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Sample records for normal nasopharyngeal epithelial

  1. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors

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    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. PMID:21898857

  2. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

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    Malavia Nikita

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway narrowing associated with chronic asthma results in the transmission of injurious compressive forces to the bronchial epithelium and promotes the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and the denudation of the bronchial epithelium. While the individual effects of compression or denudation are well characterized, there is no data to elucidate how these cells respond to the application of mechanical compression in the presence of a compromised epithelial layer. Methods Accordingly, differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to one of four conditions: 1 unperturbed control cells, 2 single scrape wound only, 3 static compression (6 hours of 30 cmH2O, and 4 6 hours of static compression after a scrape wound. Following treatment, wound closure rate was recorded, media was assayed for mediator content and the cytoskeletal network was fluorescently labeled. Results We found that mechanical compression and scrape injury increase TGF-β2 and endothelin-1 secretion, while EGF content in the media is attenuated with both injury modes. The application of compression after a pre-existing scrape wound augmented these observations, and also decreased PGE2 media content. Compression stimulated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and significantly attenuated wound healing. Closure rate was partially restored with the addition of exogenous PGE2, but not EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that mechanical compression reduces the capacity of the bronchial epithelium to close wounds, and is, in part, mediated by PGE2 and a compromised cytoskeleton.

  3. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

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    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; de Rivera, Michelle Wendoline Garcia-Niño; Hoshino, Miyako; Sakashita, Hideaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; González-López, Blanca Silvia; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru

    2016-03-01

    A relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and cancer of lymphoid and epithelial tissues such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma, and oral cancer has been reported. EBV is transmitted orally and infects B cells and epithelial cells. However, it has remained uncertain whether EBV plays a role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosal tissue. In the present study, we detected the EBV genome and latent EBV gene expression in normal mucosal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to clarify whether EBV is involved in carcinogenesis of the oral cavity. We examined 333 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples (morphologically normal oral mucosa 30 samples, gingivitis 32, tonsillitis 17, oral epithelial dysplasia 83, OSCC 150, and NPC 21). EBV latent infection genes (EBNA-2, LMP-1) were detected not only in OSCC (50.2 %, 10.7 %) but also in severe epithelial dysplasia (66.7 %, 44.4 %), mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia (43.1 %, 18.5 %), gingivitis (78.1 %, 21.9 %), and normal mucosa (83.3 %, 23.3 %). Furthermore, the intensity of EBV latent infection gene expression (EBER, LMP-1) was significantly higher in severe epithelial dysplasia (94.4 %, 72.2 %) than in OSCC (34.7 %, 38.7 %). These results suggest that EBV latent infection genes and their increased expression in severe epithelial dysplasia might play an important role in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity.

  4. NORMAL NASOPHARYNGEAL MICROFLORA AS A RESERVOIR OF MULTIRESISTANT STRAINS OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

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    Minukhin V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharinheal carriage of bacteria may play a central role in the development and spread of respiratory infections. In addition, so-called "healthy" carriage is often transformed under the influence of various factors into an active infection.It is necessary to take into account not only the range of possible pathogens, but also trends in the development of antibiotic resistance of leading etiologic agents while choosing tactics of antimicrobial therapy. The investigation was designed to study the role of normal microflora of the nasopharynx as a reservoir of resistant strains of respiratory infections. Materials and Methods. Fifty three healthy individuals and 168 patients with acute upper respiratory tract infections who had been treated in CEHC "Kharkiv Municipal Clinical Hospital № 30" were examined. Microbiological study included isolation and identification of pathogens in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health Care № 535 from 22.04.1985., determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics by diffusion method according to the Order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine № 167 from 05.04.2007. Results and discussion. Bacteriological study of nasal swabs of healthy people showed that the composition of the microflora of the nasopharynx contained potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Among the isolated microorganisms essential place was occupied by S. epidermidis and S. aureus, both in monoculture and association. Epidermal staphylococcus was isolated in 36 % and Staphylococcus aureus in 27% of cases. Pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus of group A were isolated in 23 and 14% of cases, respectively. One hundred and eighty strains of opportunistic microorganisms were isolated in the study of nasopharyngeal microflora of patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. The leading role belonged to S. pyogenes (40.5% and S.epidermidis (33,3%. S. aureus (12,8% and S.pneumoniae (10,6% were next

  5. Epigallocathechin gallate, polyphenol present in green tea, inhibits stem-like characteristics and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines

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    Lin Chien-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the consumption of green tea inhibits the growth of various cancers. Most cancers are believed to be initiated from and maintained by a small population of cancer stem-like cells (CSC or tumor-initiating cells (TIC that are responsible for tumor relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Although epigallocathechin gallate (EGCG, the most abundant catechin in green tea, has been reported to induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in some cancer cells, its effect on CSC is undefined. In this study, we enriched CSC by the sphere formation, and provided an efficient model for further experiments. Using this method, we examined the effects of EGCG regulating the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC CSC and attempted to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Methods NPC TW01 and TW06 cell lines were enriched by sphere formation and characterized their phenotypical properties, such as invasion capacity, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and gene expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR. EGCG-induced growth inhibition in the parental and sphere-derived cells was determined by MTT and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU assay. EGCG-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with Annexin V and PI staining. The effects of EGCG on sphere-derived cell tumorigenicity, migration and invasion were determined by soft agar assay, wound healing, and cell invasion assay. The alternation of protein expression regulated by EGCG on these sphere-derived cells was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. Results NPC sphere-derived cells grown in serum-free non-adherent culture showed increased expression of stem cell markers and EMT markers compared to parental cells grown in conventional culture. Although EGCG induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in the parental cells in a dose-dependent manner, it was not as effective against spheres

  6. Membrane associated ion transport enzymes in normal and transformed fibroblasts and epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate membrane changes associated with neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by radiation and chemicals, alterations in membrane-associated (Na + + K + )-ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities were investigated. Cell cultures consisted of normal and radiation transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (HE) and mouse C3H 10T 1/2 fibroblasts, normal and chemically transformed adult rat liver epithelial cells (ARL), as well as hepatocarcinoma cells induced by the liver transformants. Transformed fibroblasts demonstrated a 1-2 fold increase in (Na + + K + )-ATPase activity over the normal, while the transformed liver epithelial cells and carcinoma cells showed a 60% and 40% decrease in activity compared to the normal values, respectively. The 5'-nucleotidase activity was 2 to 3 times higher in the transformed fibroblasts

  7. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

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    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  8. Two epithelial tumor cell lines (HNE-1 and HONE-1) latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus that were derived from nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.; Zhang, Haizhang; Yao, Kaitai; Zhu, Hecheng; Wang, Fuxi; Li, Guiyuan; Wen, Dongseng; Li, Yingping

    1989-01-01

    Two epithelia tumor cell lines were established from biopsy specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The specimens were taken from poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas of the nasopharynx. The tissues were prepared for cell culture and eventually two continuous epithelia cell lines were obtained and designated HONE-1 and HNE-1. Light and electron microscopic examination of these two cell lines demonstrated cells with an epithelial morphology including the presence of desmosomes. It was found that early-passage uncloned HNE-1 cells (passage 23) could be superinfected with B95-8 and NPC-EBV isolates as demonstrated by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific early antigen(s) in a small percentage of the cells; HONE-1 cells could also be superinfected with EBV. Southern blot analysis detected EBV DNA in samples from uncloned HNE-1 cells at passages 12, 17, 21, 27, and 35. However, by passage 45, EBV DNA could no longer be detected in HNE-1 cells by Southern blot analysis. The EBV genome was detected in parental HONE-1 cells at subculture 9 and in clone 40 cells up to passage 40 thus far. The data suggest that EBV genome-positive HNE-1 and HONE-1 cells were lost as the cells were cultivated in vitro and that cloning the cells at an early passage level may be critical in maintaining EBV genome-positive epithelial NPC cells. These EBV genome-positive epithelia NPC cell lines will be useful for studying the association of EBV and NPC

  9. The expression of Egfl7 in human normal tissues and epithelial tumors.

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    Fan, Chun; Yang, Lian-Yue; Wu, Fan; Tao, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lin-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fan; He, Ya-Ning; Tang, Li-Li; Chen, Guo-Dong; Guo, Lei

    2013-04-23

    To investigate the expression of Egfl7 in normal adult human tissues and human epithelial tumors.
 RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to detect Egfl7 expression in normal adult human tissues and 10 human epithelial tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant glioma, ovarian cancer and renal cancer. Immunohistochemistry and cytoimmunofluorescence were subsequently used to determine the localization of Egfl7 in human epithelial tumor tissues and cell lines. ELISA was also carried out to examine the serum Egfl7 levels in cancer patients. In addition, correlations between Egfl7 expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of HCC and breast cancer were also analyzed on the basis of immunohistochemistry results.
 Egfl7 was differentially expressed in 19 adult human normal tissues and was overexpressed in all 10 human epithelial tumor tissues. The serum Egfl7 level was also significantly elevated in cancer patients. The increased Egfl7 expression in HCC correlated with vein invasion, absence of capsule formation, multiple tumor nodes and poor prognosis. Similarly, upregulation of Egfl7 in breast cancer correlated strongly with TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, estrogen receptor positivity, Her2 positivity and poor prognosis. 
 Egfl7 is significantly upregulated in human epithelial tumor tissues, suggesting Egfl7 to be a potential biomarker for human epithelial tumors, especially HCC and breast cancer.

  10. Response of cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Smith, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of X rays on the reproductive death of cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells was examined. Techniques were developed for isolating and culturing normal human mammary epithelial cells which provide sufficient cells at second passage for radiation studies, and an efficient clonogenic assay suitable for measuring radiation survival curves. It was found that the survival curves for epithelial cells from normal breast tissue were exponential and had D 0 values of about 109-148 rad for 225 kVp X rays. No consistent change in cell radiosensitivity with the age of donor was observed, and no sublethal damage repair in these cells could be detected with the split-dose technique

  11. Comparison of radiosensitivities of human autologous normal and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Hiraoka, T.; Ezaki, H.; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine differences between the radiosensitivities of normal and neoplastic epithelial cells of the human thyroid. Freshly excised thyroid tissues from the tumours of eight patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) and five with follicular adenoma (FA) were cultured in vitro separately from normal thyroid tissue obtained from the surgical margins of the same patients. Plating efficiency of unirradiated control tissue was lower, on average for tumour tissue compared with normal tissue. Radiosensitivity, measured by the 37% inactivation dose D 0 , was greater for carcinoma tissue than for normal tissue in seven out of eight PC cases. Adenomatous tissue was less radiosensitive than normal tissue in four out of five FA cases. This is the first report comparing the radiosensitivity of autologous normal and abnormal epithelial tissue from the human thyroid. (author)

  12. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

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    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  13. Subcellular localization of YKL-40 in normal and malignant epithelial cells of the breast

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    Roslind, A.; Balslev, E.; Kruse, H.

    2008-01-01

    . YKL-40 protein expression was redistributed in carcinoma versus normal glandular tissue of the breast. A reduced expression of YKL-40 in relation to intermediate filaments and desmosomes was found in tumor cells. Changes in YKL-40 expression suggest that the function of YKL-40 in cells of epithelial......YKL-40 is a new prognostic biomarker in cancer. The biological function is only poorly understood. This study aimed at determining the subcellular localization of YKL-40, using immunogold labeling, in normal epithelial cells and in malignant tumor cells of the breast by immunoelectron microscopy...

  14. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

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    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P tissue (P tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. miR156a Mimic Represses the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells by Targeting Junctional Adhesion Molecule A.

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    Yunhong Tian

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been documented as having an important role in the development of cancer. Broccoli is very popular in large groups of the population and has anticancer properties. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAMA is preferentially concentrated at tight junctions and influences cell morphology and migration. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a developmental program associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs from broccoli in human nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. We demonstrated that a total of 84 conserved miRNAs and 184 putative novel miRNAs were found in broccoli by sequencing technology. Among these, miR156a was expressed the most. In addition, synthetic miR156a mimic inhibited the EMT of NPC cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was confirmed that JAMA was the target of miR156a mimic as validated by 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays and western blotting. Knockdown of JAMA was consistent with the effects of miR156a mimic on the EMT of NPC, and the up-regulation of JAMA could partially restore EMT repressed by miR156a mimic. In conclusion, these results indicate that the miR156a mimic inhibits the EMT of NPC cells by targeting the 3' UTR of JAMA. These miRNA profiles of broccoli provide a fundamental basis for further research. Moreover, the discovery of miR156a may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with NPC.

  16. MicroRNA-139-5p affects cisplatin sensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

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    Shao, Qianqian; Zhang, Pei; Ma, Yingye; Lu, Zhaoyi; Meng, Jie; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Deshang; Zhang, Mingjie; Han, Yaofeng; Liu, Hao; Ma, Shiyin

    2018-04-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck cancer associated with poor prognosis. Many studies have shown that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important in cancer progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance and that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in chemotherapy resistance associated with EMT. The miRNA miR-139-5p is downregulated in many human cancers and is closely related to tumor progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of miR-139-5p to influence the cisplatin resistance, apoptosis, invasion and migration in NPC cells through the regulation of the EMT. We investigated these processes in parental HNE1 and cisplatin-resistant HNE1/DDP cells transfected with miR-139-5p inhibitors and mimics, respectively. Our results suggest that the upregulation of miR-139-5p expression inhibits proliferation, invasion, migration and EMT in human NPC cells. In addition, we found that miR-139-5p expression levels and DDP-induced apoptosis positively correlate in NPC cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that miR-139-5p can regulate the migration, invasion and DDP resistance in human NPC by modulating the EMT. The regulation of miR-139-5p levels might be a new approach to reverse EMT and DDP resistance and counteract metastasis and chemotherapy resistance in human NPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. miR156a Mimic Represses the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells by Targeting Junctional Adhesion Molecule A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunhong; Cai, Longmei; Tian, Yunming; Tu, Yinuo; Qiu, Huizhi; Xie, Guofeng; Huang, Donglan; Zheng, Ronghui; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as having an important role in the development of cancer. Broccoli is very popular in large groups of the population and has anticancer properties. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAMA) is preferentially concentrated at tight junctions and influences cell morphology and migration. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs from broccoli in human nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). We demonstrated that a total of 84 conserved miRNAs and 184 putative novel miRNAs were found in broccoli by sequencing technology. Among these, miR156a was expressed the most. In addition, synthetic miR156a mimic inhibited the EMT of NPC cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was confirmed that JAMA was the target of miR156a mimic as validated by 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays and western blotting. Knockdown of JAMA was consistent with the effects of miR156a mimic on the EMT of NPC, and the up-regulation of JAMA could partially restore EMT repressed by miR156a mimic. In conclusion, these results indicate that the miR156a mimic inhibits the EMT of NPC cells by targeting the 3' UTR of JAMA. These miRNA profiles of broccoli provide a fundamental basis for further research. Moreover, the discovery of miR156a may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with NPC.

  18. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

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    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  19. Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture

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    Magnusson Magnus K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D co-culture assay. Methods Breast luminal and myoepithelial cells and endothelial cells were isolated from reduction mammoplasties. Primary cells and established normal and malignant breast cell lines were embedded in reconstituted basement membrane in direct co-culture with endothelial cells and by separation of Transwell filters. Morphogenic and phenotypic profiles of co-cultures was evaluated by phase contrast microscopy, immunostaining and confocal microscopy. Results In co-culture, endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of both luminal- and myoepithelial cells. Furthermore, endothelial cells induce a subpopulation of luminal epithelial cells to form large acini/ducts with a large and clear lumen. Endothelial cells also stimulate growth and cloning efficiency of normal and malignant breast epithelial cell lines. Transwell and gradient co-culture studies show that endothelial derived effects are mediated - at least partially - by soluble factors. Conclusion Breast endothelial cells - beside their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen to tissues - are vital component of the epithelial microenvironment in the breast and provide proliferative signals to the normal and malignant breast epithelium. These growth promoting effects of endothelial cells should be taken into consideration in breast cancer biology.

  20. Steroid hormones as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

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    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1988-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are present in normal epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine and there have also been contentious reports of androgen, oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the epithelium of the normal large intestine. The majority of reports suggest that stimulation of the intestinal glucocorticoid receptors results in increased proliferation of epithelial cells in the small bowel, as does stimulation of androgen receptors and possibly mineralocorticoid receptors. The proliferative response of the normal intestine to oestrogens is difficult to evaluate and that to progestigens appears not to have been reported. Epidemiological studies reveal a higher incidence of bowel cancer in premenopausal women than in men of the same age and yet there is a lower incidence of these tumors in women of higher parity. These findings have been atributted to a variety of non-epithelial gender characteristic such as differences in bile metabolism, colonic bacterial and fecal transit times. In experimental animals, androgens have also been shown to influence carcinogenesis and this could well be attributed to changes in food intake etc. However, many studies have now revealed steroid hormone receptors on colorectal tumor cells and thus a direct effect of the steroid hormones on the epithelium during and after malignant transformation must now be considered.

  1. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  2. Nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.; Biston, M.C.; Montbarbon, X.; Pommier, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to propose recommendations concerning the delineation of the target volume of the nasopharyngeal cancers, the planning of the treatment, and describe the expected results about the efficiency and the toxicities. Theses recommendations are based upon anatomy, natural history of theses tumors, and upon published experiences from different teams working with IMRT. (authors)

  3. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells

  4. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

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    Mariam El-Ashmawy

    Full Text Available Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs. In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF = 1.3, and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  5. Sensitivity to radiation of human normal, hyperthyroid, and neoplastic thyroid epithelial cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Hiraoka, Toshio; Kopecky, K.J.; Nakamura, Nori; Jones, M.P.; Ito, Toshio; Clifton, K.H.

