; Gerlowski, L E

    1986-01-01

    The transport characteristics of the normal and tumor tissue extravascular space provide the basis for the determination of the optimal dosage and schedule regimes of various pharmacological agents in detection and treatment of cancer. In order for the drug to reach the cellular space where most therapeutic action takes place, several transport steps must first occur: (1) tissue perfusion; (2) permeation across the capillary wall; (3) transport through interstitial space; and (4) transport across the cell membrane. Any of these steps including intracellular events such as metabolism can be the rate-limiting step to uptake of the drug, and these rate-limiting steps may be different in normal and tumor tissues. This review examines these transport limitations, first from an experimental point of view and then from a modeling point of view. Various types of experimental tumor models which have been used in animals to represent human tumors are discussed. Then, mathematical models of extravascular transport are discussed from the prespective of two approaches: compartmental and distributed. Compartmental models lump one or more sections of a tissue or body into a "compartment" to describe the time course of disposition of a substance. These models contain "effective" parameters which represent the entire compartment. Distributed models consider the structural and morphological aspects of the tissue to determine the transport properties of that tissue. These distributed models describe both the temporal and spatial distribution of a substance in tissues. Each of these modeling techniques is described in detail with applications for cancer detection and treatment in mind.

  12. 10 CFR 71.71 - Normal conditions of transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal conditions of transport. 71.71 Section 71.71 Energy..., Special Form, and LSA-III Tests 2 § 71.71 Normal conditions of transport. (a) Evaluation. Evaluation of each package design under normal conditions of transport must include a determination of the effect on...

  13. A semimetal model of the normal state magnetic susceptibility and transport properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; McGuire, M.A.; Sefat, A.S.; Mandrus, D.

    2010-01-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to determine which normal state features of the Ba(Fe 1-x Co x ) 2 As 2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 < x < 0.3 with only three parameters for all x. The purpose of the model is not to fit the data but to provide a simple starting point for thinking about the physics of these interesting materials. Although many of the static magnetic properties, such as the increase of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature, are reproduced by the model, none of the spin-fluctuation dynamics are addressed. A general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures.

  14. A Semimetal Model of the Normal State Susceptibility and Transport Properties of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Brian; Sefat, Athena; McGuire, Michael; Mandrus, David

    2010-03-01

    A simple two-band 3D model of a semimetal is constructed to see which normal state features of the Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 superconductors can be qualitatively understood within this framework. The model is able to account in a semiquantitative fashion for the measured magnetic susceptibility, Hall, and Seebeck data, and the low temperature Sommerfeld coefficient for 0 general conclusion from the model is that the magnetic susceptibility of most semimetals should increase with temperatures. This is indeed found to be the case for two well-known semimetals Bi and TiSe2. Research supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  15. Spin-polarized transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong-Yu; Wang Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin-dependent electron transport in single and double normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (NG/FG/NG) junctions. The ferromagnetism in the FG region originates from the spontaneous magnetization of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that when the zigzag-chain number of the ribbon is even and only a single transverse mode is actived, the single NG/FG/NG junction can act as a spin polarizer and/or a spin analyzer because of the valley selection rule and the spin-exchange field in the FG, while the double NG/FG/NG/FG/NG junction exhibits a quantum switching effect, in which the on and the off states switch rapidly by varying the cross angle between two FG magnetizations. Our findings may shed light on the application of magnetized graphene nanoribbons to spintronics devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  17. Transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1976-10-01

    This thesis provides a framework for a series of 19 papers published by the author in a study of transport and magnetic resonance in normal and superfluid Fermi liquids. The Boltzmann equation and methods for its solution are discussed. Electron-electron scattering in metals, with particular emphasis on alkali metals, is considered. Transport in a normal uncharged Fermi liquid such as pure 3 He at temperatures well below its degeneracy temperature of approximately 1 K or mixtures of 3 He in 4 He with degeneracy temperatures ranging typically from 100 to 200 mk is discussed with emphasis on comparison with experiments with the aim of testing models of the particle-particle scattering amplitude. Transport and magnetic resonance in superfluid 3 He is considered. The phenomenological treatment of relaxation is reviewed and the magnitude of the phenomenlogical relaxation time close to Tsub(c) is derived for the case of longitudinal resonance. Comments are made on non-linear magnetic resonance and textures and spin waves. (B.R.H.)

  18. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  19. Quantum transport in graphene normal-metal superconductor- normal-metal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadpour

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available  We study the transport of electrons in a graphene NSN structure in which two normal regions are connected by a superconducting strip of thickness d. Within Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations we describe the transmission through the contact in terms of different scattering processes consisting of quasiparticle cotunneling, local and crossed Andreev reflections. Compared to a fully normal structure we show that the angular dependence of the transmission probability is significantly modified by the presence of superconducting correlations. This modifation can be explained in terms of the interplay between Andreev reflection and Klein tunneling of chiral quasiparticles. We further analyze the energy dependence of the resulting differential conductance of the structure. The subgap differential conductance shows features of Andreev reflection and cotunelling processes, which tends to the values of an NS structure for large ds. Above the gap, the differential conductance shows an oscillatory behavior with energy even at very large ds.

  20. Quasiparticle transport properties of mesoscopic wires containing normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal proximity junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam; Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Hu Jong; Lee, Seongjae; Yuk, Jong Seol; Park, Kyoung Wan; Lee, El Hang

    1997-01-01

    We measured the differential resistance dV/dI of mesoscopic normal-metal/superconductor/normal-metal (N-S-N) junctions. At low temperatures (T PbIn /e, where Δ PbIn is the gap energy of superconducting Pb-In, and at a higher bias V c . The zero-bias dip is supposed to originate from Andreev reflections of quasiparticles and the peak near 2Δ PbIn /e from the formation of a standing-wave mode of quasiparticles inside the superconducting potential barrier. We attribute the peaks at V c to a transition of the superconducting region to the normal state as the current exceeds the critical current I c of S

  1. Review of the Effects of Normal Conditions of Transport on Spent Fuel Integrity in Transportation Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junggoo; Yoo, Youngik; Lee, Seongki; Lim, Chaejoon [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Spent fuel(SF) storage capacity of each domestic nuclear power plant will reach a saturated state in the near future. Although there are several methods of SF disposal, interim storage is suggested as the most realistic and promising alternative. SF integrity evaluation is a regulatory requirement that is described in Part 71 of Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 of the U..S. NRC licensing requirement. In this paper, the report is reviewed written by EPRI in US and it is helpful to a development of domestic SF integrity evaluation technology. EPRI report about integrity evaluation method on normal conditions of high burn-up spent fuel transport is reviewed. First, dynamic forces occurred in one-foot side drop are calculated. And deformation patterns and fuel rods responses by dynamic forces calculated from spent fuel and cask model are analyzed. It is shown that the damage of fuel rods is not occurred by the dynamic forces on normal conditions. Assembly distortion is not predicted, by virtue of the facts that the spacer grids do not experience significant permanent deformation. Axial forces, bending moments and pinch forces of fuel rods are calculated and compared with the results under the hypothetical accident conditions. No occurrence of transverse tearing mode that is the most serious damage mode in side drop case is predicted. Till now, in Korea, regulatory requirements related with structural integrity of spent fuel are not specified such as 10CFR71. To establish own regulation standards, producing and analyzing sufficient experimental data must be performed preferentially. Based on this, failure analysis and criteria establishment are necessary through modeling and analyzing of spent fuel.

  2. Normalized Excited Squeezed Vacuum State and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong

    2007-01-01

    By using the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics and generating function for the normalization of the excited squeezed vacuum state (ESVS), the normalized ESVS is obtained. We find that its normalization constants obtained via two new methods are uniform and a new form which is different from the result obtained by Zhang and Fan [Phys. Lett. A 165 (1992) 14]. By virtue of the normalization constant of the ESVS and the intermediate coordinate-momentum representation, the tomogram of the normalized ESVS and some useful formulae are derived.

  3. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. This report discusses the shipment of these highly radioactive materials

  4. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  5. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  6. Spent fuel transport cask thermal evaluation under normal and accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Lo Frano, R., E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.i [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy); Forasassi, G. [Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, no 2-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The casks used for transport of nuclear materials, especially the spent fuel element (SPE), must be designed according to rigorous acceptance criteria and standards requirements, e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency ones, in order to provide protection to people and environment against radiation exposure particularly in a severe accident scenario. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the integrity of a spent fuel cask under both normal and accident scenarios transport conditions, such as impact and rigorous fire events, in according to the IAEA accident test requirements. The thermal behaviour and the temperatures distribution of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel transport cask are presented in this paper, especially with reference to the Italian cask designed by AGN, which was characterized by a cylindrical body, with water or air inside the internal cavity, and two lateral shock absorbers. Using the finite element code ANSYS a series of thermal analyses (steady-state and transient thermal analyses) were carried out in order to obtain the maximum fuel temperature and the temperatures field in the body of the cask, both in normal and in accidents scenario, considering all the heat transfer modes between the cask and the external environment (fire in the test or air in the normal conditions) as well as inside the cask itself. In order to follow the standards requirements, the thermal analyses in accidents scenarios were also performed adopting a deformed shape of the shock absorbers to simulate the mechanical effects of a previous IAEA 9 m drop test event. Impact tests on scale models of the shock absorbers have already been conducted in the past at the Department of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, University of Pisa, in the '80s. The obtained results, used for possible new licensing approval purposes by the Italian competent Authority of the cask for PWR spent fuel cask transport by the Italian competent Authority, are

  7. Anisotropic transport of normal metal-barrier-normal metal junctions in monolayer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarkar, Sangita; Agarwal, Amit; Sengupta, K

    2017-07-19

    We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height U 0 and width d, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge (x direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schrödinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles. We show that the transport, mediated by massive Dirac electrons, allows one to achieve collimated quasiparticle motion along x and thus makes monolayer phosphorene an ideal experimental platform for studying Klein paradox in the context of gapped Dirac materials. We study the dependence of the tunneling conductance [Formula: see text] as a function of d and U 0 , and demonstrate that for a given applied voltage V its behavior changes from oscillatory to decaying function of d for a range of U 0 with finite non-zero upper and lower bounds, and provide analytical expression for these bounds within which G decays with d. We contrast such behavior of G with that of massless Dirac electrons in graphene and also with that along the zigzag edge (y direction) in phosphorene where the quasiparticles obey an effective Schrödinger equation at low energy. We also study transport through multiple barriers along x and demonstrate that these properties hold for transport through multiple barriers as well. Finally, we suggest concrete experiments which may verify our theoretical predictions.

  8. Anisotropic transport of normal metal-barrier-normal metal junctions in monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarkar, Sangita; Agarwal, Amit; Sengupta, K.

    2017-07-01

    We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height U 0 and width d, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge (x direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schrödinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles. We show that the transport, mediated by massive Dirac electrons, allows one to achieve collimated quasiparticle motion along x and thus makes monolayer phosphorene an ideal experimental platform for studying Klein paradox in the context of gapped Dirac materials. We study the dependence of the tunneling conductance G\\equiv {{G}xx} as a function of d and U 0, and demonstrate that for a given applied voltage V its behavior changes from oscillatory to decaying function of d for a range of U 0 with finite non-zero upper and lower bounds, and provide analytical expression for these bounds within which G decays with d. We contrast such behavior of G with that of massless Dirac electrons in graphene and also with that along the zigzag edge (y direction) in phosphorene where the quasiparticles obey an effective Schrödinger equation at low energy. We also study transport through multiple barriers along x and demonstrate that these properties hold for transport through multiple barriers as well. Finally, we suggest concrete experiments which may verify our theoretical predictions.

  9. Non-local electron transport through normal and topological ladder-like atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzyna, Marcin; Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    We propose a locally protected ladder-like atomic system (nanoconductor) on a substrate that is insensitive to external perturbations. The system corresponds to coupled atomic chains fabricated on different surfaces. Electron transport properties of such conductors are studied theoretically using the model tight-binding Su-Schriffer-Hegger (SSH) Hamiltonian and Green's function formalism. We have found that the conductance of the system is almost insensitive to single adatoms and oscillates as a function of the side chain length with very large periods. Non-local character of the electron transport was observed also for topological SSH chains where nontrivial end states survive in the presence of disturbances as well as for different substrates. We have found that the careful inspection of the density of states or charge waves can provide the information about the atom energy levels and hopping amplitudes. Moreover, the ladder-like geometry allows one to distinguish between normal and topological zero-energy states. It is important that topological chains do not reveal Friedel oscillations which are observed in non-topological chains.

  10. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  11. Detailed spectroscopy of the normally deformed states in 132Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.S.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Santos, D.; Nyako, B.M.; O'Brien, N.J.; Parry, C.M.; Wadsworth, R.

    1997-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in 132 Ce produced in the 100 Mo( 36 S,4nγ) reaction using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. The structure of the normally deformed states (β 2 ∝0.2) has been investigated. Eight ΔI=2 bands and three ΔI=1 bands have been identified and the level scheme extended up to spin and parity (40 + ) at an excitation energy 19.79 MeV. The results are interpreted with the aid of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations, which suggest a variety of triaxial (γ) shapes in this nucleus stabilised by specific active quasiparticle orbitals. (orig.)

  12. Aviation and Airports, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Aviation and Airports Search DOT&PF State of pages view official DOT&PF Flickr pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box

  13. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The paper examines the operations of Public Transport in Nigeria using the Kwara State Transport Service as a case study. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  15. Procurement and Contracting, Transportation & Public Facilities, State of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Alaska State Employees Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities header image Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities / Procurement and Contracting Search DOT& pages Department of Transportation & Public Facilities PO Box 112500 3132 Channel Drive Juneau

  16. Transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad: Radiation exposure resulting from normal transport and radiological risks from transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation exposures of members of critical groups of the general population and of transport personnel resulting from normal transport of radioactive wastes to the planned final waste repository Konrad have been evaluated in detail. By applying probabilistic safety assessment techniques radiological risks from transport accidents have been analysed by quantifying potential radiation exposures and contaminations of the biosphere in connection with their expected frequencies of occurrence. The Konrad transport study concentrates on the local region of the waste repository, where all transports converge. (orig.) [de

  17. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  18. Normal state Raman spectra of high-Tc cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain Raman spectra of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. Parameter dependence of Raman active phonon frequencies are studied by varying model parameters of the system i.e. the position of f-level (ε f ), the effective electron-phonon coupling strength (g), the staggered magnetic field (h 1 ), and the hybridization parameter (v). The four Raman active peaks (P 1 to P 4 ) represent the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate systems. They show up as phonon excitations due to the coupling of the phonon to the electrons and the anti-ferromagnetic gap. (author)

  19. The Thalamostriatal System in Normal and Diseased States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoland eSmith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of our limited knowledge of the functional role of the thalamostriatal system, this massive network is often ignored in models of the pathophysiology of brain disorders of basal ganglia origin, such as Parkinson’s disease. However, over the past decade, significant advances have led to a deeper understanding of the anatomical, electrophysiological, behavioral and pathological aspects of the thalamostriatal system. The cloning of the vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (vGluT1 and vGluT2 has provided powerful tools to differentiate thalamostriatal from corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, allowing us to carry out comparative studies of the synaptology and plasticity of these two systems in normal and pathological conditions. Findings from these studies have led to the recognition of two thalamostriatal systems, based on their differential origin from the caudal intralaminar nuclear group, the centre median/parafascicular (CM/Pf complex, or other thalamic nuclei. The recent use of optogenetic methods supports this model of the organization of the thalamostriatal systems, showing differences in functionality and glutamate receptor localization at thalamostriatal synapses from Pf and other thalamic nuclei. At the functional level, evidence largely gathered from thalamic recordings in awake monkeys strongly suggests that the thalamostriatal system from the CM/Pf is involved in regulating alertness and switching behaviors. Importantly, there is evidence that the caudal intralaminar nuclei and their axonal projections to the striatum partly degenerate in Parkinson’s disease and that CM/Pf deep brain stimulation may be therapeutically useful in several movement disorders.

  20. Interlayer material transport during layer-normal shortening. Part I. The model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, I. van der

    1985-01-01

    To analyse mass-transfer during deformation, the case is considered of a multilayer experiencing a layer-normal shortening that is volume constant on the scale of many layers. Strain rate is homogeneously distributed on the layer-scale if diffusion is absent; when transport of matter between the

  1. Influence of magnetic impurities on charge transport in diffusive-normal-metal/superconductor junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal (DN)/insulator/s- and d-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of magnetic impurities in DN in the framework of the quasiclassical Usadel equations with the generalized boundary conditions. The cases of s- and d-wave superconducting

  2. Theory of thermal and charge transport in diffusive normal metal / superconductor junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Asano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal and charge transport in diffusive normal metal (DN)/insulator/s-, d-, and p-wave superconductor junctions are studied based on the Usadel equation with the Nazarov's generalized boundary condition. We derive a general expression of the thermal conductance in unconventional superconducting

  3. Simplified calculation method for radiation dose under normal condition of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, K.; Sugahara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose during transportation of radioactive materials, the following computer codes are available: RADTRAN, INTERTRAN, J-TRAN. Because these codes consist of functions for estimating doses not only under normal conditions but also in the case of accidents, when nuclei may leak and spread into the environment by air diffusion, the user needs to have special knowledge and experience. In this presentation, we describe how, with a view to preparing a method by which a person in charge of transportation can calculate doses in normal conditions, the main parameters upon which the value of doses depends were extracted and the dose for a unit of transportation was estimated. (J.P.N.)

  4. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  5. The United States and Iran: Prospects for Normalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Even then, normalization will not come quickly or easily. It will require steady, long-term US effort and will be complicated by two decades of hostility and by domestic political dynamics in both countries that hinder rational policy debate.

  6. Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria using geoinformatics, with focus on impact of climate ... Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  7. Grants and Funding for State and Local Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and Local Transportation resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Guidance, strategies and links to grant opportunities are offered for reducing vehicle air pollution, including ozone or smog.

  8. Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.

    1976-01-01

    Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)

  9. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen; Liu, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  10. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  11. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  12. Identification of Raman peaks of high-Tc cuprates in normal state through density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T c cuprates R 2-x M x CuO 4 in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P 1 -P 4 ) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained

  13. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1981-11-01

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  14. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  15. State transportation liaison funded positions study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), which was signed into law in August 2005, contained several provisions focused on streamlining the environmental review process. One of these provi...

  16. Subgap resonant quasiparticle transport in normal-superconductor quantum dot devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramich, J., E-mail: joerg.gramich@unibas.ch; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-04-25

    We report thermally activated transport resonances for biases below the superconducting energy gap in a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) device with a superconducting Pb and a normal metal contact. These resonances are due to the superconductor's finite quasi-particle population at elevated temperatures and can only be observed when the QD life-time broadening is considerably smaller than the gap. This condition is fulfilled in our QD devices with optimized Pd/Pb/In multi-layer contacts, which result in reproducibly large and “clean” superconducting transport gaps with a strong conductance suppression for subgap biases. We show that these gaps close monotonically with increasing magnetic field and temperature. The accurate description of the subgap resonances by a simple resonant tunneling model illustrates the ideal characteristics of the reported Pb contacts and gives an alternative access to the tunnel coupling strengths in a QD.

  17. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  18. Nonpoint source solute transport normal to aquifer bedding in heterogeneous, Markov chain random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2006-06-01

    Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range

  19. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  20. The state of public transportation in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-14

    This full text of a speech delivered at a luncheon in Harris County,Texas on December 14, 1994, gives a status report on METRO and how Houston's key transportation providers plan to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. Many improvements h...

  1. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  2. Transport of 125I-albumin across normal and deendothelialized rabbit thoracic aorta in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.; Lees, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Transmural concentration profiles of 125 I-albumin in vivo were measured across the normal and balloon catheter-deendothelialized rabbit descending thoracic aorta as a function of time following intravenous injection. A tracer was injected 5 or 60 minutes after deendothelialization, and the animals were sacrificed after circulation times of 10, 30 or 60 minutes. The aorta was immediately excised and frozen flat between glass slides. Samples were serially sectioned parallel to the intimal surface in a refrigerated microtome, washed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and counted. Relative tissue concentration profiles of TCA-precipitable radioactivity from the media of control animals showed entry from both luminal and adventitial sides, as previously found with conscious normal rabbits, but spatial gradients at both luminal and medial-adventitial borders were less steep. Relative concentration levels in ballooned animals were 10- to 40-fold higher than in controls, and the profiles were flatter. Uptake rates at equivalent circulation times were greater in experiments initiated 60 minutes, as compared with 5 minutes, after deendothelialization, suggesting that progressive medial edema may have occurred following balloon injury. These results show that the intact endothelium is the dominant mass transfer resistance for 125 I-albumin transport across the aortic wall. The data also suggest that the incomplete monolayer of platelets adherent to the subendothelium after balloon deendothelialization is not a substantial resistance to transport, as compared to that of the media, and that convection plays a more important role than diffusion for 125 I-albumin transport across the deendothelialized aortic wall

  3. Persistent Drug-Induced Parkinsonism in Patients with Normal Dopamine Transporter Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Hong

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging for the dopamine transporter (DAT is used to distinguish drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP from subclinical Parkinson's disease (PD. Although DIP patients who show a normal DAT image are expected to recover completely, some do not. We investigated whether these patients showed changes in striatal DAT activity using semi-quantitative analysis of 18F-FP-CIT PET data. DIP patients with visually normal DAT images were selected from medical records. The subjects were classified as patients who recovered partially (PR or completely within 12 months (CR. The 18F-FP-CIT uptake in each striatal subregion was compared between the CR and the PR groups. In total, 41 and 9 patients of the CR and PR groups were assessed, respectively. The two patient groups were comparable in terms of clinical characteristics including age, sex, and severity of parkinsonism. From semi-quantitative analysis of the PET image, the PR patients showed a relatively lower ligand uptake in the ventral striatum, the anterior putamen and the posterior putamen compared with the CR patients. This result suggests that persistent DIP in patients with visually normal DAT imaging may be associated with subtle decrement of DAT activity.

  4. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  5. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  6. Multiply gapped density of states in a normal metal in contact with a superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutlinger, Johannes; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Glazman, Leonid I. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511-8499 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The spectral properties of a normal metal adjacent to a superconductor are strongly dependent on the characteristic mesoscopic energy scale - the Thouless energy E{sub Th} - and the strength of the connection. In this work, we predict that the local density of states (LDOS), besides the well know minigap {proportional_to}E{sub Th}, can exhibit a multiple gap structure, which strongly depends on the type of the contact. For ballistic contacts we calculate these secondary gaps analytically in the framework of quantum circuit theory of mesoscopic transport. The secondary gaps are absent in the case of tunnel contacts. In the general case the equations are solved numerically for more realistic contacts, like for example diffusive connectors or dirty interfaces, which are characterized by continuous distributions of transmission eigenvalues between 0 and 1. We find that the gap vanishes in these cases, but the density of states is still suppressed around the superconducting gap edge. Distribution functions with a stronger weight at higher transmissions can be modeled through asymmetric ballistic double junctions, which even exhibit multiple gaps. Such spectral signatures are fundamental to disordered nanoscopic conductors and experimentally accessible.

  7. Superconducting and normal-state properties of the layered boride OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Vannette, M. D.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    OsB2 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Pmmn) which contains alternate boron and osmium layers stacked along the c axis. The boron layers consist of puckered hexagons as opposed to the flat graphite-like boron layers in MgB2 . OsB2 is reported to become superconducting below 2.1K . We report results of the dynamic and static magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, heat capacity, and penetration depth measurements on arc-melted polycrystalline samples of OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal-state properties. These measurements confirmed that OsB2 becomes a bulk superconductor below Tc=2.1K . Our results indicate that OsB2 is a moderate-coupling type-II superconductor with an electron-phonon coupling constant λep≈0.4-0.5 , a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ˜1-2 , and an upper critical magnetic field Hc2(0.5K)˜420Oe for an unannealed sample and Hc2(1K)˜330Oe for an annealed sample. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density ns(T) for the unannealed sample is consistent with an s -wave superconductor with a slightly enhanced zero temperature gap Δ(0)=1.9kBTc and a zero temperature London penetration depth λ(0)=0.38(2)μm . The ns(T) data for the annealed sample show deviations from the predictions of the single-band s -wave BCS model. The magnetic, transport, and thermal properties in the normal state of isostructural and isoelectronic RuB2 , which is reported to become superconducting below 1.6K , are also reported.

  8. Unusually large magnetic moments in the normal state and superconducting state of Sn nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chi-Hang; Lee, Chi-Hung; Hsu, Chien-Kang; Li, Chi-Yen; Karna, Sunil K.; Wang, Chin-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ming; Li, Wen-Hsien, E-mail: whli@phy.ncu.edu.tw [National Central University, Department of Physics and Center for Neutron Beam Applications (China)

    2013-09-15

    We report on the observations of spontaneous magnetic moments in the normal as well as in the superconducting states of a 9 nm Sn nanoparticle assembly, through X-ray diffraction, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and neutron diffraction measurements. The saturation magnetization reaches an unexpectedly large value of 1.04 emu/g at 5 K, with a temperature profile that can be described by Bloch's law with an exponent of b = 1.8. A magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.38 {mu}{sub B} develops after cooling from 260 to 4 K. Superconductivity develops below T{sub C} = 3.98 K, which is 7 % higher than the T{sub C} = 3.72 K of bulk Sn. Surprisingly, an addition magnetic moment of Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {mu}{sub Z} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 0.05 {mu}{sub B} develops upon entering the superconducting state.

  9. Active Transportation Surveillance - United States, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Paul, Prabasaj; Wendel, Arthur M

    2015-08-28

    Physical activity is a health-enhancing behavior, and most U.S. adults do not meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Active transportation, such as by walking or bicycling, is one way that persons can be physically active. No comprehensive, multiyear assessments of active transportation surveillance in the United States have been conducted. 1999-2012. Five surveillance systems assess one or more components of active transportation. The American Community Survey and the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) both assess the mode of transportation to work in the past week. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who reported walking or bicycling to work can be calculated. NHTS and the American Time Use Survey include 1-day assessments of trips or activities. With that information, the proportion of respondents who report any walking or bicycling for transportation can be calculated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey both assess recent (i.e., in the past week or past month) habitual physical activity behaviors, including those performed during active travel. From these systems, the proportion of respondents who report any recent habitual active transportation can be calculated. The prevalence of active transportation as the primary commute mode to work in the past week ranged from 2.6% to 3.4%. The 1-day assessment indicated that the prevalence of any active transportation ranged from 10.5% to 18.5%. The prevalence of any habitual active transportation ranged from 23.9% to 31.4%. No consistent trends in active transportation across time periods and surveillance systems were identified. Among systems, active transportation was usually more common among men, younger respondents, and minority racial/ethnic groups. Among education groups, the highest prevalence of active transportation was usually among the least or most educated groups, and active transportation tended to be more

  10. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  11. Particle transport methods for LWR dosimetry developed by the Penn State transport theory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighat, A.; Petrovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews advanced particle transport theory methods developed by the Penn State Transport Theory Group (PSTTG) over the past several years. These methods have been developed in response to increasing needs for accuracy of results and for three-dimensional modeling of nuclear systems

  12. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  13. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  14. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  15. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  16. High-speed ground transportation development outside United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, T.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    This paper surveys the state of high-speed (in excess of 200 km/h) ground-transportation developments outside the United States. Both high-speed rail and Maglev systems are covered. Many vehicle systems capable of providing intercity service in the speed range 200--500 km/h are or will soon be available. The current state of various technologies, their implementation, and the near-term plans of countries that are most active in high-speed ground transportation development are reported.

  17. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  18. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  19. Internal transport barrier physics for steady state operation in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatani, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuda, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Connor, Jack W. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Association (United Kingdom); Garbet, Xavier [Culham Science Centre, EFDA-JET CSU (United Kingdom); Gormezano, Claude [Associazone EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione C.R. Frascati (Italy); Mukhovatov, Vladimir [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, ITER Physics Unit, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results for the ITB (Internal Transport Barrier) formation and sustainment are compiled in a unified manner to find common features of ITBs in tokamaks. Global scaling laws for threshold power to obtain the ITBs are discussed. Theoretical models for plasmas with ITBs are summarized from stability and transport point of view. Finally possibility to obtain steady-state ITBs will be discussed in addition to extrapolation to ITER. (author)

  20. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    5.:01 6.01 1 5801 25.0100MS OC2&O 1 I I150Of.01 2.01 1.01 I I I I I I I I (5A 440 AI ,.l;. :, 2) ARARAT MARINE, tNC. I I I ! : 16 I -660 I9A~ o * 16... MONT CATNEIMEN M 3103 3 1333 31 0.1.39003 3 ...M 3AM ME#CNIMAN it 1907 of M1M 94311041 3 0730303 77.71 22.73 14.03 18003 1 40.0180MIR 3K ETCNtMAN 1 197...903D MONTE & STATES U=16 MCI. I I I I I fts me Is"M 1 19624asat #Q.ot 11.11 6.61 - t 41111 13.618M ILA MY I SM I 1",211 61.61 11.21 1.01 1 1KW9Ift, I

  1. Transport currents along c-axis and (a,b) planes in YBCO single domain materials. Critical current densities and normal-superconducting transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcar, L.; Bourgault, D.; Chaud, X.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.; Tixador, P.

    1998-01-01

    High transport currents along the (a,b) planes and along the c-axis have been measured in pulsed current of different pseudo-frequencies. Self field losses and transport current of 8000 A (20000 A cm -2 ) have been measured in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bars textured by the melting zone technique. Critical currents as high as 500 A (90000 A cm -2 ) along the (a,b) planes or 3000 A (7500 A cm -2 ) along the c-axis have been measured. For both orientations, the transition from the normal state to the superconducting state has been observed. Electric field of 1000 V m -1 and study of the superconducting state recovery are reported. (orig.)

  2. Roles and regulation of brain glutamate transporters in normal and pathological brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Synaptically released Glu acts on both ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic receptors, and excessive iGluR activation results in neuronal death (termed excitotoxicity). Removal of Glu from the synapse is thus critical for normal transmission and to prevent excitotoxicity, and is performed exclusively by a family of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs, also known as glutamate transporters). Disregulation of Glu transport may contribute to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative conditions, and altered expression or function of EAATs has been identified in a number of these pathologies. These studies investigated the functional and pathological effects of EAAT inhibitors in vitro, and developed a novel screening assay for compounds with activity at EAATs. Astrocytic EAATs are responsible for the majority of Glu uptake in brain, so preparations containing both astrocytes and neurones are required to analyse the contribution of EAATs to neuroprotection. Organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs), which exhibit many of the features of the intact CNS, were prepared from 11-14 day old Sprague Dawley rats (anaesthetised with halothane). Hippocampal slices (350 μm thick) were maintained on culture well inserts in chemically defined medium. After 2 weeks, cultures were treated with EAAT inhibitors for 3-7 days in the presence or absence of 300 μM Glu. Treatment with most EAAT inhibitors resulted in cell death that was proportional to the Glu concentration in the medium. In contrast, (2S,3S,4R)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-III), a competitive substrate at EAATs (and possibly an antagonist at the kainate subtype of iGluR), appeared to be neuroprotective: increased Glu was not toxic in the presence of this drug. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of OHCs to inhibition of Glu uptake, highlighting the importance of EAATs in preventing excitotoxicity. Since modulation of

  3. Theory of novel normal and superconducting states in doped oxide high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumanov, S.

    2001-10-01

    A consistent and complete theory of the novel normal and superconducting (SC) states of doped high-T c superconductors (HTSC) is developed by combining the continuum model of carrier self-trapping, the tight-binding model and the novel Fermi-Bose-liquid (FBL) model. The ground-state energy of carriers in lightly doped HTSC is calculated within the continuum model and adiabatic approximation using the variational method. The destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order at low doping x≥ x cl ≅0.015, the formation of the in-gap states or bands and novel (bi)polaronic insulating phases at x c2 ≅0.06-0.08, and the new metal- insulator transition at x≅x c2 in HTSC are studied within the continuum model of impurity (defect) centers and large (bi)polarons by using the appropriate tight-binding approximations. It is found that the three-dimensional (3d) large (bi)polarons are formed at ε ∞ /ε 0 ≤0.1 and become itinerant when the (bi)polaronic insulator-to-(bi)polaronic metal transitions occur at x x c2 . We show that the novel pseudogapped metallic and SC states in HTSC are formed at x c2 ≤x≤x p ≅0.20-0.24. We demonstrate that the large polaronic and small BCS-like pairing pseudogaps opening in the excitation spectrum of underdoped (x c2 BCS =0.125), optimally doped (x BCS o ≅0.20) and overdoped (x>x o ) HTSC above T c are unrelated to superconductivity and they are responsible for the observed anomalous optical, transport, magnetic and other properties of these HTSC. We develop the original two-stage FBL model of novel superconductivity describing the combined novel BCS-like pairing scenario of fermions and true superfluid (SF) condensation scenario of composite bosons (i.e. bipolarons and cooperons) in any Fermi-systems, where the SF condensate gap Δ B and the BCS-like pairing pseudogap Δ F have different origins. The pair and single particle condensations of attracting 3d and two- dimensional (2d) composite bosons are responsible for

  4. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information

  5. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  6. Olfactory marker protein: turnover and transport in normal and regenerating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kream, R.M.; Margolis, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    A 19,000-dalton acidic protein designated olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a cell-specific marker of mature olfactory chemosensory neurons. Intranasal irrigation of mouse olfactory epithelium with [ 35 S]methionine labeled OMP to high specific activity. Turnover and transport characteristics of 35 S-labeled OMP were compared to those of 35 S-labeled global cytosol protein in groups of young, adult, and Triton-treated adult mice. The latter contained primarily large numbers of regenerating olfactory neurons. In olfactory epithelium of young and Triton-treated mice, the specific activity of OMP was three times that of global cytosol protein, whereas in adults the two measures were equal. In all three groups, however, the rate of degradation of OMP was roughly equal to that of cytosol protein (T1/2 . 5 to 6 days). By contrast, differences in T1/2 for OMP decline in the bulb of adult, young, and Triton-treated adult mice were highly significant (T1/2's of 9.3, 6.1, and 4 to 5 days, respectively; p . 0.001). The specific activity of [35S]methionine incorporated in OMP exceeded that of the free amino acid 5-fold, indicating minimal precursor reutilization during the course of our experiments. Turnover data indicate that increased isotope incorporation into OMP in the epithelium is matched by an accelerated rate of degradation in the bulb. This may be correlated with the physiological state or developmental age of the primary neurons since in young and Triton-treated adult mice, rapidly maturing ''young'' olfactory neurons represent a larger proportion of the total population than in adults. Thus, OMP behaves as a typical, relatively slowly transported soluble protein (v . 2 to 4 mm/day, slow component b)

  7. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  8. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  9. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...