    1986-09-01

    Samples of thyroid tissue removed surgically from 63 patients were cultured in vitro and X-irradiated to investigate the radiosensitivities of various types of thyroid epithelial cells. A total of 76 samples were obtained, including neoplastic cells from patients with papillary carcinoma (PC) or follicular adenoma (FA), cells from hyperthyroidism (HY) patients, and normal cells from the surgical margins of PC and FA patients. Culturing of the cells was performed in a manner which has been shown to yield a predominance of epithelial cells. Results of colony formation assays indicated that cells from HY and FA patients were the least radiosensitive: when adjusted to the overall geometric mean plating efficiency of 5.5 %, the average mean lethal dose D 0 was 97.6 cGy for HY cells, and 96.7 cGy and 94.3 cGy, respectively, for neoplastic and normal cells from FA patients. Cells from PC patients were more radiosensitive, normal cells having an adjusted average D 0 of 85.0 cGy and PC cells a significantly (p = .001) lower average D 0 of 74.4 cGy. After allowing for this variation by cell type, in vitro radiosensitivity was not significantly related to age at surgery (p = .82) or sex (p = .10). These results suggest that malignant thyroid cells may be especially radiosensitive. (author)

  6. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to α-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMVΒ vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells

  7. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

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    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  8. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV

  9. Prognostic significance of normal-sized ovary in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Joong; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Choi, Chel Hun

    2018-01-01

    We compared survival outcomes of advanced serous type epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with normal-sized ovaries and enlarged-ovarian tumors by propensity score matching analysis. The medical records of EOC patients treated at Samsung Medical Center between 2002 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. We investigated EOC patients with high grade serous type histology and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV who underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy to identify patients with normal-sized ovaries. Propensity score matching was performed to compare patients with normal-sized ovaries to patients with enlarged-ovarian tumors (ratio, 1:3) according to age, FIGO stage, initial cancer antigen (CA)-125 level, and residual disease status after PDS. Of the 419 EOC patients, 48 patients had normal-sized ovary. Patients with enlarged-ovarian tumor were younger (54.0±10.3 vs. 58.4±9.2 years, p=0.005) than those with normal-sized ovary, and there was a statistically significant difference in residual disease status between the 2 groups. In total cohort with a median follow-up period of 43 months (range, 3-164 months), inferior overall survival (OS) was shown in the normal-sized ovary group (median OS, 71.2 vs. 41.4 months; p=0.003). After propensity score matching, the group with normal-sized ovary showed inferior OS compared to the group with enlarged-ovarian tumor (median OS, 72.1 vs. 41.4 months; p=0.031). In multivariate analysis for OS, normal-sized ovary remained a significant factor. Normal-sized ovary was associated with poor OS compared with the common presentation of enlarged ovaries in EOC, independent of CA-125 level or residual disease. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  10. Detection of genomic instability in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to 238Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.H.; Fukushima, N.H.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting radon daughters constitute a risk for development of lung cancer in humans. The development of this disease involves multiple genetic alterations. These changes and the time course they follow are not yet defined despite numerous in vitro endeavors to transform human lung cells with various physical or chemical agents. However, genomic instability, characterized both by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations and by elevated rates of point mutations, is a common feature of tumor cells. Further, both types of genomic instability have been reported in the noncancerous progeny of normal murine hemopoietic cells exposed in vitro to α-particles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if genomic instability is also a prominent feature of normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to α-particle irradiation from the decay of inhaled radon daughters

  11. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  12. Carotid artery stiffness evaluated early by wave intensity in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Runlan; Tan, Bijun; Qian, Jing; Duan, Yanfang; Wang, Nan; Li, Guangsen

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to assess carotid elasticity early in normal left ventricular function in post-radiotherapy patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by wave intensity. Sixty-seven post-radiotherapy patients all with normal left ventricular function were classified into group NPC1 and group NPC2 based on their carotid intima-media thickness. Thirty age- and sex-matched NPC patients without any history of irradiation and chemotherapy were included as a control group. Carotid parameters, including stiffness constant (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), arterial compliance (AC), stiffness constant pulse wave velocity (PWVβ), and wave intensity pulse wave velocity (PWVWI) were measured. There were no significant differences in conventional echocardiographic variables among the three groups. In comparison with the control group, β, Ep, PWVβ, and PWVWI were significantly increased, while AC was significantly decreased in the NPC1 and NPC2 groups, and there were differences between the NPC1 group and NPC2 group (all P < 0.05). This study suggested that carotid artery stiffness increased with reduced carotid compliance in post-RT with NPC.

  13. Human adipose tissue from normal and tumoral breast regulates the behavior of mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone Creydt, Virginia; Fletcher, Sabrina Johanna; Giudice, Jimena; Bruzzone, Ariana; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra; Gonzalez, Eduardo Gustavo; Sacca, Paula Alejandra; Calvo, Juan Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Stromal-epithelial interactions mediate both breast development and breast cancer progression. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of conditioned media (CMs) of human adipose tissue explants from normal (hATN) and tumor (hATT) breast on proliferation, adhesion, migration and metalloproteases activity on tumor (MCF-7 and IBH-7) and non-tumor (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cell lines. Human adipose tissues were obtained from patients and the conditioned medium from hATN and hATT collected after 24 h of incubation. MCF-10A, MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells were grown and incubated with CMs and proliferation and adhesion, as well as migration ability and metalloprotease activity, of epithelial cells after exposing cell cultures to hATN- or hATT-CMs were quantified. The statistical significance between different experimental conditions was evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Tukey's post hoc tests were performed. Tumor and non-tumor breast epithelial cells significantly increased their proliferation activity after 24 h of treatment with hATT-CMs compared to control-CMs. Furthermore, cellular adhesion of these two tumor cell lines was significantly lower with hATT-CMs than with hATN-CMs. Therefore, hATT-CMs seem to induce significantly lower expression or less activity of the components involved in cellular adhesion than hATN-CMs. In addition, hATT-CMs induced pro-MMP-9 and MMP-9 activity and increased the migration of MCF-7 and IBH-7 cells compared to hATN-CMs. We conclude that the microenvironment of the tumor interacts in a dynamic way with the mutated epithelium. This evidence leads to the possibility to modify the tumor behavior/phenotype through the regulation or modification of its microenvironment. We developed a model in which we obtained CMs from adipose tissue explants completely, either from normal or tumor breast. In this way, we studied the contribution of soluble factors independently of the possible effects of direct cell contact.

  14. Inflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor α Confers Precancerous Phenotype in an Organoid Model of Normal Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we established an in vitro organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE cells. The spheroids of these normal HOSE cells resembled epithelial inclusion cysts in human ovarian cortex, which are the cells of origin of ovarian epithelial tumor. Because there are strong correlations between chronic inflammation and the incidence of ovarian cancer, we used the organoid model to test whether protumor inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α would induce malignant phenotype in normal HOSE cells. Prolonged treatment of tumor necrosis factor α induced phenotypic changes of the HOSE spheroids, which exhibited the characteristics of precancerous lesions of ovarian epithelial tumors, including reinitiation of cell proliferation, structural disorganization, epithelial stratification, loss of epithelial polarity, degradation of basement membrane, cell invasion, and overexpression of ovarian cancer markers. The result of this study provides not only an evidence supporting the link between chronic inflammation and ovarian cancer formation but also a relevant and novel in vitro model for studying of early events of ovarian cancer.

  15. 1H-MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing temporal white matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei Feng; Qiu, Shi Jun; Wang, Hong Zhuo; Lv, Xiao Fei

    2013-01-01

    To detect radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe normal-appearing white mater (NAWM) following radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Seventy-five H(1)-MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) examinations were performed in 55 patients before and after receiving fractionated radiation therapy (total dose; 66-75GY). We divided the dataset into six groups, a pre-RT control group and five other groups based on time after completion of RT. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr, mean diffusibility (MD), functional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusibility (λ(⊥)), and axial diffusibility (λ(||)) were calculated. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased and λ(⊥) increased significantly within 1 year after RT compared with pre-RT. After 1 year, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and λ(⊥) were not significantly different from pre-RT. In all post-RT groups, FA decreased significantly. λ(||) decreased within 9 months after RT compared with pre-RT, but was not significantly different from pre-RT more than 9 months after RT. DTI and H(1)-MR spectroscopy can be used to detect early radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe NAWM following radiation therapy for NPC. Metabolic alterations and water diffusion characteristics of temporal lobe NAWM in patients with NPC after RT were dynamic and transient. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Pulmonary epithelial permeability in normal subjects and patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anazawa, Yoshiki; Isawa, Toyoharu; Teshima, Takeo; Miki, Makoto; Motomiya, Masakichi

    1991-01-01

    99m Tc-DTPA is a low molecular weight substance, which is believed to pass through the pulmonary epithelium when it is inhaled as an aerosol. We performed 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies in 10 nonsmoking normal subjects and 10 patients with biopsy proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia prior to therapy. 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol was inhaled for 3 min with the subject in the supine position and radioactivity was measured anteriorly with a gamma camera and recorded on computer. Measurements were performed for 3 min with the subject inhaling aerosol and for the subsequent 30 min with the subject in the same position. Time activity curves from the five regions of interest (ROIs) including the entire left lung, the entire right lung, and the upper, middle and lower third of the right lung were separately fitted to a single exponential function for the initial 7 min following cessation of inhalation, and the respective clearance half life (t1/2) in min was calculated. Lung function data, arterial blood gas tensions and blood chemistry were also obtained for comparison with the t1/2 values. The t1/2 values were significantly smaller in all ROIs in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia than in normal subjects, indicating an increased pulmonary epithelial permeability in these patients. There was no relationship between t1/2 and %DL co , %DL co /V A , PaO 2 , or LDH. Although the true pathophysiologic significance of t1/2 measured using 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol is still not known, we consider that this measurement may be an important indicator of nonrespiratory lung function, in particular the degree of alveolar epithelial damage. (author)

  17. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  18. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  19. and p53 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Department of Pathology, Ibn Rochd University Medical Center, Casablanca, Morocco. Abstract. Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor intimately associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). NPC is a characteristic tumor displaying epidemiological, genetic and regional ...

  20. Leptin and Adiponectin Modulate the Self-renewal of Normal Human Breast Epithelial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Raymond M; Dame, Michael; McClintock, Shannon; Holt, Peter R; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Wicha, Max S; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms are likely to account for the link between obesity and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are of particular interest due to their opposing biologic functions and associations with breast cancer risk. In the current study, we investigated the effects of leptin and adiponectin on normal breast epithelial stem cells. Levels of leptin in human adipose explant-derived conditioned media positively correlated with the size of the normal breast stem cell pool. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found for adiponectin. Moreover, a strong linear relationship was observed between the leptin/adiponectin ratio in adipose conditioned media and breast stem cell self-renewal. Consistent with these findings, exogenous leptin stimulated whereas adiponectin suppressed breast stem cell self-renewal. In addition to local in-breast effects, circulating factors, including leptin and adiponectin, may contribute to the link between obesity and breast cancer. Increased levels of leptin and reduced amounts of adiponectin were found in serum from obese compared with age-matched lean postmenopausal women. Interestingly, serum from obese women increased stem cell self-renewal by 30% compared with only 7% for lean control serum. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible explanation for the obesity-driven increase in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Leptin and adiponectin may function as both endocrine and paracrine/juxtacrine factors to modulate the size of the normal stem cell pool. Interventions that disrupt this axis and thereby normalize breast stem cell self-renewal could reduce the risk of breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. PKH26 staining defines distinct subsets of normal human colon epithelial cells at different maturation stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pastò

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colon crypts are characterized by a hierarchy of cells distributed along the crypt axis. Aim of this paper was to develop an in vitro system for separation of epithelial cell subsets in different maturation stages from normal human colon. METHODOLOGY AND MAJOR FINDINGS: Dissociated colonic epithelial cells were stained with PKH26, which allows identification of distinct populations based on their proliferation rate, and cultured in vitro in the absence of serum. The cytofluorimetric expression of CK20, Msi-1 and Lgr5 was studied. The mRNA levels of several stemness-associated genes were also compared in cultured cell populations and in three colon crypt populations isolated by microdissection. A PKH(pos population survived in culture and formed spheroids; this population included subsets with slow (PKH(high and rapid (PKH(low replicative rates. Molecular analysis revealed higher mRNA levels of both Msi-1 and Lgr-5 in PKH(high cells; by cytofluorimetric analysis, Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells were only found within PKH(high cells, whereas Msi-1(+/Lgr5(- cells were also observed in the PKH(low population. As judged by qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of several stemness-associated markers (Bmi-1, EphB2, EpCAM, ALDH1 was highly enriched in Msi-1(+/Lgr5(+ cells. While CK20 expression was mainly found in PKH(low and PKH(neg cells, a small PKH(high subset co-expressed both CK20 and Msi-1, but not Lgr5; cells with these properties also expressed Mucin, and could be identified in vivo in colon crypts. These results mirrored those found in cells isolated from different crypt portions by microdissection, and based on proliferation rates and marker expression they allowed to define several subsets at different maturation stages: PKH(high/Lgr5(+/Msi-1(+/CK20(-, PKH(high/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/CK20(+, PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(+/Ck20(-, and PKH(low/Lgr5(-/Msi-1(-/CK20(+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the possibility of deriving in vitro, without any

  2. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  3. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Aug

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1 to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  4. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 Ioannis M Aslanides,3 George Asimellis11Laservision Eye Institute, Athens, 2Emmetropia Mediterranean Eye Clinic, Crete, Greece, 3New York University School of Medicine, NY, USAPurpose: To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM imaging system (Artemis-II, and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL.Methods: Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls, patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted.Results: Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 µm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 µm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 µm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005. This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean –0.7 µm, –0.2 µm over the pupil center, –0.9 µm over the peripheral zone as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the

  5. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-associated epithelial and non-epithelial lesions of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kikuchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV is known to be associated with the development of malignant lymphoma and lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs in immunocompromised patients. EBV, a B-lymphotropic gamma-herpesvirus, causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leukoplakia, as well as various pathological types of lymphoid malignancy. Furthermore, EBV is associated with epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, salivary gland tumor, gastric carcinoma and breast carcinoma. In terms of oral disease, there have been several reports of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC worldwide. However, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of human oral epithelial or lymphoid tissue is unclear. This review summarizes EBV-related epithelial and non-epithelial tumors or tumor-like lesions of the oral cavity. In addition, we describe EBV latent genes and their expression in normal epithelium, inflamed gingiva, epithelial dysplasia and SCC, as well as considering LPDs (MTX- and age-related and DLBCLs of the oral cavity.

  6. Biogenic amines as regulators of the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic intestinal epithelial cells (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1987-01-01

    The role of extracellular amines such as noradrenaline and serotonin and their interaction with cyclic nucleotides and intracellular polyamines in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is reviewed with particular reference to the differences between normal and neoplastic cells. In respect to the normal epithelium of the small intestine there is a strong case to support the notion that cell proliferation is controlled by, amongst other things, sympathetic nerves. In colonic carcinomas, antagonists for certain serotonin receptors, for histamine H2 receptors and for dopamine D2 receptors inhibit both cell division and tumour growth. Because of the reproducible variations between tumour lines in the response to these antagonists, this inhibition appears to be due to a direct effect on the tumour cells rather than an indirect effect via the tumour host or stroma. This conclusion is supported by the cytocidal effects of toxic congeners of serotonin on the tumour cells. The most salient difference between the amine responses of normal and neoplastic cells relates to the issue of amine uptake. Proliferation of crypt cells is promoted by amine uptake inhibitors, presumably because they block amine re-uptake by the amine secreting cells--sympathetic neurones and enteroendocrine cells. However, tumour cell proliferation is strongly inhibited by amine uptake inhibitors, suggesting that neoplastic cells can, and need to take up the amine before being stimulated by it. Recent revelations in the field of oncogenes also support an important association between amines, cyclic nucleotides and cell division. The ras oncogenes code for a protein that is a member of a family of molecules which relay information from extracellular regulators, such as biogenic amines, to the intracellular regulators, including cyclic nucleotides. Evidence is presented suggesting that enteroendocrine cells, enterocytes, carcinoid tumour cells and adenocarcinoma cells all have the same

  7. Correlation between epithelial thickness in normal corneas, untreated ectatic corneas, and ectatic corneas previously treated with CXL; is overall epithelial thickness a very early ectasia prognostic factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Asimellis, George

    2012-01-01

    To determine and correlate epithelial corneal thickness (pachymetric) measurements taken with a digital arc scanning very high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF UBM) imaging system (Artemis-II), and compare mean and central epithelial thickness among normal eyes, untreated keratoconic eyes, and keratoconic eyes previously treated with collagen crosslinking (CXL). Epithelial pachymetry measurements (topographic mapping) were conducted on 100 subjects via HF UBM. Three groups of patients were included: patients with normal eyes (controls), patients with untreated keratoconic eyes, and patients with keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. Central, mean, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was examined for each group, and a statistical study was conducted. Mean, central, and peripheral corneal epithelial thickness was compared between the three groups of patients. Epithelium thickness varied substantially in the keratoconic group, and in some cases there was a difference of up to 20 μm between various points of the same eye, and often a thinner epithelium coincided with a thinner cornea. However, on average, data from the keratoconic group suggested an overall thickening of the epithelium, particularly over the pupil center of the order of +3 μm, while the mean epithelium thickness was on average +1.1 μm, compared to the control population (P = 0.005). This overall thickening was more pronounced in younger patients in the keratoconic group. Keratoconic eyes previously treated with CXL showed, on average, virtually the same average epithelium thickness (mean -0.7 μm, -0.2 μm over the pupil center, -0.9 μm over the peripheral zone) as the control group. This finding further reinforces our novel theory of the "reactive" component of epithelial thickening in corneas that are biomechanically unstable, becoming stable when biomechanical rigidity is accomplished despite persistence of cornea topographic irregularity. A highly irregular epithelium may be

  8. [Inactivation of PMS2 gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, H F; Jiang, B; Zhou, Z; Li, Y; Yuan, X Y; Cao, X L; Huang, G W

    2016-11-23

    Objective: To investigate the inactivation of PMS2 gene mediated by promoter methylation and its regulatory mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Fifty-four NPC tissues, 16 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia (NNE), 5 NPC cell lines (CNE1, CNE2, TWO3, HNE1 and HONE1) and 1 normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line (NP69) were collected.Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect the PMS2 promoter methylation, semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to determine its mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the protein expression of PMS2. The expressions of PMS2 mRNA in CNE1 and CNE2 cells before and after treated with methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The impact of methylation and demethylation on the mRNA expression of PMS2, and the association of mRNA and protein expression of PMS2 with clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal cancer were analyzed. Results: Methylation of PMS2 gene was detected in all of the five NPC cell lines, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69 cells. The methylation rate of PMS2 gene in NPC tissues was 63% (34/54), significantly higher than that of the normal nasopharyngeal epithelia (0/16, P PMS2 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated in the 54 NPC tissues when compared with those in the 16 NNE tissues ( P PMS2 mRNA was restored in the CNE1 and CNE2 cells.However, the expressions of PMS2 mRNA and protein were not significantly correlated with patients' age, gender, TNM stage, histopathologic type or lymph node metastasis ( P >0.05 for all). Conclusions: Promoter methylation-mediated inactivation of PMS2 gene participates in carcinogenesis and development of NPC. PMS2 may be a candidate tumor suppressor in the treatment for patients with inactivation of PMS2 promoter methylation.

  9. Three-dimensional telomere architecture of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of tumor and normal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunpaweravong, S; Sunpaweravong, P; Sathitruangsak, C; Mai, S

    2016-05-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG)n located at the ends of chromosomes that function to preserve chromosomal integrity and prevent terminal end-to-end fusions. Telomere loss or dysfunction results in breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, aneuploidy, gene amplification and chromosomal rearrangements, which can lead to genomic instability and promote carcinogenesis. Evaluating the hypothesis that changes in telomeres contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine whether there are differences between young and old patients, we compared the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear telomere architecture in ESCC tumor cells with that of normal epithelial cells obtained from the same patient. Patients were equally divided by age into two groups, one comprising those less than 45 years of age and the other consisting of those over 80 years of age. Tumor and normal epithelial cells located at least 10 cm from the border of the tumor were biopsied in ESCC patients. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for each sample to confirm and identify the cancer and normal epithelial cells. This study was based on quantitative 3D fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH), 3D imaging and 3D analysis of paraffin-embedded slides. The 3D telomere architecture data were computer analyzed using 100 nuclei per slide. The following were the main parameters compared: the number of signals (number of telomeres), signal intensity (telomere length), number of telomere aggregates, and nuclear volume. Tumor and normal epithelial samples from 16 patients were compared. The normal epithelial cells had more telomere signals and higher intensities than the tumor cells, with P-values of P architecture and found no statistically significant differences in any parameter tested between the young and old patients in either the tumor or epithelial cells. The 3D nuclear telomeric signature was able to detect differences in telomere architecture

  10. Effects of organophosphorus flame retardant TDCPP on normal human corneal epithelial cells: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; Liu, Rong-Yan; Li, Chao; Gao, Peng; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-11-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is one of the most detected organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the environment, especially in indoor dust. Continuous daily exposure to TDCPP-containing dust may adversely impact human cornea. However, its detrimental effects on human corneal epithelium are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis in normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) after TDCPP exposure and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our data indicated a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability after TDCPP exposure with LC 50 at 202 μg/mL. A concentration-dependent apoptotic sign was observed in HCECs after exposing to ≥2 μg/mL TDCPP. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induction was evidenced by up-regulation of its biomarker genes (ATF-4, CHOP, BiP, and XBP1). Furthermore, alternation of Bcl-2/Bax expression, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cellular ATP content decrease, and caspase-3 and -9 activity increase were observed after exposing to 2 or 20 μg/mL TDCPP. Taken together, the data implicated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in TDCPP-induced HCEC apoptosis, probably mediated by mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our findings showed TDCPP exposure induced toxicity to human cornea. Due to TDCPP's presence at high levels in indoor dust, further study is warranted to evaluate its health risk on human corneas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Apple Flavonoids Suppress Carcinogen-Induced DNA Damage in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazhappilly Cijo George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope. Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4 against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. Methods and Results. AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK, NNK acetate (NNK-Ae, methotrexate (MTX, and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage. Furthermore, phosphorylated histone (γ-H2AX and proteins involved in DNA damage (ATM/ATR, Chk1, Chk2, and p53 and repair (DNA-PKcs and Ku80 mechanisms were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blotting, respectively. The results revealed that AF4-pretreated cells showed lower cytotoxicity, total ROS generation, and DNA fragmentation along with consequent inhibition of DNA tail moment. An increased level of γ-H2AX and DNA damage proteins was observed in carcinogen-treated cells and that was significantly (p≤0.05 inhibited in AF4-pretreated cells, in an ATR-dependent manner. AF4 pretreatment also facilitated the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs and thus initiation of repair mechanisms. Conclusion. Apple flavonoids can protect in vitro oxidative DNA damage and facilitate repair mechanisms.

  12. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2- 3 H]mannose or L-[5,6- 3 H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2- 3 H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6- 3 H]glucosamine and L-[1- 14 C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3 H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  13. Assessment of Corneal Epithelial Thickness in Asymmetric Keratoconic Eyes and Normal Eyes Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the characteristics of asymmetric keratoconic eyes and normal eyes by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT corneal mapping. Methods. Retrospective corneal and epithelial thickness OCT data for 74 patients were compared in three groups of eyes: keratoconic (n=22 and normal fellow eyes (n=22 in patients with asymmetric keratoconus and normal eyes (n=104 in healthy subjects. Areas under the curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves for each variable were compared across groups to indicate their discrimination capacity. Results. Three variables were found to differ significantly between fellow eyes and normal eyes (all p<0.05: minimum corneal thickness, thinnest corneal point, and central corneal thickness. These variables combined showed a high discrimination power to differentiate fellow eyes from normal eyes indicated by an AUC of 0.840 (95% CI: 0.762–0.918. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that topographically normal fellow eyes in patients with very asymmetric keratoconus differ from the eyes of healthy individuals in terms of their corneal epithelial and pachymetry maps. This type of information could be useful for an early diagnosis of keratoconus in topographically normal eyes.

  14. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-02-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Progenitor-Like Cells in Normal and Injured Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Yovchev, Mladen I.; Zhang, Jinghang; Alfieri, Alan A.; Tchaikovskaya, Tatyana; Laconi, Ezio; Dabeva, Mariana D.

    2016-01-01

    In normal rat liver, thymocyte antigen 1 (Thy1) is expressed in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and in some blood progenitor cells. Thy1-expressing cells also accumulate in the liver during impaired liver regeneration. The origin and nature of these cells are not well understood. By using RT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, we describe the presence of rare Thy1+ cells in the liver lobule of normal animals, occasionally forming small collections of up to 20 cells. These cells constitute a small portion (1.7% to 1.8%) of nonparenchymal cells and reveal a mixed mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype, expressing E-cadherin, cytokeratin 18, and desmin. The most potent mitogens for mesenchymal-epithelial Thy1+ cells in vitro are the inflammatory cytokines interferon γ, IL-1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB, which are not produced by Thy1+ cells. Thy1+ cells express all typical mesenchymal stem cell and hepatic progenitor cell markers and produce growth factor and cytokine mRNA (Hgf, Il6, Tgfa, and Tweak) for proteins that maintain oval cell growth and differentiation. Under appropriate conditions, mesenchymal-epithelial cells differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte-like cells. In this study, we show that the adult rat liver harbors a small pool of endogenous mesenchymal-epithelial cells not recognized previously. In the quiescent state, these cells express both mesenchymal and epithelial cell markers. They behave like hepatic stem cells/progenitors with dual phenotype, exhibiting high plasticity and long-lasting proliferative activity. PMID:25447047

  16. Expression and function of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J (PTPRJ in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel E Smart

    Full Text Available The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor J, PTPRJ, is a tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in a range of cancers, including breast cancer, yet little is known about its role in normal breast physiology or in mammary gland tumorigenesis. In this paper we show that PTPRJ mRNA is expressed in normal breast tissue and reduced in corresponding tumors. Meta-analysis revealed that the gene encoding PTPRJ is frequently lost in breast tumors and that low expression of the transcript associated with poorer overall survival at 20 years. Immunohistochemistry of PTPRJ protein in normal human breast tissue revealed a distinctive apical localisation in the luminal cells of alveoli and ducts. Qualitative analysis of a cohort of invasive ductal carcinomas revealed retention of normal apical PTPRJ localization where tubule formation was maintained but that tumors mostly exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic staining, indicating that dysregulation of localisation associated with loss of tissue architecture in tumorigenesis. The murine ortholog, Ptprj, exhibited a similar localisation in normal mammary gland, and was differentially regulated throughout lactational development, and in an in vitro model of mammary epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human PTPRJ in HC11 murine mammary epithelial cells inhibited dome formation. These data indicate that PTPRJ may regulate differentiation of normal mammary epithelia and that dysregulation of protein localisation may be associated with tumorigenesis.

  17. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, induces breast cancer cell death while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Vanity; Saavedra, Joseph E; Nieves-Alicea, René; Simeone, Ann-Marie; Keefer, Larry K; Tari, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Targeted therapy with reduced side effects is a major goal in cancer research. We investigated the effects of JS-K, a nitric oxide (NO) prodrug designed to release high levels of NO when suitably activated, on human breast cancer cell lines, on non-transformed human MCF-10A mammary cells, and on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis were used to study the effects of JS-K on breast cancer and on mammary epithelial cells. After a 3-day incubation, the IC50s of JS-K against the breast cancer cells ranged from 0.8 to 3 µM. However, JS-K decreased the viability of the MCF-10A cells by only 20% at 10-µM concentration, and HMECs were unaffected by 10 µM JS-K. Flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased the percentages of breast cancer cells under-going apoptosis. Interestingly, flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased acidic vesicle organelle formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting that JS-K induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that JS-K-treated breast cancer cells underwent autophagic cell death. Western blot analysis showed that JS-K induced the expression of microtubule light chain 3-II, another autophagy marker, in breast cancer cells. However, JS-K did not induce apoptosis or autophagy in normal human mammary epithelial cells. These data indicate that JS-K selectively induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells under the same conditions. The selective anti-tumor activity of JS-K warrants its further investigation in breast tumors.

  18. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  19. Characterization of exosomes derived from ovarian cancer cells and normal ovarian epithelial cells by nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Kuang, Yun; Yang, Jiaxin; Cao, Dongyan; You, Yan; Shen, Keng

    2016-03-01

    Cellular exosomes are involved in many disease processes and have the potential to be used for diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of exosomes derived from human ovarian epithelial cells (HOSEPiC) and three epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR3, IGROV1, and ES-2) to investigate the differences between exosomes originating from normal and malignant cells. Two established colloid-chemical methodologies, electron microscopy (EM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and a relatively new method, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), were used to measure the size and size distribution of exosomes. The concentration and epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression of exosomes were measured by NTA. Quantum dots were conjugated with anti-EpCAM to label exosomes, and the labeled exosomes were detected by NTA in fluorescent mode. The normal-cell-derived exosomes were significantly larger than those derived from malignant cells, and exosomes were successfully labeled using anti-EpCAM-conjugated quantum dots. Exosomes from different cell lines may vary in size, and exosomes might be considered as potential diagnosis biomarkers. NTA can be considered a useful, efficient, and objective method for the study of different exosomes and their unique properties in ovarian cancer.

  20. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn...

  1. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  2. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  3. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  4. Interleukin-17A induces bicarbonate secretion in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, James L.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Lee, Robert J.; Karasic, Thomas; Aujla, Shean; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune functions of human airways include mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial peptide activity. Both functions may be affected by changes in epithelial ion transport. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which has a receptor at the basolateral membrane of airway epithelia, is a T cell cytokine that has been shown to increase mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production by human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Furthermore, IL-17A levels are increased in sputum from patients during pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-17A on basal, amiloride-sensitive, and forskolin-stimulated ion transport in mature, well-differentiated HBE cells. Exposure of HBE monolayers to IL-17A for 48 h induced a novel forskolin-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in addition to forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion and resulted in alkalinization of liquid on the mucosal surface of polarized cells. IL-17A-induced bicarbonate secretion was cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent, mucosal chloride-dependent, partially Na+-dependent, and sensitive to serosal, but not mucosal, stilbene inhibition. These data suggest that IL-17A modulates epithelial bicarbonate secretion and implicate a mechanism by which airway surface liquid pH changes may be abnormal in cystic fibrosis. PMID:19074559

  5. The nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternitskaya, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    The CT and MRT features of the nasopharyngeal angiofibroma on basis of 12 patients was studied. Combined CT and MRT examination allowed to define nasopharyngeal angiofibroma's typical signs, to appreciate limits, to contribute to differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses

  6. Sildenafil Effect on Nitric Oxide Secretion by Normal Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells Cultured In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Chobsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monphosphat-specificphosphodiesterase type 5. It increases intracellular nitric oxide (NO production in some cells.There are reports on its positive effect on uterine circulation, endometrial thickness, and infertilityimprovement. Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC play an important role in embryo attachment andimplantation. The present work investigates the effect of sildenafil on human EEC and their NOsecretion in vitro.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, endometrial biopsies (n=10 werewashed in a phosphate buffered solution (PBS and digested with collagenase I (2 mg/ml in DMEM/F12 medium at 37°C for 90 minutes. Epithelial glands were collected by sequential filtrationthrough nylon meshes (70 and 40 μm pores, respectively. Epithelial glands were then treated withtrypsin to obtain individual cells. The cells were counted and divided into four groups: control and1, 10, and 20 μM sildenafil concentrations. Cells were cultured for 15 days at 37ºC and 5% CO2; themedia were changed every 3 days, and their supernatants were collected for the NO assay. NO wasmeasured by standard Greiss methods. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant difference between groups in cell count and NO secretion, but thelevel of NO increased slightly in the experimental groups. The 10 μM dose showed the highest cellcount. EEC morphology changed into long spindle cells in the case groups.Conclusion: Sildenafil (1, 10, and 20 μM showed a mild proliferative effect on human EECnumbers, but no significant change was seen in NO production.

  7. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  8. Attenuation of radiation-induced DNA damage due to paracrine interactions between normal human epithelial and stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, V.A.; Nakazawa, Yu.; Rogounovitch, T.I.; Suzuki, K.; Mitsutake, N.; Matsuse, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Developmentally, every tissue accommodates different types of cells, such as epitheliocytes and stromal cells in parenchymal organs. To better understand the complexity of radiation response, it is necessary to evaluate possible cross-talk between different tissue components. This work was set out to investigate reciprocal influence of normal human epithelial cells and fibroblasts on the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage. Methods: Model cultures of primary human thyrocytes (PT), normal diploid fibroblasts (BJ), PT/BJ cell co-culture and conditioned medium transfer were used to examine DNA damage in terms of γ-H2AX foci number per cell or by Comet assay after exposure to different doses of γ-rays. Results: In co-cultures, the kinetics of γ-H2AX foci number change was dose-dependent and similar to that in individual PT and BJ cultures. The number of γ-H2AX foci in co-cultures was significantly lower (∼25%) in both types of cells comparing to individual cultures. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual counterpart cells prior to irradiation resulted in approximately 35% reduction in the number γ-H2AX foci at 1 Gy and lower doses in both PT and BJ demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. Comet assay corroborated the results of γ-H2AX foci counting in conditioned medium transfer experiments. In contrast to medium conditioned on PT cells, conditioned medium collected from several human thyroid cancer cell lines failed to establish DNA-protected state in BJ fibroblasts. In its turn, medium conditioned on BJ cells did not change the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in cancer cell lines tested. Conclusion: The results imply the existence of a network of soluble factor-mediated paracrine interactions between normal epithelial and stromal cells that could be a part of natural mechanism by which cells protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  9. Protein Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes, Myofibroblasts, Epithelial, Basal, and Endothelial Cells from Normal, Hyperplastic, Cancerous, and Inflammatory Human Prostate Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis, Kenneth A. Iczkowski, Ziad J. Sahab, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prsotate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  10. Comparison of the circadian variation in cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1985-09-15

    Circadian variations in cell proliferation in normal tissues have been recognised for many years but comparable phenomena in neoplastic tissues appear not to have been reported. Adenomas and carcinomas were induced in mouse colon by injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and cell proliferation in these tumors was measured stathmokinetically. In normal intestine cell proliferation is fastest at night whereas in both adenomas and carcinomas it was found to be slower at night than in the middle of the day. Chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the circadian variation in tumor cell proliferation.

  11. Inhibitor production by normal rat tracheal epithelial cells influences the frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced enhanced growth variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi-Howe, M.

    1989-01-01

    A cell culture model was used to assay for the induction of cell populations with enhanced growth capacity in culture in irradiated normal rat tracheal epithelial cells (NTEC). Some growth conditions appear to favor the proliferation of both normal and carcinogen-exposed populations, while others appear to select for populations previously exposed to carcinogen. In the present report we focus on what growth conditions are critical for controlling the emergence of spontaneous and X-ray induced proliferating epithelial foci (PEF) and what factor(s) directly influences the relative frequency of PEF in irradiated and control NTEC cultures. (author)

  12. Do early premalignant changes in normal breast epithelial cells predict cancer development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Robert B; Bundred, Nigel J

    2005-01-01

    A recent report suggests that, in an in vitro model of premalignant breast cells (vHMECs), silencing of INK4A gene is accompanied by over-expression of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2. This suggests that COX-2 over-expression may be an early event in breast cancer aetiology permitting clones within the normal epithelium to evade apoptosis, to increase their numbers and perhaps acquire further changes that promote the formation of hyperplasias, and eventually carcinomas. While COX-2 expression in normal breast epithelium in vivo has not been proven to be linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, its over-expression in the premalignant model in vitro does provide preliminary evidence that COX-2 inhibition may be a useful chemoprevention strategy

  13. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S., E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Thompson, Janet A.; Meighan, Terence G.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167–166.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18 h transepithelial potential difference (V{sub t}), resistance (R{sub t}), and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) were measured. Particle effects on Na{sup +} and Cl¯ channels and the Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167–16.7 μg/cm{sup 2}) increased basal V{sub t}. Only 16.7 μg/cm{sup 2} GMA-MS increased basal V{sub t} significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I{sub sc} responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R{sub t} were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V{sub t}, R{sub t}, and I{sub sc} at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na{sup +} transport and Na{sup +},K{sup +},2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na{sup +} absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. - Highlights: • Welding fume particle toxicity was investigated in human bronchial

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma compared to normal salivary gland tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Noura M; Salem, Hend M; Dahmoush, Heba M

    2017-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor which displays biological, histological and clinical diversity thus representing a challenge for its diagnosis and management. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein identified as a tumor specific antigen due to its frequent overexpression in the majority of epithelial carcinomas and its correlation with prognosis. It is considered to be a promising biomarker used as a therapeutic target already in ongoing clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern, cellular characterization and level of EpCAM expression in MEC and demonstrate its correlation with histologic grading which may benefit future clinical trials using EpCAM targeted therapy. 48 specimens (12 normal salivary gland tissue and 36 MEC) were collected and EpCAM membranous expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Total immunoscore (TIS) was evaluated, the term 'EpCAM overexpression' was given for tissues showing a total immunoscore >4. A highly significant difference was observed between TIS percent values in control and different grades of MEC (p<0.001). High grade MEC (HG-MEC) was the highest EpCAM expressor. In addition, EpCAM expression pattern differed among the different grades. EpCAM expression was detected in MEC, and its overexpression correlated with increasing the histological grade. The diffuse membranous expression in HG-MEC could be of diagnostic value in relation to the patchy expression observed in both low grade and intermediate grade MEC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Over-expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Li Xin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1 (EIF4G1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC and its correlation with clinicopathologic features, including patients' survival time. Methods Using real-time PCR, we detected the expression of EIF4G1 in normal nasopharyngeal tissues, immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell lines NP69, NPC tissues and cell lines. EIF4G1 protein expression in NPC tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. The effect of EIF4G1 on cell invasion and tumorigenesis were investigated. Results The expression levels of EIF4G1 mRNA were significantly greater in NPC tissues and cell lines than those in the normal nasopharyngeal tissues and NP69 cells (P EIF4G1 protein was higher in NPC tissues than that in the nasopharyngeal tissues (P EIF4G1 protein in tumors were positively correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.039, lymph node involvement (N classification, P = 0.008, and the clinical stages (P = 0.003 of NPC patients. Patients with higher EIF4G1 expression had shorter overall survival time (P = 0.019. Multivariate analysis showed that EIF4G1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for the overall survival of NPC patients. Using shRNA to knock down the expression of EIF4G1 not only markedly inhibited cell cycle progression, proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation, but also dramatically suppressed in vivo xenograft tumor growth. Conclusion Our data suggest that EIF4G1 can serve as a biomarker for the prognosis of NPC patients.

  16. Normal Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Sense C. parapsilosis by Toll-Like Receptors and Module Its Pathogenesis through Antimicrobial Peptides and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the interaction between C. parapsilosis and human epithelial cells using monolayer cultures and an engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM. C. parapsilosis was able to adhere to gingival epithelial cells and to adopt the hyphal form in the presence of serum. Interestingly, when cultured onto the engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM, C. parapsilosis formed small biofilm and invaded the connective tissue. Following contact with C. parapsilosis, normal human gingival epithelial cells expressed high levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, and -6, but not TLR-9 mRNA. The upregulation of TLRs was paralleled by an increase of IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ mRNA expression, suggesting the involvement of these cytokines in the defense against infection with C. parapsilosis. The active role of epithelial cells in the innate immunity against C. parapsilosis infection was enhanced by their capacity to express high levels of human beta-defensin-1, -2, and -3. The upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptide expression may explain the growth inhibition of C. parapsilosis by the gingival epithelial cells. Overall results provide additional evidence of the involvement of epithelial cells in the innate immunity against C. parapsilosis infections.