  10. Gauge field governing parallel transport along mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, A.

    1990-01-01

    At first a short account is given of some basic notations and results on parallel transport along mixed states. A new connection form (gauge field) is introduced to give a geometric meaning to the concept of parallelity in the theory of density operators. (Author) 11 refs

  11. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Deen, M; de Vries, EGE; Timens, W; Scheper, RJ; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette ( ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein ( P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 ( MRP1) and

  12. Theory of charge transport in diffusive normal metal/conventional superconductor point contacts in the presence of magnetic impurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Inoue, J.; Asano, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Charge transport in the diffusive normal metal/insulator/s-wave superconductor junctions is studied in the presence of the magnetic impurity for various situations, where we have used the Usadel equation with Nazarov's generalized boundary condition. It is revealed that the magnetic impurity

  13. State and market in post-reform Brazilian air transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fonseca Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have taken place in Brazilian air transportation following the cycle of “market reforms” have turned this sector into an object of growing interest. This interest, in turn, has led to the emergence of a broad literature on the subject, characterized by the emphasis on an agenda of liberalization and the critique of State activism. The goal of the present article is to promote a confrontation between the different interpretations that have been made, incorporating the contributions of approaches inspired in Economic Sociology and in institutionalist analyses in order to draw attention to the importance that political variables, and the State in particular, have for economic performance. The post-reform context is characterized by an initial moment of greater State activism regarding air transportation, through re-initiation of stricter regulatory mechanisms and the re-opening of channels of dialog between state actors and firms. This is followed by a second moment in which state activism is abandoned, at the same time that the sector demonstrates expressive rates of growth, pushing it beyond its existing capacity and flight support infrastructure. This culminated in the episode known as the “apagão aéreo” (aerial black out Analysis of testimonies of state and private sector actors regarding the “blackout” enables us to identify the flaws in the responsible state apparatus as one of the factors that led to the “blackout”. Our conclusions draw attention to the importance of taking political factors into consideration, and particularly the role of the State, in the development of air transportation in Brazil. Keywords: commercial aviation, politics and economics, regulation, Economic Sociology, Historical Institutionalism.

  14. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  15. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  16. Effect of annealing treatments on normal state resistivity of YBa 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of YBa2(Cu1-xTix)3Oy superconductor with x=0.00 , 0.01, 0.03 have been prepared by solide state reaction method. The effect of annealing treatments on normal electrical resistivity has been done using the bipolaron model. The results of this study show the increase of localized charge when the dopant content ...

  17. Normal state resistivity of single crystalline V3Si as a function of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the normal state resistivity of a neutron damaged single crystal of V 3 Si shows two different regions of behavior: one for T/sub c/ equal to or greater than 10 0 K and another for T/sub c/ equal to or less than 10 0 K

  18. Studies of the transition temperature and normal state resistivity of Nb3Ge and Nb films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.; Weismann, H.; Gurvitch, M.; Goland, A.N.; Kammerer, O.F.; Strongin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Correlations between T/sub c/ and specific features of the normal state resistance vs temperature curves are discussed for both Nb 3 Ge and ion damaged Nb films. Of particular interest is the correlation between T/sub c/ and rho 0 in Nb 3 Ge films

  19. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro; Vasenko, Andrey S.; Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian F.; Hekking, Frank W.J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits

  20. Heat transport and electron cooling in ballistic normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Shiro, E-mail: s-kawabata@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Vasenko, Andrey S. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ozaeta, Asier [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bergeret, Sebastian F. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Hekking, Frank W.J. [LPMMC, Université Joseph Fourier and CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-01

    We investigate electron cooling based on a clean normal-metal/spin-filter/superconductor junction. Due to the suppression of the Andreev reflection by the spin-filter effect, the cooling power of the system is found to be extremely higher than that for conventional normal-metal/nonmagnetic-insulator/superconductor coolers. Therefore we can extract large amount of heat from normal metals. Our results strongly indicate the practical usefulness of the spin-filter effect for cooling detectors, sensors, and quantum bits.

  1. Normal ground state of dense relativistic matter in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of relativistic matter in a magnetic field are examined within the framework of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The main emphasis of this study is the normal ground state, which is realized at sufficiently high temperatures and/or sufficiently large chemical potentials. In contrast to the vacuum state, which is characterized by the magnetic catalysis of chiral symmetry breaking, the normal state is accompanied by the dynamical generation of the chiral shift parameter Δ. In the chiral limit, the value of Δ determines a relative shift of the longitudinal momenta (along the direction of the magnetic field) in the dispersion relations of opposite chirality fermions. We argue that the chirality remains a good approximate quantum number even for massive fermions in the vicinity of the Fermi surface and, therefore, the chiral shift is expected to play an important role in many types of cold dense relativistic matter, relevant for applications in compact stars. The qualitative implications of the revealed structure of the normal ground state on the physics of protoneutron stars are discussed. A noticeable feature of the Δ parameter is that it is insensitive to temperature when T 0 , where μ 0 is the chemical potential, and increases with temperature for T>μ 0 . The latter implies that the chiral shift parameter is also generated in the regime relevant for heavy ion collisions.

  2. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. The efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness, and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results and observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with PWRs. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of lay-up and various start-up conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on corrosion-product transport on the primary side of steam generators are also discussed. (author)

  3. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  4. State of the art, to protect lines that transport hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    Personnel's periodic and forced displacement for monitoring the buried pipe and to obtain reports on the state of the lines, it will no longer be necessary in some tracts of the pipeline in Colombia, now the remote supervision exists for the control of the systems of cathodic protection, a technology that ECOPETROL is applying in its lines of transport. This technique facilitates the preventive maintenance to the systems to the corrosion protection

  5. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, S.N.

    1984-02-01

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  6. The radiological impact of the normal rail transport of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently the NRPB, under contract to the Health and Safety Executive, and in association with the British Railways Board, has assessed the radiological impact of consignments transported on the British Rail system. The work has shown the radiation exposure of British Rail staff and of the public to be low. This paper identifies the types of radioactive materials transported by rail, outlines the methods used to assess the doses to persons exposed and presents the results of these assessments. (author)

  7. Normal Condition on Transport Thermal Analysis and Testing of a Type B Drum Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; van Alstine, M.N.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance

  8. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  9. Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Myung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET) images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI) template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR) or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT) images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR) and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR) in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT) and intensity transformation (itCT). We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI) overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison. The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P normalization methods provided reliable striatal SUVR values comparable to those obtained with MR-guided methods. CT-guided methods can be useful for analyzing dopamine transporter PET images when MR images are unavailable.

  10. Pressure effect on the superconducting and the normal state of β -B i2Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristáš, G.; Orendáč, Mat.; Gabáni, S.; Kačmarčík, J.; Gažo, E.; Pribulová, Z.; Correa-Orellana, A.; Herrera, E.; Suderow, H.; Samuely, P.

    2018-04-01

    The pressure effect up to 24.0 kbar on superconducting and normal-state properties of β -B i2Pd single crystal (Tc≈4.98 K at ambient pressure) has been investigated by measurements of the electrical resistivity. In addition, we have performed the heat capacity measurements in the temperature range 0.7-300 K at ambient pressure. The recent calculations of electronic density of states, electron-phonon interaction spectral function, and phonon density of states of β -B i2Pd [Zheng and Margine, Phys. Rev. B 95, 014512 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.014512], are used to fit the resistivity and the heat capacity data. In the superconducting state we have focused on the influence of pressure on the superconducting transition temperature Tc and upper critical field Hc 2 and a negative effect with d Tc/d p =-0.025 K /kbar and d Hc 2/d p =-8 mT /kbar is found. A simplified Bloch-Grüneisen model was used to analyze the pressure effect on the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity. The obtained results point to a decrease of the electron-phonon coupling parameter λ and to a shift of phonon frequencies to higher values with pressure. Moreover, the temperature dependence of the normal-state resistivity follows a T2 dependence above Tc up to about 25 K. Together with the enhanced value of Sommerfeld coefficient γ =13.23 mJ mo l-1K-2 these results point to a certain role of the electron-electron interaction in the superconducting pairing mechanism in β -B i2Pd .

  11. Investigation of current redistribution in superstabilized superconducting winding when switching to the normal resistive state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the electromagnetic behavior of a layer of superstabilized superconductive composite conductors when switching instantaneously and uniformly to the normal resistive state. The Laplace transform was used to solve the current diffusion equation in the superstabilizing material. The value of power dissipated per unit volume, averaged over the layer thickness, was then computed using the ''pseudo''-convolution theorem in the complex plane. Last, we present a simple interpretation of the phenomenon with the help of two time constants

  12. Non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and quantum state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostmann, Maike; Minář, Jiří; Marcuzzi, Matteo; Levi, Emanuele; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent progress in the experimental manipulation of cold atoms in optical lattices, we study three different protocols for non-adiabatic quantum state preparation and state transport in chains of Rydberg atoms. The protocols we discuss are based on the blockade mechanism between atoms which, when excited to a Rydberg state, interact through a van der Waals potential, and rely on single-site addressing. Specifically, we discuss protocols for efficient creation of an antiferromagnetic GHZ state, a class of matrix product states including a so-called Rydberg crystal and for the state transport of a single-qubit quantum state between two ends of a chain of atoms. We identify system parameters allowing for the operation of the protocols on timescales shorter than the lifetime of the Rydberg states while yielding high fidelity output states. We discuss the effect of positional disorder on the resulting states and comment on limitations due to other sources of noise such as radiative decay of the Rydberg states. The proposed protocols provide a testbed for benchmarking the performance of quantum information processing platforms based on Rydberg atoms.

  13. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  14. Climate change adaptation and mitigation : state transportation, regional, and international strategies: synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    This synthesis and literature review requested by Seth Start, Sustainable Transportation Manager, Washington State Department of Transportation, provides information on strategies other state DOTs countries, and local agencies are using to prepare...

  15. Information needs to support state and local transportation decision making into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established new requirements for data development and dissemination that have had an impact on federal, state, and local transportation planning processes across the United States. ...

  16. United States experience in the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.; Williams, L.D.; Brobst, W.A.; Shappert, L.B.; Jefferson, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive material forms a vital link in the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. Actual U.S. experience and practice with such systems for the packaging and transport of uranium ore concentrates, uranium hexafluoride, fresh fuel, irradiated fuel, non-high-level waste, and plutonium with low heat generation rates are described. Specific shipping systems in current use for these services are illustrated. A comparison will be made of shipping requirements for nuclear parks versus dispersed facilities. Shipping systems for other fuel cycle materials (e.g., high-level waste and cladding hulls) have not been developed because there has been no need to transport these materials commercially. However, conceptual designs for packaging and transport of such materials have been developed. Selected systems are reviewed and summarized. Transport safety in the U.S. is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key regulations defining packaging requirements, allowable radiation dose rates, and handling procedures are reviewed. Although the radioactive material shipping industry has an outstanding safety record, opposition to nuclear fuel cycle shipments has surfaced in several areas. The U.S. congressional ban on the shipment of plutonium by air, the actions of New York City to prohibit certain shipments within the city limits, and the requirement of U.S. railroads to ship spent fuel casks only in dedicated trains are reviewed. In an attempt to provide information on the safety margins inherent in the design of radioactive materials packages, ERDA has undertaken a series of accident studies and full scale crash tests that stress the packages beyond the levels expected in severe accidents. In addition, the level of total risk associated with radioactive materials shipments is being evaluated. Current ERDA crash test and transportation risk assessment studies are reviewed. Concern about the possibility of

  17. Facilitated ion transport in all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Hong, Jinkee; Hong, Won Hi; Hammond, Paula T; Park, HoSeok

    2011-09-27

    The realization of highly flexible and all-solid-state energy-storage devices strongly depends on both the electrical properties and mechanical integrity of the constitutive materials and the controlled assembly of electrode and solid electrolyte. Herein we report the preparation of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors (SCs) through the easy assembly of functionalized reduced graphene oxide (f-RGO) thin films (as electrode) and solvent-cast Nafion electrolyte membranes (as electrolyte and separator). In particular, the f-RGO-based SCs (f-RGO-SCs) showed a 2-fold higher specific capacitance (118.5 F/g at 1 A/g) and rate capability (90% retention at 30 A/g) compared to those of all-solid-state graphene SCs (62.3 F/g at 1A/g and 48% retention at 30 A/g). As proven by the 4-fold faster relaxation of the f-RGO-SCs than that of the RGO-SCs and more capacitive behavior of the former at the low-frequency region, these results were attributed to the facilitated ionic transport at the electrical double layer by means of the interfacial engineering of RGO by Nafion. Moreover, the superiority of all-solid-state flexible f-RGO-SCs was demonstrated by the good performance durability under the 1000 cycles of charging and discharging due to the mechanical integrity as a consequence of the interconnected networking structures. Therefore, this research provides new insight into the rational design and fabrication of all-solid-state flexible energy-storage devices as well as the fundamental understanding of ion and charge transport at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Identification of Raman peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates in normal state through density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Auto.), Balasore 756 001 (India)]. E-mail: bishoyi@iopb.res.in; Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Govt. Science College, Chatrapur 761 020, Orissa (India); Behera, S.N. [Physics Enclave, H.I.G.-23/1, Housing Board Phase-I, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 7510016 (India)

    2007-05-31

    We present a microscopic theory to explain and identify the Raman spectral peaks of high-T{sub c} cuprates R{sub 2-x}M{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the normal state. We used electronic Hamiltonian prescribed by Fulde in presence of anti-ferromagnetism. Phonon interaction to the hybridization between the conduction electrons of the system and the f-electrons has been incorporated in the calculation. The phonon spectral density is calculated by the Green's function technique of Zubarev at zero wave vector and finite (room) temperature limit. The four Raman active peaks (P{sub 1}-P{sub 4}) representing the electronic states of the atomic sub-systems of the cuprate system are identified by the calculated quasi-particle energy bands and electron density of states (DOS). The effect of interactions on these peaks are also explained.

  19. Theory of charge transport in diffusive normal metal conventional superconductor point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kashiwaya, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tunneling conductance in diffusive normal (DN) metal/insulator/s-wave superconductor junctions is calculated for various situations by changing the magnitudes of the resistance and Thouless energy in DN and the transparency of the insulating barrier. The generalized boundary condition introduced by

  20. Transuranic waste transportation issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.; Rodgers, J.C.; Neill, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin disposal of defence transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico before the end of 1988. Approximately 25,000 truck shipments involving 35 million vehicle kilometers will be required to transport about 175,000 m 3 of contact-handled transuranic waste. Up to 5,000 shipments of remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) will also be shipped to WIPP in shielded casks. This paper addresses the shipment of CH-TRU wastes

  1. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1995-08-01

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  2. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Reed, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  3. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I-H.; Huang, W.-S.; Yeh, C.-B.; Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H.; Liu, J.-C.; Ma, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [ 123 I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [ 123 I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and [ 123 I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  4. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  5. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG ampersand G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured

  6. Thermoelectric transport of Se-rich Ag2Se in normal phases and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wenlong; Lv, Yanhong; Qiu, Pengfei; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Zhang, Tiansong

    2014-01-01

    Small amount of Se atoms are used to tune the carrier concentrations (n H ) and electrical transport in Ag 2 Se. Significant enhancements in power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) are observed in the compositions of Ag 2 Se 1.06 and Ag 2 Se 1.08 . The excessive Se atoms do not change the intrinsically electron-conducting character in Ag 2 Se. The detailed analysis reveals the experiment optimum carrier concentration in Ag 2 Se is around 5 × 10 18  cm −3 . We also investigate the temperature of maximum zT and the thermoelectric transport during the first order phase transitions using the recently developed measurement system

  7. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajduś Antoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  8. The influence of normal fault on initial state of stress in rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajduś, Antoni; Cała, Marek; Tajduś, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Determination of original state of stress in rock mass is a very difficult task for rock mechanics. Yet, original state of stress in rock mass has fundamental influence on secondary state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of mining headings. This, in turn, is the cause of the occurrence of a number of mining hazards, i.e., seismic events, rock bursts, gas and rock outbursts, falls of roof. From experience, it is known that original state of stress depends a lot on tectonic disturbances, i.e., faults and folds. In the area of faults, a great number of seismic events occur, often of high energies. These seismic events, in many cases, are the cause of rock bursts and damage to the constructions located inside the rock mass and on the surface of the ground. To estimate the influence of fault existence on the disturbance of original state of stress in rock mass, numerical calculations were done by means of Finite Element Method. In the calculations, it was tried to determine the influence of different factors on state of stress, which occurs in the vicinity of a normal fault, i.e., the influence of normal fault inclination, deformability of rock mass, values of friction coefficient on the fault contact. Critical value of friction coefficient was also determined, when mutual dislocation of rock mass part separated by a fault is impossible. The obtained results enabled formulation of a number of conclusions, which are important in the context of seismic events and rock bursts in the area of faults.

  9. Corrosion-product transport, oxidation state and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brett, M.E.; Tapping, R.L.

    1998-10-01

    The issues associated with monitoring and controlling corrosion-product transport (CPT) in the balance-of-plant (BOP) and steam generators (SG) of CANDU stations are briefly reviewed. Efforts are focused on minimizing corrosion of carbon steel, which is used extensively in the CANDU primary and secondary systems. Emphasis is placed on the corrosion-product oxidation state as a monitor of water chemistry effectiveness and as a monitor of system corrosion effects. The discussion is based mostly on the results of observations from Ontario Hydro plants, and their comparisons with pressurized-water reactors. The effects of low oxygen and elevated hydrazine chemistry are reviewed, as well as the effects of layup and various startup conditions. Progress in monitoring electrochemical potential (ECP) at Ontario Hydro plants and its relationship to the oxidation state of corrosion products is reviewed. Observations on CPT on the primary side of SGs are also discussed. (author)

  10. Normal scheme for solving the transport equation independently of spatial discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.

    1993-01-01

    To solve the discrete ordinates neutron transport equation, a general order nodal scheme is used, where nodes are allowed to have different orders of approximation and the whole system reaches a final order distribution. Independence in the election of system discretization and order of approximation is obtained without loss of accuracy. The final equations and the iterative method to reach a converged order solution were implemented in a two-dimensional computer code to solve monoenergetic, isotropic scattering, external source problems. Two benchmark problems were solved using different automatic selection order methods. Results show accurate solutions without spatial discretization, regardless of the initial selection of distribution order. (author)

  11. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  12. Tubular urate transporter gene polymorphisms differentiate patients with gout who have normal and decreased urinary uric acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa J; de Miguel, Eugenio; Bailén, Rebeca; Banegas, José R; Puig, Juan G

    2014-09-01

    Primary gout has been associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several tubular urate transporter genes. No study has assessed the association of reabsorption and secretion urate transporter gene SNP with gout in a single cohort of documented primary patients with gout carefully subclassified as normoexcretors or underexcretors. Three reabsorption SNP (SLC22A12/URAT1, SLC2A9/GLUT9, and SLC22A11/OAT4) and 2 secretion transporter SNP (SLC17A1/NPT1 and ABCG2/BRCP) were studied in 104 patients with primary gout and in 300 control subjects. The patients were subclassified into normoexcretors and underexcretors according to their serum and 24-h urinary uric acid levels under strict conditions of dietary control. Compared with control subjects, patients with gout showed different allele distributions of the 5 SNP analyzed. However, the diagnosis of underexcretor was only positively associated with the presence of the T allele of URAT1 rs11231825, the G allele of GLUT9 rs16890979, and the A allele of ABCG2 rs2231142. The association of the A allele of ABCG2 rs2231142 in normoexcretors was 10 times higher than in underexcretors. The C allele of NPT1 rs1165196 was only significantly associated with gout in patients with normal uric acid excretion. Gout with uric acid underexcretion is associated with transporter gene SNP related mainly to tubular reabsorption, whereas uric acid normoexcretion is associated only with tubular secretion SNP. This finding supports the concept of distinctive mechanisms to account for hyperuricemia in patients with gout with reduced or normal uric acid excretion.

  13. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  14. Electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors. The normal and the superconducting state of high-Tc materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmany, H.; Mehring, M.; Fink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The International Winter School on Electronic Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, held between March 7-14, 1992, in Kirchberg, (Tyrol) Austria, was the sixth in a series of meetings to be held at this venue. Four of the earlier meetings were dedicated to issues in the field of conducting polymers, while the winter school held in 1990 was devoted to the new discipline of high-Tc superconductivity. This year's meeting constituted a forum not only for the large number of scientists engaged in high-Tc research, but also for those involved in the new and exciting field of fullerenes. Many of the issues raised during the earlier winter schools on conducting polymers, and the last one on high-Tc superconductivity, have taken on a new significance in the light of the discovery of superconducting C 60 materials. The Kirchberg meetings are organized in the style of a school where experienced scientists from universities, research laboratories and industry have the opportunity to discuss their most recent results, and where students and young scientists can learn about the present status of research and applications from some of the most eminent workers in their field. In common with the previous winter school on high-Tc superconductors, the present one focused on the electronic properties of the cuprate superconductors. In addition, consideration was given to related compounds which are relevant to the understanding of the electronic structure of the cuprates in the normal state, to other oxide superconductors and to fulleride superconductors. Contributions dealing with their preparation, transport and thermal properties, high-energy spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering, and optical spectroscopy are presented in this volume. The theory of the normal and superconducting states also occupies a central position. (orig.)

  15. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  16. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  17. Aerodynamic study of state transport bus using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Siddhesh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop the aerodynamic study of a Maharashtra state road transport bus. The rising fuel price and strict government regulations makes the road transport uneconomical now days. With the objective of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing the emission of harmful exhaust gases. It has been proven experimentally that vehicle consumes almost 40% of the available useful engine power to overcome the drag resistance. This provides us a huge scope to study the influence of aerodynamic drag. The initial of the project was to identify the drag coefficient of the existing ordinary type model called “Parivartan” from ANSYS fluent. After preliminary analysis of the existing model corresponding changes are made in such a way that their implementation should be possible at workshop level. The simulation of the air flow over the bus was performed in two steps: design on SolidWorks CAD and ANSYS (FLUENT) is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus. We have used the turbulence models k-ε Realizable having a better approximation of the actual result. Around 28% improvement in the drag coefficient is achieved by CFD driven changes in the bus design. Coefficient of drag is improved by 28% and fuel efficiency increased by 20% by CFD driven changes.

  18. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers

  19. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  20. Normal-state conductance used to probe superconducting tunnel junctions for quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro, Carlos; Bavier, Richard; Kim, Yong-Seung; Kim, Eunyoung; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kline, Jeffrey S; Pappas, David P, E-mail: carlosch@physics.rutgers.ed, E-mail: ohsean@physics.rutgers.ed [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we report normal-state conductance measurements of three different types of superconducting tunnel junctions that are being used or proposed for quantum computing applications: p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al, e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al, and e-V/e-MgO/p-V, where p stands for polycrystalline, e for epitaxial, and a for amorphous. All three junctions exhibited significant deviations from the parabolic behavior predicted by the WKB approximation models. In the p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al junction, we observed enhancement of tunneling conductances at voltages matching harmonics of Al-O stretching modes. On the other hand, such Al-O vibration modes were missing in the epitaxial e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al junction. This suggests that absence or existence of the Al-O stretching mode might be related to the crystallinity of the AlO tunnel barrier and the interface between the electrode and the barrier. In the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction, which is one of the candidate systems for future superconducting qubits, we observed suppression of the density of states at zero bias. This implies that the interface is electronically disordered, presumably due to oxidation of the vanadium surface underneath the MgO barrier, even if the interface was structurally well ordered, suggesting that the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction will not be suitable for qubit applications in its present form. This also demonstrates that the normal-state conductance measurement can be effectively used to screen out low quality samples in the search for better superconducting tunnel junctions.

  1. Influence of food tannins on certain aspects of iron metabolism : Part 2 -- Storage and transport in normal and anemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S N [Albert Einstein Coll. of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA); Mukherjee, S [Calcutta Univ. (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1979-04-01

    Administration of tannin (0.5 mg/kg body wt/day) from fruits and vegetables lowers the iron content in liver, spleen and bone marrow with an elevation in Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) of serum and serum iron concentration in normal rats. The same dose of tannin increases the iron content in storage tissues, particularly bone marrow of hemolytic anemic rats. In anemic rats, TIBC is decreased and serum iron concentration is raised from anemic level to approximately normal value due to ingestion of tannin. Radioiron administration, either by oral or by intravenous route, also elicits similar results. Recovery of iron storage and transport values from the anemic to the normal condition by tannin (0.5 mg/kg) varies with the source of tannin used. Thus more iron required for compensating the anemic conditions is retained within their body by tannin (0.5 mg/kg) which appears to reduce the loss of peripheral iron probably by protecting the lysis of red cells.

  2. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Cumming, Paul; Sloeva, Elena; Kuvshinova, Natalia; Romanov, Dmitry; Nosachev, Gennadii

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD), as distinct from normal sadness (NS) and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states. We studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC), including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes)], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause)], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal)] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann-Whitney U -test and Pearson chi-square test), one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman's and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks' λ) of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p  language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks' λ(40) = 0.009; p  language use distinguishing depression from NS and euthymic state, which points to a potential role of linguistic indicators in diagnosing affective states.

  3. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lis, G.J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E. [Department of Histology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Kraków (Poland); Czubek, U. [Department of Coronary Disease, Jagiellonian University Medical College, John Paul II Hospital, Prądnicka 80, 31-202 Kraków (Poland); Bolechała, F. [Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Kraków (Poland); Borca, C. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kwiatek, W.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe{sup 3+} is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe{sup 3+} form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  4. Normal state resistance and low temperature magnetoresistance of superconducting cables for accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, W.B.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The normal state resistivity of the superconducting NbTi cable used in accelerator magnets is usually specified by the resistance per unit length at room temperature (295 K) and the residual resistance ratio (RRR). Using these resistance parameters, the amount of copper in the multifilamentary wire can be calculated. This method is consistent with the traditional etch and weigh technique, and as such is a alternative and convenient way of specifying the copper to superconductor ratio. In principle the magnetoresistance can be calculated from the RRR and the ''Kohler Plot'', for copper. In practice however, measurements of magnetoresistance for a wide variety of SSC inner cables show considerable disagreement with calculation. In this paper the magnetoresistance data on cables with RRR ranging from 50 to 175 are analyzed taking into account the conductor geometry and the effect of the small interfilamentary spacing on the resistivity of copper. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Annealing Effects on the Normal-State Resistive Properties of Underdoped Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, R. V.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Nazyrov, Z. F.; Kamchatnaya, S. N.; Feher, A.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of room-temperature annealing on the parameters of the basal-plane electrical resistance of underdoped YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } and HoBa_2Cu_3O_{7-δ } single crystals in the normal and superconducting states is investigated. The form of the derivatives dρ (T)/dT makes it possible to determine the onset temperature of the fluctuation conductivity and indicates a nonuniform distribution of the labile oxygen. Annealing has been revealed to lead to a monotonic decrease in the oxygen deficiency, that primarily manifests itself as a decrease in the residual resistance, an increase of T_c, and a decrease in the Debye temperature.

  6. Normal-state Nernst effect of a high-critical-temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, S.; Ausloos, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the data of Clayhold et al. for the Nernst effect in the normal state of a high critical superconductor, i.e., Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ . This requested to derive a kinetic expression for the Nernst effect, an expression able to take into account inelastic scattering and magnetic-field dependence. This was done along a relaxation time formalism for the solution of the Boltzmann equation but leaving a background term which can be calculated by the most appropriate method. The final calculation leads to the evaluation of the background term resulting from the thermoelectric field-free effect. In order to do this we have considered a model of Livanov and Sergeev. The Nernst effect is explained by a simple two band model for electrons and holes with different mobilities. The resulting fit to the experimental data looks rather convincing. Several predictions are made thereafter. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Prevalence of sarcopenia among older community-dwelling people with normal health and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. STATE REGULATION OF CARGO SECURING FOR ROAD TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Anatolievich Atrokhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the legal documents governing the securing of cargo in road transport, provides an overview of international experience in the safety of road transport of goods by means of securing.

  9. 3D imaging of the mitochondrial redox state of rat hearts under normal and fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo. Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD+ couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner — the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH (p = 0.038. No significant change in Fp was found (p = 0.4. The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076. The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the

  10. 3D IMAGING OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL REDOX STATE OF RAT HEARTS UNDER NORMAL AND FASTING CONDITIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zhou, Rong; Moon, Lily; Feng, Min; Li, Lin Z

    2014-03-01

    The heart requires continuous ATP availability that is generated in the mitochondria. Although studies using the cell culture and perfused organ models have been carried out to investigate the biochemistry in the mitochondria in response to a change in substrate supply, mitochondrial bioenergetics of heart under normal feed or fasting conditions has not been studied at the tissue level with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution either in vivo or ex vivo . Oxidation of many food-derived metabolites to generate ATP in the mitochondria is realized through the NADH/NAD + couple acting as a central electron carrier. We employed the Chance redox scanner - the low-temperature fluorescence scanner to image the three-dimensional (3D) spatial distribution of the mitochondrial redox states in heart tissues of rats under normal feeding or an overnight starvation for 14.5 h. Multiple consecutive sections of each heart were imaged to map three redox indices, i.e., NADH, oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and the redox ratio NADH/Fp. The imaging results revealed the micro-heterogeneity and the spatial distribution of these redox indices. The quantitative analysis showed that in the fasted hearts the standard deviation of both NADH and Fp, i.e., SD_NADH and SD_Fp, significantly decreased with a p value of 0.032 and 0.045, respectively, indicating that the hearts become relatively more homogeneous after fasting. The fasted hearts contained 28.6% less NADH ( p = 0.038). No significant change in Fp was found ( p = 0.4). The NADH/Fp ratio decreased with a marginal p value (0.076). The decreased NADH in the fasted hearts is consistent with the cardiac cells' reliance of fatty acids consumption for energy metabolism when glucose becomes scarce. The experimental observation of NADH decrease induced by dietary restriction in the heart at tissue level has not been reported to our best knowledge. The Chance redox scanner demonstrated the feasibility of 3D

  11. 76 FR 14055 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: California State Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and California State University, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Sacramento, CA, and in the possession of California State University...

  12. Requirements for the transport of surplus fissile materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirements and issues associated with the transportation of surplus fissile materials in the United States. The paper describes the materials that will be transported, the permissible modes of transport for these materials, and the safety and security requirements for each mode of transport. The paper also identifies transportation issues associated with these requirements, including the differences in requirements corresponding to who owns the material and whether the transport is on-site or off-site. Finally, the paper provides a discussion that suggests that by adopting the spent fuel standard and stored weapon standard proposed by the National Academy of Sciences, the requirements for transportation become straightforward

  13. Possibility of producing the event-ready two-photon polarization entangled state with normal photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme to produce the maximally two-photon polarization entangled state with single-photon sources and the passive linear optics devices. In particular, our scheme only requires the normal photon detectors which distinguish the vacuum and non-vacuum Fock number states. A sophisticated photon detector distinguishing between one-photon state and two-photon state is unnecessary in the scheme

  14. Dynamic behavior of transport in normal and reversed shear plasmas with internal barriers in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudatchin, Sergi V.; Takizuka, Tomonori; Shirai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Takaaki; Isayama, Akihiko; Kamada, Yutaka; Koide, Yoshihiko

    2001-12-01

    Transport evolution in normal shear (NrS) and reversed shear (RS) JT-60U tokamak plasmas with internal transport barrier (ITB) is described as a combination of various fast and slow time scale processes. Abrupt in time (ms time scale) and wide in space (∼0.3 of minor radius) variations of electron and ion heat diffusivities χ e,i (δχ e,i ), which are called ITB-events and seen as simultaneous rise and decay of electron and ion temperatures in two spatial zones, are found for weak ITBs in both NrS and RS plasmas. Profiles of δχ e in RS plasmas with strong ITBs are usually localized near ITB foot inside smaller space region. The maximum of the heat flux variation is located near position of the minimum of safety factor in various RS plasmas, and variation is extended in positive shear region. Inward and outward heat pulse propagations created by the jump of χ e and the sawtooth-like crash are analyzed. Small values of χ e and the absence of heat pinch are found inside strong ITBs. Another non-local abrupt variations of χ e inside most of the plasma volume, including significant part of weak ITB inside RS zone of RS plasmas, are seen at the ELM-induced H-L transition and the L-H recovery. (author)

  15. Normal state magnetic behavior of (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be13 pseudobinaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirngiebl, E.; Thompson, J.D.; Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Any impurity doping seems to modify the low temperature properties of UBe 13 in a way rather unusual compared to normal superconductors. So far, however, little attention has been paid to the modification of the normal state properties of impurity doped UB 13 . We have investigated the normal state magnetic behavior of impurity doped (U/sub 1-x/RE/sub x/)Be 13 pseudobinaries (RE = Th, Y, La, Lu, Sc) in the temperature range between 2 K and 380 K for impurity concentrations x ≤ 0.05 to see if there are correlations with T/sub c/(x)

  16. Insulin binding and stimulation of hexose and amino acid transport by normal and receptor-defective human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, N.; Nagata, N.; Danner, D.; Priest, J.; Elsas, L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors analyzed insulin receptors in cells cultured from a sibship of related parents who had two offspring with severe insulin resistance (Leprechaunism). 124 I-Insulin (1 ng/ml) binding to skin fibroblasts from the proband, mother, and father was 9, 60 and 62% of control cells, respectively, at equilibrium, Non-linear regression analysis, utilizing a two receptors model, of curvilinear Scatchard plots indicated a reduced number of high-affinity binding sites in both parents. Influx of L-Proline (System A), L-Serine (ASC) and L-Leucine (L) was similar in control and mutant cells. Similarly, during the depletion of intracellular amino acid pools, there was a release from transinhibition for System A and a decrease of transstimulation of Systems ASC and L in both cell lines. Surprisingly, insulin augmented, normally, A system influx with an ED 50 = 70 ng/ml at 24 0 C and 7 ng/ml at 37 0 C. By contrast insulin failed to simulated 3-0-methyl-D-glucose influx into the proband's cells, while normal cells were stimulated 30% with an ED 50 of 6 ng/ml. These results indicate that defective high-affinity insulin binding is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; that general membrane functions are intact; that insulin regulates A system amino acid and hexose transport by two different mechanisms; and, that the latter mechanism is impaired by this family's receptor mutation

  17. Intermittent strong transport of the quasi-adiabatic plasma state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Bae; An, Chan-Yong; Min, Byunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The dynamics of the fluctuating electrostatic potential and the plasma density couched in the resistive-drift model at nearly adiabatic state are simulated. The linear modes are unstable if the phase difference between the potential and the density are positive. Exponential growth of the random small perturbations slows down due to the nonlinear E × B flows that work in two ways. They regulate the strength of the fluctuations by transferring the energy from the energy-producing scale to neighboring scales and reduce the cross phase at the same time. During quasi-steady relaxation sporadic appearance of very strong turbulent particle flux is observed that is characterized by the flat energy spectrum and the broad secondary peak in the mesoscale of the order of the gyro-radius. Such boost of the transport is found to be caused by presence of relatively large cross phase as the E × B flows are not effective in cancelling out the cross phase.

  18. A simple model for normal state in- and out-of-plane resistivities of hole doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqib, S.H., E-mail: shnaqib.physicsru@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Azam, M. Afsana [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, DUET, Gazipur, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Uddin, M. Borhan [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of CSE, International Islamic University Chittagong, Sitakunda, IIUC Rd, Kumira 4314 Bangladesh (Bangladesh); Cole, J.R. [Cambridge Flow Solutions Ltd., Histon, Cambridge CB24 9AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • In- and out-of-plane charge transport have been investigated for hole doped cuprates. • Effect of quantum critical point (QCP) on non-Fermi liquid behavior has been explored. • The impact of pseudogap (PG) on carrier scattering rate has been studied. • In- and out-of plane resistivities have been modeled by considering the QCP and the PG. • The model explains the non-Fermi liquid charge transport in hole doped cuprates. - Abstract: The highly anisotropic and qualitatively different nature of the normal state in- and out-of-plane charge dynamics in high-T{sub c} cuprates cannot be accommodated within the conventional Boltzmann transport theory. The variation of in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities with temperature and hole content are anomalous and cannot be explained by Fermi-liquid theory. In this study, we have proposed a simple phenomenological model for the dc resistivity of cuprates by incorporating two firmly established generic features of all hole doped cuprate superconductors—(i) the pseudogap in the quasiparticle energy spectrum and (ii) the T-linear resistivity at high temperatures. This T-linear behavior over an extended temperature range can be attributed to a quantum criticality, affecting the electronic phase diagram of cuprates. Experimental in-plane and out-of-plane resistivities (ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T), respectively) of double-layer Y(Ca)123 have been analyzed using the proposed model. This phenomenological model describes the temperature and the hole content dependent resistivity over a wide range of temperature and hole content, p. The characteristic PG energy scale, ε{sub g}(p), extracted from the analysis of the resistivity data, agrees quite well with those found in variety of other experiments. Various other extracted parameters from the analysis of ρ{sub p}(T) and ρ{sub c}(T) data showed systematic trends with changing hole concentration. We have discussed important features found from the analysis in

  19. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  20. Transport of volatile fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective fuel elements during normal and reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bonin, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been used to model the vapour transport of radioactive fission products released into the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective nuclear fuel elements. The model accounts for both diffusive and bulk-convective transport. Convective transport becomes important as a result of a significant release of gaseous fission products into the gap during a high-temperature reactor accident. However, during normal reactor operation, diffusion is shown to be the dominant process of transport. The model is based on an analysis of several in-reactor tests with operating defective fuel elements, and high-temperature annealing experiments with irradiated fuel specimens. ((orig.))

  1. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Smirnova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDeviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD, as distinct from normal sadness (NS and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states.MethodsWe studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC, including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen’s kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test, one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman’s and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks’ λ of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p < 0.05.ResultsIn MD, as compared with healthy individuals, written responses were longer, demonstrated descriptive rather than analytic style, showed signs of spoken and figurative language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks’ λ(40 = 0.009; p < 0.001; r = 0.992]. The highest predictors in discrimination between

  2. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  3. Large-scale grain growth in the solid-state process: From "Abnormal" to "Normal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minhong; Han, Shengnan; Zhang, Jingwei; Song, Jiageng; Hao, Chongyan; Deng, Manjiao; Ge, Lingjing; Gu, Zhengfei; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal grain growth (AGG) has been a common phenomenon during the ceramic or metallurgy processing since prehistoric times. However, usually it had been very difficult to grow big single crystal (centimeter scale over) by using the AGG method due to its so-called occasionality. Based on the AGG, a solid-state crystal growth (SSCG) method was developed. The greatest advantages of the SSCG technology are the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of the technique. But the traditional SSCG technology is still uncontrollable. This article first summarizes the history and current status of AGG, and then reports recent technical developments from AGG to SSCG, and further introduces a new seed-free, solid-state crystal growth (SFSSCG) technology. This SFSSCG method allows us to repeatedly and controllably fabricate large-scale single crystals with appreciable high quality and relatively stable chemical composition at a relatively low temperature, at least in (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3(KNN) and Cu-Al-Mn systems. In this sense, the exaggerated grain growth is no longer 'Abnormal' but 'Normal' since it is able to be artificially controllable and repeated now. This article also provides a crystal growth model to qualitatively explain the mechanism of SFSSCG for KNN system. Compared with the traditional melt and high temperature solution growth methods, the SFSSCG method has the advantages of low energy consumption, low investment, simple technique, composition homogeneity overcoming the issues with incongruent melting and high volatility. This SFSSCG could be helpful for improving the mechanical and physical properties of single crystals, which should be promising for industrial applications.

  4. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehring, J.B.; Reed, J.B.

    1996-09-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1996 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996. Thirteen bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The report also includes 10 New York bills introduced in 1995 that remained pending during this review period. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency response. Also summarized are a state legislative resolution and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  6. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, A.M.

    1991-07-01

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  7. Transportation of energy materials in the United states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography lists 459 books, periodical articles, research reports, and conference papers on the transportation of general/multi-fuel, coal, petroleum and gas, nuclear fuel, and electric power. Emphasis is on the various impacts of this transport in the U.S.: environmental, economic, social, safety, policy, etc. Arrangement is by commodity and by mode. An index by type of impact is included.

  8. Multimodal transports in the Unidted States and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2009-01-01

    is preferred in Europe whereas another is preferred in the US. In this sense, modern transport law has become reginialized. The regionalization creates difficulties when goods are trasnported between the two regions. Neither the attempt to regulate multimodal transports in the new global UNCITRAL Convention...

  9. The effect of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on chaotic behaviour of the rate and state friction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nitish; Singh, Arun K.; Singh, Trilok N.

    2018-04-01

    A fundamental understanding of frictional sliding at rock surfaces is of practical importance for nucleation and propagation of earthquakes and rock slope stability. We investigate numerically the effect of different physical parameters such as inertia, viscous damping, temperature and normal stress on the chaotic behaviour of the two state variables rate and state friction (2sRSF) model. In general, a slight variation in any of inertia, viscous damping, temperature and effective normal stress reduces the chaotic behaviour of the sliding system. However, the present study has shown the appearance of chaos for the specific values of normal stress before it disappears again as the normal stress varies further. It is also observed that magnitude of system stiffness at which chaotic motion occurs, is less than the corresponding value of critical stiffness determined by using the linear stability analysis. These results explain the practical observation why chaotic nucleation of an earthquake is a rare phenomenon as reported in literature.

  10. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  11. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S., E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Thompson, Janet A.; Meighan, Terence G.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167–166.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18 h transepithelial potential difference (V{sub t}), resistance (R{sub t}), and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) were measured. Particle effects on Na{sup +} and Cl¯ channels and the Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167–16.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) increased basal V{sub t}. Only 16.7 μg/cm{sup 2} GMA-MS increased basal V{sub t} significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I{sub sc} responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R{sub t} were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V{sub t}, R{sub t}, and I{sub sc} at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na{sup +} transport and Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na{sup +} absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. - Highlights: • Welding fume particle toxicity was investigated in human bronchial

  13. Advanced public transportation system deployment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication techn...

  14. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  15. A 15O-H2O PET study of meditation and the resting state of normal consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Kjaer, T W; Friberg, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the neural structures subserving meditation can be reproducibly measured, and, if so, whether they are different from those supporting the resting state of normal consciousness. Cerebral blood flow distribution was investigated with the 15O-H20...... PET technique in nine young adults, who were highly experienced yoga teachers, during the relaxation meditation (Yoga Nidra), and during the resting state of normal consciousness. In addition, global CBF was measured in two of the subjects. Spectral EEG analysis was performed throughout...... the investigations. In meditation, differential activity was seen, with the noticeable exception of V1, in the posterior sensory and associative cortices known to participate in imagery tasks. In the resting state of normal consciousness (compared with meditation as a baseline), differential activity was found...

  16. Competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state specific heat properties of cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhumanov, S.; Karimboev, E. X.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the pseudogap in the excitation spectra of high-Tc cuprates together with the impurity phase and charge inhomogeneity plays key roles in determining the essential features of their anomalous specific heat properties observed above Tc. We consider the doped cuprate superconductor as a multi-carrier model system (which consists of intrinsic and extrinsic polarons and pre-formed bosonic Cooper pairs) and study the competing pseudogap and impurity effects on the normal-state electronic specific heat of high-Tc cuprates taking into account charge inhomogeneities. We argue that unconventional electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the precursor Cooper pairing in the polaronic band below a mean-field temperature T∗ and the existence of a pseudogap above Tc in the cuprates. The electronic specific heat Ce(T) of doped cuprates below T∗ is calculated taking into account three contributions coming from the excited components of Cooper pairs, the ideal Bose-gas of incoherent Cooper pairs and the unpaired carriers in the impurity band. Above T∗, two contributions to Ce(T) coming from the unpaired intrinsic and extrinsic polarons are calculated within the two-component degenerate Fermi-gas model. By comparing our results with the experimental Ce(T) data obtained for La- and Y-based cuprates, we find that the observed behaviors of Ce(T) (below and above T∗) are similar to the calculated results for Ce(T) and the BCS-type jumps of Ce(T) at T∗ may be depressed by the impurity effects and may become more or less pronounced BCS-type anomalies in Ce(T) .

  17. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  18. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. Using a country or a continent as a reference system is a first step towards global normalization. The goal of this wor...

  19. Impurity transport model for the normal confinement and high density H-mode discharges in Wendelstein 7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K; Burhenn, R; McCormick, K; Pasch, E; Yamada, H; Yoshinuma, M; Inagaki, S; Murakami, S; Osakabe, M; Liang, Y; Brakel, R; Ehmler, H; Giannone, L; Grigull, P; Knauer, J P; Maassberg, H; Weller, A

    2003-01-01

    An impurity transport model based on diffusivity and the radial convective velocity is proposed as a first approach to explain the differences in the time evolution of Al XII (0.776 nm), Al XI (55 nm) and Al X (33.3 nm) lines following Al-injection by laser blow-off between normal confinement discharges and high density H-mode (HDH) discharges. Both discharge types are in the collisional regime for impurities (central electron temperature is 0.4 keV and central density exceeds 10 20 m -3 ). In this model, the radial convective velocity is assumed to be determined by the radial electric field, as derived from the pressure gradient. The diffusivity coefficient is chosen to be constant in the plasma core but is significantly larger in the edge region, where it counteracts the high local values of the inward convective velocity. Under these conditions, the faster decay of aluminium in HDH discharges can be explained by the smaller negative electric field in the bulk plasma, and correspondingly smaller inward convective velocity, due to flattening of the density profiles

  20. Coupling of morphology to surface transport in ion-beam-irradiated surfaces: normal incidence and rotating targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Garcia, Javier; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Continuum models have proved their applicability to describe nanopatterns produced by ion-beam sputtering of amorphous or amorphizable targets at low and medium energies. Here we pursue the recently introduced 'hydrodynamic approach' in the cases of bombardment at normal incidence, or of oblique incidence onto rotating targets, known to lead to self-organized arrangements of nanodots. Our approach stresses the dynamical roles of material (defect) transport at the target surface and of local redeposition. By applying results previously derived for arbitrary angles of incidence, we derive effective evolution equations for these geometries of incidence, which are then numerically studied. Moreover, we show that within our model these equations are identical (albeit with different coefficients) in both cases, provided surface tension is isotropic in the target. We thus account for the common dynamics for both types of incidence conditions, namely formation of dots with short-range order and long-wavelength disorder, and an intermediate coarsening of dot features that improves the local order of the patterns. We provide for the first time approximate analytical predictions for the dependence of stationary dot features (amplitude and wavelength) on phenomenological parameters, that improve upon previous linear estimates. Finally, our theoretical results are discussed in terms of experimental data.

  1. Structure of a Eukaryotic CLC Transporter Defines an Intermediate State in the Transport Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl - ) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl - ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl - ions and protons (H + ) with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 angstrom resolution. Cytoplasmic cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion-transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate residue changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl - /H + exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters.

  2. Structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter defines an intermediate state in the transport cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Campbell, Ernest B.; Hsiung, Yichun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2011-01-01

    CLC proteins transport Cl− ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl− ion channels, while others are secondary active transporters that exchange Cl− ions and H+ with a 2:1 stoichiometry. We have determined the structure of a eukaryotic CLC transporter at 3.5 Å resolution. Cytoplasmic CBS domains are strategically positioned to regulate the ion transport pathway, and many disease-causing mutations in human CLCs reside on the CBS-transmembrane interface. Comparison with prokaryotic CLC shows that a gating glutamate changes conformation and suggests a basis for 2:1 Cl−/H+ exchange and a simple mechanistic connection between CLC channels and transporters. PMID:20929736

  3. Potential benefits of superconductivity to transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Donald M.; Johnson, Larry R.

    Research in U.S. transportation applications of superconductors is strongly motivated by a number of potential national benefits. These include the reduction of dependence on petroleum-based fuels, energy savings, substantially reduced air and noise pollution, increased customer convenience, and reduced maintenance costs. Current transportation technology offers little flexibility to switch to alternative fuels, and efforts to achieve the other benefits are confounded by growing congestion at airports and on urban roadways. A program has been undertaken to identify possible applications of the emerging superconducting applications to transportation and to evaluate potential national benefits. The current phase of the program will select the most promising applications for a more detailed subsequent study. Transportation modes being examined include highway and industrial vehicles, as well as rail, sea, air transport and pipelines. Three strategies are being considered: (1) replacing present components with those employing superconductors, (2) substituting new combinations of components or systems for present systems, and (3) developing completely new technologies. Distinctions are made between low-, medium-, and near-room-temperature superconductors. The most promising applications include magnetically levitated passenger and freight vehicles; replacement of drive systems in locomotives, self-propelled rail cars, and ships; and electric vehicles inductively coupled to electrified roadways.

  4. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  5. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. The goal of this work is to calculate normalization factors for Canada and the US and to compare them with existing European normalization...... factors. The differences between geographical areas were highlighted by identifying and comparing the main contributors to a given impact category in Canada, the US and Europe. This comparison verified that the main contributors in Europe and in the US are also present in the Canadian inventory. It also...

  6. Fokker-Planck transport in solid state accelerator concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberger, B.; Tajima, T.

    1989-01-01

    Particle transport in a crystalline solid under channeling conditions is considered by means of a Fokker-Planck description. The model includes electron multiple scattering, radiation damping and an accelerating electric field. Analytic solutions have been obtained using a harmonic potential model to describe the channeling forces. These solutions will be described

  7. Transportation Conformity : A Basic Guide for State and Local Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for five connected vehicle vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications, and the underlying connected vehicle system, for crash avoidance for the U.S. Department of Transportation (USD...

  8. Light transport through the bandedge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal Negro, Luca; Oton, Claudio J.; Gaburro, Zeno; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Johnson, Patrick; Lagendijk, Aart; Righini, Roberto; Colocci, Marcello; Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of light in nonperiodic quasicrystals is studied by ultrashort pulse interferometry. Samples consist of multilayer dielectric structures of the Fibonacci type and are realized from porous silicon. We observe mode beating and strong pulse stretching in the light transport through

  9. Working with the States to Transport TMI-2 Core Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, provided the opportunity to recognize and respond to specific state concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign. (author)

  10. Transport and accumulation of PVP-Hypericin in cancer and normal cells characterized by image correlation spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Deville, Sarah; Ameloot, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    PVP-Hypericin (PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone) is a potent anti-cancer photosensitizer for photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and therapy (PDT). However, cellular targets and mechanisms involved in the cancer-selectivity of the photosensitizer are not yet fully understood. This paper gives new insights into the differential transport and localization of PVP-Hypericin in cancer and normal cells which are essential to unravel the mechanisms of action and cancer-selectivity. Temporal (TICS) and spatiotemporal (STICS) image correlation spectroscopy are used for the assessment of PVP-Hypericin diffusion and/or velocity in the case of concerted flow in human cervical epithelial HeLa and human lung carcinoma A549 cells, as well as in human primary dendritic cells (DC) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS) based on organelle specific fluorescent labeling is employed to study the accumulation of the photosensitizer in nucleus, mitochondria, early-endosomes and lysosomes of the cells and to assess the dynamics of co-migrating molecules. Whereas STICS and TICS did not show a remarkable difference between the dynamics of PVP-Hypericin in HeLa, A549 and DC cells, a significantly different diffusion rate of the photosensitizer was measured in PBMC. STICCS detected a stationary accumulation of PVP-Hypericin within the nucleus, mitochondria, early endosomes and lysosomes of HeLa and A549 cells. However, significant flow due to the directed motion of the organelles was detected. In contrast, no accumulation in the nucleus and mitochondria of DC and PBMC could be monitored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crossover from ballistic to normal heat transport in the ϕ4 lattice: If nonconservation of momentum is the reason, what is the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Daxing; Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2017-10-01

    Anomalous (non-Fourier) heat transport is no longer just a theoretical issue since it has been observed experimentally in a number of low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as SiGe nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and others. To understand these anomalous behaviors, exploring the microscopic origin of normal (Fourier) heat transport is a fascinating theoretical topic. However, this issue has not yet been fully understood even for one-dimensional (1D) model chains, in spite of a great amount of thorough studies done to date. From those studies, it has been widely accepted that the conservation of momentum is a key ingredient to induce anomalous heat transport, while momentum-nonconserving systems usually support normal heat transport where Fourier's law is valid. But if the nonconservation of momentum is the reason, what is the underlying microscopic mechanism for the observed normal heat transport? Here we carefully revisit a typical 1D momentum-nonconserving ϕ4 model, and we present evidence that the mobile discrete breathers, or, in other words, the moving intrinsic localized modes with frequency components above the linear phonon band, can be responsible for that.

  12. Working with the states to transport TMI-2 core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.A.; Anselmo, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This reports that close communications with state officials has been a key factor in success of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy made extensive efforts to provide state officials with schedule information, answer technical questions, and satisfy concerns. Communications started before the campaign and continued during shipments and at intervals between shipments. Those efforts led to good working relationships with the states, kept governors and other state officials informed so they could respond to public concerns, facilitated state inspections, and provided avenues to avoid conflict and potential litigation. Good communications and working relationships with state officials also greatly benefited the community relations effort for the campaign

  13. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  14. Transport Properties of the Metallic State of TMTSF-DMTCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Jan Rud; Andrieux, A.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report the transport properties (longitudinal and transverse conductivity, magnetoresistance and thermopower) of TMTSF-DMTCNQ for pressures up to 13 kbar and temperatures down to 1.2K together with the phase diagram which results from these measurements. The most striking results...... at any temperature (σ∥≳105 (Ωcm)-1) and an enormous magnetoresistance Δρ/ρ≈15) is found for a field of 75 kOe perpendicular to the conducting chains...

  15. Steady-state cerebral glucose concentrations and transport in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetter, R.; Ugurbil, K.; Seaquist, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of brain glucose transport across the blood- brain barrier is of importance to understanding brain energy metabolism. The specific kinetics of glucose transport nave been generally described using standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These models predict that the steady- state glucose concentration approaches an upper limit in the human brain when the plasma glucose level is well above the Michaelis-Menten constant for half-maximal transport, K(t). In experiments wh...

  16. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  17. [Theory of exotic superconducting and normal states of heavy electron and high Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses: quadrupole Kondo effect; heavy electron transport properties; quadrupolar fluctuation mechanism for high-T c superconductors; research accomplishments for the t--J model of high-T c superconductors; interpretation of high-T c superconductors experimental data; and dynamics of strongly correlated systems

  18. Normal mode splitting and ground state cooling in a Fabry—Perot optical cavity and transmission line resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Mi Xian-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Optomechanical dynamics in two systems which are a transmission line resonator and Fabrya—Perot optical cavity via radiation—pressure are investigated by linearized quantum Langevin equation. We work in the resolved sideband regime where the oscillator resonance frequency exceeds the cavity linewidth. Normal mode splittings of the mechanical resonator as a pure result of the coupling interaction in the two optomechanical systems is studied, and we make a comparison of normal mode splitting of mechanical resonator between the two systems. In the optical cavity, the normal mode splitting of the movable mirror approaches the latest experiment very well. In addition, an approximation scheme is introduced to demonstrate the ground state cooling, and we make a comparison of cooling between the two systems dominated by two key factors, which are the initial bath temperature and the mechanical quality factor. Since both the normal mode splitting and cooling require working in the resolved sideband regime, whether the normal mode splitting influences the cooling of the mirror is considered. Considering the size of the mechanical resonator and precooling the system, the mechanical resonator in the transmission line resonator system is easier to achieve the ground state cooling than in optical cavity. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  20. Analysis of normalized-characteristic curves and determination of the granulometric state of dissolved uranium dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Neumann, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methods are presented for the analysis of normalized-characteristic curves, which make it possible to determine the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion - the cumulative mass distribution of particles - as a function of the relative particle size. If the size of the largest particle in the dissolved polydispersion is known, these methods allow the determination of the dependence of cumulative mass ratios of particles on their absolute sizes. In the inverse method of the geometrical model for determining the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion, the polydispersion is represented by a finite number of monodispersions. An accurate analysis of normalized-characteristic equations leads to the Akselrud dissolution model. As against the other two methods, the latter allows the determination of the granulometric composition for an arbitrary number of particle sizes. The method of the granulometric atlas is a method for estimating the granulometric composition of a dissolved polydispersion and is based on comparison of a normalized-characteristic curve for an unknown granulometric composition with an atlas of normalized-characteristic curves for selected granulometric spectra of polydispersions. (author)

  1. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparala, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  2. EVALUATION OF THE STATE-OF-THE-ART CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND FATE MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling approaches for evaluating the transport and fate of sediment and associated contaminants are briefly reviewed. The main emphasis is on: 1) the application of EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code), the state-of-the-art contaminated sediment transport and fate public do...

  3. 77 FR 17569 - United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC)-Transportation-Dangerous Goods Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... identified in the Joint Action Plan, the Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group led by senior...)-- Transportation--Dangerous Goods Working Group AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...--Dangerous Goods Working Group, of the United States-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC). Comments...

  4. Environmental impact of accident-free transportation of radioactive material in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A recent study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia Laboratories which considered transportation of radioactive materials in the United States suggests that a significant portion of the radiological impact results from accident-free transport. This paper explores the basis for that conclusion

  5. Sociodemographic Factors, Population Density, and Bicycling for Transportation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Transportation bicycling is a behavior with demonstrated health benefits. Population-representative studies of transportation bicycling in United States are lacking. This study examined associations between sociodemographic factors, population density, and transportation bicycling and described transportation bicyclists by trip purposes, using a US-representative sample. This cross-sectional study used 2009 National Household Travel Survey datasets. Associations among study variables were assessed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. On a typical day in 2009, 1% of Americans older than 5 years of age reported a transportation bicycling trip. Transportation cycling was inversely associated with age and directly with being male, with being white, and with population density (≥ 10,000 vs transportation. Twenty-one percent of transportation bicyclists reported trips to work, whereas 67% reported trips to social or other activities. Transportation bicycling in the United States is associated with sociodemographic characteristics and population density. Bicycles are used for a variety of trip purposes, which has implications for transportation bicycling research based on commuter data and for developing interventions to promote this behavior.

  6. Climate change/variability science and adaptive strategies for state and regional transportation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a baseline understanding of current policy responses to climate : change/variability at the state and regional transportation-planning and -decision levels. Specifically, : researchers were interested in th...

  7. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been

  8. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Valstar, Johan R.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data

  9. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  10. Capacitor energy needed to induce transitions from the superconducting to the normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique to turn a long length of superconducting wire normal by dumping a charged capacitor into it and justify some formulae needed in the design. The physical phenomenon is described. A formula for the energy to be stored in the capacitor is given. There are circumstances where the dc in an electrical circuit containing superconducting elements has to be turned off quickly and where the most convenient way to switch the current off is to turn a large portion or all of the superconducting wire normal. Such was the case of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) superconducting magnet as soon as a quench was detected. The technique used was the discharge of a capacitor into the coil center tap. It turned the magnet winding normal in ten milliseconds or so and provided an adequate quench protection. The technique of discharging a capacitor into a superconducting wire should have many other applications whenever a substantial resistance in a superconducting circuit has to be generated in that kind of time scale. The process involves generating a pulse of large currents in some part of the circuit and heating the wire up by ac losses until the value of the wire critical current is smaller than the dc current. Use of low inductance connections to the circuit is necessary. Then the dc gets turned off due to the resistance of the wire as in a magnet quench

  11. State-Level Workshops on Ethanol for Transportation: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding four state-level workshops (Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, California) to facilitate development of ethanol production facilities in those states. In 2002/2003, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BBI International conducted state-level workshops ethanol in Hawaii, Nevada, Kentucky and California. These four workshops followed over 30 other workshops previous held under the Ethanol Workshop Series program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two other workshops were conducted by BBI International during 2003, Oklahoma and Kansas, under contract to the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources. In addition, the EWS was to provide a promotional and educational forum for policy makers, community leaders, media and potential stakeholders. It was recognized that to eventually achieve biomass-ethanol production, it was necessary to support grain-ethanol production as a bridge. The long-term goal of the Workshops was to facilitate the development of biomass ethanol plants at a state-level. The near-term goal was to provide correct and positive information for education, promotion, production and use of fuel ethanol. The EWS drew from 65 to over 200 attendees and were deemed by the local organizers to have served the objectives set out by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleberg Karen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia. Methods Cyclic nucleotides were used as model substrates shared by some OATP- and ABC-transporters, which in part are responsible for clearance of metabolites and xenobiotics from the colonic epithelium. On colonic biopsies from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia, molecular transport was electrophysiologically registered in Ussing-chamber set-ups, mRNA level of selected transporters was quantified by rt-PCR, and subcellular location of transporters was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Of four cyclic nucleotides, dibuturyl-cAMP induced the largest short circuit current in both patient groups. The induced short circuit current was significantly lower in neoplasia-patients (p = 0.024. The observed altered transport of dibuturyl-cAMP in neoplasia-patients could not be directly translated to an observed increased mRNA expression of OATP4A1 and OATP2B1 in neoplasia patients. All other examined transporters were expressed to similar extents in both patient groups. Conclusions OATP1C1, OATP4A1, OATP4C1 seem to be involved in the excretory system of human colon. ABCC4 is likely to be involved from an endoplasmic-Golgi complex and basolateral location in goblet cells. ABCC5 might be directly involved in the turnover of intracellular cAMP at the basolateral membrane of columnar epithelial cells, while OATP2B1 is indirectly related to the excretory system. Colorectal neoplasia is associated with lower transport or sensitivity to cyclic nucleotides and increased expression of OATP2B1 and OATP4A1 transporters, known to transport PGE2.

  13. Report on state liability for radioactive materials transportation incidents: A survey of laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a synopsis of the liability laws of the Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB's) 16 member states. It begins by briefly reviewing potential sources of liability, immunity from liability, waiver of immunity, and statutes of limitation, followed by liability laws of member states. The report was prepared by reviewing legal literature pertaining to governmental liability, with particular emphasis on nuclear waste transportation, including law review articles, legal treatises, technical reports, state statutes and regulations

  14. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  15. Complementary-relationship-based 30 year normals (1981-2010) of monthly latent heat fluxes across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-11-01

    Thirty year normal (1981-2010) monthly latent heat fluxes (ET) over the conterminous United States were estimated by a modified Advection-Aridity model from North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) radiation and wind as well as Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) air and dew-point temperature data. Mean annual ET values were calibrated with PRISM precipitation (P) and validated against United States Geological Survey runoff (Q) data. At the six-digit Hydrologic Unit Code level (sample size of 334) the estimated 30 year normal runoff (P - ET) had a bias of 18 mm yr-1, a root-mean-square error of 96 mm yr-1, and a linear correlation coefficient value of 0.95, making the estimates on par with the latest Land Surface Model results but without the need for soil and vegetation information or any soil moisture budgeting.

  16. Dynamic Structure Factor and Transport Coefficients of a Homogeneously Driven Granular Fluid in Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr-Lee, Katharina; Zippelius, Annette; Aspelmeier, Timo

    2011-03-01

    We study the dynamic structure factor of a granular fluid of hard spheres, driven into a stationary nonequilibrium state by balancing the energy loss due to inelastic collisions with the energy input due to driving. The driving is chosen to conserve momentum, so that fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts the existence of sound modes. We present results of computer simulations which are based on an event driven algorithm. The dynamic structure factor F (q , ω) is determined for volume fractions 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 and coefficients of normal restitution 0.8 and 0.9. We observe sound waves, and compare our results for F (q , ω) with the predictions of generalized fluctuating hydrodynamics which takes into account that temperature fluctuations decay either diffusively or with a finite relaxation rate, depending on wave number and inelasticity. We determine the speed of sound and the transport coefficients and compare them to the results of kinetic theory. K.V.L. thanks the Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Goettingen, for financial support and hospitality.

  17. Intracellular pH and its relationship to regulation of ion transport in normal and cystic fibrosis human nasal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    differences in electrochemical driving force for proton flow across the apical cell membranes between normal and CF preparations (-4 +/- 3 mV and 20 +/- 7 mV, respectively), pHi was similar (7.15 +/- 0.02 and 7.11 +/- 0.05, respectively). The driving force across the basolateral membrane was similar in normal...