  17. Quantitation of chemopreventive synergism between (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and curcumin in normal, premalignant and malignant human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafif, A; Schantz, S P; Chou, T C; Edelstein, D; Sacks, P G

    1998-03-01

    An in vitro model for oral cancer was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of chemopreventive agents when used singly and in combination. The model consists of primary cultures of normal oral epithelial cells, newly established cell lines derived from dysplastic leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Two naturally occurring substances, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and curcumin from the spice turmeric were tested. Cells were treated singly and in combination and effects on growth determined in 5-day growth assays and by cell cycle analysis. Effective dose 50s and the combination index were calculated with the computerized Chou-Talalay method which is based on the median-effect principle. Agents were shown to differ in their inhibitory potency. EGCG was less effective with cell progression; the cancer cells were more resistant than normal or dysplastic cells. In contrast, curcumin was equally effective regardless of the cell type tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that EGCG blocked cells in G1, whereas curcumin blocked cells in S/G2M. The combination of both agents showed synergistic interactions in growth inhibition and increased sigmoidicity (steepness) of the dose-effect curves, a response that was dose and cell type dependent. Combinations allowed for a dose reduction of 4.4-8.5-fold for EGCG and 2.2-2.8-fold for curcumin at ED50s as indicated by the dose reduction index (DRI). Even greater DRI values were observed above ED50 levels. Our results demonstrate that this model which includes normal, premalignant and malignant oral cells can be used to analyse the relative potential of various chemopreventive agents. Two such naturally-occurring agents, EGCG and curcumin, were noted to inhibit growth by different mechanisms, a factor which may account for their demonstrable interactive synergistic effect.

  18. Nuclear location of tumor suppressor protein maspin inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells without affecting proliferation of normal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machowska, Magdalena; Wachowicz, Katarzyna; Sopel, Mirosław; Rzepecki, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    Maspin, which is classified as a tumor suppressor protein, is downregulated in many types of cancer. Several studies have suggested potential anti-proliferative activity of maspin as well as sensitizing activity of maspin for therapeutic cytotoxic agents in breast cancer tissue culture and animal models. All of the experimental data gathered so far have been based on studies with maspin localized cytoplasmically, while maspin in breast cancer tumor cells may be located in the cytoplasm, nucleus or both. In this study, the effect of maspin cytoplasmic and nuclear location and expression level on breast cancer proliferation and patient survival was studied. Tissue sections from 166 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer were stained by immunohistochemistry for maspin and Ki-67 protein. The localization and expression level of maspin were correlated with estimated patient overall survival and percent of Ki-67-positive cells. In further studies, we created constructs for transient transfection of maspin into breast cancer cells with targeted cytoplasmic and nuclear location. We analyzed the effect of maspin location in normal epithelial cell line MCF10A and three breast cancer cell lines - MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 - by immunofluorescence and proliferation assay. We observed a strong positive correlation between moderate and high nuclear maspin level and survival of patients. Moreover, a statistically significant negative relationship was observed between nuclear maspin and Ki-67 expression in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between level of maspin localized in nucleus and percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. No such differences were observed in cells with cytoplasmic maspin. We found a strong correlation between nuclear maspin and loss of Ki-67 protein in breast cancer cell lines, while there was no effect in normal epithelial cells from breast. The anti-proliferative effect of nuclear

  19. Nuclear location of tumor suppressor protein maspin inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells without affecting proliferation of normal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maspin, which is classified as a tumor suppressor protein, is downregulated in many types of cancer. Several studies have suggested potential anti-proliferative activity of maspin as well as sensitizing activity of maspin for therapeutic cytotoxic agents in breast cancer tissue culture and animal models. All of the experimental data gathered so far have been based on studies with maspin localized cytoplasmically, while maspin in breast cancer tumor cells may be located in the cytoplasm, nucleus or both. In this study, the effect of maspin cytoplasmic and nuclear location and expression level on breast cancer proliferation and patient survival was studied. Methods Tissue sections from 166 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer were stained by immunohistochemistry for maspin and Ki-67 protein. The localization and expression level of maspin were correlated with estimated patient overall survival and percent of Ki-67-positive cells. In further studies, we created constructs for transient transfection of maspin into breast cancer cells with targeted cytoplasmic and nuclear location. We analyzed the effect of maspin location in normal epithelial cell line MCF10A and three breast cancer cell lines - MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 - by immunofluorescence and proliferation assay. Results We observed a strong positive correlation between moderate and high nuclear maspin level and survival of patients. Moreover, a statistically significant negative relationship was observed between nuclear maspin and Ki-67 expression in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Spearman’s correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between level of maspin localized in nucleus and percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. No such differences were observed in cells with cytoplasmic maspin. We found a strong correlation between nuclear maspin and loss of Ki-67 protein in breast cancer cell lines, while there was no effect in normal epithelial cells from breast. The anti

  20. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  1. HO-1 inhibits IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia associated with CLCA1 suppression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, Kei; Shinkai, Masaharu; Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Nagashima, Akimichi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoriko; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Bruce K; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia are common features that characterize asthma. IL-13 increases mucin (MUC) 5AC, the major component of airway mucus, in airway epithelial cells. According to the literature, IL-13 receptor activation leads to STAT6 activation and consequent induction of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) gene expression, associated with the induction of MUC5AC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We examined the effects of HO-1 on mucin production and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. Moreover, we assessed the cell signaling intermediates that appear to be responsible for mucin production. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were grown at air liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of IL-13 and hemin, a HO-1 inducer, for 14 days. Protein concentration was analyzed using ELISA, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. Histochemical analysis was performed using HE staining, andWestern blotting was performed to evaluate signaling transduction pathway. Hemin (4 μM) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (p b 0.01) and HO-1 mRNA expression (p b 0.001). IL-13 significantly increased goblet cells, MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.01) and MUC5AC mRNA (p b 0.001), and these were decreased by hemin by way of HO-1. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the effect of hemin restoring MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.05) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Hemin decreased the expression of CLCA1 mRNA (p b 0.05) and it was reversed by SnPP-IX, but could not suppress IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 or SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) mRNA expression. In summary, HO-1 overexpression suppressed IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and MUC5AC production, and involvement of CLCA1 in the mechanism was suggested.

  2. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Lin

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of rare nasopharyngeal carcinoma should be considered in any pregnant woman with presenting symptoms of persistent headache and abnormal nasal discharge, and a detailed thorough investigation is indicated. Successful pregnancy outcome can be achieved after tailored use of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  3. [ABOUT JUVENILE NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, V; Meunier, P; Otto, B

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a young man with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. In this paper, we will first remind the clinical signs of this pathology and its radiological appearance (localisation and extensions). Then we will explain how radioembolisation techniques were used to facilitate the surgical intervention. Finally we will discuss the histology of this tumor.

  4. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Trevino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell

  5. A Network Biology Approach Identifies Molecular Cross-Talk between Normal Prostate Epithelial and Prostate Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Victor; Cassese, Alberto; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Herbert, John; Antczak, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Davies, Nicholas; Rahman, Ayesha; Campbell, Moray J; Guindani, Michele; Bicknell, Roy; Vannucci, Marina; Falciani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The advent of functional genomics has enabled the genome-wide characterization of the molecular state of cells and tissues, virtually at every level of biological organization. The difficulty in organizing and mining this unprecedented amount of information has stimulated the development of computational methods designed to infer the underlying structure of regulatory networks from observational data. These important developments had a profound impact in biological sciences since they triggered the development of a novel data-driven investigative approach. In cancer research, this strategy has been particularly successful. It has contributed to the identification of novel biomarkers, to a better characterization of disease heterogeneity and to a more in depth understanding of cancer pathophysiology. However, so far these approaches have not explicitly addressed the challenge of identifying networks representing the interaction of different cell types in a complex tissue. Since these interactions represent an essential part of the biology of both diseased and healthy tissues, it is of paramount importance that this challenge is addressed. Here we report the definition of a network reverse engineering strategy designed to infer directional signals linking adjacent cell types within a complex tissue. The application of this inference strategy to prostate cancer genome-wide expression profiling data validated the approach and revealed that normal epithelial cells exert an anti-tumour activity on prostate carcinoma cells. Moreover, by using a Bayesian hierarchical model integrating genetics and gene expression data and combining this with survival analysis, we show that the expression of putative cell communication genes related to focal adhesion and secretion is affected by epistatic gene copy number variation and it is predictive of patient survival. Ultimately, this study represents a generalizable approach to the challenge of deciphering cell communication networks

  6. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  7. Methylation associated inactivation of RASSF1A and its synergistic effect with activated K-Ras in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes associated with promoter methylation is considered to be a hallmark of oncogenesis. RASSF1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which was found to be inactivated in many human cancers. Although we have had a prelimilary cognition about the function of RASSF1A, the exact mechanisms about how RASSF1A functions in human cancers were largely unknown. Moreover, the effect of mutated K-Ras gene on the function of RASSF1A is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile and methylation status of RASSF1A gene, and to explore its concrete mechanisms as a tumor suppressor gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Methods We examined the expression profile and methylation status of RASSF1A in two NPC cell lines, 38 primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 14 normal nasopharyngeal epithelia using RT-PCR and methylated specific PCR(MSP respectively. 5-aza-dC was then added to confirm the correlation between hypermethylation status and inactivation of RASSF1A. The NPC cell line CNE-2 was transfected with exogenous pcDNA3.1(+/RASSF1A plasmid in the presence or absence of mutated K-Ras by liposome-mediated gene transfer method. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of RASSF1A on cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, trypan blue dye exclusion assays was used to detect the effect of RASSF1A transfection alone and the co-transfection of RASSF1A and K-Ras on cell proliferation. Results Promoter methylation of RASSF1A could be detected in 71.05% (27/38 of NPC samples, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. RASSF1A expression in NPC primary tumors was lower than that in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (p p p p Conclusion Expression of RASSF1A is down-regulated in NPC due to the hypermethylation of promoter. Exogenous expression of RASSF1A is able to induce growth inhibition effect and apoptosis in tumor cell lines, and this effect could be enhanced by activated

  8. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Sai Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; Lo, Kwok Wai

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple types of human cancer, including lymphoid and epithelial cancers. The closest association with EBV infection is seen in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which is endemic in the southern Chinese population. A strong association between NPC risk and the HLA locus at chromosome 6p has been identified, indicating a link between the presentation of EBV antigens to host immune cells and NPC risk. EBV infection in NPC is clonal in origin, strongly suggesting that NPC develops from the clonal expansion of a single EBV-infected cell. In epithelial cells, the default program of EBV infection is lytic replication. However, latent infection is the predominant mode of EBV infection in NPC. The establishment of latent EBV infection in pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelium is believed to be an early stage of NPC pathogenesis. Recent genomic study of NPC has identified multiple somatic mutations in the upstream negative regulators of NF-κB signalling. Dysregulated NF-κB signalling may contribute to the establishment of latent EBV infection in NPC. Stable EBV infection and the expression of latent EBV genes are postulated to drive the transformation of pre-invasive nasopharyngeal epithelial cells to cancer cells through multiple pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates normal bronchial epithelial cell growth through induction of c-Jun and PDK1, a kinase implicated in oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Wang, Ye; Wang, Ke

    2015-12-18

    Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive eicosanoid, has been implicated in many biological processes including reproduction, inflammation and tumor growth. We previously showed that PGE2 stimulated lung cancer cell growth and progression through PGE2 receptor EP2/EP4-mediated kinase signaling pathways. However, the role of PGE2 in controlling lung airway epithelial cell phenotype remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of c-Jun and 3-phosphoinositede dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) in mediating epithelial cell hyperplasia induced by PGE2. The bronchial epithelial cell lines BEAS-2B and HBEc14-KT were cultured and then treated with PGE2. PDK1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and a PDK1 inhibitor, an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and EP4 siRNA, c-Jun siRNA, and overexpressions of c-Jun and PDK1 have been used to evaluate the effects on cell proliferation. We demonstrated that PGE2 increased normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through induction of PDK1, an ankyrin repeat-containing Ser/Thr kinase implicated in the induction of apoptosis and the suppression of tumor growth. PDK1 siRNA and a PDK1 inhibitor blocked the effects of PGE2 on normal cell growth. The PGE2-induced PDK1 expression was blocked by an antagonist of the PGE2 receptor subtype EP4 and by EP4 siRNA. In addition, we showed that induction of PDK1 by PGE2 was associated with induction of the transcription factor, c-Jun protein. Silencing of c-Jun using siRNA and point mutations of c-Jun sites in the PDK1 gene promoter resulted in blockade of PDK1 expression and promoter activity induced by PGE2. In contrast, overexpression of c-Jun induced PDK1 gene promoter activity and expression followed increased cell proliferation. PGE2 increases normal bronchial epithelial cell proliferation through increased PDK1 gene expression that is dependent on EP4 and induction of c-Jun. Therewith, our data suggest a new role of c-Jun and PDK1 in mediating epithelial cell

  11. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm 2 ) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (V t ), resistance (R t ), and short circuit current (I sc ) were measured. Particle effects on Na + and Cl¯ channels and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm 2 ) increased basal V t . Only 16.7μg/cm 2 GMA-MS increased basal V t significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated I sc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on R t were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in V t , R t , and I sc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na + transport and Na + ,K + ,2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na + absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sarcomatous transformation of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.T.; Bauer, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    A case of fibrosarcoma arising in a recurrent nasopharyngeal angiofibroma 18 years after radiation therapy is described. A review of the medical literature revealed two other documented cases of sarcomatous transformation of angiofibroma, and in both, the angiofibromas had also been irradiated before the sarcomatous transformation. These occurrences should caution against the indiscriminate application of radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

  13. Human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, in various synchronous epithelial changes and in normal vulvar skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagie, M. J.; Kenter, G. G.; Zomerdijk-Nooijen, Y.; Hermans, J.; Schuuring, E.; Timmers, P. J.; Trimbos, J. B.; Fleuren, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various vulvar lesions. METHODS: HPV infection using consensus primer-PCR was studied in 66 patients with vulvar carcinoma and in the synchronous epithelial lesions. RESULTS: HPV infection was present in 13/66

  14. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  15. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD, an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  16. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  17. General Information about Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer . Ethnic background and being exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus can affect the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer. Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor . Having a risk ...

  18. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Interleukin-17 is a potent immuno-modulator and regulator of normal human intestinal epithelial cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S [Children' s Hospital, Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beaulieu, J F [Department of Cell Biology/Anatomy, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (Canada); Ruemmele, F M [Children' s Hospital, Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany) and INSERM EMI0212, Faculte de Medecine Necker, University Paris V, Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance-Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France)

    2005-11-18

    Upregulation of the T-cell derived cytokine interleukin (IL-17) was reported in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders. In this study, we analyzed the effect of IL-17 on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) turnover and functions. Proliferation and apoptosis in response to IL-17 was monitored in HIEC (cell counts, [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation method, and annexinV-PI-apoptosis assay). Signalling pathways were analyzed by Western blots, electromobility shift assay, and immunofluorescence studies. IL-17 proved to be a potent inhibitor of HIEC proliferation without any pro-apoptotic/necrotic effect. The growth inhibitory effect of IL-17 was mediated via the p38 stress kinase. Consequently, the p38-SAPkinase-inhibitor SB203580 abrogated this anti-mitotic effect. In parallel, IL-17 provoked the degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, allowing nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit and induction of the NF-{kappa}B-controlled genes IL-6 and -8. IL-17 potently blocks epithelial cell turnover while at the same time amplifying an inflammatory response in a positive feedback manner.

  20. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  1. A Giant Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, Salim; Uysal, İsmail Önder; Doğan, Mansur; Polat, Kerem; Şalk, İsmail; Müderris, Suphi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) are locally growing highly vascular tumours. They are treated primarily by surgical excision ranging from open approach to endoscopic approach. We presented a 20-year-old male with a giant nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma obliterating the pterygopalatine fossa bilaterally, invasing the sphenoid bone and extending to the left nasal passage. His complaints were epistaxis and nasal obstruction. After embolization, the patient was treated surgically with endoscopic approach and discharged as cured without any complication. PMID:23714961

  2. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biddle Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Methods Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11, cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7, and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5, were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin. Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR. The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH and siRNA. Results In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU demonstrated that CD44high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block

  3. Normal and malignant epithelial cells with stem-like properties have an extended G2 cell cycle phase that is associated with apoptotic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Lisa J; Costea, Daniela Elena; Gammon, Luke; Fazil, Bilal; Biddle, Adrian; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2010-01-01

    Subsets of cells with stem-like properties have been previously isolated from human epithelial cancers and their resistance to apoptosis-inducing stimuli has been related to carcinoma recurrence and treatment failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis-inducing agents of cells with stem-like properties in both normal and malignant human epithelia. Cells isolated from fresh human head and neck carcinomas (n = 11), cell lines derived from head and neck, prostate and breast human carcinomas (n = 7), and from normal human oral mucosa (n = 5), were exposed to various apoptosis-inducing stimuli (UV, Tumour Necrosis Factor, Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Neocarzinostatin). Flow cytometry for CD44 and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA) expression, colony morphology, tumour sphere formation and rapid adherence assays were used to identify the subset of cells with stem-like properties. Apoptosis, cell cycle and expression of various cell cycle checkpoint proteins were assessed (Western Blot, qPCR). The role of G2-checkpoint regulators Chk1 and Chk2 was investigated by use of debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and siRNA. In both cancer biopsies and carcinoma cell lines a subset of CD44 high cells showed increased clonogenicity, a significantly lower rate of apoptosis, and a significantly higher proportion of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle. An inverse correlation between the percentage of cells in G2-phase and the rate of apoptosis was found. Pulse-chase with iododeoxyuridine (IdU) demonstrated that CD44 high carcinoma cells spent longer time in G2, even in un-treated controls. These cells expressed higher levels of G2 checkpoint proteins, and their release from G2 with BDH or Chk1 siRNA increased their rate of apoptosis. Low passage cultures of normal keratinocytes were also found to contain a subset of CD44 high cells showing increased clonogenicity, and a similar pattern of G2-block associated with apoptotic resistance. These data

  4. Normal endometrial stromal cells regulate 17β-estradiol-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via slug and E-cadherin in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Hongyan; Qi, Shasha; Liu, Zhao; Fu, Yibing; Li, Mingjiang; Zhao, Xingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stroma-tumor communication participates in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinomas. In previous studies, we found that normal stromal cells inhibited the growth of endometrial carcinoma cells. Here, we investigated the role of normal stromal cells in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial carcinoma cells and explored the possible mechanism implied. We found that conditioned medium (CM) by normal endometrial stromal cells (NSC) reduced cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in Ishikawa cells. CM by NSC inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced cell growth and apoptosis decrease in Ishikawa cells. Moreover, CM by NSC inhibited the migration and invasion, and 17β-estradiol-induced migration and invasion in Ishikawa cells. Meanwhile, CM by NSC decreased Slug expression and 17β-estradiol-induced Slug expression, increased E-cadherin expression and abolished 17β-estradiol-induced E-cadherin reduction in Ishikawa cells. In conclusion, normal stromal factors can inhibit 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition, and abolished 17β-estradiol-induced EMT in endometrial cancer cell via regulating E-cadherin and Slug expression.

  5. Effects of UVB-induced oxidative stress on protein expression and specific protein oxidation in normal human epithelial keratinocytes: a proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Federico

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UVB component of solar ultraviolet irradiation is one of the major risk factors for the development of skin cancer in humans. UVB exposure elicits an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which are responsible for oxidative damage to proteins, DNA, RNA and lipids. In order to examine the biological impact of UVB irradiation on skin cells, we used a parallel proteomics approach to analyze the protein expression profile and to identify oxidatively modified proteins in normal human epithelial keratinocytes. Results The expression levels of fifteen proteins - involved in maintaining the cytoskeleton integrity, removal of damaged proteins and heat shock response - were differentially regulated in UVB-exposed cells, indicating that an appropriate response is developed in order to counteract/neutralize the toxic effects of UVB-raised ROS. On the other side, the redox proteomics approach revealed that seven proteins - involved in cellular adhesion, cell-cell interaction and protein folding - were selectively oxidized. Conclusions Despite a wide and well orchestrated cellular response, a relevant oxidation of specific proteins concomitantly occurs in UVB-irradiated human epithelial Keratinocytes. These modified (i.e. likely dysfunctional proteins might result in cell homeostasis impairment and therefore eventually promote cellular degeneration, senescence or carcinogenesis.

  6. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit

    2015-04-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit; Zhang, Huoming; Liu, Pei; Tsao, George Sai-wah; Li Lung, Maria; Mak, Nai-ki; Ngok-shun Wong, Ricky; Ying-kit Yue, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Esterification of all-trans-retinol in normal human epithelial cell strains and carcinoma lines from oral cavity, skin and breast: reduced expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase in carcinoma lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Ruiz, A; Rando, R R; Bok, D; Gudas, L J

    2000-11-01

    When exogenous [(3)H]retinol (vitamin A) was added to culture medium, normal human epithelial cells from the oral cavity, skin, lung and breast took up and esterified essentially all of the [(3)H]retinol within a few hours. As shown by [(3)H]retinol pulse-chase experiments, normal epithelial cells then slowly hydrolyzed the [(3)H]retinyl esters to [(3)H]retinol, some of which was then oxidized to [(3)H]retinoic acid (RA) over a period of several days. In contrast, cultured normal human fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) did not esterify significant amounts of [(3)H]retinol; this lack of [(3)H]retinol esterification was correlated with a lack of expression of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) transcripts in normal fibroblast and HUVEC strains. These results indicate that normal, differentiated cell types differ in their ability to esterify retinol. Human carcinoma cells (neoplastically transformed epithelial cells) of the oral cavity, skin and breast did not esterify much [(3)H]retinol and showed greatly reduced LRAT expression. Transcripts of the neutral, bile salt-independent retinyl ester hydrolase and the bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase were undetectable in all of the normal cell types, including the epithelial cells. These experiments suggest that retinoid-deficiency in the tumor cells could develop because of the lack of retinyl esters, a storage form of retinol.

  9. Computed tomography of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, J.W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Axial CT findings of 56 patients with biopsy-proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin of the tumor and the sites of spread of the disease. In all patients asymmetry of the mucosal airway contour with blunting of the fossa of Rosenmueller was seen, usually associated with infiltration of the levator palatini muscle. The earliest lesion of NPC arose in this region, and in 64% of cases the tumor had infiltrated into the adjacent parapharyngeal space with loss of its normal fat density. Superior intracranial extension was the most common site of deep infiltration from here (45% of patients) with opacification of the sphenoid sinus in 41% and bony destruction of the skull base in 29%. Invasion into the retropharyngeal space (38%) and carotid space (23%) were the next most common sites of infiltration. Invasion into the prevertebral space was seen in 14%. Anterior spread to the masticator space including the infratemporal fossa was an uncommon finding (14%). T-staging of these patients by CT was also done using both the AJC and Ho classification systems. Lymph node metastases were found in many patients (38%), most commonly in the retropharyngeal nodes, internal jugular nodes including jugular-digastricus nodes and the spinal assessory nodes, respectively. CT remains the most reliable technique for staging and assessing the extent of NPC, both prior to and after radiotherapy, and should be used not only for T-staging of the disease, but also for N-staging. It is recommended that axial scans should be routinely extended down the neck to the clavicles in all patients with NPC. (orig.)

  10. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma treated with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, benign, locally aggressive tumor, affecting boys of adolescent age. The aggressiveness and high vascularity makes surgery and even a biopsy difficult in majority of cases. Although surgery is the treatment of choice in early cases, considerable debate exists regarding the treatment of advanced disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy provides a good response and also avoids surgery-associated morbidity. We are herewith reporting a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who showed complete hemostasis and improvement in vision to radiotherapy

  11. Isotropic 3D nuclear morphometry of normal, fibrocystic and malignant breast epithelial cells reveals new structural alterations.

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    Vivek Nandakumar

    Full Text Available Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria.We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure.We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations.Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations associated with malignancy and point to the

  12. Isotropic 3D nuclear morphometry of normal, fibrocystic and malignant breast epithelial cells reveals new structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F; Lintecum, Kelly M; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J; Davies, Paul C W; Johnson, Roger H; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2012-01-01

    Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio) between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At pfibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations associated with malignancy and point to the value of automated quantitative 3D nuclear morphometry as an objective tool to enable development of sensitive and specific nuclear grade classification in breast cancer diagnosis.

  13. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

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    Ming, Lim Chwee; Gangodu, Nagaraja Rao; Loh, Thomas; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zhiwei, Huang

    2017-07-25

    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been investigated as a tool to differentiate nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in an ex-vivo setting. Recently, we have miniaturized the fiber-optic Raman probe to investigate its utility in real time in-vivo surveillance of NPC patients. A posterior probability model using partial linear square (PLS) mathematical technique was constructed to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Raman spectroscopy in diagnosing NPC from post-irradiated and normal tissue using a diagnostic algorithm from three significant latent variables. NIR-Raman signals of 135 sites were measured from 79 patients with either newly diagnosed NPC (N = 12), post irradiated nasopharynx (N = 37) and normal nasopharynx (N = 30). The mean Raman spectra peaks identified differences at several Raman peaks at 853 cm-1, 940 cm-1, 1078 cm-1, 1335 cm-1, 1554 cm-1, 2885 cm-1 and 2940 cm-1 in the three different nasopharyngeal conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing Raman signatures among normal nasopharynx versus NPC and post-irradiated nasopharynx versus NPC were 91% and 95%; and 77% and 96% respectively. Real time near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has a high specificity in distinguishing malignant from normal nasopharyngeal tissue in vivo, and may be investigated as a novel non-invasive surveillance tool in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

  14. Different apoptotic effects of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin on normal and cancerous human epithelial breast cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Carla; Muscella, Antonella; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Cossa, Luca Giulio; Migoni, Danilo; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether [platinum (Pt)(O,O'-acetylacetonate (acac))(γ-acac)(dimethylsulphide (DMS))] is differentially cytotoxic in normal and cancer cells, and to measure comparative levels of cytotoxicity compared with cisplatin in the same cells. We performed experiments on cancerous and normal epithelial breast cells in primary culture obtained from the same patients. The apoptotic effects [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin in cancerous and normal breast cells were compared. Cancer cells were more sensitive to [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (IC50 = 5.22 ± 1.2 μmol·L(-1)) than normal cells (IC50 = 116.9 ± 8.8 μmol·L(-1)). However, the difference was less strong when cisplatin was used (IC50 = 96.0 ± 6.9 and 61.9 ± 6.1 μmol·L(-1) for cancer and normal cells respectively). Both compounds caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with different mechanisms: [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] quickly activated NAD(P)H oxidase while cisplatin caused a slower formation of mitochondrial ROS. Cisplatin and [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused activation of caspases, proteolysis of PARP and modulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Bid. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] also caused leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Overall, these processes proceeded more quickly in cells treated with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] compared with cisplatin. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] effects were faster and quantitatively greater in cancer than in normal cells. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused a fast decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cancer cells. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was specific to breast cancer cells in primary culture, and this observation makes this compound potentially more interesting than cisplatin. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Different apoptotic effects of [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin on normal and cancerous human epithelial breast cells in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Carla; Muscella, Antonella; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Cossa, Luca Giulio; Migoni, Danilo; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Marsigliante, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether [platinum (Pt)(O,O′-acetylacetonate (acac))(γ-acac)(dimethylsulphide (DMS))] is differentially cytotoxic in normal and cancer cells, and to measure comparative levels of cytotoxicity compared with cisplatin in the same cells. Experimental Approach We performed experiments on cancerous and normal epithelial breast cells in primary culture obtained from the same patients. The apoptotic effects [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] and cisplatin in cancerous and normal breast cells were compared. Key Results Cancer cells were more sensitive to [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (IC50 = 5.22 ± 1.2 μmol·L−1) than normal cells (IC50 = 116.9 ± 8.8 μmol·L−1). However, the difference was less strong when cisplatin was used (IC50 = 96.0 ± 6.9 and 61.9 ± 6.1 μmol·L−1 for cancer and normal cells respectively). Both compounds caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with different mechanisms: [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] quickly activated NAD(P)H oxidase while cisplatin caused a slower formation of mitochondrial ROS. Cisplatin and [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused activation of caspases, proteolysis of PARP and modulation of Bcl-2, Bax and Bid. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] also caused leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Overall, these processes proceeded more quickly in cells treated with [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] compared with cisplatin. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] effects were faster and quantitatively greater in cancer than in normal cells. [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] caused a fast decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cancer cells. Conclusions and Implications [Pt(O,O′-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was specific to breast cancer cells in primary culture, and this observation makes this compound potentially more interesting than cisplatin. PMID:24990093

  16. A dominant negative mutant of TLK1 causes chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy in normal breast epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Briana

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis thaliana, the gene Tousled encodes a protein kinase of unknown function, but mutations in the gene lead to flowering and leaf morphology defects. We have recently cloned a mammalian Tousled-Like Kinase (TLK1B and found that it phosphorylates specifically histone H3, in vitro and in vivo. We now report the effects that overexpression of a kinase-dead mutant of TLK1B mediates in a normal diploid cell line. Results Expression of a kinase-dead mutant resulted in reduction of phosphorylated histone H3, which could have consequences in mitotic segregation of chromosomes. When analyzed by FACS and microscopy, these cells displayed high chromosome number instability and aneuploidy. This phenomenon was accompanied by less condensed chromosomes at mitosis; failure of a number of chromosomes to align properly on the metaphase plate; failure of some chromosomes to attach to microtubules; and the occasional presentation of two bipolar spindles. We also used a different method (siRNA to reduce the level of endogenous TLK1, but in this case, the main result was a strong block of cell cycle progression suggesting that TLK1 may also play a role in progression from G1. This block in S phase progression could also offer a different explanation of some of the later mitotic defects. Conclusions TLK1 has a function important for proper chromosome segregation and maintenance of diploid cells at mitosis in mammalian cells that could be mediated by reduced phosphorylation of histone H3 and condensation of chromosomes, although other explanations to the phenotype are possible.

  17. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  18. Role of chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Paiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique malignant head and neck cancer with clinical, demographic, and geographic features distinct from other head and neck epithelial malignancies. Non-keratinizing, poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated WHO types 2 and 3 is the most common subtypes of NPC. NPC is also characterized by its relatively high sensitivity to radiation, so that in the last decades radiotherapy (RT has been the cornerstone of treatment. However, in the majority of cases NPC is discovered at locally advanced stage. The results are disappointing when RT alone is offered. The 5-year survival rates have been reported to be about 34-52%. The poor prognosis for advanced NPC led to increasing interests in exploring the use of chemotherapy (CT. NPC has been considered to be not only radiosensitive but also chemo-sensitive and has shown high response rate to various chemotherapeutic agents. Certainly, the treatment strategies for NPC will continue to change and evolve as a better understanding is gained of the molecular and immune mechanisms that drive this disease. We reviewed the current literature focusing on the role of CT and new-targeted agents.

  19. Transcriptional profiles of benzo(a)pyrene exposure in normal human mammary epithelial cells in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Kaarthik; Keshava, Channa; Richardson, Diana L.; Weston, Ainsley; Nath, Joginder

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposure causes alterations in gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs). This study used Affymetrix Hu-Gene133A arrays, with 14,500 genes represented, to evaluate modulation of BP-induced gene expression by chlorophyllin in six NHMEC strains derived from different donors. A major goal was to seek potential biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and how they behave in the presence of a chemopreventive agent. NHMECs (passage 6 and 70% confluence) were exposed for 24 h to either vehicle control, or BP, or chlorophyllin followed by BP and chlorophyllin together. BP exposure resulted in approximately 3-fold altered expression of 49 genes in at least one of the six NHMEC strains. When cells were exposed to chlorophyllin pre-treatment followed by BP plus chlorophyllin, expression of 125 genes was similarly altered. Genes in the functional categories of xenobiotic metabolism, cell signaling, cell motility, cell proliferation, cellular transcription, metabolism, cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair were identified. Only CYP1B1 and ALDH1A3 were consistently up-regulated by ∼3-fold in most of the cell strains (at least 4) when exposed to BP. Cluster analysis identified a suite of 13 genes induced by BP where induction was mitigated in the presence of chlorophyllin. Additionally, cluster analysis identified a suite of 16 genes down-regulated by BP where induction was partially restored in the presence of chlorophyllin

  20. TGF-beta induces connexin43 gene expression in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells via activation of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheau, Charlotte; Fontaine, Juliette; Loy, Jennifer; Mauviel, Alain; Verrecchia, Franck

    2008-12-01

    One of the shared physiological roles between TGF-beta and connexin family members is to inhibit epithelial cell cycle progression and consequently, to provide protection against malignant transformation. Herein, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 induces the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cell lines at the protein and mRNA levels, and transcriptionally. Using overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of Cx43, we determined that the modulation of gap junctional communication by TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the control of NMuMG cells proliferation by TGF-beta1. In addition, using overexpression of truncated dominant-negative forms of either Smad2 or Smad3, and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells deficient for Smad4, we determined that the Smad cascade is not implicated in TGF-beta1 effect on Cx43 expression. Using specific pharmacologic inhibitors for JNK, ERK, p38, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, we demonstrated the cooperative role of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling in TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 expression and gap junctional communication. Furthermore, transfection of a c-jun antisense expression vector significantly prevented TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression demonstrating the involvement of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway together with p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways in mediating TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of narrow-band imaging nasoendoscopy compared to histopathology results in patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, M.; Musa, Z.; Lisnawati; Suryati, I.

    2017-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a disease which is prevalent in developing countries like Indonesia. There were 164 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) oncology outpatient clinic of the Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital in 2014, and 142 cases in 2015. Unfortunately, almost all of these cases presented at an advanced stage. The success of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment is largely determined by the stage when patients are diagnosed; it is critical to diagnose NPC as early as possible. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic instrument with a light system that can improve the visualization of blood vessels of mucosal epithelial malignant tumors. NBI is expected to help clinicians to assess whether a lesion is malignant or not; to do so, it is important to know the value of sensitivity and specificity. This study is a cross-sectional form of a diagnostic test which was performed in the outpatient clinic of the ENT Head and Neck Surgery Department for the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January to June 2016, and involved 56 subjects. Patients with a nasopharyngeal mass discovered by physical examination or imaging, and a suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma were included as a subject. An NBI examination and biopsy was performed locally. Based on this research, NBI could be used as a screening tool for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with high sensitivity (100%), but with a low specificity result (6.7%).

  2. Reirradiation of locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Lengyel, E.; Baricza, K.; Somogyi, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Olajos, J. [Dept. of Oncoradiology, Josa Andras Hospital, Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Papai, Z. [Dept. of Medical Oncology, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Goedeny, M. [Dept. of Radiology, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, G.; Esik, O. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, National Inst. of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Dept. of Oncotherapy, Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy of reirradiation as salvage treatment in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Between 1993 and 2000, 20 consecutive patients (twelve males and eight females) with nasopharyngeal cancer, previously irradiated in different Hungarian institutions, were reirradiated for biopsy-proven locally recurrent tumor. Histologically, 85% of the patients had WHO type III, 5% type II, and 10% type I disease. Stages I-IV (AJCC 1997 staging system) were assigned to five (25%), seven (35%), five (25%), and three (15%) patients, respectively; none of them had distant metastases, and only eight (40%) displayed regional dissemination. The median time period between termination of primary treatment and local recurrence was 30 (range, 10-204) months. Brachytherapy was the method most frequently used: in ten cases alone (especially for rT1 tumors), and in eight cases in combination with external beam therapy. Two patients with locally advanced disease underwent external beam therapy only. The median dose in the event of brachytherapy alone was 20 Gy (4 x 5 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy, range, 16-36 Gy), and the dose range for exclusive external irradiation was 30-40 Gy. In cases of combined irradiation, a median 20-Gy brachytherapy (range 16-40 Gy) was associated with 30-40 Gy of external irradiation. Radiotherapy was supplemented by neck dissection (six patients), nasopharyngectomy (one patient), or chemotherapy (eleven patients). Results: 16 patients were reirradiated once, three twice, and one patient three times, with a median equivalent dose for tumor effect of 36 Gy (mean, 44 Gy; range, 19-117 Gy; the estimated {alpha}/{beta}-ratio was 10 Gy). The median equivalent dose of reirradiation for late effect on normal tissue (with an estimated 70% delivery of the tumor dose) amounted to 30 Gy (mean, 37 Gy; range, 13-101 Gy, estimated {alpha}/{beta}-ratio 3 Gy). After a median follow-up of 37 (range, 12-72) months, the overall

  3. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  4. MRI in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, S.H.; Ko, S.F.; Wan, Y.L.; Chang, J.T.C.; Chen, W.C.; Tang, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the MRI features of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in 72 patients who underwent MRI before and after gadolinium injection. Recurrent NPC exhibited a high degree of regional spread and a variety of signal intensities and contours. MRI showed a nasopharyngeal mass in 50 patients (69.4 %); other sites of involvement included the parapharyngeal space (44.4 %), nasal cavity (12.5 %), paranasal sinuses (27.8 %), oropharynx (4.2 %), orbit (8.3 %), infratemporal fossa (18.1 %), skull base (59.8 %), intracranial area (51.4 %) and regional lymph nodes (15.3 %). On T2-weighted images, the nasopharyngeal mass gave high signal in 9 of 50 cases (18 %), intermediate in 27 (54 %), mixed in 8 (16 %) and low signal in 6 (12 %). Contrast enhancement was strong in 12 cases (24 %), moderate in 29 (58 %) and heterogeneous in 9 (18 %). The lesion was convex in 31 cases (62 %) and concave or straight in 19 (38 %). Recognition of the distribution and the appearance of recurrent NPC on MRI is essential for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  5. Are nasopharyngeal structures really symmetric?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Keiichi

    1990-01-01

    Asymmetry of nasopharyngeal structure in CT scans, such as blunting of the lateral pharyngeal recesses (LPR, fossa of Rosenmuller) and depression of the parapharyngeal space, is regarded as an essential sign in the diagnosis of malignancies or aggressive inflammatory processes. The rate of nasopharyngeal symmetry, however, has been rarely reported so far. I examined axial CT scans of the nasopharynx of 220 patients who did not have any complaints of the nasopharynx or oropharynx. LPR, tube orifices, torus tubarius, intrapharyngeal muscles, paranasopharyngeal spaces, and deeper musculofacial planes were examined. The asymmetry rates were 17.8%, 15.8%, 16.8%, 3.7%, 5.5%, and 8.0% respectively. The former three superficial landmarks were more often asymmetric than the latter three plane tissues. There were no differences in symmetry between patients with histories of sinus surgery or facial fracture and others. The loss of symmetry of the nasopharyngeal structures, not only the deeper ones, but the superficial ones, seems to be a useful sign in differentiating the recalcitrant pathologies. (author)

  6. Immunohistochemical study of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and Bcl-2 in normal oral mucosa, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Manuel Antonio Gordón; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and the Bcl-2 protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Eleven cases of NOM, 16 IFH, 20 OED, and 27 OSCC were selected for analysis of the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and bcl-2 protein. There was an association between the intensity and location of the integrin α₅β₁ expression, especially in the OSCC, that 48.1% of cases showed weak immunoreactivity and 40.7% in the suprabasal layer (P < 0.05). There was an association between the pattern and distribution of fibronectin expression in basement membrane, where 90% of NOM showed a pattern of linear continuous and 80% of OED exhibited focal distribution (P < 0.05). The fibronectin expression in connective tissue was predominantly intense with an association of staining pattern among the different specimens, where 37% of OSCC showed a reticular pattern (P < 0.05). There was an association of bcl-2 protein among the types of specimens, especially in IFH and OSCC, where 100% of the cases exhibited scores 1 of staining (P < 0.05). Within this context, the interaction of integrin α₅β₁ with its main ligand in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, is suggested to influence the survival of tumor cells and to favor their proliferation by modulating apoptosis through the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins or the suppression of apoptotic mediators.