  18. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Study of the Correlations and the MAXI Hardness Ratio between the Anomalous and Normal Low States of LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The bright, unusual black-hole X-ray binary LMC X-3 has been monitored virtually continuously by the Japanese MAXI X-ray All-Sky Monitor aboard the International Space Station (Matsuoka, et al., PASJ, 2009) from August 2009 to the present. Comparison with RXTE PCA and ASM light curves during the ~2.33-year period of overlap demonstrate that despite slight differences in energy-band boundaries both the ASM and MAXI faithfully reproduce characteristics of the high-amplitude, nonperiodic long-term variability, on the order of 100-300 days, clearly seen in the more sensitive PCA monitoring. The mechanism for this variability at a timescale many times longer than the 1.7-day orbital period is still unknown. Models to explain the long-term variability invoke mechanisms such as changes in mass transfer rate, and/or a precessing warped accretion disk. Observations of LMC X-3 have not definitely determined whether wind accretion or Roche-love overflow is the driver of the long-term variability. Recent MAXI monitoring of LMC X-3 includes excellent coverage of a rare anomalous low state (ALS) where the X-ray source cannot be distinguished from the background, as well as several normal low states, in which the source count rate passes smoothly through a low, yet detectable value. Pointed Swift XRT and UVOT observations also sample this ALS and one normal low state well. We combine these data sets to study the correlations between the wavelength regimes observed during the ALS versus the normal low. We also examine the behavior of the X-ray hardness ratios using XRT and MAXI monitoring data during the ALS versus the normal low state.

  20. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  1. [Carbon monoxide tests in a steady state. Uptake and transfer capacity, normal values and lower limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonatxo, M; Préfaut, C; Guerrero, H; Moutou, H; Bansard, X; Chardon, G

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish data which would best demonstrate the variations of different tests using Carbon Monoxide as a tracer gas (total and partial functional uptake coefficient and transfer capacity) to establish mean values and lower limits of normal of these tests. Multivariate statistical analysis was used; in the first stage a connection was sought between the fractional uptake coefficient (partial and total) to other parameters, comparing subjects and data. In the second stage the comparison was refined by eliminating the least useful data, trying, despite a small loss of material, to reveal the most important connections, linear or otherwise. The fractional uptake coefficients varied according to sex, also the variation of the partial alveolar-expired fractional uptake equivalent (DuACO) was largely a function of respiratory rate and tidal volume. The alveolar-arterial partial fractional uptake equivalent (DuaCO) depended more on respiratory frequency and age. Finally the total fractional uptake coefficient (DuCO) and the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation (TLCO/V) were functions of these parameters. The last stage of this work, after taking account of the statistical observations consistent with the facts of these physiological hypotheses led to a search for a better way of approaching the laws linking the collected data to the fractional uptake coefficient. The lower limits of normal were arbitrarily defined, separating those 5% of subjects deviating most strongly from the mean. As a result, the relationship between the lower limit of normal and the theoretical mean value was 90% for the partial and total fractional uptake coefficient and 70% for the transfer capacity corrected per liter of ventilation.

  2. Method for the determination of the equation of state of advanced fuels based on the properties of normal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    An equation of state based on the properties of normal fluids, the law of rectilinear averages, and the second law of thermodynamics can be derived for advanced LMFBR fuels on the basis of the vapor pressure, enthalpy of vaporization, change in heat capacity upon vaporization, and liquid density at the melting point. The method consists of estimating an equation of state by means of the law of rectilinear averages and the second law of thermodynamics, integrating by means of the second law until an instability is reached, and then extrapolating by means of a self-consistent estimation of the enthalpy of vaporization

  3. Phenomenological theory of the normal and superconductive states of Cu-O and Bi-O metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The universal normal state anomalies in the CuO metals follow from a marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis: there exists a contribution to the polarizability over most of momentum space proportional to omega/T for omega/T much less than 1 and constant thereafter up to a cutoff omega(sub c). Using the same excitation spectrum, the properties of the superconductive state were calculated. The right order of T(sub c) can be obtained, the zero temperature gap, 2 delta (0)/T(sub c) and the nuclear relaxation rate near T(sub c). The possible microscopic physics leading to the marginal Fermi liquid hypothesis is discussed

  4. Flowing cerebrospinal fluid in normal and hydrocephalic states: Appearance on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Kortman, K.E.; Burgoyne, B.; Eng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The signal intensity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct and lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance (MR) images was evaluated in 16 healthy individuals and in 32 patients with various forms of hydrocephalus (20 with chronic normal pressure hydrocephalus [NPH], seven with acute communicating hydrocephalus, and five with hydrocephalus ex vacuo [atrophy]). The low signal intensity frequently observed in the cerebral aqueduct is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of CSF, which is related to the cardiac cycle. While this aqueductal flow void phenomenon can be observed in healthy individuals, it is most pronounced in patients with chronic, communicating NPH; is less evident in patients with acute, communicating hydrocephalus and is least evident in patients with atrophy. Ventricular compliance is known to be essentially normal in atrophy, mildly decreased in acute, communicating hydrocephalus; and severely decreased in NPH. The degree of aqueductal signal loss is believed to reflect the velocity of the pulsatile CSF motion, which in turn depends on the relative ventricular compliance and surface area

  5. How Can Polarization States of Reflected Light from Snow Surfaces Inform Us on Surface Normals and Ultimately Snow Grain Size Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Yi, B.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Snow Grain Size and Pollution (SGSP) algorithm is a method applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data to estimate snow grain size from space-borne measurements. Previous studies validate and quantify potential sources of error in this method, but because it assumes flat snow surfaces, however, large scale variations in surface normals can cause biases in its estimates due to its dependence on solar and observation zenith angles. To address these variations, we apply the Monte Carlo method for photon transport using data containing the single scattering properties of different ice crystals to calculate polarization states of reflected monochromatic light at 1500nm from modeled snow surfaces. We evaluate the dependence of these polarization states on solar and observation geometry at 1500nm because multiple scattering is generally a mechanism for depolarization and the ice crystals are relatively absorptive at this wavelength. Using 1500nm thus results in a higher number of reflected photons undergoing fewer scattering events, increasing the likelihood of reflected light having higher degrees of polarization. In evaluating the validity of the model, we find agreement with previous studies pertaining to near-infrared spectral directional hemispherical reflectance (i.e. black-sky albedo) and similarities in measured bidirectional reflectance factors, but few studies exist modeling polarization states of reflected light from snow surfaces. Here, we present novel results pertaining to calculated polarization states and compare dependences on solar and observation geometry for different idealized snow surfaces. If these dependencies are consistent across different ice particle shapes and sizes, then these findings could inform the SGSP algorithm by providing useful relationships between measurable physical quantities and solar and observation geometry to better understand variations in snow surface normals from remote sensing observations.

  6. Modeling the cool down of the primary heat transport system using shut down cooling system in normal operation and after events such as LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icleanu, D.L.; Prisecaru, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at modeling the cooling of the primary heat transport system using shutdown cooling system (SDCS), for a CANDU 6 NPP in all operating modes, normal and abnormal (particularly in case of LOCA accident), using the Flowmaster calculation code. The modelling of heavy water flow through the shutdown cooling system and primary heat transport system was performed to determine the distribution of flows, pressure in various areas of the hydraulic circuit and the pressure loss corresponding to the components but also for the heat calculation of the heat exchangers related to the system. The results of the thermo-hydraulic analysis show that in all cases analyzed, normal operation and for LOCA accident regime, the performance requirements are confirmed by analysis

  7. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  8. The WIPP institutional program for states' involvement in WIPP transportation planning, and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Supplemental Stipulated Agreement of 1982 between the state of New Mexico and the Department of Energy (DOE) committed the DOE to emergency response training in New Mexico. In 1988, the state of New Mexico and the DOE entered into a two-year agreement providing $203,017 for financial assistance and $67,000 for equipment to enhance the state's emergency response capability. In 1990, this agreement was extended for an additional two years providing $226,088 for financial assistance and $39,000 for emergency response equipment. Also, in 1988 an agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the United States Department of Transportation provided $1.0 million to seven western states (Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming) to identify and implement programs to help ensure the safe transportation of transuranic waste from western points of origin to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As part of this process, the Western Governors' Association and the seven states prepared the Report to Congress, Transport of Transuranic Wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: State Concerns and Proposed Solutions. In July 1990, a five-year cooperative agreement between the Western Governors' Association and the DOE was signed providing $1.515 million in funding to seven states along the Hanford/WIPP route. This continued the work started under the Department of Transportation's cooperative agreement

  9. Fast-ion transport in qmin>2, high-β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Turco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-q min confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β N and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q min >2 that target the typical range of q 95 = 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable β N . In contrast, similar plasmas except with q min just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q min >3 plasmas to higher β P with q 95 = 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q min scenario, the high β P cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇β fast , and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β N , and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q 95 , high-q min plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes

  10. Rail-Cask Tests: Normal-Conditionsof- Transport Tests of Surrogate PWR Fuel Assemblies in an ENSA ENUN 32P Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ross, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grey, Carissa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arviso, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garmendia, Rafael [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez Perez, Ismael [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Palacio, Alejandro [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, Guillermo [Equipos Nucleares Sociedad Anonima, Madrid (Spain); Garrido, David [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez Casas, Ana [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez Garcia, Luis [COORDINADORA, Madrid (Spain); Chilton, Lyman Wes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ammerman, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walz, Jacob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gershon, Sabina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pena, Ruben [Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, CO (United States); Walker, Russell [Transportation Technology Center, Inc., Pueblo, CO (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This report describes tests conducted using a full-size rail cask, the ENSA ENUN 32P, involving handling of the cask and transport of the cask via truck, ships, and rail. The purpose of the tests was to measure strains and accelerations on surrogate pressurized water reactor fuel rods when the fuel assemblies were subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport within the rail cask. In addition, accelerations were measured on the transport platform, the cask cradle, the cask, and the basket within the cask holding the assemblies. These tests were an international collaboration that included Equipos Nucleares S.A., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Coordinadora Internacional de Cargas S.A., the Transportation Technology Center, Inc., the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. All test results in this report are PRELIMINARY – complete analyses of test data will be completed and reported in FY18. However, preliminarily: The strains were exceedingly low on the surrogate fuel rods during the rail-cask tests for all the transport and handling modes. The test results provide a compelling technical basis for the safe transport of spent fuel.

  11. Normal pure states of the von Nuemann algebra of bounded operators as Kaehler manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, R.; Lanzavecchia, P.; Mania, A.

    1983-01-01

    The projective space of a complex Hilbert space H is considered both as a Kaehler manifold and as the set of pure states of the von Neumann algebra B(H). A link is given between these two structures. Special attention is devoted to topology, orientation and automorphisms of the structures and Wigner's theorem. (author)

  12. Efficient Computation of Transition State Resonances and Reaction Rates from a Quantum Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    A quantum version of a recent formulation of transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed provides an algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and the associated Gamov-Siegert resonances with very high accuracy. The algorithm is especially efficient for

  13. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  14. Excitation of non-normal parity states by inelastic proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, G. T. [Indiana Univ. (USA). Cyclotron Facility; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    This is a review of the works done at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. The purposes of works are to find excitations that should have especially simple particle-hole structure in proton inelastic scattering, to use the data on these excitations to try to understand the mechanism and the effective interaction for the (p, p') reaction in this energy range, and to go on to study the nuclear structure involved in less simple excitation. As an example, the single-nucleon level diagram for the region of Si-28 is presented. A high spin state was made, and its spin-parity was 6/sup -/. It was tried to interpret the data in terms of a on-step distorted-wave impulse approximation. The optical model parameters derived from the extensive and precise elastic scattering results were used. The cross sections for the excitation of the 6/sup -/ states found in various reactions were not large. The T = 1 state is mainly excited by the direct tensor interaction, while the T = 0 state gets its strength mainly from the knock-on exchange contribution of both the tensor and spin-orbit interactions. Experiments on Pb-208 and Fe-54 are being performed.

  15. Temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high-Tc superconductors in normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical calculation of temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high temperature superconductors is addressed in this paper. The influence of model parameters of the system in its normal phase is investigated through numerical calculations. The results at the room temperature as well as low temperatures (∼ 25 K), are discussed. The dimensionless parameters involved in the calculations are the electron-phonon coupling (g), staggered magnetic field (h), hybridization (V), position of the f-level (d), temperature (t) and the conduction band width (ω). The model Hamiltonian contains the antiferromagnetism in conduction electrons of cooper and the electron-phonon interaction through the hybridization between conduction electrons and f-electrons of impurity atoms. The phonon Green's functions are calculated by Zubarev's technique. The velocity of sound is calculated in the long wavelength and finite temperature limit. (author)

  16. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.

    2016-06-24

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  18. The steady-state of the (Normalized) LMS is schur convex

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hujaili, Khaled A.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Moinuddin, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how the theory of majorization and schur-convexity can be used to assess the impact of input-spread on the Mean Squares Error (MSE) performance of adaptive filters. First, we show that the concept of majorization can be utilized to measure the spread in input-regressors and subsequently order the input-regressors according to their spread. Second, we prove that the MSE of the Least Mean Squares Error (LMS) and Normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithms are schur-convex, that is, the MSE of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms preserve the majorization order of the inputs which provide an analytical justification to why and how much the MSE performance of the LMS and the NLMS algorithms deteriorate as the spread in input increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Englert, Christoph; Brand, Ralf; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-05-03

    Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design. Participants first completed a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on doping attitudes as a baseline measure and were then instructed to fake a negative doping attitude both when self-control resources were depleted and non-depleted. Cerebral activity during BIAT performance was assessed using high-density EEG. Compared to the baseline BIAT, event-related potentials showed a first interaction at the parietal P1, while significant post hoc differences were found only at the later occurring late positive potential. Here, significantly decreased amplitudes were recorded for 'normal' faking, but not in the depletion condition. In source space, enhanced activity was found for 'normal' faking in the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Behaviorally, participants were successful in faking the BIAT successfully in both conditions. Results indicate that temporarily available self-control resources do not affect overt faking success on a BIAT. However, differences were found on an electrophysiological level. This indicates that while on a phenotypical level self-control resources play a negligible role in deliberate test faking the underlying cerebral processes are markedly different.

  20. A Collaborative Approach to Transportation Planning: Federal and State Perspectives on Section 180(c) Program Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaluso, C.; Strong, T.; Janairo, L.; Helvey, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) committed in its November 2003 Strategic Plan for the Safe Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to Yucca Mountain: A Guide to Stakeholder Interactions to develop the transportation system collaboratively with stakeholders. The Strategic Plan further stated that four state regional groups (SRGs) would be the 'anchors' for OCRWM's collaboration with the states. The first major transportation planning activity that OCRWM initiated after publication of the Strategic Plan was the development of the Section 180(c) grant program. This document describes that collaboration and its outcomes from the perspective of the OCRWM participants and one of the SRGs, the Council of State Governments - Midwestern Office (CSG Midwest). (authors)

  1. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - El Nino Warm Water Pool Returns to Near Normal State, Mar, 14, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Mar. 14, 1998 and sea surface height is an indicator of the heat content of the ocean. The image shows that the sea surface height along the central equatorial Pacific has returned to a near normal state. Oceanographers indicate this is a classic pattern, typical of a mature El Nino condition. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown in red and white, are situated to the north and south of the equator. These sea surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of how the 1997-98 El Nino's warm pool behaves because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using satellite imagery, buoy and ship data, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA), has continued to issue an advisory indicating the so-called El Nino weather

  2. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  3. Fatty acid profile of maternal and fetal erythrocytes and placental expression of fatty acid transport proteins in normal and intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Renata P; Mucci, Daniela B; Fonseca, Fernanda C P; Marcondes, Henrique; Sardinha, Fátima L C; Citelli, Marta; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acids (AA), are critical for adequate fetal growth and development. We investigated mRNA expression of proteins involved in hydrolysis, uptake and/or transport of fatty acids in placenta of fifteen full term normal pregnancies and eleven pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with normal umbilical blood flows. The mRNA expression of LPL, FATPs (-1, -2 and -4) and FABPs (-1 and -3) was increased in IUGR placentas, however, tissue profile of LC-PUFA was not different between groups. Erythrocytes from both mothers and fetuses of the IUGR group showed lower concentrations of AA and DHA and inferior DHA/ALA ratio compared to normal pregnancies (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that reduced circulating levels of AA and DHA could up-regulate mRNA expression of placental fatty acids transporters, as a compensatory mechanism, however this failed to sustain normal LC-PUFA supply to the fetus in IUGR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  5. A mixture theory model of fluid and solute transport in the microvasculature of normal and malignant tissues. I. Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, M M; Gore, J P; Nauman, E A

    2013-05-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms governing transport of drugs, nanoparticle-based treatments, and therapeutic biomolecules, and the role of the various physiological parameters, a number of mathematical models have previously been proposed. The limitations of the existing transport models indicate the need for a comprehensive model that includes transport in the vessel lumen, the vessel wall, and the interstitial space and considers the effects of the solute concentration on fluid flow. In this study, a general model to describe the transient distribution of fluid and multiple solutes at the microvascular level was developed using mixture theory. The model captures the experimentally observed dependence of the hydraulic permeability coefficient of the capillary wall on the concentration of solutes present in the capillary wall and the surrounding tissue. Additionally, the model demonstrates that transport phenomena across the capillary wall and in the interstitium are related to the solute concentration as well as the hydrostatic pressure. The model is used in a companion paper to examine fluid and solute transport for the simplified case of an axisymmetric geometry with no solid deformation or interconversion of mass.

  6. A general native-state method for determination of proliferation capacity of human normal and tumor tissues in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.M.; Connors, K.M.; Meerson-Monosov, A.Z.; Herrera, H.; Price, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An important need in cancer research and treatment is a physiological means in vitro by which to assess the proliferation capacity of human tumors and corresponding normal tissue for comparison. The authors have recently developed a native-state, three-dimensional, gel-supported primary culture system that allows every type of human cancer to grow in vitro at more than 90% frequency, with maintenance of tissue architecture, tumor-stromal interaction, and differentiated functions. Here they demonstrate that the native-state culture system allows proliferation indices to be determined for all solid cancer types explanted directly from surgery into long-term culture. Normal tissues also proliferate readily in this system. The degree of resolution of measurement of cell proliferation by histological autoradiography within the cultured tissues is greatly enhanced with the use of epi-illumination polarization microscopy. The histological status of the cultured tissues can be assessed simultaneously with the proliferation status. Carcinomas generally have areas of high epithelial proliferation with quiescent stromal cells. Sarcomas have high proliferation of cells of mesenchymal organ. Normal tissues can also proliferate at high rates. An image analysis system has been developed to automate proliferation determination. The high-resolution physiological means described here to measure the proliferation capacity of tissues will be important in further understanding of the deregulation of cell proliferation in cancer as well as in cancer prognosis and treatment

  7. Starling forces drive intracranial water exchange during normal and pathological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninger, Andreas A; Xu, Colin; Tangen, Kevin; Hartung, Grant

    2017-12-31

    To quantify the exchange of water between cerebral compartments, specifically blood, tissue, perivascular pathways, and cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces, on the basis of experimental data and to propose a dynamic global model of water flux through the entire brain to elucidate functionally relevant fluid exchange phenomena. The mechanistic computer model to predict brain water shifts is discretized by cerebral compartments into nodes. Water and species flux is calculated between these nodes across a network of arcs driven by Hagen-Poiseuille flow (blood), Darcy flow (interstitial fluid transport), and Starling's Law (transmembrane fluid exchange). Compartment compliance is accounted for using a pressure-volume relationship to enforce the Monro-Kellie doctrine. This nonlinear system of differential equations is solved implicitly using MATLAB software. The model predictions of intraventricular osmotic injection caused a pressure rise from 10 to 22 mmHg, followed by a taper to 14 mmHg over 100 minutes. The computational results are compared to experimental data with R2=0.929. Moreover, simulated osmotic therapy of systemic (blood) injection reduced intracranial pressure from 25 to 10 mmHg. The modeled volume and intracranial pressure changes following cerebral edema agree with experimental trends observed in animal models with R2=0.997. The model successfully predicted time course and the efficacy of osmotic therapy for clearing cerebral edema. Furthermore, the mathematical model implicated the perivascular pathways as a possible conduit for water and solute exchange. This was a first step to quantify fluid exchange throughout the brain.

  8. Land use and transport relationships: A perspective from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seskin, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    As transportation and land use planners and policy makers world wide grapple with the increasingly challenging consequences of automobile use, there is a growing need to communicate globally about both the knowledge of interactions between transport and land use and the ability to analyze these relationships in a systematic manner. As the world`s largest consumer of energy in general and petroleum in particular, the United States continues to conduct research and innovate in integrated transportation and land use policy issues. The need for improving the state of knowledge and practice, however, is more compelling in developing nations, such as Chile and Thailand, from which, despite their transportation and environmental problems, the United States in fact has much to learn. Nevertheless it is instructive to take a long and broad look at the way the United States is planning and building urban environments. This paper focuses on four aspects of that effort. The first is the state of knowledge on the relationships between land use and travel demand. The second is the analytic tools used to evaluate these relationships. Third is the array of approaches used by government to integrate transport and land use. The last is the ways in which individuals and organizations outside of the formal structure of government participate in metropolitan planning and development.

  9. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takenori; Burford, James L.; Hong, Young-Kwon; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa; Mori, Nozomu; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane

  10. Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.

    1985-01-01

    High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)

  11. β-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington dos Santos Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five restriction site polymorphisms in the β-globin gene cluster (HincII-5'ε, HindIII-Gγ, HindIII-ªγ, HincII-'ψβ1 and HincII-3''ψβ1 were analyzed in three populations (n = 114 from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the "quilombo community", from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+----,3(----+,4(-+--+and6(-++-+onthe βA chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (-++++and 14 (++--+, were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16 had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin and CAR (Central African Republic, with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

  12. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.; Tate, P.

    1983-07-01

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  13. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliznakov, V [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Influence of the Kozloduy NPP on the health state of personnel at a normal operation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1995-01-01

    Medical observation of the Kozloduy NPP personnel has been carried out for 20 years (1974-1993). The general disease incidence with temporary incapacity of the Kozloduy workers is lower than the general data for the country and workers at thermal power stations in particular. No cases of radiation injuries have been registered. The level of cumulative radiation doses varies from 50 to 620 mSv for the full working period of the personnel. Data about dependence of peripheral blood indicators on the cumulative dose are presented. It is concluded that the health state of the Kozloduy personnel is very good and does not indicate any specific pathology. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Study on electric parameters of wild and cultivated cotton forms being in normal state and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Kamalov, N.; Norbaev, N.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation effect on electric conductivity of tissues in case of alternating current, electrical capacity and cell impedance has been studied. Gamma irradiation of seedlings results in definite changes of electric factors of cells (electric conductivity, electric capacity, impedance). It is shown that especially strong changes have been revealed during gamma irradiation of radiosensitive wild form of cotton plants. The deviation of cell electric factors from the standard depends on the violation of evolutionally composed ion heterogeneity and cell colloid system state, which results in changes in their structure and metabolism in them

  16. Microfour-point probe for studying electronic transport through surface states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Shiraki, I.

    2000-01-01

    Microfour-point probes integrated on silicon chips have been fabricated with probe spacings in the range 4-60 mum. They provide a simple robust device for electrical transport measurements at surfaces, bridging the gap between conventional macroscopic four-point probes and scanning tunneling...... transport through surface states, which is not observed on the macroscopic scale, presumably due to scattering at atomic steps. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with "normal" global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate.

  18. The water needs for LDV transportation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased demand for petroleum, reliable fuel supply, and global climate change has resulted in the US government passing new Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and a Renewable Fuels Standard. Consequently, the fuel mix for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel in the United States will change over the coming years. This paper explores the embodied water consumption and withdrawal associated with two projections for future fuel use in the US LDV sector. This analysis encompasses conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, soy biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. The existing mandate in the US to blend ethanol into gasoline had effectively committed 3300 billion liters of irrigation water in 2005 (approximately 2.4% of US 2005 fresh water consumption) for producing fuel for LDVs. With current irrigation practices, fuel processing, and electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 14,000 billion liters of water per year will be consumed and 23,000-27,000 billion liters withdrawn to produce fuels used in LDVs. Irrigation for biofuels dominates projected water usage for LDV travel, but other fuels (coal to liquids, oil shale, and electricity via plug-in hybrid vehicles) will also contribute appreciably to future water consumption and withdrawal, especially on a regional basis. (author)

  19. Transporter function and cyclic AMP turnover in normal colonic mucosa from patients with and without colorectal neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleberg, Karen; Jensen, Gerda Majgaard; Christensen, Dan Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia is still unresolved but has been associated with alterations in epithelial clearance of xenobiotics and metabolic waste products. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize the transport of cyclic nucleotides in colonic biopsies from patients...

  20. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M. D.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1982-06-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron-electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(ɛ), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T c by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(ɛ) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak.

  1. Effect of normal impurities on anisotropic superconductors with variable density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, M.D.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We develop a generalized BCS theory of impure superconductors with an anisotropic electron--electron interaction represented by the factorizable model introduced by Markowitz and Kadanoff, and a variable electronic density of states N(epsilon-c), assumed to peak at the Fermi energy, which is modeled by a Lorentzian superimposed on a uniform background. As the impurity scattering is increased, the enhancement of T/sub c/ by both the anisotropy and the peak in N(epsilon-c) is washed out. The reduction is investigated for different values of the anisotropy and different peak heights and widths. It is concluded that the effects of anisotropy and the peak are reduced together in such a way that any effect due to anisotropy is not easily distinguishable from that due to the peak

  2. Impact of unbalanced charge transport on the efficiency of normal and inverted solar cells (Applied Physics Letters 100 (013306))

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a normal solar cell, most charge carriers are generated close to the anode, such that electrons have to travel a longer distance as compared to the holes. In an inverted solar cell, holes have to travel a longer distance. We use a combined optical and electronic model to simulate the effect of

  3. Temperature dependence of hole mobility in Mott insulators: Normal-state resistivity of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the diffusion of a hole injected in a Mott insulator described by a one-band Hubbard Hamiltonian at half-filling and in the atomic limit. The diffusion coefficient turns out to be temperature independent exactly giving 1/T dependence for the drift mobility via the Einstein relation. This is in marked disagreement with the (1/T)/sup 1/2/ dependence obtaining in the self-retracing path approximation at low temperatures. We note the possible relevance of our result to the linear T dependence of the normal-state resistivity observed in the high-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors

  4. Protonation states of histidine and other key residues in deoxy normal human adult hemoglobin by neutron protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Shibayama, Naoya; Park, Sam-Yong; Ishikawa, Takuya; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, S. Zoe; Langan, Paul; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction analysis, the protonation states of 35 of 38 histidine residues were determined for the deoxy form of normal human adult hemoglobin. Distal and buried histidines may contribute to the increased affinity of the deoxy state for hydrogen ions and its decreased affinity for oxygen compared with the oxygenated form. The protonation states of the histidine residues key to the function of deoxy (T-state) human hemoglobin have been investigated using neutron protein crystallography. These residues can reversibly bind protons, thereby regulating the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. By examining the OMIT F o − F c and 2F o − F c neutron scattering maps, the protonation states of 35 of the 38 His residues were directly determined. The remaining three residues were found to be disordered. Surprisingly, seven pairs of His residues from equivalent α or β chains, αHis20, αHis50, αHis58, αHis89, βHis63, βHis143 and βHis146, have different protonation states. The protonation of distal His residues in the α 1 β 1 heterodimer and the protonation of αHis103 in both subunits demonstrates that these residues may participate in buffering hydrogen ions and may influence the oxygen binding. The observed protonation states of His residues are compared with their ΔpK a between the deoxy and oxy states. Examination of inter-subunit interfaces provided evidence for interactions that are essential for the stability of the deoxy tertiary structure

  5. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  6. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  7. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  8. Electrogenic properties of the Na+/K+ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P.; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K+] and [Na+], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na+/K+ pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na+/K+ pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na+]. Second, we show that the Na+/K+ pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na+/K+ pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na+/K+ ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. PMID:25589588

  9. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  10. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  11. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary study to evaluate the validity of the mini-mental state examination in a normal population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükdeveci, Ayse A; Kutlay, Sehim; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2005-03-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in clinical practice, normative scores for a healthy population have not been documented in Turkey. The aim in this study was to validate the MMSE in a healthy population and to provide normal scores. Internal construct validity of the Turkish version of MMSE among a preliminary sample of 406 normal people was assessed by Rasch unidimensional measurement model. Scores of the normal sample varied according to age and education but not according to sex. The data derived from this sample showed poor fit to the Rasch model (mean item fit, -2.082, SD 3.022). Only four of 11 items met model expectations. There was also differential item functioning by education and age for most items. Thus the internal construct validity of the Turkish MMSE in a normative sample could not be demonstrated by Rasch analysis. The scale failed modern psychometric criteria for scalability. We would therefore suggest other large normative MMSE data sets to be tested in terms of internal construct validity. If these findings are replicated, the validity of MMSE norms and their consequent use in clinical practice should be reconsidered.

  13. Reduced dopamine receptors and transporters but not synthesis capacity in normal aging adults: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Teresa M; Josef, Anika K; Mata, Rui; Morris, Evan D; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2017-09-01

    Many theories of cognitive aging are based on evidence that dopamine (DA) declines with age. Here, we performed a systematic meta-analysis of cross-sectional positron emission tomography and single-photon emission-computed tomography studies on the average effects of age on distinct DA targets (receptors, transporters, or relevant enzymes) in healthy adults (N = 95 studies including 2611 participants). Results revealed significant moderate to large, negative effects of age on DA transporters and receptors. Age had a significantly larger effect on D1- than D2-like receptors. In contrast, there was no significant effect of age on DA synthesis capacity. The average age reductions across the DA system were 3.7%-14.0% per decade. A meta-regression found only DA target as a significant moderator of the age effect. This study precisely quantifies prior claims of reduced DA functionality with age. It also identifies presynaptic mechanisms (spared synthesis capacity and reduced DA transporters) that may partially account for previously unexplained phenomena whereby older adults appear to use dopaminergic resources effectively. Recommendations for future studies including minimum required samples sizes are provided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  15. Implementing a finite-state off-normal and fault response system for disruption avoidance in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Choi, W.; Hahn, S. H.; Humphreys, D. A.; Sammuli, B. S.; Walker, M. L.

    2018-05-01

    A finite-state off-normal and fault response (ONFR) system is presented that provides the supervisory logic for comprehensive disruption avoidance and machine protection in tokamaks. Robust event handling is critical for ITER and future large tokamaks, where plasma parameters will necessarily approach stability limits and many systems will operate near their engineering limits. Events can be classified as off-normal plasmas events, e.g. neoclassical tearing modes or vertical displacements events, or faults, e.g. coil power supply failures. The ONFR system presented provides four critical features of a robust event handling system: sequential responses to cascading events, event recovery, simultaneous handling of multiple events and actuator prioritization. The finite-state logic is implemented in Matlab®/Stateflow® to allow rapid development and testing in an easily understood graphical format before automated export to the real-time plasma control system code. Experimental demonstrations of the ONFR algorithm on the DIII-D and KSTAR tokamaks are presented. In the most complex demonstration, the ONFR algorithm asynchronously applies ‘catch and subdue’ electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection scheme to suppress a virulent 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode, subsequently shuts down ECCD for machine protection when the plasma becomes over-dense, and enables rotating 3D field entrainment of the ensuing locked mode to allow a safe rampdown, all in the same discharge without user intervention. When multiple ONFR states are active simultaneously and requesting the same actuator (e.g. neutral beam injection or gyrotrons), actuator prioritization is accomplished by sorting the pre-assigned priority values of each active ONFR state and giving complete control of the actuator to the state with highest priority. This early experience makes evident that additional research is required to develop an improved actuator sharing protocol, as well as a methodology to

  16. Fostering member state implementation of the IAEA's transport regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittinger, M.T.M.; Wangler, M.E. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Based on a 1959 mandate from the United Nations Economic and Social Council, international safety requirements are embodied in the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' that were first published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1961 and revised in 1967, 1973, 1985 and 1996 to keep them abreast of scientific and technical developments. The requirements are incorporated into the regulatory documents of the International Civil Aviation Organization for air transport, and the International Maritime Organization for marine transport. As the requirements of the latter documents are legally-binding for the member states of the corresponding organizations, the IAEA safety requirements thus also become mandatory in those countries. The same situation applies for the surface modes in Europe, by means of the regulatory documents of the European Community for rail, road and inland waterways. Nevertheless, the IAEA has not relaxed its efforts to ensure that its Transport Regulations stay abreast of scientific and technical developments; on the contrary, it has been undertaking a regular and vigorous review of its safety requirements, and continues to do so with the assistance of Member States and relevant international organizations. Beyond providing the regulatory basis for the safe transport of radioactive material, however, the IAEA also offers a work programme under which it assists Member States in complying with the regulatory requirements. This assistance comes in the form of providing training on the safety requirements, and publishing documents that facilitate the exchange of information.

  17. Authorization procedure for containers and modalities of transport of radioactive substances within the EC Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, S.