  7. Cancer incidence after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; Land, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    From 1940 until 1970, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was used to treat children and military personnel suffering from Eustachian tube failure attributable to local lymphoid hyperplasia. We studied cancer incidence in a cohort of 4339 Dutch patients treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation,

  8. Engineering epithelial-stromal interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo t...

  9. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  10. CT findings of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

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    Maehara, Yasunobu; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Nakamura, Yuji; Nakamoto, Sohken; Sakaino, Koji; Matsuura, Shizumi; Sugihara, Shiro

    1988-05-01

    Seven cases with histologically proved nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were examined by CT. In all cases, contrast medium was administered in drip infusion after precontrast CT. In 6 cases, tumors were apparently enhanced and they became higher in density than the lateral pterygoid muscle. But in one case, the tumor, that was composed of much fibrous tissue, was not enhanced in postcontrast CT. The tumor extension into surrounding structure except for nasal cavity was seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases showed sphenoid sinus extension. But, only 2 cases showed pterygopalatine fossa extension. In these studied cases, sphenoid sinus was involved most frequently. The parapharyngeal space was not obliterated in this series.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  12. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author)

  13. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author).

  14. CEBPG transcription factor correlates with antioxidant and DNA repair genes in normal bronchial epithelial cells but not in individuals with bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, D'Anna N; Crawford, Erin L; Khuder, Sadik A; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Yoon, Youngsook; Willey, James C

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of bronchogenic carcinoma (BC), yet only 10–15% of heavy smokers develop BC and it is likely that this variation in risk is, in part, genetically determined. We previously reported a set of antioxidant genes for which transcript abundance was lower in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) of BC individuals compared to non-BC individuals. In unpublished studies of the same NBEC samples, transcript abundance values for several DNA repair genes were correlated with these antioxidant genes. From these data, we hypothesized that antioxidant and DNA repair genes are co-regulated by one or more transcription factors and that inter-individual variation in expression and/or function of one or more of these transcription factors is responsible for inter-individual variation in risk for BC. The putative transcription factor recognition sites common to six of the antioxidant genes were identified through in silico DNA sequence analysis. The transcript abundance values of these transcription factors (n = 6) and an expanded group of antioxidant and DNA repair genes (n = 16) were measured simultaneously by quantitative PCR in NBEC of 24 non-BC and 25 BC individuals. CEBPG transcription factor was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with eight of the antioxidant or DNA repair genes in non-BC individuals but not in BC individuals. In BC individuals the correlation with CEBPG was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of non-BC individuals for four of the genes (XRCC1, ERCC5, GSTP1, and SOD1) and the difference was nearly significant for GPX1. The only other transcription factor correlated with any of these five target genes in non-BC individuals was E2F1. E2F1 was correlated with GSTP1 among non-BC individuals, but in contrast to CEBPG, there was no significant difference in this correlation in non-BC individuals compared to BC individuals. We conclude that CEBPG is the transcription factor primarily responsible for regulating

  15. Three cases of temporal bone osteoradionecrosis after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Takashi; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Yoshinori; Hosokawa, Kumiko; Hosokawa, Seiji; Mineta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis is most commonly caused by radiation-induced injury. We report on 3 cases of temporal bone necrosis that occurred after chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma performed more than 10 years previously. Case 1 was a 42-year-old woman who had nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 1991. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (70 Gy total) in 1991, and gamma knife irradiation (20 Gy) in 1998 for local recurrence. The bone in the posterior wall of the left external auditory canal began to be exposed in 2003. Otorrhea from the left ear increased and we found a skin defect and ulcer formation in the postauricular region. We performed radical mastoidectomy and debridement on April, 2010. The area of the defect was covered and filled in with a pedicle musculoperiosteal flap. The intra-aural skin became dry in 6 months, however, she lost consciousness due to a temporal lobe abscess and underwent an emergency operation on April, 2011. After operation, the patient recovered with no neurological symptoms and infections up to the present date. Case 2 was a 58-year-old man who had nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 2001. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (66 Gy total) in 2001, and X knife irradiation (15 Gy) 3 months later due to the remaining tumor. The left posterior ear canal wall collapsed and the tympanic membrane retracted with pooling epithelial debris appearing in 2007. Left facial nerve palsy was seen in December 2010. We performed a mastoidectomy on January, 2011. Cholesteatoma and necrotic granuloma with fragile bone filled the mastoid cavity, and a facial canal bone defect was seen. Bone necrosis with cholesteatoma and inflammatory granuloma was revealed by the pathological examination. The facial palsy improved after the operation. Case 3 was a 59-year-old man who had left abducens palsy with nasopharyngeal carcinoma invading the clivus. The patient underwent chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy total) in 2001, and X knife irradiation (24 Gy) 4 months later for

  16. Otologic disorders following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely accepted as the first choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Delayed otitis of both external and middle ears is sometimes seen as a complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are usually hard to manage and some produces cochlear damages, finally resulting in a sensorineural hearing loss. However, these otologic disorders are tends to be overlooked, because physicians pay less attention to them than the concerning for cancer recurrence. Therefore, studies on the otologic disorders following radiotherapy are lacking. In this study, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases retrospectively to clarify the incidence of otologic disorders induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Nasopharyngeal Hemangioma in Adult: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khil, Eun Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Park, Ji Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Byun, Jang Yul [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Nasopharyngeal masses are usually malignant, and benign nasopharyngeal tumors such as hemangioma are unusual. In adults, hemangiomas do not involute spontaneously, but progress. Imaging modalities are useful to rule out other malignancies and vascular lesions and to evaluate the lesion. Most hemangiomas require no therapy, but certain factors such as age of the patient and location and size of the lesion may make treatment necessary. We report a case of an unusual nasopharyngeal hemangioma treated with endoscopic excision in an adult who complained of hearing loss.

  18. Immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells in two steps by direct targeting of senescence barriers does not require gross genomic alterations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garbe, J.C.; Vrba, Lukáš; Sputova, K.; Fuchs, L.; Novák, Petr; Brothman, A.R.; Jackson, M.; Chin, K.; LaBarge, M.A.; Watts, G.; Futscher, B. W.; Stampfer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 21 (2014), s. 3423-3435 ISSN 1538-4101 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : genomic instability * human mammary epithelial cells * telomerase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.565, year: 2014

  19. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shazly, Amr

    2010-01-01

    AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bu...

  20. Nasopharyngeal bursitis: from embryology to clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE El-Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AE El-Shazly, S Barriat, PP LefebvreDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital, Liege, BelgiumAbstract: Nasopharyngeal bursitis is a relatively rare syndrome characterized by a collection of symptoms that multidisciplinary specialists should be aware of. Here we present an audit of cases presenting to a rhinology clinic over a two-year period, as well as an overview of the relevant embryology and different clinical presentations of nasopharyngeal bursitis. For 2008–2009, six patients were diagnosed to have nasopharyngeal bursitis, including four males and two females, of mean age 54 years. Two distinct pathologic types were observed, comprising three patients with classical Tornwaldt’s cyst and three with crust-type bursitis. This audit highlights the importance of recognition of the crust-type of nasopharyngeal bursitis and its anatomic and clinical features. A combined endonasal and transoral endoscopic approach is a minimally invasive procedure and an effective method of treating both types of the disease. Our findings are discussed in relation to the embryology of the disorder, with a clinical emphasis on crust-type nasopharyngeal bursitis.Keywords: nasopharyngeal bursitis, crust type, Tornwaldt’s cyst, endoscopic disruption

  1. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in children. Get comprehensive information about the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic and staging evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  2. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood nasopharyngeal cancer treatment options include chemotherapy, external and internal radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy (interferon). Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. Differential expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissues: can pS9GSK3β be an epithelial marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojung; Ro, Jae Y

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and phosphorylated GSK3β at Ser9 (pS9GSK3β) are crucial in cellular proliferation and metabolism. GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are deregulated in many diseases including tumors. Data on altered expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are mainly limited to tumor tissues, thus the expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissue has been largely unknown. Thus, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in human fetal and adult tissues, and also compared the expression pattern of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β with that of the CK7 and CK20. We found GSK3β expression in neurons of brain, myenteric plexus in gastrointestinal tract, squamous epithelium of skin, and mammary gland. The expression of pS9GSK3β was restricted to the epithelial cells of breast and pancreaticobiliary duct, distal nephron of kidney, gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube, epididymis, secretory cell of prostatic gland, and umbrella cell of urinary tract. The staining pattern of pS9GSK3β and CK7 was overlapped in most organs except for gastrointestinal tract where CK7 was negative and CK20 was positive. Our results show that the expression of GSK3β may be associated with differentiation of ectodermal derived tissues and pS9GSK3β with that of epithelial cells of endodermal derived tissues in human. In addition, the expression of pS9GSK3β in the selective epithelial cells may indicate its association with secretory or barrier function of specific cells and may serve as another immunohistochemical marker for epithelial cells.

  4. Glomerular epithelial foot processes in normal man and rats. Distribution of true width and its intra- and inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, H J; Seefeldt, T; Osterby, R

    1980-01-01

    The width of individual glomerular epithelial foot processes appears very different on electron micrographs. A method for obtainining distributions of the true width of foot processes from that of their apparent width on electron micrographs has been developed based on geometric probability theory pertaining to a specific geometric model. Analyses of foot process width in humans and rats show a remarkable interindividual invariance implying rigid control and therefore great biological significance of foot process width or a derivative thereof. The very low inter-individual variation of the true width, shown in the present paper, makes it possible to demonstrate slight changes in rather small groups of patients or experimental animals.

  5. Lycopene inhibits IGF-I signal transduction and growth in normal prostate epithelial cells by decreasing DHT-modulated IGF-I production in co-cultured reactive stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunxian; Allen, Jeffrey D; Arnold, Julia T; Blackman, Marc R

    2008-04-01

    Prostate stromal and epithelial cell communication is important in prostate functioning and cancer development. Primary human stromal cells from normal prostate stromal cells (PRSC) maintain a smooth muscle phenotype, whereas those from prostate cancer (6S) display reactive and fibroblastic characteristics. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulates insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production by 6S but not PSRC cells. Effects of reactive versus normal stroma on normal human prostate epithelial (NPE or PREC) cells are poorly understood. We co-cultured NPE plus 6S or PRSC cells to compare influences of different stromal cells on normal epithelium. Because NPE and PREC cells lose androgen receptor (AR) expression in culture, DHT effects must be modulated by associated stromal cells. When treated with camptothecin (CM), NPE cells, alone and in stromal co-cultures, displayed a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation. NPE/6S co-cultures exhibited reduced CM-induced cell death with exposure to DHT, whereas NPE/PRSC co-cultures exhibited CM-induced cell death regardless of DHT treatment. DHT blocked CM-induced, IGF-I-mediated, NPE death in co-cultured NPE/6S cells without, but not with, added anti-IGF-I and anti-IGF-R antibodies. Lycopene consumption is inversely related to human prostate cancer risk and inhibits IGF-I and androgen signaling in rat prostate cancer. In this study, lycopene, in dietary concentrations, reversed DHT effects of 6S cells on NPE cell death, decreased 6S cell IGF-I production by reducing AR and beta-catenin nuclear localization and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated NPE and PREC growth, perhaps by attenuating IGF-I's effects on serine phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3beta and tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK3. This study expands the understanding of the preventive mechanisms of lycopene in prostate cancer.

  6. Early discrimination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tissue deoxyribose nucleic acid surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Sufang; Li, Chao; Lin, Jinyong; Xu, Yuanji; Lu, Jun; Huang, Qingting; Zou, Changyan; Chen, Chao; Xiao, Nanyang; Lin, Duo; Chen, Rong; Pan, Jianji; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to detect deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) variations associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Significant SERS spectral differences between the DNA extracted from early NPC, advanced NPC, and normal nasopharyngeal tissue specimens were observed at 678, 729, 788, 1337, 1421, 1506, and 1573 cm-1, which reflects the genetic variations in NPC. Principal component analysis combined with discriminant function analysis for early NPC discrimination yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 86.8%, 92.3%, and 87.9% for early NPC, advanced NPC, and normal nasopharyngeal tissue DNA, respectively. In this exploratory study, we demonstrated the potential of SERS for early detection of NPC based on the DNA molecular study of biopsy tissues.

  7. The battle against nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Ng, W.T.; Chan, Y.H.; Sze, Henry; Chan, Connie; Lam, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of the evolving efforts to understand and combat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a most peculiar cancer with a distinctly skewed geographic and ethnic distribution. Multifactorial etiology with dynamic interplay of genetic predisposition, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and environmental carcinogens is suggested. With changing lifestyle in Hong Kong, the age-standardized incidence rate has decreased by more than 50% during the past 30 years. The advent of megavoltage radiotherapy has transformed this once lethal cancer into one that is readily curable. Advances in technology and addition of chemotherapy have led to gratifying improvements. Overall survival exceeding 75% at 5 years could now be achieved; series using advanced technique with intensity-modulation consistently achieved excellent locoregional control. Studies are on-going to develop more potent systemic therapy for distant control. Serious late toxicities remain a serious concern demanding further improvement in radiotherapy technique and optimization of dose fractionation. Translational researches are increasingly important for the ideal goals of prevention, early detection and more accurate prognostication/prediction to work toward personalized medicine. The battle against NPC is one of the most fascinating successes in oncology, it is highly hopeful that with international collaborations and concerted efforts, we can totally conquer this cancer.

  8. Endoscopic surgery of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.

  9. CT findings of nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kie Hwan; Byun, Hong Sik; Chin, Soo Yil

    1987-01-01

    CT findings in 64 patients of nasopharyngeal cancer are analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin and the route of spread. The results are as follows: 1. The most frequently involved wall is lateral well (90%), followed by posterior wall (78%) and superior wall (58%). 2. There are invasion to parapharyngeal space (86%), retropharyngeal and prevertebral space (72%), carotid space (46%), and masticator space (18%) in that order. 3. Involved anatomic sites are Rosenmueller fossa (90%), torus tubarius (78%), E-tube orifice (68%), carotid sheath (46%), soft palate (50%), nasal cavity (36%), skull base (28%), prevertebral muscle (26%) and intracranial fossa (16%). 4. Direct extension to intracranial fossa is via sphenoid sinus (6/8), foramen lacerum (5/8), foramen ovale (4/8), and jugular foramen (4/8) in that order. 5. Invasion to prevertebral space leads to intraspinal extension (3/13). 6. Cervical lymph node metastasis of found in internal jugular (82%),spinal accessory (56%) and retropharyngeal chain (42%) in that order. 7. After radiation therapy, most frequent site of recurrence is posterior wall (10/14) followed by lateral wall (9/14), superior wall (5/14) and cervical lymph node (6/14), but the presence of recurrence is difficult to determine based on CT only

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yasushi; Tamaki, Susumu; Kurata, Kyosuke; Honjo, Iwao; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the nasopharynx, the eustachian tube and the middle ear was performed in nine patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI revealed the extent of the tumor more clearly than CT (computed tomography) when the tumor was situated in the parapharyngeal space. But when the tumor extended superficially in the nasopharyngeal mucosa, its margin could not be identified clearly by either MRI or CT because of hypervascularity and long T1 and T2 of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. Seven of the nine patients had unilateral otitis media with effusion. Their eustachian tube ventilation function was evaluated by an inflation-deflation technique. Failure of active equalization of negative pressure applied to the middle ear was found to be a characteristic disorder of their eustachian tube ventilation function. This dysfunction seemed to be correlated with the lateral dislocation of the eustachian tube cartilage caused by the tumor. (author)

  11. Balloon dilatation of nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C; Kinns, Jennifer; Weisse, Chick

    2006-08-01

    A dog was examined because of a 6-month history of upper airway stridor that began after postoperative regurgitation of gastric contents. Constant stridor was evident during inspiration and expiration, although it was worse during inspiration. The stridor was no longer evident when the dog's mouth was manually held open. Computed tomography, rhinoscopy, and fluoroscopy were used to confirm a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis. The dog was anesthetized, and balloon dilatation of the stenosis was performed. Prednisone was prescribed for 4 weeks after the procedure to decrease fibrous tissue formation. Although the dog was initially improved, signs recurred 3.5 weeks later, and balloon dilatation was repeated. This time, however, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Two months later, although the dog did not have clinical signs of stridor, a third dilatation procedure was performed because mild stenosis was seen on follow-up computed tomographic images; again, triamcinolone was injected into the area of stenosis at the end of the dilatation procedure. Three and 6 months after the third dilatation procedure, the dog reportedly was clinically normal. Findings suggest that balloon dilatation may be an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs.

  12. Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport via Epithelial Na+ Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593

  13. Nasopharyngeal Malignancy Presenting as Proptosis in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients also developed reduced hearing, epistaxis, severe and disturbing headache and neck swelling. There was profound vision loss in three eyes of the three patients. Their eyeballs showed restricted ocular movements. Radiological imaging showed features suggestive of nasopharyngeal cancer involving the ...