    1977-02-01

    In all EC Member States, the transport of radioactive substances, the activity of which is higher than a specific level, is subject to regulatory requirements. Most of these requirements demand an administrative authorization before starting transport. In Belgium, authorization may take the form of a general, particular or special authorization, and in Luxembourg of a general or particular authorization. The latter applies in France and Italy but in these countries specific provisions also exist depending on the means of transport used. The latter specific provisions also exist in Germany and in the Netherlands. On the contrary in the United Kingdom, no administrative authorization is needed for such transport, except for special consignments. Finally, it is to be noted that neither in Denmark nor in Ireland have regulatory requirements been laid down with respect to such authorization procedure

  18. Dark states in spin-polarized transport through triple quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniewski, K.; Weymann, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin-polarized transport through a triple-quantum-dot molecule weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed by means of the real-time diagrammatic technique, including up to the second order of perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling. The emphasis is put on the impact of dark states on spin-resolved transport characteristics. It is shown that the interplay of coherent population trapping and cotunneling processes results in a highly nontrivial behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance, which can take negative values. Moreover, a super-Poissonian shot noise is found in transport regimes where the current is blocked by the formation of dark states, which can be additionally enhanced by spin dependence of tunneling processes, depending on the magnetic configuration of the device. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.

  19. New York State intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations (CVO) : business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this Business Plan is to describe the major Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) initiatives and projects in the area of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) that have recently been or are planned to be undertaken in New York State b...

  20. Application of quasi-steady state methods to molecular motor transport on microtubules in fungal hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2015-08-21

    We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific Framework for Stormwater Monitoring by the Washington State Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, R.W.; Kelly, V.J.; Wagner, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation municipal stormwater monitoring program, in operation for about 8 years, never has received an external, objective assessment. In addition, the Washington State Department of Transportation would like to identify the standard operating procedures and quality assurance protocols that must be adopted so that their monitoring program will meet the requirements of the new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System municipal stormwater permit. As a result, in March 2009, the Washington State Department of Transportation asked the U.S. Geological Survey to assess their pre-2009 municipal stormwater monitoring program. This report presents guidelines developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation to meet new permit requirements and regional/national stormwater monitoring standards to ensure that adequate processes and procedures are identified to collect high-quality, scientifically defensible municipal stormwater monitoring data. These include: (1) development of coherent vision and cooperation among all elements of the program; (2) a comprehensive approach for site selection; (3) an effective quality assurance program for field, laboratory, and data management; and (4) an adequate database and data management system.

  2. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal : Year 2004 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of : the FFY 04 SIB had a total of nineteen loans in the amount of $47,340,891. : A comp...

  3. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2008 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial Report. The portfolio of the FFY 2008 SIB had a total of five loans totaling $22.1 million. Since the begi...

  4. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2007 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2007 SIB had a total of 13 loans and 1 bond in the : amount of $17....

  5. Ohio Department of Transportation State Infrastructure Bank Annual Financial Report : Federal Fiscal Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation is pleased to present the Federal : Fiscal Year (FFY) 2009 State Infrastructure Bank (SIB) Annual Financial : Report. : The portfolio of the FFY 2009 SIB had a total of nine loans totaling $9.0 : million and one ...

  6. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  7. 78 FR 29314 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Utah; Interstate Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA-R08-OAR- 2012-0350. EPA's policy is that all comments received... reiterated the recommendations for western states made by EPA in previous guidance addressing the 110(a)(2)(D... stated that EPA was working on a new rule to replace CAIR that would address issues raised by the court...

  8. Sample preservation, transport and processing strategies for honeybee RNA extraction: Influence on RNA yield, quality, target quantification and data normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Semberg, Emilia; Laugen, Ane T; Miranda, Joachim R de

    2017-08-01

    Viral infections in managed honey bees are numerous, and most of them are caused by viruses with an RNA genome. Since RNA degrades rapidly, appropriate sample management and RNA extraction methods are imperative to get high quality RNA for downstream assays. This study evaluated the effect of various sampling-transport scenarios (combinations of temperature, RNA stabilizers, and duration) of transport on six RNA quality parameters; yield, purity, integrity, cDNA synthesis efficiency, target detection and quantification. The use of water and extraction buffer were also compared for a primary bee tissue homogenate prior to RNA extraction. The strategy least affected by time was preservation of samples at -80°C. All other regimens turned out to be poor alternatives unless the samples were frozen or processed within 24h. Chemical stabilizers have the greatest impact on RNA quality and adding an extra homogenization step (a QIAshredder™ homogenizer) to the extraction protocol significantly improves the RNA yield and chemical purity. This study confirms that RIN values (RNA Integrity Number), should be used cautiously with bee RNA. Using water for the primary homogenate has no negative effect on RNA quality as long as this step is no longer than 15min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary transitions between the yrast superdeformed band and low-lying normal deformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.

  10. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  11. Toward a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    In recognition of the federal government's responsibility for initiating a national strategy for hazardous materials transportation safety, the Materials Transportation Bureau (MTB) prepared an internal strategy paper for creating a federal/state/local partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety in August 1981. The paper outlined the scope of the hazardous materials transportation problem and established MTB's approach for creating an intergovernmental partnership for its resolution. This paper represents an update and refinement of the original plan, and is designed to chart the direction of the emerging federal/state/local relationship. The cornerstone of the plan remains the establishment of a single national set of safety regulations. It is on achievement of this objective that MTB's plan for development of enforcement, training, and emergency response capabilities at all levels of government is based. Chapter I introduces the problem with a desription of the economic importance of hazardous materials and discusses its implications for public safety. Chapter II defines the appropriate role for each level of government in the areas of rulemaking, enforcement, emergency response, and education. Chapter III demonstrates the need for uniform national safety standards and describes the economic and safety benefits of this approach. Chapter IV contains a detailed description of MTB's program for developing a successful intergovernmental partnership in hazardous materials transportation safety

  12. Spin fluctuations in liquid 3He: a strong-coupling calculation of T/sub c/ and the normal-state distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, D.; Layzer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Berk--Schrieffer method of strong-coupling superconductivity for nearly ferromagnetic systems is generalized to arbitrary L-state pairing and realistic (hard-core) potentials. Application to 3 He yields a P-state transition but very low values for T/sub c/ and an unsatisfactory normal-state momentum distribution

  13. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  14. Devolution's policy impact on non-emergency medical transportation in State Children's Health Insurance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Stephen; Blakely, Craig; Ponder, Linda; Raphael, David

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of devolution often maintain that the transfer of power and authority of programs enables local officials to craft policy solutions that better align with the needs of their constituents. This article provides one of the first empirical evaluations of this assumption as it relates to non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) in the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). NEMT programs meet a critical need in the areas in which they serve, directly targeting this single key access barrier to care. Yet states have great latitude in making such services available. The authors utilize data from 32 states to provide a preliminary assessment of devolution's consequences and policy impact on transportation-related access to care. Their findings provide mixed evidence on devolution's impact on policy outcomes. Proponents of devolution can find solace in the fact that several states have gone beyond federally mandated minimum requirements to offer innovative programs to remove transportation barriers to care. Detractors of devolution will find continued pause on several key issues, as a number of states do not offer NEMT to their SCHIP populations while cutting services and leaving over $7 billion in federal matching funding unspent.

  15. Federal legal constraints on state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Morris, F.A.; Welles, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Within the last five years, the transportation of nuclear materials has experienced a rapid growth of state/local regulations. The federal government is responding to develop a legal basis for declaring these state/local regulations inconsistent and has proceeded to declare certain state regulations invalid. This paper summarizes the relevant legal doctrines, places these doctrines in the context of the federal regulatory framework and reaches conclusions about what forms of state and local regulation may be subject to possible preemptive initiatives and what regulations are unlikely candidates for federal actions. This paper also discusses an example of a preemptive initiative and a federal action. The initiative is contained in DOT's proposed rule on Highway Routing of Radioactive Materials. DOT's first general preemptive action under the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act is described with respect to decisions on Rhode Island's regulations regarding transportation of liquified natural and petroleum gases. There are still some issues that have not been clarified - the role of the federal government in the development and support of emergency response capabilities for nuclear and other hazardous materials, detailed shipment information, and state requirements for prenotifications

  16. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  17. A regional modeling framework of phosphorus sources and transport in streams of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    We applied the SPARROW model to estimate phosphorus transport from catchments to stream reaches and subsequent delivery to major receiving water bodies in the Southeastern United States (U.S.). We show that six source variables and five land-to-water transport variables are significant (p < 0.05) in explaining 67% of the variability in long-term log-transformed mean annual phosphorus yields. Three land-to-water variables are a subset of landscape characteristics that have been used as transport factors in phosphorus indices developed by state agencies and are identified through experimental research as influencing land-to-water phosphorus transport at field and plot scales. Two land-to-water variables – soil organic matter and soil pH – are associated with phosphorus sorption, a significant finding given that most state-developed phosphorus indices do not explicitly contain variables for sorption processes. Our findings for Southeastern U.S. streams emphasize the importance of accounting for phosphorus present in the soil profile to predict attainable instream water quality. Regional estimates of phosphorus associated with soil-parent rock were highly significant in explaining instream phosphorus yield variability. Model predictions associate 31% of phosphorus delivered to receiving water bodies to geology and the highest total phosphorus yields in the Southeast were catchments with already high background levels that have been impacted by human activity.

  18. A Markov State-based Quantitative Kinetic Model of Sodium Release from the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Asghar M.; Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2017-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family of membrane proteins that are responsible for reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft to terminate a neuronal signal and enable subsequent neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic neuron. The release of one sodium ion from the crystallographically determined sodium binding site Na2 had been identified as an initial step in the transport cycle which prepares the transporter for substrate translocation by stabilizing an inward-open conformation. We have constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from extensive molecular dynamics simulations of human DAT (hDAT) to explore the mechanism of this sodium release. Our results quantify the release process triggered by hydration of the Na2 site that occurs concomitantly with a conformational transition from an outward-facing to an inward-facing state of the transporter. The kinetics of the release process are computed from the MSM, and transition path theory is used to identify the most probable sodium release pathways. An intermediate state is discovered on the sodium release pathway, and the results reveal the importance of various modes of interaction of the N-terminus of hDAT in controlling the pathways of release.

  19. New York state high-speed surface transportation study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    In 1990, New York State Governor Mario M. Cuomo created an interagency task force under the leadership of Lt. Governor Stan Lundine to investigate the potential of high speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Building on information from previous agency activities, including consultant efforts contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), and in-house analyses performed by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the task force focused on the corridor between New York City and the Niagara Frontier. In December 1991, NYSERDA issued a contract for a study of high speed ground transportation options for New York State. The study`s objective was to assess potential rights-of-way, ridership, energy and environmental impacts, economic benefits, capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and financial viability of HSGT systems. This study builds upon and supplements previous and on-going HSGT activities conducted by the members of the interagency task force. These activities include: Maglev Technical and Economic Feasibility Study (NYSERDA); Maglev Demonstration Site Investigation (NYSTA); and New York/Massachusetts High Speed Ground Transportation Study (NYSDOT). This study is intended to verify and refine previous information and analyses and provide supplemental information and insights to be used in determining if additional investigation and activities involving HSGT are desirable for New York State. This study evaluates HSGT technologies capable of speeds significantly higher than those achieved with the present rail system. Three HSGT categories are used in this study: incremental rail improvement, very high-speed rail, and Maglev.

  20. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  1. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Flodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM. However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  2. Evaluation of normal values of Ca-15-3 and PSA for the people of Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafaraj, S.M.I.

    2007-06-01

    In this study blood samples were collected from 665 female from Northern State of Sudan, 606 of those females are married and only 59 females are singles. These samples were used to estimate the normal CA 15-3 which was found to be similar to the international one and that is ranged from zero to 35 mlu/ml. When the same techniques were used using samples collected from patients who have been clinically diagnosed as breast cancer, CA 15-3 levels were found to be higher in most of these samples and the other finding is that the risk of getting breast cancer is starting from age 25 years. On the other hand , 650 males were participated in this study to estimate normal value of PSA, of them 553 were married. And again the levels estimated for this marker was found to be the same as that used globally which is ranged from zero to four ng/ml. When blood samples from prostate patients were assayed for PSA, the results showed high levels of this marker in almost all the samples as expected but the important finding is that prostate cancer is age depend. At the end of the project, many recommendations highlighted to be considered in the near future.(Author)

  3. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  4. Climatology of transport and diffusion conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude

  5. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs

  6. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  7. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  8. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  9. 78 FR 27883 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Montana; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-OAR- 2012-0347. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance essentially reiterated the recommendations for western... . \\6\\ The 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS Infrastructure Guidance stated that EPA was working on a new rule to...

  10. Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R; Pascual, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in 13C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and 13C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. PMID:23072752

  11. The International Experience of the State Support for Creating the Transport and Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharska Iryna O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analysis and synthesis of the international experience as to the State support for creating the transport and logistics centers (TLCs. The causes for emergence of the first TLCs in Europe (60-80-ies of XX century were considered. Values of the LPI index for the countries occupying the first 40 positions of the ranking as of 2014 and of 2016 have been provided, and the major changes during this time have been analyzed. The ranking position of Ukraine is displayed separately. Features of the logistics infrastructure of nine countries with a high value of the LPI index have been considered, degree of the State involvement in the formation of the TLC network has been analyzed. It has been substantiated that creation of the transport and logistics centers allows to reduce the logistics costs of individual producers and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of operation of the national economy in general by attracting investments in the infrastructure development, increasing the number of jobs and tax revenues. The basic motifs that determine the interest of the State authorities in providing support for creating the transportation and logistics centers have been defined. Prospect for further research in this direction will be determining the efficiency of using the different models of the State support for creation and development of TLCs

  12. The Efficiency and Public Transport Accessibility of Indirect State Administration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrabková Iveta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efficiency and public transport accessibility of indirect (devolved state administration performed by municipalities with extended powers (hereinafter MEPs in the Czech Republic. Our aim is to evaluate the efficiency of the revenues made by municipalities with extended powers, through performing powers delegated to them by the state administration, and those municipalities’ public transport accessibility as of 31 December, 2014. The rate of efficiency is tested on an output-oriented Free Disposable Hull model. One input variable is selected - the operating expenses of the municipal offices recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district - and two output variables are selected: contribution to the performance of state administration, recalculated per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district, and revenues from administrative fees per inhabitant of the municipality’s administrative district. The municipality’s offices’ transport accessibility is evaluated via network analysis using ArcGIS software. The article investigates the hypothesis that public administration deconcentration practices logically result in higher security costs and therefore inefficiency. The results reveal that only 66 of the country’s 205 MEPs are efficient and that operating expenses and state contributions for the performance of state administrative tasks play a significant role in these results. Efficiency is less significantly influenced by administrative fee revenues. Public transport accessibility is analyzed for two time intervals - 6:00 to 8:00 am and 1:00 to 2:00 pm - on Tuesdays. The degree of accessibility is defined using a six-point scale of accessibility. The results show that the best accessibility is in the morning hours, when the offices are accessible for 68.8% of the population aged 15+ in the Czech Republic; the worst accessibility is in the afternoon hours when only 2% of the

  13. Objective classification of latent behavioral states in bio-logging data using multivariate-normal hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Joe Scutt; Patterson, Toby A; Leroy, Bruno; Pilling, Graham M; Nicol, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of complex time-series data from ecological system study requires quantitative tools for objective description and classification. These tools must take into account largely ignored problems of bias in manual classification, autocorrelation, and noise. Here we describe a method using existing estimation techniques for multivariate-normal hidden Markov models (HMMs) to develop such a classification. We use high-resolution behavioral data from bio-loggers attached to free-roaming pelagic tuna as an example. Observed patterns are assumed to be generated by an unseen Markov process that switches between several multivariate-normal distributions. Our approach is assessed in two parts. The first uses simulation experiments, from which the ability of the HMM to estimate known parameter values is examined using artificial time series of data consistent with hypotheses about pelagic predator foraging ecology. The second is the application to time series of continuous vertical movement data from yellowfin and bigeye tuna taken from tuna tagging experiments. These data were compressed into summary metrics capturing the variation of patterns in diving behavior and formed into a multivariate time series used to estimate a HMM. Each observation was associated with covariate information incorporating the effect of day and night on behavioral switching. Known parameter values were well recovered by the HMMs in our simulation experiments, resulting in mean correct classification rates of 90-97%, although some variance-covariance parameters were estimated less accurately. HMMs with two distinct behavioral states were selected for every time series of real tuna data, predicting a shallow warm state, which was similar across all individuals, and a deep colder state, which was more variable. Marked diurnal behavioral switching was predicted, consistent with many previous empirical studies on tuna. HMMs provide easily interpretable models for the objective classification of

  14. Regional characterization of energy metabolism in the brain of normal and MPTP-intoxicated mice using new markers of glucose and phosphate transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touhami Jawida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV, the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (AMLV and the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV are retroviruses that specifically bind nutrient transporters with their envelope glycoproteins (Env when entering host cells. Here, we used tagged ligands derived from GALV, AMLV, and HTLV Env to monitor the distribution of their cognate receptors, the inorganic phosphate transporters PiT1 and PiT2, and the glucose transporter GLUT1, respectively, in basal conditions and after acute energy deficiency. For this purpose, we monitored changes in the distribution of PiT1, PiT2 and GLUT1 in the cerebellum, the frontal cortex, the corpus callosum, the striatum and the substantia nigra (SN of C57/BL6 mice after administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridinium (MPTP, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor which induces neuronal degeneration in the striato-nigral network. The PiT1 ligand stained oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum and showed a reticular pattern in the SN. The PiT2 ligand stained particularly the cerebellar Purkinje cells, while GLUT1 labelling was mainly observed throughout the cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellar gray matter. Interestingly, unlike GLUT1 and PiT2 distributions which did not appear to be modified by MPTP intoxication, PiT1 immunostaining seemed to be more extended in the SN. The plausible reasons for this change following acute energy stress are discussed. These new ligands therefore constitute new metabolic markers which should help to unravel cellular adaptations to a wide variety of normal and pathologic conditions and to determine the role of specific nutrient transporters in tissue homeostasis.

  15. State-specific transport properties of electronically excited Ar and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a theoretical model of state-resolved transport properties in electronically excited atomic species developed earlier is applied to argon and carbon atomic species. It is shown that for Ar and C, similarly to the case of atomic nitrogen and oxygen, the Slater-like models can be applied to calculate diameters of electronically excited atoms. Using the Slater-like model it is shown that for half-filled N (2 px1py1pz1) and full-filled Ar (3 px2py2pz2) electronic shells the growth of atomic radius goes slowly compared to C (2 px1py1) and O (2 px2py1pz1). The effect of collision diameters on the transport properties of Ar and C is evaluated. The influence of accounted number of electronic levels on the transport coefficients is examined for the case of Boltzmann distributions over electronic energy levels. It is emphasized that in the temperature range 1000-14000 K, for Boltzmann-like distributions over electronic states the number of accounted electronic levels do not influence the transport coefficients. Contrary to this, for higher temperatures T > 14000 K this effect becomes of importance, especially for argon.

  16. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  17. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  18. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  19. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  20. Systematic study of transport via surface and bulk states in Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, S.; Peres, M. L.; Chitta, V. A.; Gratens, X.; Soares, D. A. W.; Fornari, C. I.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E.; Oliveira, N. F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    We performed magnetoresistance measurements on Bi2Te3 thin film in the temperature range of T = 1.2-4.0 K and for magnetic fields up to 2 T. The curves exhibited anomalous behavior for temperatures below 4.0 K. Different temperature intervals revealed electrical transport through different conductive channels with clear signatures of weak antilocalization. The magnetoresistance curves were explained using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model and the 2D Dirac modified model. The comparison between the parameters obtained from the two models revealed the transport via topological surface states and bulk states. In addition, a superconductive like transition is observed for the lowest temperatures and we suggest that this effect can be originated from the misfit dislocations caused by strain, giving rise to a superconductive channel between the interface of the film and the substrate.

  1. Steady-state coupled transport of HNO3 through a hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.D.; Danesi, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Nitric acid removal from an aqueous stream was accomplished by continuously passing the fluid through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (SLM). The nitric acid was extracted through the membrane wall by coupled transport. The system was modeled as a series of (SLM)-continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) pairs. An approximate technique was used to predict the steady state nitric acid concentration in the system. The comparison with experimental data was very good

  2. Normally-off Al2O3/GaN MOSFET: Role of border traps on the device transport characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Jinyan; Liu, Jingqian; He, Yandong; Wang, Maojun; Yu, Min; Wu, Wengang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the self-terminating gate recess technique, two different processes featuring gate-recess-first (GF) and ohmic-contact-first (OF) were proposed for E-mode Al2O3/GaN MOSFETs. Increased maximum drain current (Idmax) ∼30% (420 vs 325 mA/mm), field-effect mobility (μFEmax) ∼67% (150 vs 90 cm2/Vs) and reduced on-state resistance (Ron) ∼42% (9.7 vs 16.8 Ω·mm) were observed in the devices fabricated by GF process. Such significant performance difference of GF- and OF-devices resulted from the presence of border traps at Al2O3/GaN interface with a time constant ∼7 × 10-6 s. Experimental results indicated that: (1) the near interface border traps in Al2O3 dielectric significantly affect device channel mobility; (2) a high temperature post-deposition annealing process could effective suppress generation of border traps.

  3. Summary report of the state surveillance program on the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    From 1973 to 1976, a surveillance program was conducted in New Jersey, Oregon, Missouri, New York, Illinois, Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Minnesota, and New York City to provide training support for State radiation personnel and to determine actual radiation exposure conditions and radioactive material package handling practices through the terminals of air carriers and freight forwarders. NRC and DOT along with the participating States, developed the surveillance program. In general, the results did not indicate a public health or safety problem due to the transportation of radioactive materials. Some employees of several freight forwarders, are, however, receiving annual exposures in excess of 500 mrem. Recommendations are given

  4. Dirac-Screening Stabilized Surface-State Transport in a Topological Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Brüne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report magnetotransport studies on a gated strained HgTe device. This material is a three-dimensional topological insulator and exclusively shows surface-state transport. Remarkably, the Landau-level dispersion and the accuracy of the Hall quantization remain unchanged over a wide density range (3×10^{11}  cm^{−2}transport is surface-state dominated, where bulk transport would have been expected to coexist already. Moreover, the density dependence of the Dirac-type quantum Hall effect allows us to identify the contributions from the individual surfaces. A k·p model can describe the experiments but only when assuming a steep band bending across the regions where the topological surface states are contained. This steep potential originates from the specific screening properties of Dirac systems and causes the gate voltage to influence the position of the Dirac points rather than that of the Fermi level.

  5. Highly-resolved modeling of personal transportation energy consumption in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratori, Matteo; Moran, Michael J.; Serra, Emmanuele; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    This paper centers on the estimation of the total primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States, to include gasoline and/or electricity consumption, depending on vehicle type. The bottom-up sector-based estimation method introduced here contributes to a computational tool under development at The Ohio State University for assisting decision making in energy policy, pricing, and investment. In order to simulate highly-resolved consumption profiles three main modeling steps are needed: modeling the behavior of drivers, generating realistic driving profiles, and simulating energy consumption of different kinds of vehicles. The modeling proposed allows for evaluating the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level. It can serve as a tool to compare different vehicle types and assist policy-makers in estimating their impact on primary energy consumption and the role transportation can play to reduce oil dependency. - Highlights: • Modeling primary energy consumption for personal transportation in the United States. • Behavior of drivers has been simulated in order to establish when driving events occur and the length of each event. • Realistic driving profiles for each driving event are generated using a stochastic model. • The model allows for comparing the initial cost of different vehicles and their expected energy-use operating cost. • Evaluation of the impact of PEVs on the electric grid – especially at the distribution level – can be performed

  6. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  7. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  8. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from Salton Sea accounting unit.

  9. Comparação entre dois meios de coleta e transporte para estudo da microbiota conjuntival de indivíduos normais Comparison of two transportation media for study of normal individual conjunctival microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cruz Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o perfil microbiológico da microbiota de pessoas sadias, obtidas do esfregaço conjuntival, utilizando zaragatoa seca transportada no meio de Stuart e zaragatoa úmida transportada no tubo de ensaio vedado com algodão. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo prospectivo, com amostras selecionadas aleatoriamente, realizado no Departamento de Oftalmologia e Patologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, no mês de agosto de 2006. Foram estudados 80 olhos normais de 40 indivíduos. No olho direito de cada paciente, foi realizada a coleta de material com a zaragatoa seca, armazenando-a no meio de transporte de Stuart, no qual todo o material microbiológico obtido fica imerso no meio e o tubo hermeticamente fechado. No olho esquerdo, o material conjuntival foi colhido com a extremidade de algodão da zaragatoa umedecida em solução salina a 0,9%, e armazenando-a no tubo de ensaio seco e estéril vedado com algodão. As amostras foram analisadas no prazo máximo de 2 horas após a coleta do material. RESULTADOS: Das 40 amostras coletadas com a zaragatoa úmida transportadas em tubo seco, foram identificadas bactérias em 10 (25%. Das 40 amostras coletadas com zaragatoa seca transportada em meio de Stuart, foram identificadas bactérias em 12 (30%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do perfil microbiológico da microbiota normal conjuntival utilizando o meio de transporte da zaragatoa seca em meio de Stuart mostraram-se estatisticamente semelhantes (p= 0,85 ao comparar com o meio utilizando a zaragatoa úmida em tubo seco para semeaduras realizadas em até 2 horas após a coleta de material conjuntival.PURPOSE: To compare the microbiological profile of normal microbiota of healthy people obtained from conjunctival smear using dry swab in Stuart's transport medium and wet swab transported in test tube sealed with cotton. METHODS: A prospective study with random samples, performed at the Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology of Santa

  10. Changes in electrical transport and density of states of phase change materials upon resistance drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Daniel; Bachmann, Tobias; Jonnalagadda, Prasad; Dellmann, Laurent; Raoux, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change memory technology has become more mature in recent years. But some fundamental problems linked to the electrical transport properties in the amorphous phase of phase-change materials still need to be solved. The increase of resistance over time, called resistance drift, for example, poses a major challenge for the implementation of multilevel storage, which will eventually be necessary to remain competitive in terms of high storage densities. To link structural properties with electrical transport, a broader knowledge of (i) changes in the density of states (DoS) upon structural relaxation and (ii) the influence of defects on electrical transport is required. In this paper, we present temperature-dependent conductivity and photo-conductivity measurements on the archetype phase change material GeTe. It is shown that trap-limited band transport at high temperatures (above 165 K) and variable range hopping at low temperatures are the predominating transport mechanism. Based on measurements of the temperature dependence of the optical band gap, modulated photo-conductivity and photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy, a DoS model for GeTe was proposed. Using this DoS, the temperature dependence of conductivity and photo-conductivity has been simulated. Our work shows how changes in the DoS (band gap and defect distributions) will affect the electrical transport before and after temperature-accelerated drift. The decrease in conductivity upon annealing can be explained entirely by an increase of the band gap by about 12%. However, low-temperature photo-conductivity measurements revealed that a change in the defect density may also play a role

  11. Generalized time evolution of the homogeneous cooling state of a granular gas with positive and negative coefficient of normal restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Nagi

    2018-04-01

    The homogeneous cooling state (HCS) of a granular gas described by the inelastic Boltzmann equation is reconsidered. As usual, particles are taken as inelastic hard disks or spheres, but now the coefficient of normal restitution α is allowed to take negative values , which is a simple way of modeling more complicated inelastic interactions. The distribution function of the HCS is studied at the long-time limit, as well as intermediate times. At the long-time limit, the relevant information of the HCS is given by a scaling distribution function , where the time dependence occurs through a dimensionless velocity c. For , remains close to the Gaussian distribution in the thermal region, its cumulants and exponential tails being well described by the first Sonine approximation. In contrast, for , the distribution function becomes multimodal, its maxima located at , and its observable tails algebraic. The latter is a consequence of an unbalanced relaxation–dissipation competition, and is analytically demonstrated for , thanks to a reduction of the Boltzmann equation to a Fokker–Plank-like equation. Finally, a generalized scaling solution to the Boltzmann equation is also found . Apart from the time dependence occurring through the dimensionless velocity, depends on time through a new parameter β measuring the departure of the HCS from its long-time limit. It is shown that describes the time evolution of the HCS for almost all times. The relevance of the new scaling is also discussed.

  12. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  13. Federal, state, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation: Progress toward a definition of regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The supremacy clause, the commerce clause, and the equal-protection guarantees of the U.S. Constitution establish the basic framework for defining the authority of Federal, State, and local governments to regulate the transportation of radioactive waste. Court decisions and advisory rulings of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) suggest that State and local regulation of the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is precluded under supremacy-clause principles to the extent that such regulation addresses nuclear safety or aspects of transportation that are already specifically regulated by the Federal government. Even where State and local requirements are found to be valid under the supremacy clause, they must still satisfy constitutional requirements under the commerce and equal-protection clauses. Despite stringent standards of review, State and local transportation requirements have been upheld where directly related to the traditional exercise of police powers in the area of transportation. Legitimate State and local police-power activities identified to date by the DOT and the courts include inspection and enforcement, immediate accident reporting, local regulation of traffic, and certain time-of-day curfews. The extent to which State and local permitting requirements and license fees may be determined valid by the DOT and the courts remains unclear. Continued clarification by the DOT and the courts as to the validity of permits and fees will serve to further define the appropriate balance for Federal, State, and local regulation of radioactive-waste transportation

  14. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joung-min; Akiyama, Yuto; Kakinuma, Tomoyuki; Mori, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical V G above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge

  15. Quasibound states and transport characteristics of Au chains with a substitutional S impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2013-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of short gold atom chains with a single sulfur impurity were studied using density functional theory. It is found that the role of the impurity atom in the transport properties is twofold. First, it acts as a scattering center in the dominating 6s-orbital transmission channel and generally leads to a decrease of the transmission function in a wide energy region around the Fermi level. Second, it gives rise to a quasibound state manifesting as a peak near the Fermi level both in the partial density of states as well as in the transmission function. Because of the hybridization of the sulfur 3p and gold 5d orbitals in its formation, the quasibound state moves locally upward in the gold 5d transmission channel and brings about an enhancement of the transmission function in a narrow energy region near the Fermi level. The height of the peak of the quasibound state in the transmission function depends significantly on the position of the impurity in the chain and its energy varies with the bias voltage. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics become asymmetric with a departure of the impurity from the central position in the chain and they are nonlinear for small values of the voltage (V < 0.1 V). It is proposed that a careful analysis of the I–V characteristics or the voltage dependence of the differential conductance may be used for unambiguous location of the light impurity in experiments with gold chains. (paper)

  16. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Gumbs, Godfrey [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard St SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Abranyos, Yonatan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  17. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive material within the state of Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, C.; Oberg, S.G.; Downs, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The State of Idaho and the U.S. DOE have agreed to a one year pilot program to review and analyze DOE's off-site transportation of radioactive materials within Idaho on a shipping-campaign basis. As a part of that effort, the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program conducts independent transportation risk assessments. These risk assessments are performed for both highway and railroad shipments using the computer codes RADTRAN4 ,and RISKIND 1.11. Some input parameters are customized with. Idaho-specific data, such as population density, accident rates and meteorological data. The dose and risk (to the public, handlers, crew, etc.) are estimated for both incident free and accident scenarios. Source term files are being built for past, current, and future shipments in Idaho. These include transuranic waste. shipments to WIPP, low level waste, mixed waste, spent fuel, and high level waste. Each shipment is analyzed for two types of transportation route segments: county segments and ten-mile segments. Risk estimation for each county segment provides information for allocation of emergency preparedness resources. Risk estimation for each ten-mile segment helps to identify higher risk segments. The dose and risk results are presented in appropriate formats for various audiences. The quantitative risk measures are used to guide appropriate levels of emergency preparedness. GIS tools are being used to graphically present risk information to elected officials and to the general public

  18. Fire test of container for radioactive materials under the condition of transportation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Sanae; Shimada, Hirohisa

    1986-01-01

    To secure the safe transportation of container for radioactive materials, furnace and open fire test for the thermal test of container are provided. Therefore, we have carried out furnace and open fire test using test model simulating a transportation state. Test model used in this test is made of stainless steel with diameter of 200 mm and length of 400 mm, and is set on the rest as in the case of transportation state. From the data on temperature measurement, some interesting results are obtained as follows. Near the surface of model, the temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to the surface of model with the rest is greater than that without the rest. The temperature rise at the center of the model with the rest is less than that without the rest. In the experiment, temperature distributions are measured in the three radial directions. The temperature differences among three distributions in the model with rest are greater than that without rest. On the other hand, in the furnace test, the heat transfer coefficient on the surface of test model with the rest is 90 - 140 kcal/m 2 h · K for the range of furnace temperature from 700 to 950 deg C and this value is almost equal to the value without the rest. (author)

  19. State control of translational movement in high-speed Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, E

    1981-01-01

    The combination of state control with cascade control satisfies all demands made on train movements in a high-speed Maglev transportation system. The inner control loop compensates nonlinearities and disturbances and limits the acceleration. The dynamics of the control loop are determined by the riding characteristics. The superposed speed state control provides for running without overshoot within permissible limits. In order to reach a target point in the shortest possible time, the control signal for initiating the retardation is issued as late as possible and the speed is output as a function of position. The subsequent structure changeover to a position state control causes the train to come to a smooth halt at its destination in an almost optimal time.

  20. Semiconducting states and transport in metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiongwen; Wang Haiyan; Wan Haiqing; Zhou Guanghui; Song Kehui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method within the tight-binding approximation scheme, through a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) model, we study the low-energy electronic states and transport properties of carbon chains in armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). We show that semiconducting AGNRs possess only semiconducting chains, while metallic ones possess not only metallic chains but also unconventional semiconducting chains located at the 3jth (j≠0) column from the edge (the first chain) due to the vanishing of the metallic component in the electron wavefunction. The two types of states for carbon chains in a metallic AGNR system are demonstrated by different density of states and STM tunneling currents. Moreover, a similar phenomenon is predicted in the edge region of very wide AGNRs. However, there is remarkable difference in the tunneling current between narrow and wide ribbons.

  1. Contribution to the Study of the State Transport Service in Roman Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Escutia-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cursus publicus was the government transportation system in the Roman Empire. It made government communication, travel by government officials and the transport of certain State goods such as tax money, metals (gold and silver and army equipment possible. This work seeks to illustrate the origin of this official service, the highways used, the infrastructure (mansiones and mutationes, the animals and wagons exchanged periodically along the way, the authorization for the use of cursus publicus administration, the extremely restricted issue of warrants for the use of the cursus publicus (evectiones, the funding of services and the irregularities and abuse of the system and the necessary legislation to avoid and condemn such acts.

  2. State-of-the-art in modeling solute and sediment transport in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    This overview is structured around a comprehensive general model based on the conservation of mass principle as applied to dissolved and particulate constituents in rivers, with a few restricted but more specific examples that illustrate the state-of-the-art in modeling typical physical, chemical, and biological processes undergone by selected constituents in rivers. These examples include: simplified one- and two-dimensional formulations focusing on the hydrodynamic advection and dispersion mechanisms; a two-dimensional biochemial oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen model; a one-dimensional polychlorinated biphenyl model that includes uptake and release of constituent by suspended sediment, and deposition and erosion of contaminated particles; and a one-dimensional sediment transport model that accounts for interactions between the flow and the bed, and is capable of tracking dispersing slugs of sediment through cycles of erosion, entrainment, transport in suspension and as bed load, and burial and storage in the bed

  3. Financial assistance to States and tribes to support emergency preparedness and response and the safe transportation of hazardous shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation

  4. Status of burnup credit for transport of SNF in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Wagner, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Allowing credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining a subcritical margin sufficient to establish an adequate safety basis. This paper reviews the current status of burnup credit applied to the design and transport of SNF casks in the United States. The existing U.S. regulatory guidance on burnup credit is limited to pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) fuel and to allowing credit only for actinides in the SNF. By comparing loading curves against actual SNF discharge data for U.S. reactors, the potential benefits that can be realized using the current regulatory guidance with actinide-only burnup credit are illustrated in terms of the inventory allowed in high-capacity casks and the concurrent reduction in SNF shipments. The additional benefits that might be realized by extending burnup credit to credit for select fission products are also illustrated. The curves show that, although fission products in SNF provide a small decrease in reactivity compared with actinides, the additional negative reactivity causes the SNF inventory acceptable for transportation to increase from roughly 30% to approximately 90% when fission products are considered. A savings of approximately $150M in transport costs can potentially be realized for the planned inventory of the repository. Given appropriate experimental data to support code validation, a realistic best-estimate analysis of burnup credit that includes validated credit for fission products is the enhancement that will yield the most significant impact on future transportation plans

  5. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  6. Software for determining the direction of movement, shear and normal stresses of a fault under a determined stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez del Castillo, Alejandra; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana Alicia; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel Francisco; Xu, Shunshan; Ochoa-González, Gil Humberto; Velasquillo-Martínez, Luis Germán

    2017-07-01

    In the oil, gas and geothermal industry, the extraction or the input of fluids induces changes in the stress field of the reservoir, if the in-situ stress state of a fault plane is sufficiently disturbed, a fault may slip and can trigger fluid leakage or the reservoir might fracture and become damaged. The goal of the SSLIPO 1.0 software is to obtain data that can reduce the risk of affecting the stability of wellbores. The input data are the magnitudes of the three principal stresses and their orientation in geographic coordinates. The output data are the slip direction of a fracture in geographic coordinates, and its normal (σn) and shear (τ) stresses resolved on a single or multiple fracture planes. With this information, it is possible to calculate the slip tendency (τ/σn) and the propensity to open a fracture that is inversely proportional to σn. This software could analyze any compressional stress system, even non-Andersonian. An example is given from an oilfield in southern Mexico, in a region that contains fractures formed in three events of deformation. In the example SSLIPO 1.0 was used to determine in which deformation event the oil migrated. SSLIPO 1.0 is an open code application developed in MATLAB. The URL to obtain the source code and to download SSLIPO 1.0 are: http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/main_code.txt, http://www.geociencias.unam.mx/ alaniz/ SSLIPO_pkg.exe.

  7. Molecular dynamics studies of transport properties and equation of state of supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwobi, Obika C.

    Many chemical propulsion systems operate with one or more of the reactants above the critical point in order to enhance their performance. Most of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods used to predict these flows require accurate information on the transport properties and equation of state at these supercritical conditions. This work involves the determination of transport coefficients and equation of state of supercritical fluids by equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on parallel computers using the Green-Kubo formulae and the virial equation of state, respectively. MD involves the solution of equations of motion of a system of molecules that interact with each other through an intermolecular potential. Provided that an accurate potential can be found for the system of interest, MD can be used regardless of the phase and thermodynamic conditions of the substances involved. The MD program uses the effective Lennard-Jones potential, with system sizes of 1000-1200 molecules and, simulations of 2,000,000 time-steps for computing transport coefficients and 200,000 time-steps for pressures. The computer code also uses linked cell lists for efficient sorting of molecules, periodic boundary conditions, and a modified velocity Verlet algorithm for particle displacement. Particle decomposition is used for distributing the molecules to different processors of a parallel computer. Simulations have been carried out on pure argon, nitrogen, oxygen and ethylene at various supercritical conditions, with self-diffusion coefficients, shear viscosity coefficients, thermal conductivity coefficients and pressures computed for most of the conditions. Results compare well with experimental and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values. The results show that the number of molecules and the potential cut-off radius have no significant effect on the computed coefficients, while long-time integration is necessary for accurate determination of the

  8. A justice-theoretic approach to the distribution of transportation benefits: Implications for transportation planning practice in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Golub, A.; Robinson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Transportation improvements inevitably lead to an uneven distribution of user benefits, in space and by network type (private and public transport). This paper makes a moral argument for what would be a fair distribution of these benefits. The argument follows Walzer’s ‘‘Spheres of Justice’’

  9. Resolution of the steady state transport equation for Lagrangian geometry with cylindrical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, G.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to solve the steady state transport equation for (r, z) geometries given by hydrodynamics calculations. The discontinuous finite element method for the space variables (r, z) provides a stable scheme which satisfies the particle balance equation. We are able to sweep cells for each direction over the mesh to have an explicit scheme. The graph theory provides a very efficient algorithm to compute this ordering array. Previously, we must divide all the quadrilaterals into two triangles to get only convex cells. Thus, we get a fast, vectorized calculation which gives a good accuracy on very distorted meshes [fr

  10. Phason thermal transport of three-helix state in insulating chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Gen

    2018-06-01

    Thermal dynamics of the three-helix state in a chiral magnet is studied based on a phason representation. Although phason representation is convenient for intuitive description, it is not straightforwardly compatible with microscopic linear response calculation of transport phenomena, because it is a (semi)macroscopic picture obtained by a coarse graining. By separating the slow phason mode and fast magnon mode, we show that phason thermal dynamics is driven by thermal magnon flow via the spin-transfer effect. The magnon and phason velocities are calculated by use of thermal vector potential formalism.

  11. Altered sensitivity of system A amino acid transport to ouabain in normal and transformed C3H-10T1/2 cells during the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, K.J.; Schenerman, M.A.; Racker, E.

    1989-01-01

    Quiescent C3H-10T1/2 mouse fibroblasts that have not undergone any type of stress have a relatively low rate of 2-aminoisobutyrate (Aib) uptake by means of system A, which is primarily energized by the transmembrane Na + chemical gradient potential. System A activity in these cells is not sensitive to ouabain or proton ionophores. In contrast, methylcholanthrene-transformed and cofluent C3H-10T1/2 cells treated with ouabain utilize the membrane potential generated by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump to drive Aib transport by means of system A as shown by the sensitivity of transport activity to ouabain and proton ionophores. Since glucose is present during the assay, the proton ionophores do not affect the availability of ATP, as indicated by the undiminished uptake of 86 Rb + by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump. As cells progress through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, they show an increased system A activity prior to entry into the S phase, which is also dependent on the electrogenicity of the Na + , K + -ATPase pump. There appears to be in all these cases a qualitative shift in the bioenergetic mechanism for the uptake of Aib as well as a marked quantitative increase in Aib uptake. The high activity after ouabain treatment was sustained in the transformed cells after removal of the ouabain, whereas in the confluent 10T1/2 cells the rate of uptake decayed rapidly, suggesting a difference in the mode of regulation. The authors conclude that transformed cells and normal cells in late G 1 or under stress make use of the membrane potential generated by the Na + , K + -ATPase pump to drive amino acid uptake by means of system A

  12. A new model for separation between brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT SPECT measurements: normal values and sex and age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryding, Erik; Rosen, Ingmar [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lindstroem, Mats; Bosson, Peter; Traeskman-Bendz, Lil [Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Braadvik, Bjoern; Grabowski, Martin [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT is a radioactive ligand for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the pre-synaptic (transporter) re-uptake sites for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (5HTT), and it is widely used to visualize monoamine turnover. Since {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT uptake occurs at 5HTT and DAT sites in conjunction with the presence of freely soluble {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue, adequate separation of these three components is necessary. However, only partial separation is possible with current methods. Two main strategies have previously been used for {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT component separation, based on the following considerations: (1) the faster uptake rate for 5HTT compared with DAT enables temporal separation by performing 5HTT imaging at 1-2 h and DAT imaging at 20-24 h; (2) blocking the 5HTT re-uptake with citalopram renders {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT imaging DAT (non-5HTT) specific. In a new analytical model, we combined these two approaches with methods to isolate the passively dissolved {sup 123}I-{beta}-CIT in brain tissue from the monoamine transporter uptake, and to correct the 5HTT and DAT values for concomitant uptake. The new analytical model was used to study brain 5HTT and DAT in 23 normal subjects, with the aim of clarifying the effect of age and sex. A significant correlation between 5HTT and DAT values was found only in the thalamus, indicating successful component separation. Negative correlations between age and DAT were found for basal ganglia, thalami, brain stem and temporal lobes, but not for the frontal, parietal or occipital regions. No correlation with age was found for 5HTT. We found no sex difference for 5HTT or DAT. (orig.)

  13. The effect of dephasing on edge state transport through p-n junctions in HgTe/CdTe quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Tao; Song, Juntao; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2014-02-26

    Using the Landauer-Büttiker formula, we study the effect of dephasing on the transport properties of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction. It is found that in the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction the topologically protected gapless helical edge states manifest a quantized 2e²/h plateau robust against dephasing, in sharp contrast to the case for the normal HgTe/CdTe quantum well. This robustness of the transport properties of the edge states against dephasing should be attributed to the special construction of the HgTe/CdTe p-n junction, which limits the gapless helical edge states to a very narrow region and thus weakens the influence of the dephasing on the gapless edge states to a large extent. Our results demonstrate that the p-n junction could be a substitute device for use in experimentally observing the robust edge states and quantized plateau. Finally, we present a feasible scheme based on current experimental methods.

  14. Hardness of the subchondral bone of the patella in the normal state, in chondromalacia, and in osteoarthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkström, S; Goldie, I F

    1982-06-01

    The hardness of bone is its property of withstanding the impact of a penetrating agent. It has been found that articular degenerative changes in, for example, the tibia (knee) are combined with a decrease in the hardness of the subchondral bone. In this investigation the hardness of subchondral bone in chondromalacia and osteoarthrosis of the patella has been analysed and compared with normal subchondral bone. Using an indentation method originally described by Brinell the hardness of the subchondral bone was evaluated in 7 normal patellae, in 20 with chondromalacia and in 33 with osteoarthrosis. A microscopic and microradiographic study of the subchondral bone was carried out simultaneously. Hardness was lowest in the normal material. The mean hardness value beneath the degenerated cartilage differed only slightly from that of the normal material, but the variation of values was increased. The hardness in bone in the chondromalacia area was lower than the hardness in bone covered by surrounding normal cartilage. The mean hardness value in bone beneath normal parts of cartilage in specimens with chondromalacia was higher than the mean hardness value of the normal material. In the microscopic and microradiographic examination it became evident that there was a relationship between trabecular structure and subchondral bone hardness; high values: coarse and solid structure; low values: slender and less regular structure.

  15. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers.

  16. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: olutas_m@ibu.edu.tr; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2} have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below {approx}1 {mu}V), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains.

  17. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  18. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  19. Green's theorem and Green's functions for the steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Gleeson, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Green's Theorem is developed for the spherically-symmetric steady-state cosmic-ray equation of transport in interplanetary space. By means of it the momentum distribution function F 0 (r,p), (r=heliocentric distance, p=momentum) can be determined in a region rsub(a) 0 . Examples of Green's functions are given for the case rsub(a)=0, rsub(b)=infinity and derived for the cases of finite rsub(a) and rsub(b). The diffusion coefficient kappa is assumed of the form kappa=kappa 0 (p)rsup(b). The treatment systematizes the development of all analytic solutions for steady-state solar and galactic cosmic-ray propagation and previous solutions form a subset of the present solutions. (Auth.)

  20. Dopamine transporter imaging with [I-123]IPT SPECT in normal controls and Parkinson's patients: Feasibility study of a simplified SPECT scan protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Bong, J. K.; Nam, K. P.; Yang, S. O.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    [I-123]IPT has been used to measure changes in dopamine trasnporters with Parkinson's patients (PP). However, 2 hrs of imaging time without movement of patient's head partially limits its widespread use in routine clinical SPECT protocol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a simplified IPT SPECT scan protocol using three 10 min scan data obtained at 0-10, 55-65, and 110-120 min postinjection and compared to current protocol using 23 scans obtained from O-120 min to quantify dopamine transporter binding in normal controls (NC) and PP. IPT labeled with 6.74±0.88mCi of I-123 was intravenously injected into 12 NC (age: 41±9) and 22 PP (age : 55±8) and the 5 min dynamic SPECT data were acquired for 2 hrs with Trionix triple-headed SPECT camera. SPECT images were reconstructed and attenuation corrected. [I-123] IPT quickly penetratd the blood-brain barrier and began to Ioacalize higher concentrations at the basal ganglia at 20 min after injection. The transporter parameter was measured using a variation of graphical analysis (VGA) and area ratio method (ARM) that derive the distribution volume ratios (R v =V 3 /V 2 for VGA, R A =V 3 /V 2 for ARM ) from multiple scan data without blood data, R v ' and R A ' measured from three 10 min scan data and compared with R v and R A measured from 23 scans for both NC and PP, (R v ', R v ') or NC and PP were (1.83±0.29, 2.21±0.34) and (0.63±0.34, 0.77±0.31), respectively. (R v ', R A ) for NC and PP were (1.11±0.22, 1.62±0.28) and (0.43±0.21, 0.65±0.24), respectively, Both (R v ', R v ) and (R A ', R A ) for NC were clearly separated from those for PP. R' v and R' A underestimated R v and R A by 18.4% and 33.5%, respectively, but R v ' and R A ' showed excellent correlations with R v (r=0.95) and R A (r=0.97), respectively. The results indicate that the three 10 min scan protocol may be feasible and allows us to differentiate dopamine transporter parameters in PP from those in NC

  1. Spin helical states and spin transport of the line defect in silicene lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou; Chen, Dong-Hai; Wang, Rui-Qiang [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui, E-mail: ykbai@semi.ac.cn [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2015-02-06

    We investigated the electronic structure of a silicene-like lattice with a line defect under the consideration of spin–orbit coupling. In the bulk energy gap, there are defect related bands corresponding to spin helical states localized beside the defect line: spin-up electrons flow forward on one side near the line defect and move backward on the other side, and vice versa for spin-down electrons. When the system is subjected to random distribution of spin-flipping scatterers, electrons suffer much less spin-flipped scattering when they transport along the line defect than in the bulk. An electric gate above the line defect can tune the spin-flipped transmission, which makes the line defect as a spin-controllable waveguide. - Highlights: • Band structure of silicene with a line defect. • Spin helical states around the line defect and their probability distribution features. • Spin transport along the line defect and that in the bulk silicene.

  2. City of New York v. United States Dep't of Transportation: urban radioactive waste transportation gets another green light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines the background of this suit, which invalidated a municipal law prohibiting the transportation of large quantities of radioactive waste through city streets. The analysis focuses on two major issues: (1) whether the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act gives the Department of Transportation (DOT) the rulemaking power to preempt local law, and (2) whether DOT should have prepared an environmental impact statement before rulemaking. It concludes that DOT's action was arbitrary, and suggests some intermediate actions that would aid DOT in making a more informed decision. This could include a verification of DOT environmental assessment data and a more complete analysis of human error. The case illustrates the need for a lesser degree of judicial deference to federal agency action with respect to the volatile and unpredictable area of hazardous waste transportation

  3. 48 CFR 47.403-2 - Air transport agreements between the United States and foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S... attend, the use of a foreign-flag air carrier that provides transportation under an air transport... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air transport agreements...

  4. Transportation properties of amorphous state InSb and its metastable middle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1990-09-01

    The variation of the substrate temperature induces the metal-semiconductor transition in the condensation InSb films at low temperatrue. The electron conduction is dominant in the metal-type amorphous InSb and the hole in semiconductor-type one. In the metal-type amorphous InSb the electron-electron is correlated under the field above 0.1T in the temperature region of liquid nitrogen. The structure relaxation leads to not only the increase of the short range order but also the change of electron structure in metal-type amorphous InSb. The first conductance jump originates mainly from the increase of Hall mobility of the carrier, i.e. the increase of the short range order, and the system relaxes from the liquid-like to the lattice-like amorphous state. The three types of the crystallization phase transition for the metal-type amorphous InSb present obviously different transportation behaviours. Both metal-type amorphous state and metastable middle phase of InSb all are one of superconducting system with the lowest carrier concentration (n 0 ∼10 18 cm -3 ). Superconducting T c of the metastable middle phase is related to the state density near Fermi surface, i.e. the higher T c corresponds to the higher state density. The quasi-two-dimensional structure is favourable to superconductivity

  5. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  6. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  7. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  8. Federal and state regulatory schemes affecting liability for high-level waste transportation incidents: opportunities for clarification and amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friel, L.E.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act of 1957 provides extensive public liability coverage in the event of a serious accident involving the transportation of nuclear materials to or from certain federally-licensed, or federal contractor-operated facilities. While actual liability for a nuclear incident and the extent of damages are usually determined by state law, the Act establishes a comprehensive system for the payment of such damages. Despite the federally-mandated scheme for liability coverage several aspects of the Act's application to transportation to a permanent repository have not yet been settled and are open to various interpretations. Some areas of uncertainty apply not only to future waste transport to a repository, but also to current transportation activities, and include: coverage for emergency response and clean-up costs; coverage for precautionary evacuations; and the federal government's financial liability. The need to address liability issues is also increasingly recognized at the state level. The state laws which are used to determine liability and the extent of damages in the event of a transportation accident vary widely among states and significantly affect the compensation that an injured person will receive under the provisions of the Price-Anderson Act. Areas of state law deserving special attention include: standards for determining liability; statutes of limitations; standards for proof of causation; state sovereign immunity statutes; and recovery of unique emergency response costs

  9. Quaternary structure of the lactose transport protein of Streptococcus thermophilus in the detergent-solubilized and membrane-reconstituted state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, R.H.E.; Poolman, B.; Knol, J.

    2000-01-01

    The quaternary structure of LacS, the lactose transporter of Streptococcus thermophilus, has been determined for the detergent-solubilized and the membrane-reconstituted state of the protein. The quaternary structure of the n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside-solubilized state was studied using a combination of

  10. Inventory of conventional air pollutants emissions from road transportation for the state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Cristiane Duarte Ribeiro de; Silva, Suellem Deodoro; Silva, Marcelino Aurélio Vieira da; D’Agosto, Márcio de Almeida; Barboza, Arthur Prado

    2013-01-01

    Road transportation has contributed to increased emissions of conventional air pollutants and, consequently, to the increase in problems associated with the environment and human health, depending on the type of pollutant and the concentration of it. To support the development of public policies aimed to decrease total tonnes of emissions, we used a bottom-up approach to estimate the amount of air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), and aldehydes (RCHO), that are emitted by road transportation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) from 1980 to 2010. The results from 2010 show that cars are responsible for 55% of CO emissions, 61% of THC emissions, and 93% of RCHO emissions. Due to the use of hydrated ethanol and compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of petroleum based fuels during the period analyzed, 1,760,370 t of air pollutant emissions were avoided. Compared to Brazil, in 2010, RJ had a quantity of emissions per vehicle from 12% (CO) to 59% (PM) smaller than the national average. As strategies to reduce air pollutant emissions, we consider reducing the intensity of use, with a proportional reduction in emissions, and increased the use of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► We estimate road transportation emissions for Rio de Janeiro from 1980 to 2010. ► C gasoline was most responsible for CO (74%) and diesel for PM (91%). ► Emissions/vehicle for Rio de Janeiro are (12% to 59%) smaller than Brazilian. ► 1,760,370 t of emissions was avoided using non-petroleum-based fuels. ► Strategies to reduce the emissions of these air pollutants were proposed.

  11. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985.

  13. Boiling liquid expanded vapor explosion (BLEVE) of petroleum storage and transportation facilities case study Khartoum State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elatabani, E. G. M.

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study includes the identification of possible causes of fires and explosions resulting from liquefied petroleum gases in Khartoum state, method of raising the awareness and knowledge of risks resulting from them, in addition to the proposal of safety precautions in the event of such incidents. The study was conducted in highly populated Khartoum state. It was in that context, the compilation and analysis of information on fire statistics was carried based on data collected through field studies and records of the civil defense - Administrative of Khartoum state, during period between (2007 - 2009). The procedure followed include statistical analysis of the collected data using program (e-views) method of estimation of least squares (LS). The obtained results of this method is negative sign and the percentage of house fires represent 98% from other type of fires (petroleum service stations - LPG tankers). These results, revealed that most of those fires were due to leakage of gas in residential houses attributed to lack of awareness of possible dangers and underestimation of safety precautions compared to those taken in to consideration in petroleum service stations and during transportation phases. The main recommendation of this study is to strengthen means of raising public awareness of dangers caused by liquefied petroleum gases fire through special media programs and training of workers in the field of civil defense and the empowerment of safety procedures. (Author)

  14. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland); Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  15. Application of State Quantization-Based Methods in HEP Particle Transport Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Lucio; Ponieman, Nicolás; Jun, Soon Yung; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Castro, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    Simulation of particle-matter interactions in complex geometries is one of the main tasks in high energy physics (HEP) research. An essential aspect of it is an accurate and efficient particle transportation in a non-uniform magnetic field, which includes the handling of volume crossings within a predefined 3D geometry. Quantized State Systems (QSS) is a family of numerical methods that provides attractive features for particle transportation processes, such as dense output (sequences of polynomial segments changing only according to accuracy-driven discrete events) and lightweight detection and handling of volume crossings (based on simple root-finding of polynomial functions). In this work we present a proof-of-concept performance comparison between a QSS-based standalone numerical solver and an application based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit, with its default Runge-Kutta based adaptive step method. In a case study with a charged particle circulating in a vacuum (with interactions with matter turned off), in a uniform magnetic field, and crossing up to 200 volume boundaries twice per turn, simulation results showed speedups of up to 6 times in favor of QSS while it being 10 times slower in the case with zero volume boundaries.

  16. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-07-13

    We demonstrate that local and long range orders of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) semicrystalline films can be synergistically improved by combining chemical functionalization of the dielectric surface with solution-state disentanglement and pre-aggregation of P3HT in a theta solvent, leading to a very significant enhancement of the field effect carrier mobility. The pre-aggregation and surface functionalization effects combine to enhance the carrier mobility nearly 100-fold as compared with standard film preparation by spin-coating, and nearly 10-fold increase over the benefits of pre-aggregation alone. In situ quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) experiments reveal enhanced deposition of pre-aggregates on surfaces modified with an alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) in comparison to un-aggregated polymer chains. Additional investigations reveal the combined pre-aggregation and surface functionalization significantly enhances local order of the conjugated polymer through planarization and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining complementary routes, such as well-known pre-aggregation with substrate chemical functionalization, to enhance the polymer self-assembly and improve its interfacial order with benefits for transport properties.

  17. Scale-Free Networks and Commercial Air Carrier Transportation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.

    2004-01-01

    Network science, or the art of describing system structure, may be useful for the analysis and control of large, complex systems. For example, networks exhibiting scale-free structure have been found to be particularly well suited to deal with environmental uncertainty and large demand growth. The National Airspace System may be, at least in part, a scalable network. In fact, the hub-and-spoke structure of the commercial segment of the NAS is an often-cited example of an existing scale-free network After reviewing the nature and attributes of scale-free networks, this assertion is put to the test: is commercial air carrier transportation in the United States well explained by this model? If so, are the positive attributes of these networks, e.g. those of efficiency, flexibility and robustness, fully realized, or could we effect substantial improvement? This paper first outlines attributes of various network types, then looks more closely at the common carrier air transportation network from perspectives of the traveler, the airlines, and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Network models are applied within each paradigm, including discussion of implied strengths and weaknesses of each model. Finally, known limitations of scalable networks are discussed. With an eye towards NAS operations, utilizing the strengths and avoiding the weaknesses of scale-free networks are addressed.

  18. Anisotropy effect of the clay soil masses on the stress-strain state of transport tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Boris Semenovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the kinds of clay soil mass anisotropy in the form of the spatial heterogeneity of properties of thawed and frozen soils, ambiguity of the frost heaving values and shrinkage in different directions. The questions of anisotropy of the clay soil properties at the positive temperatures are reported. The dependence of the heterogeneity of the physical and mechanical properties of frozen soils from the cryogenic texture, natural arrangement, different types of stratification and interbedding is considered. Indexes of the strength and strain anisotropy are noted. The accounting possibilities of the basic numerical indexes of heaving phenomena from the standpoint of anisotropy of the properties and processes inherent in the freezing through soil are analyzed by substitution in the heaving strain formula. The unevenness of thawed soil shrinkage in vertical and horizontal directions is noted during the freezing of the top layer. The unevenness of shrinkage in different directions is connected with kind of stress and cryogenic texture. Anisotropy of the frost heaving process is considered in the context of one-dimensional and non-one-dimensional problem depending on the amount of the freezing fronts and their direction. There is summarized the effect of anisotropy appearances on the stress-strain state of the transport tunnel. One can conclude that the resulting non-uniformity of heaving and shrinkage in conjunction with anisotropic properties of frozen soils, is a significant component in the complex of power factors determining the optimal design solution of a transport tunnel.

  19. Electronic transport in the quantum spin Hall state due to the presence of adatoms in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio

    Heavy adatoms, even at low concentrations, are predicted to turn a graphene sheet into a topological insulator with substantial gap. The adatoms mediate the spin-orbit coupling that is fundamental to the quantum spin Hall effect. The adatoms act as local spin-orbit scatterer inducing hopping processes between distant carbon atoms giving origin to transverse spin currents. Although there are effective models that describe spectral properties of such systems with great detail, quantitative theoretical work for the transport counterpart is still lacking. We developed a multiprobe recursive Green's function technique with spin resolution to analyze the transport properties for large geometries. We use an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian to describe the problem of adatoms randomly placed at the center of the honeycomb hexagons, which is the case for most transition metals. Our choice of current and voltage probes is favorable to experiments since it filters the contribution of only one spin orientation, leading to a quantized spin Hall conductance of e2 / h . We also discuss the electronic propagation in the system by imaging the local density of states and the electronic current densities. The authors acknowledge the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  20. The projected environmental impacts of transportation of radioactive material to the first United States repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Reardon, P.C.; McNair, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The relative national environmental impacts of transporting spent fuel and other nuclear wastes to each of 9 candidate repository sites in the United States were analyzed for the 26-year period of repository operation. Two scenarios were examined for each repository: 1) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel and Defence High-Level Waste (DHLW) directly from their points of origin to a repository (reference case); and 2) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and shipment (by dedicated rail) of 10-year-old consolidated spent fuel from the MRS to a repository. Transport by either all truck or all rail from the points of origin were analyzed as bounding cases. The computational system used to analyze these impacts included the WASTES II logistics code and the RADTRAN III risk analysis code. The radiological risks for the reference case increased as the total shipment miles to a repository increased for truck; the risks also increased with mileage for rail but at a lower rate. For the MRS scenario the differences between repository sites were less pronounced for both modal options, because of the reduction in total shipment miles possible with the large dedicated rail casks. All the risks reported are small in comparison to the radiological risks due to 'natural background'

  1. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  2. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, G A; Wolken, K W

    1981-10-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites.

  3. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, G.A.; Wolken, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites

  4. A mixture theory model of fluid and solute transport in the microvasculature of normal and malignant tissues. II: Factor sensitivity analysis, calibration, and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuff, M M; Gore, J P; Nauman, E A

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of cancerous tumors is dependent upon the delivery of therapeutics through the blood by means of the microcirculation. Differences in the vasculature of normal and malignant tissues have been recognized, but it is not fully understood how these differences affect transport and the applicability of existing mathematical models has been questioned at the microscale due to the complex rheology of blood and fluid exchange with the tissue. In addition to determining an appropriate set of governing equations it is necessary to specify appropriate model parameters based on physiological data. To this end, a two stage sensitivity analysis is described which makes it possible to determine the set of parameters most important to the model's calibration. In the first stage, the fluid flow equations are examined and a sensitivity analysis is used to evaluate the importance of 11 different model parameters. Of these, only four substantially influence the intravascular axial flow providing a tractable set that could be calibrated using red blood cell velocity data from the literature. The second stage also utilizes a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of 14 model parameters on extravascular flux. Of these, six exhibit high sensitivity and are integrated into the model calibration using a response surface methodology and experimental intra- and extravascular accumulation data from the literature (Dreher et al. in J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):335-344, 2006). The model exhibits good agreement with the experimental results for both the mean extravascular concentration and the penetration depth as a function of time for inert dextran over a wide range of molecular weights.

  5. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lundåsen

    Full Text Available Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2 and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c. Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

  7. Surface runoff and tile drainage transport of phosphorus in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas R; King, Kevin W; Johnson, Laura; Francesconi, Wendy; Richards, Pete; Baker, Dave; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    The midwestern United States offers some of the most productive agricultural soils in the world. Given the cool humid climate, much of the region would not be able to support agriculture without subsurface (tile) drainage because high water tables may damage crops and prevent machinery usage in fields at critical times. Although drainage is designed to remove excess soil water as quickly as possible, it can also rapidly transport agrochemicals, including phosphorus (P). This paper illustrates the potential importance of tile drainage for P transport throughout the midwestern United States. Surface runoff and tile drainage from fields in the St. Joseph River Watershed in northeastern Indiana have been monitored since 2008. Although the traditional concept of tile drainage has been that it slowly removes soil matrix flow, peak tile discharge occurred at the same time as peak surface runoff, which demonstrates a strong surface connection through macropore flow. On our research fields, 49% of soluble P and 48% of total P losses occurred via tile discharge. Edge-of-field soluble P and total P areal loads often exceeded watershed-scale areal loadings from the Maumee River, the primary source of nutrients to the western basin of Lake Erie, where algal blooms have been a pervasive problem for the last 10 yr. As farmers, researchers, and policymakers search for treatments to reduce P loading to surface waters, the present work demonstrates that treating only surface runoff may not be sufficient to reach the goal of 41% reduction in P loading for the Lake Erie Basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Transportation infrastructure upgrades in the South: A compilation of state plans for construction near nuclear reactor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    There are currently 27 nuclear reactor sites located in the southern region. In many instances, the most practicable modes of transportation of spent nuclear fuel from these sites we through the use of highway and rail systems. These two transportation modes have important differences that affect their applicability; chief among these, perhaps, is the fact that while highway systems are publicly owned and maintained rail lines are owned by private entities. For this reason, track condition and maintenance, usage rates and other aspects of rail transport can vary widely. This report reviews southern state, department plans for infrastructure upgrades in the vicinity of nuclear reactor sites. This report includes a summary of planned modifications to bridges, access highways, and rail spurs (where applicable) over the next five years. The information contained herein was gathered from interviews with officials within state departments of transportation. With few exceptions, the contact person was an official within the departmental planning division

  9. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention...... given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ≈ 1...... temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob...