  14. Nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma: updating of radiotherapy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Caballero Aguirrechu, Iraida; Reno Cespedes, Jesus; Perez Penna, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharyngeal juvenile angiofibroma is a uncommon benign tumor composed of fibrous connective tissue and many vascular spaces covered by endothelium. It is almost exclusive of male sex and of adolescents. Choice treatment is the exeresis without obviate other possibilities as the radiotherapy. The aim of present study was to show the results of this latter as therapeutical option

  15. Tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through NFκB activation and cyclin D1 up-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.-S.; Chen, Chien-Ho; Wang, Y.-J.; Pestell, Richard G.; Albanese, Chris; Chen, R.-J.; Chang, M.-C.; Jeng, J.-H.; Lin, S.-Y.; Liang, Y.-C.; Tseng, H.; Lee, W.-S.; Lin, J.-K.; Chu, J.-S.; Chen, L.-C.; Lee, C.-H.; Tso, W.-L.; Lai, Y.-C.; Wu, C.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. Nicotine is one of the major components of the cigarette smoke and the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a tobacco-specific carcinogen. Here, we demonstrated that NNK stimulated cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Cells exposed to NNK resulted in an increase in the level of cyclin D1 protein (as early as 3-6 h). Increased phosphorylation of the Rb Ser 795 was detected at 6-15 h after NNK treatment and thereby promoted cells entering into the S phase (at 15-21 h). The increased cyclin D1 protein level was induced through activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kB (NFκB), in the NHBE cells. Treatment of the NHBE cells with PD98059, an ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase)-specific inhibitor, specifically suppressed the NNK-induced IκBα phosphorylation at position 32 of the serine residue, suggesting that the ERK1/2 kinase was involved in the IκBα phosphorylation induced by NFκB activation. To determine whether the NNK-induced NFκB activation and cyclin D1 induction were also observed in vivo, A/J mice were treated with NNK (9.1 mg) for 20 weeks and the results showed a significant induction of cyclin D1 and NFκB translocation determined by immunoblotting analyses. We further demonstrated that the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR), which contains the α3-subunit, was the major target mediating NNK-induced cyclin D1 expression in the NHBE cells. In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time that NNK could stimulate normal human bronchial cell proliferation through activation of the NFκB, which in turn up-regulated the cyclin D1 expression

  16. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Timisoara ENT Department's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, Gheorghe; Ruja, Steluta; Cotulbea, Stan

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a histologically benign, but very aggressive and destructive tumor found exclusively in young males. The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has changed in recent years, but it still continues to be a challenge for the multidisciplinary head and neck surgical team. The purpose of this study was to review a series of 30 patients describing the treatment approach used and studying the outcome of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in the ENT Department Timisoara, Romania for a period of 30 years. The patients were diagnosed and treated during the years 1981-2011. All patients were male. Tumors were classified using Radkowski's staging system. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allowed for accurate diagnosis and staging of the tumors. Biopsies were not performed. Surgery represented the gold standard for treatment of juvenine nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients had the tumor removed by an external approach, endoscopic surgical approach not being employed in this series of patients. All patients were treated surgically. Surgical techniques performed were: Denker-Rouge technique in 13 cases (43.33%), paralateronasal technique in 7 cases (23.33%), retropalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%) and transpalatine technique in 5 cases (16.66%). No preoperative tumor embolization was performed. The recurrence rate was 16.66%. The follow-up period ranged from 1 year to 12 years. Management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma remains a surgical challenge. Clinical evaluation and surgical experience are very important in selecting the proper approach. A multidisciplinary team, with an experienced surgeon and good collaboration with the anesthesiologist are needed for successful surgical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate patients after a palatoplasty to evaluate the nasopharyngeal results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroto [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Kadomatsu, Koichi; Hori, Shigeru; Miyata, Masayuki; Kozono, Kikuo; Onizuka, Takuya

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cleft palate patients was undertaken after a palatoplasty to evaluate the postoperative status of the nasopharyngeal soft tissue, the soft palate, and a pharyngeal flap. As MRI revealed no abnormal findings in the nasopharyngeal muscle of all 16 patients, we concluded that the palatoplasty had normalized the positioning and volume of the levator veli muscle and the muscle sling of the palate. Further, although most of the pharyngeal flaps had an adequate inner muscle volume, some flaps had shrunk and 1 flap was found to have more mucous tissue than muscle. These pharyngeal flap deficits may have been due to rough flap handling during the surgical intervention. Therefore, gentle manipulation of such flaps during the course of surgery is emphasized. (author).

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of cleft palate patients after a palatoplasty to evaluate the nasopharyngeal results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroto; Kadomatsu, Koichi; Hori, Shigeru; Miyata, Masayuki; Kozono, Kikuo; Onizuka, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cleft palate patients was undertaken after a palatoplasty to evaluate the postoperative status of the nasopharyngeal soft tissue, the soft palate, and a pharyngeal flap. As MRI revealed no abnormal findings in the nasopharyngeal muscle of all 16 patients, we concluded that the palatoplasty had normalized the positioning and volume of the levator veli muscle and the muscle sling of the palate. Further, although most of the pharyngeal flaps had an adequate inner muscle volume, some flaps had shrunk and 1 flap was found to have more mucous tissue than muscle. These pharyngeal flap deficits may have been due to rough flap handling during the surgical intervention. Therefore, gentle manipulation of such flaps during the course of surgery is emphasized. (author)

  20. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S K; Wei, W I; Sham, J S.T.; Choy, D T.K.; Hui, Y [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  1. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author)

  2. Clinical and Histological Characteristics of Nasopharyngeal Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8(26.7%),cranial nerve involvement 7(23.3%) and visual impairment 6(20%). According to the UICC 1997 staging for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,23(76.7%) and 7(23.3%) were T3 and T4 or stages III and IV respectively.The histological diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma 23(76.7%) cases, non-Hodgkins lymphoma ...

  3. Emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zhang,1,2 Qiu-Yan Chen,1,2 Huai Liu,1,2 Lin-Quan Tang,1,2 Hai-Qiang Mai1,21State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is endemic in Asia and is etiologically associated with Epstein–Barr virus. Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality. The role of systemic therapy has become more prominent. Based on multiple phase III studies and meta-analyses, concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for locally advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer manual [7th edition] stages II–IVb. The reported failure-free survival rates from phase II trials are encouraging for induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Data from ongoing phase III trials comparing induction + concurrent chemoradiotherapy with concurrent chemoradiotherapy will validate the results of these phase II studies. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques are recommended if the resources are available. Locoregional control exceeding 90% and reduced xerostomia-related toxicities can now be achieved using intensity-modulated radiotherapy, although distant control remains the most pressing research problem. The promising results of targeted therapy and Epstein–Barr virus-specific immunotherapy from early clinical trials should be validated in phase III clinical trials. New technology, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy regimens, and targeted therapy offer new opportunities for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, molecular targeted agents, immunotherapy, prognostic markers

  4. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Our experience and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Mendonça, Carlos Alberto; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, and histologically benign tumor, generally observed in male adolescents. It shows very aggressive behavior due to local invasiveness and is associated with various symptoms. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma originates in the sphenopalatine forame, causing epistaxes and nasal obstruction. Objective: To retrospectively describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Scientific drawing: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (protocol 0114.0.107.000 -11). Methods: We analyzed findings in 20 patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011. Factors analyzed include patient age and gender, symptoms, stages, treatment, length of surgery, intraoperatory bleeding, postoperative need for nasal tampons, hospitalization time, complications, and tumor recurrence. Results: Patients were aged 10–29 years. All patients were treated surgically, including 17 who underwent endoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was 120 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 300 mL. Seventeen patients required clamping of the external carotids and tumor embolization. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery alone or with other conventional techniques was safe for the treatment of angiofibromas of different stages. PMID:25991988

  5. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Our experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Júnior, Ronaldo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, and histologically benign tumor, generally observed in male adolescents. It shows very aggressive behavior due to local invasiveness and is associated with various symptoms. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma originates in the sphenopalatine forame, causing epistaxes and nasal obstruction. Objective: To retrospectively describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Scientific drawing: Retrospective, descriptive study conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sergipe (protocol 0114.0.107.000 -11. Methods: We analyzed findings in 20 patients who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2011. Factors analyzed include patient age and gender, symptoms, stages, treatment, length of surgery, intraoperatory bleeding, postoperative need for nasal tampons, hospitalization time, complications, and tumor recurrence. Results: Patients were aged 10-29 years. All patients were treated surgically, including 17 who underwent endoscopic surgery. The mean operation time was 120 min, and the mean bleeding volume was 300 mL. Seventeen patients required clamping of the external carotids and tumor embolization. Conclusion: Endoscopic surgery alone or with other conventional techniques was safe for the treatment of angiofibromas of different stages.

  6. Late neurotoxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siala, W.; Mnejja, W.; Daoud, J.; Khabir, A.; Boudawara, T.; Ben Mahfoudh, K.; Ghorbel, A.; Frikha, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A retrospective analysis of risk factors for late neurological toxicity after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy. Patients and methods Between 1993 and 2004, 239 patients with non metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy associated or not to chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered with two modalities: hyperfractionated for 82 patients and conventional fractionation for 157 patients. We evaluated the impact of tumour stage, age, gender, radiotherapy schedule and chemotherapy on neurological toxicity. Results After a mean follow-up of 107 months (35-176 months), 21 patients (8.8%) developed neurological complications, such as temporal necrosis in nine cases, brain stem necrosis in five cases, optics nerve atrophy in two cases and myelitis in one case. Five- and ten-year free of toxicity survival was 95 and 84% respectively. Young patients had greater risk of temporal necrosis, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy was associated with a significantly higher risk of neurological complications (14.6% vs 5.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, hyperfractionation and age were insignificant. Conclusion Late neurological toxicity after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was rare. Younger age and hyperfractionation were considered as risk factors of neurological toxicity in our study

  7. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laura E; Liu, Alvin Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Page, Laura S; Liebeskind, Emily S; Shadle, Christina P; Troisch, Pamela; Marzolf, Bruz; True, Lawrence D; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10 - /CD13 - /CD24 hi /CD26 + /CD38 lo /CD44 - /CD104 - . This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26 + cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  8. Conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, J.S.; Turek, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Miller, P.; Mehta, M.P.; Forrest, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy provides a unique means of delivering intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a novel treatment unit, which merges features of a linear accelerator with a helical CT scanner. Thanks to the CT imaging capacity, targeted regions can be visualized prior to, during, or immediately after each treatment. Such image-guidance through megavoltage CT will allow the realization and refinement of the concept of adaptive radiotherapy - the reconstruction of the actually delivered daily dose (as opposed to planned dose) accompanied by prescription adjustments when appropriate. In addition to this unique feature, helical tomotherapy promises further improvements in the specific avoidance of critical normal structures, i.e. conformal avoidance, the counterpart of conformal therapy. The first definitive treatment protocol using helical tomotherapy is presently underway for dogs with nasopharyngeal tumors. In general, such tumors can be treated with conventional external beam radiation therapy but at the cost of severe ocular toxicity due to the anatomy of the canine head. These are readily measurable toxicities and are almost universal in incidence; therefore, the canine nasopharyngeal tumor presents an ideal model to assess the ability to conformally avoid critical structures. It is hoped that conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy will improve tumor control via dose-escalation while reducing ocular toxicity in these veterinary patients. A total of 10 fractions are scheduled for these patients; the first 3 dogs have all received at least 7 fractions delivered via helical tomotherapy. Although preliminary, the first 3 dogs treated have not shown any evidence of ocular toxicity in this ongoing study

  9. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glahn, Felix; Wiese, Jan; Foth, Heidi [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Halle/Saale (Germany); Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Guthke, Reinhard [Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena (Germany); Zellmer, Sebastian; Gebhardt, Rolf [University of Leipzig, Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Leipzig (Germany); Golka, Klaus; Degen, Gisela H.; Hermes, Matthias; Schormann, Wiebke; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Bedawy, Essam [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany); Lehmann, Thomas [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [IfADo, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage. To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were incubated with 15{mu}g/l Cd(II), 25{mu}g/l Co(II) and 550{mu}g/l Pb(II) either with individual substances or in combination. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. Interestingly, combined exposure to Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) caused a coordinated response of at least seven stress response-related transcription factors, namely Oct-1, HIC1, TGIF, CREB, ATF4, SRF and YY1. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism. A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination. A forth response was up regulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, particularly of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (AKR1C1, AKR1C2). Incubations with individual heavy metals showed that the response of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 was predominantly caused by lead. In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes. (orig.)

  10. Epidermal cell-shape regulation and subpopulation kinetics during butyrate-induced terminal maturation of normal and SV40-transformed human keratinocytes: epithelial models of differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano-Coico, L; Steinberg, M; Higgins, P J

    1990-10-15

    Recent data indicate that malignant human epidermal cells may be appropriate targets for sodium butyrate (NaB)-mediated differentiation therapy. The response of pre- and post-crisis populations of SV40-transformed human keratinocytes (SVKs) to this differentiation-inducing agent was assessed, therefore, within the framework of NaB-directed normal human keratinocyte (NHK) maturation. NaB augmented cornified envelope (CE) production in NHK and pre-crisis SVK cultures; the time-course and efficiency of induced maturation were similar in the 2 cell systems. In NHKs, the percentage of amplifying ("B" substate) cells decreased with time in NaB correlating with increases in both "C" stage keratinocytes and CEs. The latter formed over one or 2 layers of nucleated basal-like cells. Inductions were accompanied by immediate cell cycle blocks (in both the G1 and G2/M phases), reorganization within the actin cytoskeleton, and transient early increases in cellular actin content. Increased NHK and pre-crisis SVK cytoskeletal-associated actin reached a maximum approximately 48 hr after NaB addition and preceded development of CEs. The CE precursors, thus, probably reside in the "B" substate. Post-crisis SVKs, in contrast, were refractive to NaB-induced terminal maturation or cell-cycle perturbation, failed to initiate actin filament rearrangements, and retained a basal cell-like phenotype. Stable transformation of human SVKs in post-crisis phase, therefore, appears to be associated with loss of maturation "competence" within the "B" keratinocyte subpopulation.

  11. MiR-223 targeting MAFB suppresses proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wanyong; Lan, Xi; Li, Dongmin; Li, Tao; Lu, Shemin

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that miRNAs have major functions in tumor pathogenesis, and this study aimed to identify the candidate miRNA and investigate its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MiRNA and mRNA expressions were screened by microarray assays. The cell proliferation, colony formation and migration ability were measured by MTT, soft agar and wound healing assays, respectively. The tumor growth suppression was evaluated by xenografting in nude mice. The plasma miR-223 levels in NPC patients were detected by TaqMan analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm miR-223 and MAFB expression levels. The targeting relationship between miR-223 and MAFB was verified using dual luciferase reporter assay. The miR-223 expression was decreased in CNE-1, CNE-2 cells as compared with NP69 cells, an immortalized human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, and its level also reduced in NPC patients’ plasma as compared with healthy controls. Exogenous expression of miR-223 in CNE-2 cells could inhibit cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Extrogenous miR-223 in CNE-2 cells would decrease the ability of colony formation and migration. MAFB, a transcription factor of Maf family members, was identified as a target gene of miR-223. We found that migration and invasion abilities were inhibited by MAFB silencing. MiR-223 negatively regulates the growth and migration of NPC cells via reducing MAFB expression, and this finding provides a novel insight into understanding miR-223 regulation mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis

  12. High Levels of Genetic Recombination during Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Laura R.; Reddinger, Ryan M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transformation of genetic material between bacteria was first observed in the 1920s using Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model organism. Since then, the mechanism of competence induction and transformation has been well characterized, mainly using planktonic bacteria or septic infection models. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic exchange occurs primarily during pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, which we have recently shown is associated with biofilm growth, and is associated with cocolonization with multiple strains. However, no studies to date have comprehensively investigated genetic exchange during cocolonization in vitro and in vivo or the role of the nasopharyngeal environment in these processes. In this study, we show that genetic exchange during dual-strain carriage in vivo is extremely efficient (10−2) and approximately 10,000,000-fold higher than that measured during septic infection (10−9). This high transformation efficiency was associated with environmental conditions exclusive to the nasopharynx, including the lower temperature of the nasopharynx (32 to 34°C), limited nutrient availability, and interactions with epithelial cells, which were modeled in a novel biofilm model in vitro that showed similarly high transformation efficiencies. The nasopharyngeal environmental factors, combined, were critical for biofilm formation and induced constitutive upregulation of competence genes and downregulation of capsule that promoted transformation. In addition, we show that dual-strain carriage in vivo and biofilms formed in vitro can be transformed during colonization to increase their pneumococcal fitness and also, importantly, that bacteria with lower colonization ability can be protected by strains with higher colonization efficiency, a process unrelated to genetic exchange. PMID:23015736

  13. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamed M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝ during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P 0.05 in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P Conclusion EBV and DNA Topo II-αLI expression are possible indicators in oral carcinogenesis and may be valuable diagnostic and prognostic indices in oral carcinoma.

  14. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  15. Nasopharyngeal pushback in treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H W; Lee, K J

    1976-02-01

    We describe a new technique for extensive retropositioning of the soft palate for the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. This technique is identified as a nasopharyngeal pushback, and has been used repeatedly in conjunction with both a Cronin nasal flap and a superiorly based pharyngeal flap when maximum retropositioning was needed. This procedure has been used for over ten years, each time obtaining an additional pushback distance equal to or greater than the distance achieved by freeling the soft palate from the posterior border of the hard palate.

  16. Nasopharyngeal glial heterotopia with delayed postoperative meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenichi; Furuno, Kenji; Chong, Pin Fee; Morioka, Takato

    2017-06-22

    A male infant, who underwent radical resection of a large glial heterotopia at the nasopharynx at 8 days, developed delayed postoperative bacterial meningitis at 9 months. Neuroradiological examination clearly demonstrated that meningitis had occurred because of the intracranial and extracranial connections, which were scarcely seen in the perioperative period. A transsphenoidal extension of hypothalamic hamartoma is possible because the connection started from the right optic nerve, running through the transsphenoidal canal in the sphenoid bone and terminating at the recurrent mass in the nasopharyngeal region. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. True bilateral nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anupam; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the third case of a true bilateral Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), i.e. two separate JNA arising from both sides simultaneously. The associated multiple recurrences in such a case have not yet been reported. A 21-year-man underwent transpalatal excision and recurred twice. The last 'neo-occurrence' encountered after 2 years was at a different site and was subsequently managed by post-embolization endoscopic resection. A complete report of its clinico-radiological features and management outcome is discussed.