  10. Impact of the Topological Surface State on the Thermoelectric Transport in Sb2Te3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsche, Nicki F; Zastrow, Sebastian; Gooth, Johannes; Pudewill, Laurens; Zierold, Robert; Rittweger, Florian; Rauch, Tomáš; Henk, Jürgen; Nielsch, Kornelius; Mertig, Ingrid

    2015-04-28

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory and tight-binding methods for the thermoelectric properties of p-type Sb2Te3 films are presented. The thickness-dependent electrical conductivity and the thermopower are computed in the diffusive limit of transport based on the Boltzmann equation. Contributions of the bulk and the surface to the transport coefficients are separated, which enables to identify a clear impact of the topological surface state on the thermoelectric properties. When the charge carrier concentration is tuned, a crossover between a surface-state-dominant and a Fuchs-Sondheimer transport regime is achieved. The calculations are corroborated by thermoelectric transport measurements on Sb2Te3 films grown by atomic layer deposition.

  11. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Afshan Shaikh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The leucine transporter (LeuT has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS, and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold", a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF and inward-facing (IF states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural

  12. Effect of the poloidal current from the classical diffusion in the steady-state neo-classical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igna Junior, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The relevant parameters of two steady-state models of a plasma column, in fusion regime, were analyzed for an ideal Tokamak. The neo-classical transport theory was considered in the banana regime and in the Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The first model proposes a correction in the numerical coefficients of the transport equations. In the other one, a poloidal current from Pfirsch-Schlueter classical diffusion is considered aiming to satisfy the pressure balance. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Candy, Jeff [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO - a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two

  14. One-dimensional time-dependent conduction states and temperature distribution along a normal zone during a quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The quench simulations of a superconducting (s.c.) magnet requires some assumptions about the evolution of the normal zone and its temperature profile. The axial evolution of the normal zone is considered through the longitudinal quench velocity. However, the transversal quench propagation may be considered through the transversal quench velocity or with the turn-to-turn time delay quench propagation. The temperature distribution has been assumed adiabatic-like or cosine-like in two different computer programs. Although both profiles are different, they bring about more or less the same qualitative quench results differing only in about 8%. Unfortunately, there are not experimental data for the temperature profile along the conductor in a quench event to have a realistic comparison. Little attention has received the temperature profile, mainly because it is not so critical parameter in the quench analysis. Nonetheless, a confident quench analysis requires that the temperature distribution along the normal zone be taken into account with good approximation. In this paper, an analytical study is made about the temperature profile

  15. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Norgaard, T.; Luong, N. M.; Vendelboe, A. L.; Moldrup, P.; Jarvis, N. J.; Lamandé, M.; Iversen, B. V.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field site in Silstrup (Denmark) at a sampling distance of approximately 15 m (with a few exceptions), covering an area of approximately 1 ha (60 m × 165 m). For 64 of the 65 investigated soil columns, we observed BTC shapes indicating a strong preferential transport. The strength of preferential transport was positively correlated with the bulk density and the degree of water saturation. The latter suggests that preferential macropore transport was the dominating transport process. Increased bulk densities were presumably related with a decrease in near-saturated hydraulic conductivities and as a consequence to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column scale have to be upscaled when applied to the field scale or larger.

  16. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Three mechanisms model of shale gas in real state transport through a single nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Yanyu; Sun, Xiaofei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Fengkai

    2018-02-01

    At present, the apparent permeability models of shale gas consider only the viscous flow and Knudsen diffusion of free gas, but do not take into account the influence of surface diffusion. Moreover, it is assumed that shale gas is in ideal state. In this paper, shale gas is assumed in real state, a new apparent permeability model for shale gas transport through a single nanopore is developed that captures many important migration mechanisms, such as viscous flow and Knudsen diffusion of free gas, surface diffusion of adsorbed gas. According to experimental data, the accuracy of apparent permeability model was verified. What’s more, the effects of pressure and pore radius on apparent permeability, and the effects on the permeability fraction of viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion were analysed, separately. Finally, the results indicate that the error of the developed model in this paper was 3.02%, which is less than the existing models. Pressure and pore radius seriously affect the apparent permeability of shale gas. When the pore radius is small or pressure is low, the surface diffusion cannot be ignored. When the pressure and the pore radius is big, the viscous flow occupies the main position.

  18. Progress towards steady-state operation and real time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.

    2002-01-01

    In JET advanced tokamak research mainly focuses on plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), generated by modifications of the current profile. The formerly developed optimised shear regime with low magnetic shear in the plasma center has been extended to deeply reversed magnetic shear configurations. ITBs occur at much lower access powers. The achievement of high fusion performance is reported in deeply reversed magnetic shear configuration. The generation of plasmas with wide ITBs in this configuration has allowed an extension of the accessible normalised toroidal beta at high magnetic field. We report on the successful sustainment and control of the electron and ion ITB in full current drive operation with a large fraction of bootstrap current. Progress towards the steady state capability of ITB plasmas includes techniques to avoid strong ELM activity and the newly developed real time control of the local ITB strength. Thanks to the real time control of the ITB characteristics the improved confinement state is maintained in a more reproducible and stable manner in quasi-stationary conditions. (author)

  19. Effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the doped multifilamentary Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.S.; Dheer, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the Ga-, In-, Ti- and Zr-doped (1 wt%) Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique have been investigated in this paper. The wires annealed at 700 C for 10 h and then quenched at room temperature, show a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature, T c , and increase in the transition width, ΔT. Doping of the Cu-Nb wires causes an increase in the normal state resistivity and hence the upper critical field, H C2 . This results in a significant increase of J c . Annealing of these doped samples decreases H C2 and J c . In the case of In- and Ga-doped samples J c shows a marginal improvement at lower field but decreases at higher field. Zr and Ti doping appears to be beneficial for the improved J c in these in situ materials. (orig.)

  20. Comparative analysis of morphological and topometric parameters of lumbar spine in normal state and in degenerative-dystrophic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimova Е.А.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out comparative analysis and identify patterns of topographic variation patterns of lumbar spine in normal and degenerative changes. Material and methods. CT- and MRT-grams for men and women I (M1-22-35 years; W — 21-35 years and II (M2-36-60 years; W2-36-55 years periods of mature age with no signs of trauma, scoliosis and systemic diseases of the spine (n=140 and CT- and MRT-grams in patients with revealed degenerative changes in the lumbar spine degree II-III (n=120. The pictures with digital PACS system measure the height of the vertebral body, intervertebral disc height, vertical, horizontal diameter and the area of intervertebral foramen. Results. The height of the lumbar vertebral bodies normally increased from27,90±0,38mmatthe level of L, to 29,93±0,33 mm Lm, and then decreased to 24,35±0,27 mm at level L^, in osteochondrosis it is statistically significantly lower at all levels on average by 20%. The height of the intervertebral disc with osteochondrosis below at all levels by an average of 25% of its value in the range 5,27±0,19 to 6,13±0,17mm, while the normal disc height varies from 6,88±030 to 9,36±0,28mm. The area of intervertebral holes normally ranging from 103,29±5,78 to 127,99±5,92mm2, with osteochondrosis aperture area is reduced to a greater extent by decreasing the vertical diameter in comparison with the horizontal. Conclusion. For the studied parameters characteristic topographic variability has been determined. The maximum values parameters are marked at the top of the lumbar lordosis, at chest height, lumbar and lumbosacral junctions sizes are reduced. In osteochondrosis the intervertebral disc height and the height of lumbar vertebral bodies are reduced; intervertebral foramina area is also reduced to a greater extent by reducing the vertical diameter than the horizontal one.

  1. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: CAN NONLOCAL TRANSPORT EXPLAIN HELIOSPHERIC CHARGE STATES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfvén waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This Letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturbative description of nonlocal electron transport is applied to an existing set of wave/turbulence models. The resulting electron velocity distributions in the low corona exhibit mild suprathermal tails characterized by ''kappa'' exponents between 10 and 25. These suprathermal electrons are found to be sufficiently energetic to enhance the charge states of oxygen ions, while maintaining the same relative trend with wind speed that was found when the distribution was assumed to be Maxwellian. The updated wave/turbulence models are in excellent agreement with solar wind ion composition measurements

  2. Transport of radiolabelled glycoprotein to cell surface and lysosome-like bodies of absorptive cells in cultured small-intestinal tissue from normal subjects and patients with a lysosomal storage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsel, L.A.; Onderwater, J.J.M.; Daems, W.T.

    1979-01-01

    The transport of 3 H-fucose and 3 H-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins in the absorptive cells of cultured human small-intestinal tissue was investigated with light- and electron-microscopical autoradiography. The findings showed that these glycoproteins were completed in the Golgi apparatus and transported in small vesicular structures to the apical cytoplasm of these cells. Since this material arrived in the cell coat on the microvilli and in the lysosome-like bodies simultaneously, a crinophagic function of these organelles in the regulation of the transport or secretion of cell-coat material was supported. In the absorptive cells of patients with fucosidosis or Hunter's type of lysosomal storage disease, a similar transport of cell-coat material to the lysosome-like bodies and a congenital defect of a lysosomal hydrolase normally involved in the degradation of cell-coat material, can explain the accumulation of this material in the dense bodies. (orig.) [de

  3. Case studies of transportation investment to identify the impacts on the local and state economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This project provides case studies of the impact of transportation investments on local economies. We use multiple : approaches to measure impacts since the effects of transportation projects can vary according to the size of a : project and the size...

  4. Better state-of-good-repair indicators for the transportation performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Performance Index was developed for the US Chamber of Commerce to track the : performance of transportation infrastructure over time and explore the connection between economic : health and infrastructure performance. This project ...

  5. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  6. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 75 FR 52591 - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Requirements on Gasoline Transport Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... gasoline transport vehicle (6 NYCRR 230.6(b)); and (3) to retain pressure-vacuum test and repair results... Gasoline Transport Vehicles AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... recent pressure- vacuum test results with the gasoline transport vehicle and retaining pressure-vacuum...

  8. Incorporating Logistics in Freight Transport Demand Models: State-of-the-Art and Research Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ruijgrok, K.; Davydenko, I.

    2012-01-01

    Freight transport demand is a demand derived from all the activities needed to move goods between locations of production to locations of consumption, including trade, logistics and transportation. A good representation of logistics in freight transport demand models allows us to predict the effects

  9. Regimes of radiative and nonradiative transitions in transport through an electronic system in a photon cavity reaching a steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Jonsson, Thorsteinn H.; Bernodusson, Maria Laura; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We analyze how a multilevel many-electron system in a photon cavity approaches the steady state when coupled to external leads. When a plunger gate is used to lower cavity photon dressed one- and two-electron states below the bias window defined by the external leads, we can identify one regime with nonradiative transitions dominating the electron transport, and another regime with radiative transitions. Both transitions trap the electrons in the states below the bias bringing the system into a steady state. The order of the two regimes and their relative strength depends on the location of the bias window in the energy spectrum of the system and the initial conditions.

  10. UDOT research peer exchange, October 12-13, 2016 : implementation, state DOT library, national committees, and state transportation innovation council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) held a Research Peer Exchange on October 12-13, 2016, in downtown Salt Lake City. The focus topics or themes for the peer exchange included the following: : Supporting Implementation During and A...

  11. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schiöth, H B

    2016-11-01

    In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese and normal-weight females, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations were measured in the morning following an overnight fast in 17 obese (age: 39±11 years, body mass index (BMI): 42.3±4.8 kg m - 2 ) and 12 normal-weight females (age: 36±12 years, BMI: 22.7±1.8 kg m - 2 ), both before and 30 min after consumption of a standardized meal (~260 kcal). Compared with normal-weight controls, obese females had increased low-frequency activity in clusters located in the putamen, claustrum and insula (Pfood intake. Self-reported hunger dropped and plasma glucose concentrations increased after food intake (Pfood intake under the experimental settings applied in the current study. Future studies involving males and females, as well as utilizing repeated post-prandial resting-state fMRI scans and various types of meals are needed to further investigate how food intake alters resting-state brain activity in obese humans.

  12. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  13. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  14. Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia; Chen, Liping; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Kai; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Charge transport within electrode materials plays a key role in determining the optoelectronic device performance. Aligned single-crystal TiO 2 nanowire arrays offer an ideal electron transport path and are expected to have higher electron mobility. Unfortunately, their transport is found not to be superior to that in nanoparticle films. Here we show that the low electron transport in rutile TiO 2 nanowires is mainly caused by surface traps in relatively deep energy levels, which cannot be removed by conventional approaches, such as oxygen annealing treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective wet-chemistry approach to minimize these trap states, leading to over 20-fold enhancement in electron diffusion coefficient and 62% improvement in solar cell performance. On the basis of our results, the potential of TiO 2 NWs can be developed and well-utilized, which is significantly important for their practical applications.

  15. Application of United States Department of Transportation regulations to hazardous material and waste shipments on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    All hazardous material and waste transported over roadways open to the public must be in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. The DOT states that the hazardous material regulations (HMR) also apply to government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) transportation operations over any U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site roadway where the public has free and unrestricted access. Hazardous material and waste in packages that do not meet DOT regulations must be transported on DOE site roadways in a manner that excludes the public and nonessential workers. At the DOE Richland Field Office (the Hanford Site), hazardous material and waste movements that do not meet DOT requirements are transported over public access roadways during off-peak hours with the roadways barricaded. These movements are accomplished using a transportation plan that involves the DOE, DOE contractors, and private utilities who operate on or near the Hanford Site. This method, which is used at the Hanford Site to comply with DOT regulations onsite, can be communicated to other DOE sites to provide a basis for achieving consistency in similar transportation operations. (author)

  16. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables......, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field...... to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column...

  17. Magnetic properties of κ-(MDTTTF)2AuI2 salt in the normal and superconducting states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaes, P.; Amiell, J.; Flandrois, S.; Ducasse, L.; Fritsch, A.; Hilti, B.; Mayer, C.W.; Zambounis, J.; Papavassiliou, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties (ESR, static susceptibility and magnetization experiments) of the new organic superconductor κ-(MDTTTF) 2 AuI 2 above and below the SC phase transition temperature (T c ≥ 4 K). At ambient pressure the electronic structures of this salt and of two related compounds κ-(BEDT) 2 Cu(SCN) 2 and κ-(BEDT) 2 Ag(CN) 2 , H 2 O have been calculated using an extended Huckel method. The analysis of both experimental results and calculated data has led us to propose a unified picture independently of the present molecular blocks. Finally the problem of the competition between the SC and AF low-temperature states which is based on the experimental evidences of electronic correlations has been examined. However, in the absence of any experimental evidence of an AF state, the origin of the electron pairing is still unclear in these quasi 2d materials

  18. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Flodin; S. Martinsen; K. Mannerkorpi; M. Löfgren; I. Bileviciute-Ljungar; E. Kosek; P. Fransson

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown ...

  19. Combined analysis of steady state and transient transport by the maximum entropy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L.; Stroth, U; Koellermeyer, J [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); and others

    1996-04-01

    A new maximum entropy approach has been applied to analyse three types of transient transport experiments. For sawtooth propagation experiments in the ASDEX Upgrade and ECRH power modulation and power-switching experiments in the Wendelstein 7-AS Stellarator, either the time evolution of the temperature perturbation or the phase and amplitude of the modulated temperature perturbation are used as non-linear constraints to the {chi}{sub e} profile to be fitted. Simultaneously, the constraints given by the equilibrium temperature profile for steady-state power balance are fitted. In the maximum entropy formulation, the flattest {chi}{sub e} profile consistent with the constraints is found. It was found that {chi}{sub e} determined from sawtooth propagation was greater than the power balance value by a factor of five in the ASDEX Upgrade. From power modulation experiments, employing the measurements of four modulation frequencies simultaneously, the power deposition profile as well as the {chi}{sub e} profile could be determined. A comparison of the predictions of a time-independent {chi}{sub e} model and a power-dependent {chi}{sub e} model is made. The power-switching experiments show that the {chi}{sub e} profile must change within a millisecond to a new value consistent with the power balance value at the new input power. Neither power deposition broadening due to suprathermal electrons nor temperature or gradient dependences of {chi}{sub e} can explain this observation. (author).

  20. Low-rank Kalman filtering for efficient state estimation of subsurface advective contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2012-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the movement of contaminants in porous media is essential to track their trajectory and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is implemented and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model in the same porous medium. Because of different sources of uncertainties, this coupled model might not be able to accurately track the contaminant state. Incorporating observations through the process of data assimilation can guide the model toward the true trajectory of the system. The Kalman filter (KF), or its nonlinear invariants, can be used to tackle this problem. To overcome the prohibitive computational cost of the KF, the singular evolutive Kalman filter (SEKF) and the singular fixed Kalman filter (SFKF) are used, which are variants of the KF operating with low-rank covariance matrices. Experimental results suggest that under perfect and imperfect model setups, the low-rank filters can provide estimates as accurate as the full KF but at much lower computational effort. Low-rank filters are demonstrated to significantly reduce the computational effort of the KF to almost 3%. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  1. Vitamin D levels in patients with albinism compared with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Walt, Johanna E C; Sinclair, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Associations between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases, including several bone diseases, various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, have been suggested. It is therefore important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in high-risk groups. Because patients with albinism (PWA) practice a policy of strict sun avoidance, they may be at risk for low levels of vitamin D. This study was conducted in patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, to determine sun avoidance behavior in the patient population and to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in PWA with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending the same clinics. Serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed in 50 PWA and 50 normally pigmented Black control subjects. Questionnaires on sun exposure avoidance behaviors were administered to all participants. The present study showed no statistically significant difference in median 25(OH)D levels between PWA and controls with normally pigmented Black skin. Rather, the study found a tendency for controls to have lower 25(OH)D levels. A total of 53% (n = 53) of all study participants (PWA and controls) had a 25(OH)D level of albinism attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, need not be viewed as specifically at risk for low vitamin D levels. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Altered expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins and improved myocardial energetic state during late ischemic preconditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Cabrera (Jesús); E.A. Ziemba (Elizabeth); L.H. Colbert (Lisa); L.B. Anderson (Lorraine); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); T.A. Butterick (Tammy); J. Sikora (Joseph); H.B. Ward (Herbert B.); R.F. Kelly (Rosemary); E.O. McFalls (Edward)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAltered expression of mitochondrial electron transport proteins has been shown in early preconditioned myocardial tissue. We wished to determine whether these alterations persist in the Second Window of Protection (SWOP) and if so, whether a favorable energetic state is facilitated

  3. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang; Melas-Kyriazi, John; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Chittibabu, Kethinni G.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grä tzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    We report using doctor-blading to replace conventional spin coating for the deposition of the hole-transport material spiro-OMeTAD (2,20,7,70-tetrakis-(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)- 9,90-spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

  4. Analytical solution and simplified analysis of coupled parent-daughter steady-state transport with multirate mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    In this technical note, a steady-state analytical solution of concentrations of a parent solute reacting to a daughter solute, both of which are undergoing transport and multirate mass transfer, is presented. Although the governing equations are complicated, the resulting solution can be expressed in simple terms. A function of the ratio of concentrations, In (daughter...

  5. [Water-exchange processes in hyaline cartilage and its basic components in a normal state and in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S S; Chkhol, K Z; Bykov, V A; Roshchina, A A; Iakovleva, L V; Koroleva, O A; Omel'ianenko, N P; Rebrov, L B

    2000-01-01

    The content of different forms of tissue water was studied in the normal articular cartilage and osteoarthrosis cartilage and its structural components: collagen, potassium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitinsulphate and its complexes. In the components of cartilage matrix a few of fractions of bound water different in the strength of binding are present. At the maximal humidity, all water in collagen binds with the active groups of biopolymers and in the glycosaminoglycans, in addition to bound water, are present, two crystal forms of freezing water (free water) at least. The quantity of free water in the collagen-chondroitin sulphat membrane, is increased with the increase of chondroitin sulphate. In the collagen-hyaluronate complex, fraction of free water is found only at the low concentration of hyaluronate kalium. It was shown that in the hyalin cartilage, in different from the other connective tissue (skin, achilles tendon), the most part of water is free water and its quantity is increased in the osteoarthrosis. It is supposed that the rearrangement of binding and free-water fractions in the osteoarthrosis is the result of deficiency of hyaluronic acid and therefore this may be regarded in the improvement of methods of treatment. This scientific and methodical approach allow to receive information on the forms and binding energy of water in the biological tissues, which is absorbed from fluids and steam phase and determine characters of the pathological changes.

  6. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  7. Spent nuclear fuel transport: Problem state and analysis of modern approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovs'kij, A.V.; Yatsenko, M.V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the review of international and national experience related to transport of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and trends in the development of transport containers. The analysis covers the vectors for the future improvement of packaging and the regulatory framework on SNF transport in Ukraine and other countries. The tasks for future research were identified. The results of this research will be used during the operation of the CSNSF.

  8. Theory of the Andreev reflection and the density of states in proximity contact normal-superconducting infinite double-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagato, Yasushi; Nagai, Katsuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Proximity contact N-S double-layer with infinite layer widths is studied in the clean limit. The finite reflection at the interface is taken into account. Starting from a recent theory of finite width double-layer by Ashida et al., the authors obtain explicit expressions for the quasi-classical Green's function which already satisfy the boundary condition and include no exploding terms at infinities. The self-consistent pair potentials are obtained numerically with sufficient accuracy. The Andreev reflection at the N-S interface is discussed on the basis of the self-consistent pair potential. It is shown that there exists a resonance state in a potential valley formed between the depressed pair potential and the partially reflecting interface, which leads to a peak of the Andreev reflection coefficient with the height unity slightly below the bulk superconductor energy gap. They also find general relationship between the Andreev reflection coefficient and the local density of states of the superconductor just at the interface

  9. Department of Energy (DOE) transportation system for nuclear materials and the role of state law enforcement agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.; Hoover, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been assigned the responsibility for the safe and secure movement of strategic quantities of government-owned special nuclear material as well as classified material. To accomplish this mission, a transportation system has been developed which takes advantage of advanced technology and other features to reduce vulnerability to terrorists. The system consists of a careful balance of specially-trained personnel, procedures and sophisticated equipment. These, in combination, generally allow the system to be self-sufficient. However, should the need arise, DOE will request assistance from state law enforcement agencies. The primary contact for assistance is the state police or highway patrol. DOE, with the assistance of Sandia Laboratories, has surveyed state police agencies throughout the nation. A data base has been created which includes the results of these surveys and a numerical description of DOE transportation routes. This data base, along with a ''Response'' model developed by Sandia Laboratories, allows projections of officer availability to be made for all of DOE's routes. This paper will describe the DOE Transportation System, the role of state law enforcement agencies in support of the system, the nationwide state policy survey, and the operation of the response computer model

  10. Physical properties in the normal state of the molecular superconductor Κ-(BEDT)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, G.C.; Lagouvardos, D.J.; Terzis, A.; Amiell, J.; Garrigou-Lagrange, C.; Delhaes, P.; Hilti, B.; Pfeiffer, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the electrical, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the K-phase molecular conductor K-(BEDT) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 between room temperature and the liquid He 4 temperature range. We have shown that an intermittent superconducting material is present around or below 4 K which presents above this temperature limited spin fluctuations. The influence of disorder inside the anionic layers is discussed with respect to the X-ray crystal structure, and also the intrinsic effects due to temperature or pressure to explain this situation. Finally, the specific behaviour of the ESR linewidth at low temperature is analysed as a magnetic precursor regime of the supposed superconducting ground state. (orig.)

  11. Enhancement of relaxation rates in the normal state of superconductor PuRhGa5:NQR relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, H.; Kambe, S.; Tokunaga, Y.; Fujimoto, T.; Walstedt, R.E.; Yasuoka, H.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Yamamoto, E.; Nakamura, A.; Shiokawa, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Arai, Y.; Matsuda, T.D.; Haga, Y.; Onuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) have been measured under zero field using nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines in superconductor PuRhGa 5 and Pauli-paramagnet LuCoGa 5 . In the reference LuCoGa 5 with fully-occupied 4f shell, the 1/T 1 shows the constant behavior of (T 1 T) -1 =0.495+/-0.002(sK) -1 . On the other hand, in PuRhGa 5 , 1/T 1 is much larger than in LuCoGa 5 and the 1/T 1 ∝T behavior below ∼30K is seen, where its (T 1 T) -1 value is 3.27+/-0.005(sK) -1 . These results suggest a development of coherent Fermi liquid state incorporated with 5f electrons below ∼30K in PuRhGa 5

  12. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  14. Evidence of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties for two-state protein folding/unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Hamidur; Khan, Md. Khurshid Alam; Hassan, Md. Imtaiyaz; Islam, Asimul; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ahmad, Faizan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal curves of two different structural properties is consistence with the two-state protein folding/unfolding. ► DSC measurements of denaturation show a two-state behavior of g-cyt-c at pH 6.0. ► Urea-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a variable two- state process at pH 6.0. ► GdmCl-induced denaturation of g-cyt-c is a fixed two- state process at pH 6.0. -- Abstract: In practice, the observation of non-coincidence of normalized sigmoidal transition curves measured by two different structural properties constitutes a proof of existence of thermodynamically stable intermediate(s) on the folding ↔ unfolding pathway of a protein. Here we give first experimental evidence that this non-coincidence is also observed for a two-state protein denaturation. Proof of this evidence comes from our studies of denaturation of goat cytochrome-c (g-cyt-c) at pH 6.0. These studies involve differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements in the absence of urea and measurements of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by observing changes in absorbance at 405, 530, and 695 nm and circular dichroism (CD) at 222, 405, and 416 nm. DSC measurements showed that denaturation of the protein is a two-state process, for calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy changes are, within experimental errors, identical. Normalization of urea-induced denaturation curves monitored by optical properties leads to noncoincident sigmoidal curves. Heat-induced transition of g-cyt-c in the presence of different urea concentrations was monitored by CD at 222 nm and absorption at 405 nm. It was observed that these two different structural probes gave not only identical values of T m (transition temperature), ΔH m (change in enthalpy at T m ) and ΔC p (constant-pressure heat capacity change), but these thermodynamic parameters in the absence of urea are also in agreement with those obtained from DSC measurements

  15. Higher resting-state activity in reward-related brain circuits in obese versus normal-weight females independent of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P S; Zhou, W; Dahlberg, L S; Stark, J; Larsen, A L; Olivo, G; Wiemerslage, L; Larsson, E-M; Sundbom, M; Benedict, C; Schi?th, H B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In response to food cues, obese vs normal-weight individuals show greater activation in brain regions involved in the regulation of food intake under both fasted and sated conditions. Putative effects of obesity on task-independent low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signals-that is, resting-state brain activity-in the context of food intake are, however, less well studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare eyes closed, whole-brain low-frequency BOLD signals between severely obese...

  16. Transport and solid state battery characteristic studies of silver based super ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaseelan, S.; Muralidharan, P.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Silverarsenotellurite (SAT), silverphosphotellurite (SPT) and silvervanadotellurite (SVT) quaternary glass systems were prepared with various formers compositions by a melt quenching method. Glass nature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and structure of the prepared glasses were identified respectively by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique. Electrical conductivity studies were carried out by impedance measurement in the frequency range 40 Hz to 100 KHz at different temperatures for all three sets of AgI-Ag 2 O-[TeO 2 -M 2 O 5 ] (M 2 O 5 = As 2 O 5 , P 2 O 5 , V 2 O 5 ) glasses. The high conducting compositions of SAT, SPT and SVT glass samples were fixed from the results of total conductivity (σ t ). Electronic conductivity (σ e ) studies were made on high conducting composition of each glass system by Wagner's polarization method. Total current (i t ) is due to ion and electron. Electronic current (i e ) due to electron were estimated through mobility studies. Ionic conductivity (σ i ) and ionic current (i i ) were calculated respectively using the conductivity (σ t and σ e ) and current (i t and i e ) results for the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses. Transport numbers due to ion (t i ) and electron (t e ) were calculated using the conductivity and mobility results for each glass system. The high conducting composition of the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses were used as solid electrolytes with silver metal as an anode and iodine:graphite (I:C) as a cathode for the fabrication of solid state batteries (SSBs). All the fabricated batteries were characterized by measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) and polarization properties and estimated the batteries performances

  17. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrogenic properties of the Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase control transitions between normal and pathological brain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Giri P; Filatov, Gregory; Shilnikov, Andrey; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2015-05-01

    Ionic concentrations fluctuate significantly during epileptic seizures. In this study, using a combination of in vitro electrophysiology, computer modeling, and dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate that changes in the potassium and sodium intra- and extracellular ion concentrations ([K(+)] and [Na(+)], respectively) during seizure affect the neuron dynamics by modulating the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current. First, we show that an increase of the outward Na(+)/K(+) pump current mediates termination of seizures when there is a progressive increase in the intracellular [Na(+)]. Second, we show that the Na(+)/K(+) pump current is crucial in maintaining the stability of the physiological network state; a reduction of this current leads to the onset of seizures via a positive-feedback loop. We then present a novel dynamical mechanism for bursting in neurons with a reduced Na(+)/K(+) pump. Overall, our study demonstrates the profound role of the current mediated by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase on the stability of neuronal dynamics that was previously unknown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  20. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  1. The introduction of dengue follows transportation infrastructure changes in the state of Acre, Brazil: A network-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Raquel Martins; Gomes, Marcelo Ferreira da Costa; Lima, Tiago França Melo de; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Codeço, Cláudia Torres

    2017-11-01

    Human mobility, presence and passive transportation of Aedes aegypti mosquito, and environmental characteristics are a group of factors which contribute to the success of dengue spread and establishment. To understand this process, we assess data from dengue national and municipal basins regarding population and demographics, transportation network, human mobility, and Ae. aegypti monitoring for the Brazilian state of Acre since the first recorded dengue case in the year 2000 to the year 2015. During this period, several changes in Acre's transport infrastructure and urbanization have been started. To reconstruct the process of dengue introduction in Acre, we propose an analytic framework based on concepts used in malaria literature, namely vulnerability and receptivity, to inform risk assessments in dengue-free regions as well as network theory concepts for disease invasion and propagation. We calculate the probability of dengue importation to Acre from other Brazilian states, the evolution of dengue spread between Acrean municipalities and dengue establishment in the state. Our findings suggest that the landscape changes associated with human mobility have created favorable conditions for the establishment of dengue virus transmission in Acre. The revitalization of its major roads, as well as the increased accessibility by air to and within the state, have increased dengue vulnerability. Unplanned urbanization and population growth, as observed in Acre during the period of study, contribute to ideal conditions for Ae. aegypti mosquito establishment, increase the difficulty in mosquito control and consequently its local receptivity.

  2. Role of interface states on electron transport in a-Si:H/nc-Si:H multilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Asha; Kumari, Juhi; Agarwal, Pratima

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we report, I-V characteristic of a-Si:H/nc-Si:H multilayer structures in lateral as well as transverse direction. In lateral geometry, where the interfaces are parallel to the direction of electronic transport, residual photo conductivity (persistent photoconductivity) is observed after the light was turned off. On the other hand, in transverse geometry, where interfaces are along the direction of electronic transport, the space charge limited currents are affected and higher density of states is obtained. The PPC was more in the structures where numbers of such interface were more. These results have been understood in terms of the charge carriers trapped at the interface, which influence the electronic transport.

  3. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomtempo, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m -1 day -1 . (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  4. Coexpression of Human α- and Circularly Permuted β-Globins Yields a Hemoglobin with Normal R State but Modified T State Properties†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundson, Anna L.; Taber, Alexandria M.; van der Walde, Adella; Lin, Danielle H.; Olson, John S.; Anthony-Cahill, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, a circularly permuted human β-globin (cpβ) has been coexpressed with human α-globin in bacterial cells and shown to associate to form α-cpβ hemoglobin in solution. Flash photolysis studies of α-cpβ show markedly biphasic CO and O2 kinetics with the amplitudes for the fast association phases being dominant due the presence of large amounts of high-affinity liganded hemoglobin dimers. Extensive dimerization of liganded but not deoxygenated α-cpβ was observed by gel chromatography. The rate constants for O2 and CO binding to the R state forms of α-cpβ are almost identical to those of native HbA (k′R(CO) ≈ 5.0 μM−1 s−1; k′R(O2) ≈ 50 μM−1 s−1), and the rate of O2 dissociation from fully oxygenated α-cpβ is also very similar to that observed for HbA (kR(O2) ≈ 21–28 s−1). When the equilibrium deoxyHb form of α-cpβ is reacted with CO in rapid mixing experiments, the observed time courses are monophasic and the observed bimolecular association rate constant is ∼1.0 μM−1 s−1, which is intermediate between the R state rate measured in partial photolysis experiments (∼5 μM−1 s−1) and that observed for T state deoxyHbA (k′T(CO) ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 μM−1 s−1). Thus the deoxygenated permutated β subunits generate an intermediate, higher affinity, deoxyHb quaternary state. This conclusion is supported by equilibrium oxygen binding measurements in which α-cpβ exhibits a P50 of ∼1.5 mmHg and a low n-value (∼1.3) at pH 7, 20 °C, compared to 8.5 mmHg and n ≈ 2.8 for native HbA under identical, dilute conditions. PMID:19397368

  5. Semi-analytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, ......-trivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.......We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained......, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities a non...

  6. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  7. Market driven strategy for acquisition of waste acceptance and transportation services for commercial spent fuel in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemeshewsky, W.; Macaluso, C.; Smith, P.; Teer, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act) for the shipment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from commercial reactors to a Federal facility for storage and/or disposal. The Act requires the use of private industry to the 'fullest extent possible' in the transportation of spent fuels. An OCRWM goal is to develop a safe, efficient and effective transportation system while meeting the mandate of the Act. OCRWM has then develop a strategy for a market driven approach for the acquisition of transportation services and equipment. To implement this strategy, OCRWM is planning to issue a Request for Proposal (RPF) for the provision of the required services and equipment to accept SNF from the utilities and transport the SNF to a Federal facility. Two draft RPFs have been issued with the second draft incorporating comments on the first draft from potential contractors and other interested parties. The overall strategy as outlined in the draft RPF relies on private industry to use the innovative powers of the marketplace to help DOE accomplish its mission objectives. DOE intends to pursue this procurement strategy whether or not the OCRWM program includes interim storage. The concept described in the draft RPF provides for DOE to purchase services and equipment from a contractor-operated waste acceptance and transportation organization. The contractor is expected to provide initial financing for the project including that necessary for initial acquisition of operational equipment, establish the necessary management organization, and mobilize the necessary resources and capabilities to provide the SNF delivery services at a fixed rate. DOE will retain final approval on all routes and maintain primary responsibility to the States, tribes, and local units of government for assuring appropriate interaction and consideration of their input on

  8. Low-rank Kalman filtering for efficient state estimation of subsurface advective contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Sun, Shuyu

    2012-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the movement of contaminants in porous media is essential to track their trajectory and later extract them from the aquifer. A two-dimensional flow model is implemented and then applied on a linear contaminant transport model

  9. United States Transportation Command Compliance with DoD Policy on the Use of Commercial Sealift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Mehlman, Benjamin A; Lippolis, Susan J; Avers, Marc E; Brake, Chrispian M; Lyons, Amber M; Alvarez Torres, Zorayma; Groubert, Christopher S; Milner, Jillisa H

    2007-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether USTRANSCOM was complying with DoD policies in the use of commercial transport during wartime and whether those policies provide optimal...

  10. Carrier Transport Enhancement in Conjugated Polymers through Interfacial Self-Assembly of Solution-State Aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Li, Ruipeng; Hu, Hanlin; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    and extension of the conjugated backbone of the polymer which clearly translate to significant improvements of carrier transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface in organic thin film transistors. This study points to opportunities in combining

  11. Organizational Change: A Study of the Integrated Customer Support System at United States Transportation Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kim

    2001-01-01

    ...) System, a Customer Relationship Management solution. This strategic objective to integrate ICS into the Defense Transportation System working environment is an attempt to provide immediate and complete responsiveness to external customer needs...

  12. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Global Positioning System (GPS) Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment is to evaluate the maximum transmitted power levels of adjacent band radiofrequency (RF) systems that can be tolerated by G...

  13. Continuity of operations/continuity of government for state-level transportation organizations : brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    As a result of a federal requirement, all non-federal entities that own or operate critical : infrastructure are required to develop Continuity of Operations/Continuity of Government : (COOP/COG) Plans. Transportation is a critical infrastructure com...

  14. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappala, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  15. Formulation of confinement matrices and characterization of their transport properties from solid to melt state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, A.

    2006-07-01

    The author gives an overview of his research activity during which she worked on three main subjects. The first one dealt with the investigation of transport mechanisms in metal alloys (experimental investigation of diffusion in amorphous alloys, oxidation mechanism of Zircaloy-4 under temperature and in water or in dry oxygen). The second one dealt with the synthesis and properties of specific confinement matrices (effect of chemical composition on sintering of a carbonate powder, effect of microstructure of high Mo and P content vitro-crystals on lixiviation properties, incorporation of fluorine compounds in the case of borosilicate systems). The third one dealt with the transport in borosilicate glasses and melts (ionic transport, properties, and electrical transport glass-RuO 2 particles composites)

  16. Optimizing transport logistics taking into account the state of roads and road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikul’skaya Ol’ga Mikhaylovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice and use of rational routes at strict observance of deliveries terms help to achieve not only minimization of operational expenses, but also to reduce commodity and production stocks in warehouses by 1,5...2 times. Therefore special relevance is gained by the works allowing precisely calculating the volumes of a cargo transportation, to count the quantity of transport units necessary for providing cargo flow, to define the rational routes of transportation, and also to reduce total costs of transportation. On the basis of the analysis of the known mathematical methods applied in transport logistics, the authors drew a conclusion that the route of freight delivery is estimated according to the distance passed by the vehicle. However the time of freight delivery depends not only on distance, but also on a set of other factors, such as vehicle type, road capacity, intensity of transport stream, weather conditions, season and others. For taking note of additional factors when optimizing a freight delivery route the method of analogy and similarity is used by the authors. The transportation parameters were estimated by analogy with an electric chain. For this purpose the authors entered the new concepts “fictitious distance” and “conductivity of the road”. The mathematical model allowing optimizing the organization of freight delivery taking into account not only distances, but also the probable speed of the vehicle movement depending on the road quality, intensity of transport stream and weather conditions is developed. Further development of the system of decision-making support while choosing the optimum route of cargo delivery is planned.

  17. Transportation over long distance and thermal energy storage, coupling with energetic valuation processes from waste. State of art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megret, O.; Bequet, L.; Manificat, A.; Weber, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study aims, on one hand, to realize a state of art about over long distance transport and heat energy storage and, on the other hand, to examine their coupling with waste valuation systems. After reminding the adequate context of development with those solutions and too showing the importance of the stake linked to the current work, we first expose the introductive elements in terms of storage and heat energy transport. The second chapter deals with the description of some materials, equipment and systems concerning heat storage energy. Afterward, the over long distance heat transport systems are detailed in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter, it is about waste valuation techniques and heat energy potentials users. The fifth chapter sums up the different techniques of storage and heat transport that are applicable to waste field according to the appropriate sector. Finally, the sixth chapter goes about 3 case-works in 3 fields: housing/commercial, industrial laundry and high temperature industry (steel industry). The purpose is to determine the implementation feasibility of the different techniques of storage and waste heat transport. (authors)

  18. The dimensions of the policy debate over transportation energy: The case of hydrogen in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and politico-strategic concerns have driven the increase in policy activity related to energy that the United States witnessed in the last few years. The nature of the issues at stake and the level of stakeholder involvement result in a highly complex policy debate. The broad concern of this paper is the study of this energy-policy process and the identification of the main policy issues. Specifically, multivariate analysis is applied to data on a wide variety of stakeholders' policy beliefs and policy preferences to identify the policy dimensions that characterize the debate over energy policy in the United States. The focus is on the policy debate over hydrogen as a transportation fuel, although many results are applicable to the debate over transportation energy at large. The analysis uses a dataset of 502 individuals from 323 different stakeholder organizations obtained via a web-based survey specifically designed for this study

  19. The state-of-the-art of the LTAN method in the solution of the transport equation in a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Cardona, A.; Panta Pazos, R.; Tullio de Vilhena, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we report the state-of-the-art of the LTA N method, reporting the derivation of the LTA N homogeneous and particular solution in a slab for large N (N N method. We show that the LTA N method, consequently the Laplace transform technique, is a quite general approach to solve a wide class of transport problems in a slab mainly the ones requiring an arbitrary source and large N

  20. Ab initio calculation of transition state normal mode properties and rate constants for the H(T)+CH4(CD4) abstraction and exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.C.; Walch, S.P.; Wagner, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    We present ab initio (GVB--POL--CI) calculations for enough of the region about the abstraction and exchange saddle points for H(T)+CH 4 (CD 4 ) to perform a full normal mode analysis of the transition states. The resulting normal mode frequencies are compared to four other published surfaces: an ab initio UHF--SCF calculation by Carsky and Zahradnik, a semiempirical surface by Raff, and two semiempirical surfaces by Kurylo, Hollinden, and Timmons. Significant quantitative and qualitative differences exist between the POL--CI results and those of the other surfaces. Transition state theory rate constants and vibrationally adiabatic reaction threshold energies were computed for all surfaces and compared to available experimental values. For abstraction, the POL--CI rates are in good agreement with experimental rates and in better agreement than are the rates of any of the other surfaces. For exchange, uncertainties in the experimental values and in the importance of vibrationally nonadiabatic effects cloud the comparison of theory to experiment. Tentative conclusions are that the POL--CI barrier is too low by several kcal. Unless vibrationaly nonadiabatic effects are severe, the POL--CI surface is still in better agreement with experiment than are the other surfaces. The rates for a simple 3-atom transition state theory model (where CH 3 is treated as an atom) are compared to the rates for the full 6-atom model. The kinetic energy coupling of reaction coordinate modes to methyl group modes is identified as being of primary importance in determining the accuracy of the 3-atom model for this system. Substantial coupling in abstraction, but not exchange, causes the model to fail for abstraction but succeed for exchange

  1. Metals fate and transport modelling in streams and watersheds: state of the science and USEPA workshop review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, B.S.; Cox, T.J.; Runkel, Robert L.; Velleux, M.L.; Bencala, Kenneth E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Julien, P.Y.; Butler, B.A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marion, A.; Smith, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Metals pollution in surface waters from point and non-point sources (NPS) is a widespread problem in the United States and worldwide (Lofts et al., 2007; USEPA, 2007). In the western United States, metals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) from hardrock mines in mountainous areas impact aquatic ecosystems and human health (USEPA, 1997a; Caruso and Ward, 1998; Church et al., 2007). Metals fate and transport modelling in streams and watersheds is sometimes needed for assessment and restoration of surface waters, including mining-impacted streams (Runkel and Kimball, 2002; Caruso, 2003; Velleux et al., 2006). The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP; Wool et al., 2001), developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), is an example of a model used for such analyses. Other approaches exist and appropriate model selection depends on site characteristics, data availability and modelling objectives. However, there are a wide range of assumptions, input parameters, data requirements and gaps, and calibration and validation issues that must be addressed by model developers, users and decision makers. Despite substantial work on model development, their successful application has been more limited because they are not often used by decision makers for stream and watershed assessment and restoration. Bringing together scientists, model developers, users and decision makers should stimulate the development of appropriate models and improve the applicability of their results. To address these issues, the USEPA Office of Research and Development and Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming) hosted a workshop in Denver, Colorado on February 13–14, 2007. The workshop brought together approximately 35 experts from government, academia and consulting to address the state of the art for modelling metals fate and transport, knowledge gaps and future directions in metals modelling. It focused on modelling metals in high

  2. Time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon through a linear array of metal nanoparticles: Precursor and normal mode contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaijen, P. J.; Malyshev, V. A.; Knoester, J.

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon excitation through a linear array of identical and equidistantly spaced metal nanoparticles. Two different signals propagating through the array are found: one traveling with the group velocity of the surface plasmon polaritons of the system and damped exponentially, and the other running with the speed of light and decaying in a power-law fashion, as x-1 and x-2 for the transversal and longitudinal polarizations, respectively. The latter resembles the Sommerfeld-Brillouin forerunner and has not been identified in previous studies. The contribution of this signal dominates the plasmon transport at large distances. In addition, even though this signal is spread in the propagation direction and has the lateral dimension larger than the wavelength, the field profile close to the chain axis does not change with distance, indicating that this part of the signal is confined to the array.

  3. Clinical application of 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging of dopamine transporter in monitoring the state of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huaifu; Hu Ping

    2005-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 SPECT imaging of dopamine transporter in monitoring the state of Parkinson's disease (PD), 20 patients with PD and a control group of 14 healthy subjects were chosen to conduct dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging by SPECT with 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1. The radioactive ratio between bilateral striatum and cerebellum and the asymmetry index (Al) of bilateral striatum were computed by using the region of interest (ROI) technology. Meanwhile, the PD patients were classified by the improved Hoehn-Yahr Disability Score and then evaluated by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The findings show that there is a negative correlation between the bilateral ST/CB mean of the PD and the Hoehn-Yahr grading of the patients' state of illness, the UPDRS score, the patients' self-caring ability, the ability to move around. As for the asymmetry index AI PD , there was a positive correlation with the duration of disease, and a significant difference between the PD and the control group, with the former much higher than the latter. Therefore, the dopamine transporter imaging by SPECT with 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1 can monitor the state of Parkinson's disease, and show the symptom severity of Parkinson's disease. (authors)

  4. Modulating the Surface State of SiC to Control Carrier Transport in Graphene/SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuping; Sun, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiming; Jiang, Ke; Liu, Henan; Ben, Jianwei; Li, Dabing

    2018-05-28

    Silicon carbide (SiC) with epitaxial graphene (EG/SiC) shows a great potential in the applications of electronic and photoelectric devices. The performance of devices is primarily dependent on the interfacial heterojunction between graphene and SiC. Here, the band structure of the EG/SiC heterojunction is experimentally investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The dependence of the barrier height at the EG/SiC heterojunction to the initial surface state of SiC is revealed. Both the barrier height and band bending tendency of the heterojunction can be modulated by controlling the surface state of SiC, leading to the tuned carrier transport behavior at the EG/SiC interface. The barrier height at the EG/SiC(000-1) interface is almost ten times that of the EG/SiC(0001) interface. As a result, the amount of carrier transport at the EG/SiC(000-1) interface is about ten times that of the EG/SiC(0001) interface. These results offer insights into the carrier transport behavior at the EG/SiC heterojunction by controlling the initial surface state of SiC, and this strategy can be extended in all devices with graphene as the top layer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. This effort represents the first comprehensive analytical evaluation of the risks of transporting high-, medium-, and low-enriched uranium spent research reactor fuel by both sea and land. Two separate shipment programs have been analyzed: the shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). In order to perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  6. The Influence of State Policies on Critical Infrastructure Resilience: An Approach for Analyzing Transportation and Capital Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.

  7. The maize glossy13 gene, cloned via BSR-Seq and Seq-walking encodes a putative ABC transporter required for the normal accumulation of epicuticular waxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Aerial plant surfaces are covered by epicuticular waxes that among other purposes serve to control water loss. Maize glossy mutants originally identified by their "glossy" phenotypes exhibit alterations in the accumulation of epicuticular waxes. By combining data from a BSR-Seq experiment and the newly developed Seq-Walking technology, GRMZM2G118243 was identified as a strong candidate for being the glossy13 gene. The finding that multiple EMS-induced alleles contain premature stop codons in GRMZM2G118243, and the one knockout allele of gl13, validates the hypothesis that gene GRMZM2G118243 is gl13. Consistent with this, GRMZM2G118243 is an ortholog of AtABCG32 (Arabidopsis thaliana, HvABCG31 (barley and OsABCG31 (rice, which encode ABCG subfamily transporters involved in the trans-membrane transport of various secondary metabolites. We therefore hypothesize that gl13 is involved in the transport of epicuticular waxes onto the surfaces of seedling leaves.

  8. Estimating active transportation behaviors to support health impact assessment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J Mansfield

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be

  9. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  10. An Iterative Ensemble Kalman Filter with One-Step-Ahead Smoothing for State-Parameters Estimation of Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gharamti, M. E.

    2015-05-11

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a popular method for state-parameters estimation of subsurface flow and transport models based on field measurements. The common filtering procedure is to directly update the state and parameters as one single vector, which is known as the Joint-EnKF. In this study, we follow the one-step-ahead smoothing formulation of the filtering problem, to derive a new joint-based EnKF which involves a smoothing step of the state between two successive analysis steps. The new state-parameters estimation scheme is derived in a consistent Bayesian filtering framework and results in separate update steps for the state and the parameters. This new algorithm bears strong resemblance with the Dual-EnKF, but unlike the latter which first propagates the state with the model then updates it with the new observation, the proposed scheme starts by an update step, followed by a model integration step. We exploit this new formulation of the joint filtering problem and propose an efficient model-integration-free iterative procedure on the update step of the parameters only for further improved performances. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic subsurface transport model simulating the migration of a contaminant plume in a heterogenous aquifer domain. Contaminant concentration data are assimilated to estimate both the contaminant state and the hydraulic conductivity field. Assimilation runs are performed under imperfect modeling conditions and various observational scenarios. Simulation results suggest that the proposed scheme efficiently recovers both the contaminant state and the aquifer conductivity, providing more accurate estimates than the standard Joint and Dual EnKFs in all tested scenarios. Iterating on the update step of the new scheme further enhances the proposed filter’s behavior. In term of computational cost, the new Joint-EnKF is almost equivalent to that of the Dual-EnKF, but requires twice more model

  11. Robust, fully automatic delineation of the head contour by stereotactical normalization for attenuation correction according to Chang in dopamine transporter scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Catharina; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kurth, Jens; Schwarzenboeck, Sarah; Krause, Bernd J. [Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Seese, Anita; Steinhoff, Karen; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Umland-Seidler, Bert [GE Healthcare Buchler GmbH and Co. KG, Munich (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Chang's method, the most widely used attenuation correction (AC) in brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), requires delineation of the outer contour of the head. Manual and automatic threshold-based methods are prone to errors due to variability of tracer uptake in the scalp. The present study proposes a new method for fully automated delineation of the head based on stereotactical normalization. The method was validated for SPECT with I-123-ioflupane. The new method was compared to threshold-based delineation in 62 unselected patients who had received I-123-ioflupane SPECT at one of 3 centres. The impact on diagnostic power was tested for semi-quantitative analysis and visual reading of the SPECT images (six independent readers). The two delineation methods produced highly consistent semi-quantitative results. This was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic analyses in which the putamen specific-to-background ratio achieved highest area under the curve with negligible effect of the delineation method: 0.935 versus 0.938 for stereotactical normalization and threshold-based delineation, respectively. Visual interpretation of DVR images was also not affected by the delineation method. Delineation of the head contour by stereotactical normalization appears useful for Chang AC in I-123-ioflupane SPECT. It is robust and does not require user interaction. (orig.)

  12. The normal state resistivity of CaTh- and La-doped Y(Nd-123 superconductors in the bipolaron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghorbani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline samples of Y1-2xCaxThxBa2Cu3O7-δ (with 0.00 ≤x ≤ 0.075 and NdBa2-xLaxCu3O7-δ (with 0.0≤x≤ 0.30 were prepared by the standard solid state method. The transport and superconducting properties have been studied by the resistivity measurements as a function of temperature and doping concentration. Data of resistivity as a function of temperature was analyzed in terms of the bipolaran model. The model well described resistivity data up to near the critical temperature. Obtained results suggested that the hole localization is the main reason for superconducting suppression in the charge neutral doped cuprates and the La doped Nd-123 in addition charge filling.

  13. Competences Evaluation of Transport Management Specialists in Baltic States: Research of Students’ Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ledauskaitė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To develop knowledge, advanced technology and skilled labor-based economy in Lithuania, it is necessary to make an effective business interaction and practical training, and preparation of specialists to ensure the ability to compete in European labor markets, and general capacity building. Common started training for professionals is to consider raising questions as to develop people in constantly changing global context. Several years of the research done in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia transport sectors, has allowed the evaluating of the general competencies of these area specialists, and showed that specialists working in transport/logistics area are faced with lack of practical skills. The eliminating of these lacks requires close cooperation between the educational institutions and transport and/or logistics sector cooperation.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Method to develop data supporting consequence analyses of transporting nuclear materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Sandoval, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The Transportation System Safety Evaluation (TSSE) program at Sandia National Laboratories' Transportation Technology Center was initiated to provide the necessary information on source terms for nuclear materials subjected to extreme environments. The techniques for derivation of source terms for the fuel alone has been described as well as the outline for package response. An additional facet of this problem is the development of analytical methods to describe the transport of the released radionuclides from the fuel rods to possible release points. This work is also covered in the TSSE program. Not all the work required will be performed or funded by Sandia; rather existing work will be sought out and ongoing work will be utilized in an attempt to unify the presentation of data and thus increase its usefulness

  15. Analyses of the transportation of spent research reactor fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed the impacts of transportation of research reactor spent fuel from US and foreign reactors for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Defense Programs. Two separate shipment programs were analyzed. The shipment of research reactor spent fuel from Taiwan to the US (Fuel Movement Program), and the return of research reactor spent fuels of US origin from foreign and domestic reactors (Research Reactor Fuel Return Program). To perform these analyses, a comprehensive methodology for analyzing the probabilities and consequences of transportation in coastal waters and port facilities, handling at the port, and shipment by truck to reprocessing facilities was developed. The Taiwanese fuel consists of low-burnup aluminum-clad metallic uranium research reactor spent fuel; the other fuels are primarily aluminum-clad oxide fuels. The Fuel Movement Program is ongoing, while the Fuel Return Program addresses future shipments over a ten-year period. The operational aspects of the Taiwanese shipments have been uniform, but several possible shipping configurations are possible for the Fuel Return Program shipments. The risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials by all modes have been analyzed extensively. Comprehensive assessments, which bound the impacts of spent fuel transport, demonstrate that when shipments are made in compliance with applicable regulations, the risks for all such transport are low. For comparison with previously licensed transport activities and to provide continuity with earlier analyses, the results for shipment of 150-day-old commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel are presented as part of this study

  16. Left ventricular function impairment in patients with normal-weight obesity: contribution of abdominal fat deposition, profibrotic state, reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Wojciech; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Derzhko, Roksolana; Przewlocka-Kosmala, Monika; Mysiak, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna

    2012-05-01

    Obesity predisposes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure; however, the risk of these complications has not been assessed in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) but increased body fat content (normal-weight obesity, NWO). We hypothesized that LV performance in NWO may be impaired and sought to investigate potential contributors to cardiac functional abnormalities. One hundred sixty-eight subjects (age, 38±7 years) with BMI affecting the myocardium were classified on the basis of body fat content into 2 groups: with NWO and without NWO. Echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, including myocardial velocities and deformation, serological fibrosis markers, indicators of proinflammatory activation, and metabolic control, were evaluated. Subjects with NWO demonstrated impaired LV systolic and diastolic function, increased fibrosis intensity (assessed by procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP]), impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased proinflammatory activation as compared with individuals with normal body fat. The independent correlates of LV systolic and diastolic function variables were as follows: for strain, IL-18 (β=-0.17, P<0.006), C-reactive protein (β=-0.20, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.20, P<0.003); for tissue S velocity, PICP (β=-0.21, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.43, P<0.0001); for tissue E velocity, abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.30, P<0.0001), PICP (β=-0.31, P<0.0001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR; β=-0.20, P<0.002); and for E/e'-PICP, IL-18 (both β=0.18, P<0.01) and HOMA IR (β=0.16, P<0.04). In patients with NWO, subclinical disturbances of LV function are independently associated with the extent of abdominal fat deposit, profibrotic state (as reflected by circulating PICP), reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

  17. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could

  18. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Protection for Nuclear Transport Accidents Involving Non-Contracting EU States: An assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the possible complications and consequences with respect to nuclear liability and insurance protection applicable in respect of transport activities resulting in damage suffered and/or accidents occurring in EU States that are not party to the Paris Convention. It looks at the different legal aspects (jurisdiction, applicable law, liability amounts, reciprocity) should the revised Vienna and Paris Convention become applicable in comparison with the unrevised Conventions. Within Europe, a large number of States are party to the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention, providing liability and insurance protection, in general, up to a limit of 300 million SDRs (or even higher). In principle, such protection is confined to nuclear incidents occurring and nuclear damage suffered in the territory of Contracting Parties, including, as recommended, the high seas, unless the legislation of the Installation State determines otherwise (Article 2). The geographical scope of application of the Paris Convention would thus vary according to the law of the Installation State. However, some EU States never became party to the Paris Convention, and are not bound by its the liability principles (notably, channelling of liability), such as Austria, Luxembourg and Ireland. Transport accidents involving these countries might therefore result in liability claims outside the treaty liability regime against operators, suppliers, carriers or persons involved and for types of damages different from those currently covered by the Paris Convention (e.g., environmental damage). It is uncertain to what extent liability insurance of the installation operators would provide adequate protection and whether related damage claims can be enforceable. In addition, a number of newly entered EU States are party to the Vienna Convention, which, although bound by liability principles basically similar to those of the Paris Convention, will

  19. Determination of the potential radiation exposure of the population close to the Asse II mine caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation using the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, D.; Wittwer, C.

    2014-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1978 125.787 packages filled with low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste were emplaced in the mining plant Asse II. Volatile radioactive substances like H-3, C-14 and Rn-222 are released from the emplaced waste. These substances reach the ventilated parts of the mine and are released with the discharge air. The potential radiation exposure of the population caused by deduction of radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation is determined by the ''Atmospheric Radionuclide-Transport-Model'' (ARTM). As result the maximal deductions of volatile radioactive substances with the discharge air in the normal operation of the Asse II mine lead to radiation exposure of the population, which is considerably lower than the permissible values of application rate.

  20. Revenue sources for financing transportation safety activities in Virginia : phase two, state sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Senate Bill 85, an action of the 1978 General Assembly, amended the Code of Virginia to provide, in part, that the Division of Highway Safety be succeeded by the newly created Department of Transportation Safety effective July 1, 1978. In its Declara...

  1. Developing land market data for use in a state wide land use and transportation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This working paper describes the process used to develop land market variables : for use by TRANUS in the Transportation and Land Use Model Integration : Program (TLUMIP). One of the key variables developed during this phase of the : project is the m...

  2. Equation of state and transport properties of uranium and plutonium carbides in the liquid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.; Leibowitz, L.

    1975-09-01

    By the use of available low-temperature data for various thermophysical and transport properties for uranium and plutonium carbides, values above the melting point were estimated. Sets of recommended values have been prepared for the compounds UC, PuC, and (U,Pu)C. The properties that have been evaluated are density, heat capacity, enthalpy, vapor pressure, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and emissivity

  3. Phonon-affected steady-state transport through molecular quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, T.; Fehske, H.; Loos, Jan

    T151, č. 1 (2012), 1-10 ISSN 0031-8949 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : the ory of electron ic transport * scattering mechanisms * polarons and electron -phonon interactions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2012

  4. Wheeled mobility device transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive public transit vehicles within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen L; van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina; Cross, Douglas J

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of wheelchair transportation safety in fixed route and demand-responsive, non-rail, public transportation vehicles within the US is presented. A description of each mode of transportation is provided, followed by a discussion of the primary issues affecting safety, accessibility, and usability. Technologies such as lifts, ramps, securement systems, and occupant restraint systems, along with regulations and voluntary industry standards have been implemented with the intent of improving safety and accessibility for individuals who travel while seated in their wheeled mobility device (e.g., wheelchair or scooter). However, across both fixed route and demand-responsive transit systems a myriad of factors such as nonuse and misuse of safety systems, oversized wheeled mobility devices, vehicle space constraints, and inadequate vehicle operator training may place wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users at risk of injury even under non-impact driving conditions. Since WhMD-related incidents also often occur during the boarding and alighting process, the frequency of these events, along with factors associated with these events are described for each transit mode. Recommendations for improving WhMD transportation are discussed given the current state of

  5. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, Paul William; Zavarin, Mavrik; Wang, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  6. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  7. [EDRP public local inquiry] Statement by the Department of Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The safety responsibilities of the UK Secretary of State for Transport, in relation to radioactive materials under normal and accident conditions of transport, are outlined. The basic regulatory requirements necessitated by the IAEA regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials are summarised. A list of national and international regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials to, from, or within the UK is provided. (U.K.)

  8. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U 3 O 8 resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed

  9. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  10. Summary of the spent nuclear fuel transportation workshop for state officials, October 22, 1985, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    On October 22, 1985, thirty-two state officials representing eighteen states attended a workshop on the transportation of spent nuclear fuel hosted by the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety and co-sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The letter of invitation is attached to this report along with the agenda for the workshop. Also attached is the attendance list. The purposes of the workshop were to explain Illinois' inspection, escort and emergency preparedness program for spent nuclear fuel to officials from other states and to discuss the needs of the future national system when DOE begins shipping spent fuel to either a repository or a monitored retrievable storage facility. Summaries of the presentations and the reports from the discussion groups are presented

  11. STUDY OF THE STATE OF LOGISTICS IN KAZAKHSTAN: PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanarys RAIMBEKOV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The creation and development of Kazakhstan as a trade, logistics and business hub of the region is on the agenda of the Government of Kazakhstan. To achieve this, central and local governments, private businesses invest in new infrastructure projects in logistics. The article investigates the problems of modern logistics infrastructure formation in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The survey results show that the attractiveness of Kazakhstan as a transport and logistics hub will depend on the state of logistics infrastructure, service quality, and technology used. Further development will largely depend on its ability to diversify and create logistics facilities with high added value. Priorities and the need for multi-level transport logistic centres have been defined; their development in domestic, export and transit directions has been described, both at the national and international levels and at the enterprise level as well.

  12. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  13. Copper NMR and hole depletion in the normal state of Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaughlin, D.E.; Reyes, A.P.; Takigawa, M.; Hammel, P.C.; Heffner, R.H.; Thompson, J.D.; Crow, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Normal-state copper NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation rates 1/T 1 have been measured in the planar cuprate system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . With Pr doping the Knight shift K decreases and develops a temperature dependence at both plane and chain sites. Analysis of the bulk susceptibility and NMR data indicate that pair breaking and hole depletion both take part in the suppression of the superconducting transition temperature T c . The Knight shift behavior resembles that in oxygen-deficient YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y , as does the temperature dependence of 1/T 1 for plane Cu sites and magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis. This agreement leads to a consistent picture of the role of antiferromagnetic fluctuations in these materials. An analysis of the data in the framework of the phenomenological theory of Millis, Monien, and Pines is given. In the end compound PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 the NMR signal from plane Cu sites indicates antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering at a Neel temperature ∼280 K, and in the AF state yields an internal field similar to those found in AF YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 . 32 refs., 7 figs

  14. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solid-state Water-mediated Transport Reduction of Nanostructured Iron Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir M.; Povarov, Vladimir G.; Voronkov, Gennadii P.; Semenov, Valentin G.; Murin, Igor' V.; Gittsovich, Viktor N.; Sinel'nikov, Boris M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ratio in two-dimensional iron oxide nanosructures (nanolayers with a thickness of 0.3-1.5 nm on silica surface) may be precisely controlled using the transport reduction (TR) technique. The species ≡-O-Fe(OH) 2 and (≡Si-O-) 2 -FeOH forming the surface monolayer are not reduced at 400-600 deg. C because of their covalent bonding to the silica surface, as demonstrated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Iron oxide microparticles (microstructures) obtained by the impregnation technique, being chemically unbound to silica, are subjected to reduction at T ≥ 500 deg. C with formation of metallic iron in the form of α-Fe. Transport reduction of supported nanostructures (consisting of 1 or 4 monolayers) at T ≥ 600 deg. C produces bulk iron(II) silicate and metallic iron phases. The structural-chemical transformations occurring in transport reduction of supported iron oxide nanolayers are proved to be governed by specific phase processes in the nanostructures themselves

  16. Hybrid sediment transport model for the “linguado” channel, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study involves an assessment of various artificial intelligence-related techniques which aim to produce a more robust system for sediment transport modeling. The intelligent systems developed in this research are directly applicable to academic knowledge and use data from a report on "water circulation assessment in the “Linguado” Channel and Babitonga Bay ,”Santa Catarina”, Brazil, developed by  Military Engineering Institute (IME. The solution employed for sediment transport was built using an intelligent system from the conception of two hybrid models. The first was a Neuro-Fuzzy (ANFIS hybrid model for the study of hydrodynamic behavior, aiming to determine flow rate in the channel. The second was a fuzzy genetic model, able to assess sediment transport in the “Linguado” Channel. The study's conclusion compares the different effects involved in the dredging equilibrium in the “Linguado” Channel according to this hybrid model with the results obtained using a finite element model in the MIKE21® software.

  17. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  18. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  19. Positron cross-field transport due to quasibound states of antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahat, Y.; Correa, C.E.; Ordonez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Within the past few years, experiments have been reported in which antiprotons produced at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator facility were slowed, trapped in nested Penning traps and made to interact with a positron plasma such that antihydrogen was formed. Classical trajectory simulations of the interactions between the antiprotons and positrons have been reported to indicate that positive-energy, quasibound states of antihydrogen can form at a rate that exceeds the rate of formation of stable Rydberg states. The formation of quasibound states may affect the rate of diffusion of positrons across the magnetic field that confines them in the nested Penning trap. Simulations indicate that a binary interaction associated with the formation and disintegration of a quasibound state can cause a shift of the positron's guiding center that is much larger than the positron cyclotron radius before the interaction. A theory is presented that describes positron cross-magnetic-field diffusion due to quasibound states of antihydrogen

  20. Strategies for reducing the impacts of surface transportation on global climate change : a synthesis of policy research and state and local mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Climate change is likely to have more impact on the future of surface transportation than any other issue. The challenges and implications for surface transportation and for state DOTs include: the need to support major GHG reductions, the need to me...