  18. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: The lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graamans, Kees

    2017-02-01

    In the Netherlands, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was started in 1945. The indications included refractory symptoms of otitis media with effusion and other adenoid-related disorders after adenoidectomy. It was considered a safe and effective therapy. Its use decreased sharply in 1958, following a worldwide media avalanche around the dramatic events in the treatment of a 5-year-old child in Utrecht, enhancing the widespread fear of radioactivity. This case history illustrates the powerful role of the media in medical decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. A clinical study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Zenya; Wada, Tetsuro; Senarita, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    Forty-four patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated in Tsukuba University Hospital between March 1988 and March 1998, were reviewed in order to assess the adequacy of our treatment protocol. Most of the cases except 5 were histologically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma including 25 of lymphoepithelioma (poorly-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma). Thirty-two out of 39 squamous cell carcinoma cases have fallen into Stage IV category (UICC, 1987) , and all of the non-squamous cell carcinoma cases were also categorized as Stage IV. The basic protocol for nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma was the combination of full-dose irradiation and chemotherapy using cisplatin/carboplatin and peplomycin. The metastatic cervical lymphnodes in 9 cases, too massive to control by this treatment, were surgically dissected after the treatment. Recurrence was noted in 9 cases who were rehospitalized and salvaged medically and/or surgically. As a consequence, the overall 5-year survival rate was 71.4% for squamous cell carcinoma. On the other hand, only one of the 5 non-squamous cell carcinoma cases died of the disease. (author)

  1. The Radiotherapy Result of the Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Chong Sun; Kim, Noe Kyeong

    1983-01-01

    A total of 47 patients with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was treated in Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital during last 4 years. Of the 47 patients, 23(49%) had undifferentiated carcinoma, 20(43%) had squamous cell carcinoma, while 4(8%) had lymphoepithelioma. Most of the patients(71%) has Stage IV disease, cervical lymph node metastases were found in 36(77%) and distant metastasis was found in 1 at the time of diagnosis. Complete response rate after radiotherapy for 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was 85.1%. The overall actuarial 3 year survival rates was 0.718 and the disease free actuarial 3 year survival rates was 0.468. Nodal involvement and symptom duration were statistically significant influencing factors for actuarial survival rate. Treatment failures were found in 20 patients (42.6%), local recurrence only in 6(30%), local and neck recurrence in 3(15%), local recurrence with metastasis in 4(20%) and distant metastasis only in 7(35%). Local failures were more frequent in the patients with cranial nerve symptoms (P=0.032). Distant metastases were more frequent with T4 lesions (P=0.047), and with nodal involvement (P<0.01). Retreatment after the tumor recurrence was chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, two patients retreated for local recurrence were alive without evidence of disease for more than 19 and 44 months after retreatment

  2. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  3. The adult nasopharyngeal microbiome as a determinant of pneumococcal acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Amelieke Jh; Zomer, Aldert L; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Hijum, Sacha Aft; Ferreira, Daniela M; Shak, Joshua R; Klugman, Keith P; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; de Jonge, Marien I; Gordon, Stephen B; Hermans, Peter Wm

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several cohort studies have indicated associations between S. pneumoniae and other microbes in the nasopharynx. To study causal relationships between the nasopharyngeal microbiome and pneumococcal carriage, we employed an experimental human pneumococcal carriage model. Healthy adult

  4. Coblation-assisted endonasal endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Zhou, X; Li, J; Jin, J

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma may be successfully resected using endoscopic techniques. However, the use of coblation technology for such resection has not been described. This study aimed to document cases of Fisch class I juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with limited nasopharyngeal and nasal cavity extension, which were completely resected using an endoscopic coblation technique. We retrospectively studied 23 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent resection with either traditional endoscopic instruments (n = 12) or coblation (n = 11). Intra-operative blood loss and overall operative time were recorded. The mean tumour resection time for coblation and traditional endoscopic instruments was 87 and 136 minutes, respectively (t = 9.962, p angiofibroma (Fisch class I), with good surgical margins and minimal blood loss.

  5. Reassessing the Anatomic Origin of the Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Colin D; Parmar, Hemant A; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Mukherji, Suresh K

    A modern imaging review is necessary to further define the anatomic origin of the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. After institutional review board approval, a search from January 1998 to January 2013 yielded 33 male patients (aged 10-23 years) with pathologically proven juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma lesions, as well as pretreatment computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involvement was assessed in the following regions: sphenopalatine foramen, pterygopalatine fossa, vidian canal, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, sphenoid sinus, choana, pterygomaxillary fissure/masticator space, orbit, and sphenoid bone. The choana and nasopharynx were involved in all 33 patients. In contrast, only 22 lesions involved the pterygopalatine fossa, 24 lesions involved the sphenopalatine foramen, and 28 lesions involved the vidian canal. Our results suggest that the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma origin is in the region of the choana and nasopharynx rather than the sphenopalatine foramen or pterygopalatine fossa.

  6. Human Papilloma virus in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: possible recent trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anupam; Sachadeva, Monica; Jain, Ankita; Shukla, Nimisha Mishra; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) has witnessed a four-fold increase in the incidence at our facility in the current decade as compared to the 1980s. With high global incidence of human pappilloma virus (HPV) related oropharyngeal cancer in India, we hypothesize its implication in JNA as it has not yet been reported. Clinico-Surgical variables of 6 patients of JNA were included for correlation and their tissue samples were subjected to western blotting (WB), polymerase chain reaction and immunoflorescence to demonstrate a definite association with HPV. In addition 6 control samples (adenoids) underwent WB analysis. A universal presence of HPV with JNA is novel 'discovery' and has suggested a possibility of a definite association. Only a single case suggested weak infection. None of the controls suggested infection, thus ruling out the presence of HPV in nasopharynx of normal population. With the dawn of this definite association, no specific conclusions can yet be drawn but a whole plethora of questions have emerged with our novel 'discovery'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nasopharyngeal encephalocele: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Gokhan; Paksu, Sukru; Asilioglu, Nazik; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal encephalocele is a rare, benign congenital anomaly. It has the potential to be fatal due to airway obstruction. Here, we report on a 34-day-old infant with pneumonia who underwent mechanical ventilation. An upper airway evaluation was performed due to prolonged intubation, and revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal encephalocele. The patient tolerated extubation and oral feeding after surgical resection of the lesion. Awareness of the condition can help clinicians arrive at an earlier diagnosis and enhance management.

  8. Equine nasopharyngeal cryptococcoma due to Cryptococcus gattii

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    Raquel Aparecida Sales da Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus gattii is often associated with pulmonary and systemic infections in humans and animals. In this research we report a case of nasopharyngeal cryptococoma caused by C. gatti in an equine. A 10-year-old mare presented a mass obstructing the oropharynx. Macroscopically the mass was asymmetric, and was attached to the ethmoidal sinuses and obstructed the oropharynx. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed multiple yeast cells ranging from spherical to oval, 4-8μm in diameter, with some of them showing narrow base polar budding. Cryptococcus gattii growth in mycological culture (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and was L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue Agar positive. The molecular identification confirmed the isolate as C. gattii by means of the amplification of universal primers. C. gattii is considered an emerging fungal agent, as it affects human and animals and does not respond efficiently to commonly established treatments.

  9. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma staging: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Nada Ali; Eleftheriadou, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Staging of tumors is very important in treatment and surgical decision making, as well as in predicting disease recurrence and prognosis. This review focuses on the different available classifications of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and their impact on the evaluation, management, and prognosis of JNA. The literature was reviewed, and publications on JNA staging were examined. Our MEDLINE search of the entire English-language literature found no review article on the current available staging systems for JNA. In this article, we review the common JNA classification systems that have been published, and we discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used staging systems for JNA are the Radkowski and the Andrews-Fisch staging systems. However, some newer staging systems that are based on advances in technology and surgical approaches-the Onerci, INCan, and UPMC systems-have shown promising utility, and they will probably gain popularity in the future.

  10. Radiation therapy of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, M.; Matayoshi, Y.; Masaki, N.; Fujii, T.; Umatani, K.; Yoshino, K.; Sato, T.

    1993-01-01

    Between September 1977 and December 1989, 89 consecutive patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation therapy. The study comprized of 66 males and 23 females; their ages ranged 17 to 80 years (mean 55 years). Five-years survival rates according to stage were as follows: stages I and II (n=10), 90%; stage III (n=10), 43%; stage IV (n=69), 47%. The important prognostic factors for predicting poor prognostic in this series, which were shown by stepwise proportional hazard (Cox) model, were the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neck node involvement. LDH level also influenced nodal failure (p=0.0002) and distant metastatis (p=0.006). (orig.) [de

  11. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyar, E.; Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.H.; Guerkaynak, M.; Zorlu, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1989, 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients presenting with cranial nerve involvement (CNI) of one or more nerves at the time of diagnosis were treated and followed-up in our department. All patients were irradiated with curative intent, and total doses of 50 to 70 Gy (median 65 Gy) were delivered to the nasopharynx. Cranial nerves VI, III, V, IV, IX, and XII were the most commonly involved nerves. The total response rate of cranial nerves was 74% in a median follow-up time of 2 years, with the highest rate observed in the third and sixth cranial nerves. All complete responses except two were observed in the first month after radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakihara, Junji; Kanoh, Naoyuki; Hayakawa, Katsumi.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used in the examination of three patients with nasopharyngeal malignant tumor and cranial nerve symptoms. Coronal and saggital sections were very useful for determining skull base invasion. Its high contrast resolution enabled us to visualize several cranial nerves directly. Differentiation between tumor and effusion in the paranasal sinuses was easy especially in T2 weighted images. Bone destruction could also be detected as bone marrow replacement by tumor or as interruption of the black line of compact bone. Local relationships of tumor and large blood vessels were visualized by MRI without invasive contrast enhancing methods. Despite such advantages, in one patient whose symptoms were highly suggestive of cranial invasion, no cranial invasion was detected by CT or MRI. (author)

  13. Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas: Prognostic Factors and Treatment Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARIBAS, B.K.; DEMIR, P.; UNLU, D.N.; YOLOGLU, Z.; CETINDAG, F.; OZDOGAN, Z.; DIZMAN, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical, radiological and pathological features determining the prognosis of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Ankara Oncology Hospital, Turkey. Material and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine patients, 74 women and 185 males with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated between 1993 and 2008. All imaging data including CT and MRI were reevaluated according to the criteria which determine parapharyngeal, oropharyngeal, nasal, skull-base (bone)/sinus, infra temporal fossa, orbit, intracranial involvements and lymph node metastasis by our radiologists. The patients were re staged using the AJCC 2002 classification with these new radiological findings and clinical data base. We evaluated prognostic factors using univariate Kaplan- Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Gender, age (40-year cut-off), histology, T- and N-stage, tumor size, regional involvement, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and response to therapy were studied as variables. Results: Five-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 45±4% and 72±3%, respectively. We found that age, gender, WHO type, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, N-stage and response to therapy were significant prognostic factors on disease-free survival and overall survival. In the chemo-radiotherapy group, we did not detect any survival difference between patients given four or fewer chemotherapy courses. Conclusions: Radiotherapy improved survival but chemotherapy, in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting, had no added effect to radiotherapy. N-stage and response to treatment were the most important independent predictors on survival. Age, gender, type, therapy and bone/sinus involvement were among the predictive factors on multivariate analysis, as well.

  14. An 1H-MRS study on radioencephalopathy caused by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuelin; Jiang Meng; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To understand the rules of NAA, Cr, and Cho changes in 1 H-MRS of radioencephalopathy (RE) caused by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to offer the proof to make RE be detected as early as possible. Methods: Chemical shift image 1 H-MRS examinations were acquired from ten healthy volunteers (control group) and twenty-one cases (patient group) with nasopharyngeal carcinomas confirmed by pathology who were diagnosed as RE with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by symptoms and imaging diagnosis after radical radiotherapy. The integral of NAA, Cr, and Cho in pixels were observed, the metabolite maps were drawn, and the ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were evaluated. Results: The concentrations of NAA, Cr, and Cho were rarely observed in the necrosis and liquefaction, and there were no signals displayed in their metabolite maps. In the visible lesions, except necrosis and liquefactions, the integral of NAA increased slightly, whereas that of Cr or Cho decreased obviously or was zero. There was an area around the lesion where the integral of NAA decreased, whereas that of Cr or Cho increased. The signal in metabolite maps could not be distinguished. The ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were less than 1. Further from the visible lesions, the integral of NAA, Cr, and Cho were normal, and the ratios of NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho were no less than 1. Conclusion: There are rules of metabolite changes in RE. The area of abnormal metabolite found in RE with 1 H-MRS is larger than in the visible lesion with MRI. This provides the possibility of earlier detection

  15. BZLF1 Expression of EBV is correlated with PARP1 Regulation on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Tissues

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    Wahyu nur laili fajri, Ahmad Rofi'i, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC is a cancer that arises in the epithelial tissue that covers the inside of the nasopharyngeal mucosa and nasopharynx. Infected Epstein Barr Virus (EBV cell in a latent infection associated with the expression of nine latent proteins. Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 is one of latent proteins, and mayor EBV oncoprotein, with functions including virus growth, and to activate BamHI-Z Leftward Reading Frame 1 (BZLF1-EBV, which can inhibit p53 to induce apoptotic resistance, metastasis, and immune modulation. The body will respond to the expansion of EBV infection with activation of Poly(ADP-ribosePolymerase-1 (PARP1. The objective of study is to observe the expression of BZLF1 and determine PARP1 regulation in nasopharyngeal tissues. NPC-T2, NPC-T3 and polyp tissues slides are from Ulin Hospital, Banjarmasin. To characterize the necrotic cells such as pyknosis, karyorrhexsis, and karyolysis, histological slides were stained by HE that the necrotic cells measured by using a BX-53 microscope (Olympus with CellSens Standard software. Tissues slides were stained by using immunofluorohistochemistry with EBV-BZLF1 antibody-Mouse anti-EBV monoclonal antibody against Goat anti-mouse IgG-FITC and anti-PARP1 antibody (MC-10 against Goat anti-mouse IgG labeled Rhodamin. The expression intensities were measured by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (Olympus. The percentage number of necrotic cells and BZLF1 and PARP1 expression intensity were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 by one-way ANOVA test with α = 0.05, beside that we use correlate and regression analyze. The research showed that the amount of karryorhexis higher than pyknosis and karyolysis in both tissues. BZLF1 expression 1.79 INT/sel (in polyp, 2.76 INT/sel (NPC Type 2 and 4.36 INT/sel (NPC Type 3, PARP1 expression 2.25 INT/sel (in polyp, 3.31 INT/sel (NPC Type 2, dan 5.93 INT/sel (NPC Type 3.The high of intensity of expression BZLF1 induced the increasing of PARP1 expression

  16. Clinical analysis of cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Tomita, Masahiko; Takahashi, Sugata; Matsuyama, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in our department between 1991 and 2007 were clinically analyzed. The mean age of the cases was 53 years old, and the male-to female ratio was 3.6:1. The most common chief complaint was ear symptoms followed by neck, eye, and nose symptoms. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and spindle cell carcinoma. More than half of the cases were classified as clinical stage IV. For squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma cases, concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy was applied. For adenocarcinoma cases, transpalatal resection and postoperative radiotherapy was applied. The five-year overall survival rate was 64.1% and the disease-specific five-year survival rate was 71.2%. No significant statistical differences were seen between early stage (I, II) and late stage (III, IV), between I, II, III stage and IV stage. Recurrence occurred in 24.4% of the cases, and distant metastasis was more dominant than local recurrence. For the diagnosis and treatment of NPC, proper detection of NPC from variegated symptoms, and chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma cases were considered to be important. (author)

  17. Clinical study of diffusion weighted imaging in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunbin; Mao Yu; Pan Jianji; Hu Chunmiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) and metastatic lymph nodes, and to establish the diagnostic threshold of apparent diffusion coefficients(ADCs). Methods: Conventional MR scans and DWI scans were continuously performed in 56 patients with newly diagnosed NPC and 55 healthy volunteers. All patients received primary tumor biopsy and MR image-guided cervical lymph node fine-needle biopsy. ADC and eADC values of both primary lesions and lymph nodes were calculated and compared. Results: According to the pathological diagnosis, all the 56 patients had non-keratinizing carcinoma and 51 had lymph node metastasis. In the control group, 75 cervical lymph nodes were found. ADC values of both primary NPC and metastatic lymph nodes were significantly lower, while eADC values were higher than those of normal controls. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.809 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity for primary NPC detection were 80.4% and 74.5%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 79.2% and 77.6%, respectively. The accuracy was 78.4%. Setting the ADC value threshold at 0.708 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the sensitivity and specificity in the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes were 43.1% and 93.3%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 70.7% and 81.5%, respectively. The accuracy was 73.0%. Conclusions: DWI might be a new diagnostic approach in the detection of primary NPC as well as metastatic lymph nodes. (authors)

  18. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable expression of molecular markers in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Pandey, A; Mishra, S C

    2017-09-01

    Molecular categorisation may explain the wide variation in the clinical characteristics of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Variations in molecular markers in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in an Indian population were investigated and compared with global reports. Variable molecular marker expression was demonstrated at the regional and global levels. A wide variation in molecular characteristics is evident. Molecular data have been reported for only 11 countries, indicating a clear geographical bias. Only 58 markers have been studied, and most are yet to be validated. Research into the molecular epidemiology of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is still in its infancy. Although the molecular variation is not well understood, data obtained so far have prompted important research questions. Hence, multicentre collaborative molecular studies are needed to establish the aetiopathogenesis and establish molecular surrogates for clinical characteristics.

  20. Evolution and currents in the treatment of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Jimenez, Luis Diego

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, its management and treatment was specified through a literature review on recent results of retrospective clinical history studies. The clinical characteristics of the population with this tumor are described as a function of the location, size and extent of the tumor. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as computerized axial tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and angiography were used for the diagnosis of tumor extension and invasion. The most frequent differential diagnoses were determined. The three most frequent staging systems for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are shown in tables for better interpretation. The response to the different types and schemes of applied treatment was specified in the revised literature, according to the clinical evolution and the stage of the disease. The characteristics of postoperative evolution and recurrences are described in patients operated on for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. The new treatment modalities are specified and the advantages of these are compared [es

  1. Dosimetric comparison of RapidArc with fixed gantry dynamic IMRT for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hao; Han Shukui; Sun Yan; Jiang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the dosimetric difference of RapidArc and fixed gantry angle dynamic IMRT (dIMRT) for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Ten previously treated patients with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma were replanned with RapidArc and dIMRT, respectively. The prescription dose was GTV 70 Gy/33 f and PTV 60 Gy/33 f. All plans met the requirement: 95% of PTV was covered by 60 Gy. Dose-volume histogram data, isodose distribution, monitor units, and treatment time were compared. Results: Dose distribution has no significant difference between the two techniques. RapidArc reduced the dose of the brainstem, mandible, and other normal tissues compared with dIMRT. Mean monitor units were 589.5 and 1381.0 for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 57% relatively). Mean treatment time was 2.33 min and 7.82 min for RapidArc and dIMRT (reduced by 70% relatively). Conclusions: Compared with dIMRT, RapidArc achieves equal target coverage and OAR sparing while using fewer monitor units and less time during radiotherapy for patient with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  2. Massive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: ode to the open surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Ravi; Arora, Nikhil; Bhargava, Eishaan Kamta; Juneja, Ruchika

    2017-08-01

    The management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has undergone a significant evolution, with more surgeons moving towards the minimal invasive endoscopic approaches. Although considered the standard of care by most, an endoscopic approach may not be sufficient for extensive tumours, as exemplified by the current case of a young man presenting with the largest juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma described in English literature until the present that was eventually excised via an anterior external approach. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Stridor: an unusual presentation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hitendra Prakash; Kumar, Sunil; Vashishtha, Madhukar; Agarwal, Satya Prakash

    2014-04-07

    Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare and benign disease, which is mainly found in adolescent male subjects. It is usually diagnosed on clinical grounds on the basis of its presenting symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal mass and most importantly unprovoked recurrent moderate to severe epistaxis. Imaging studies are only needed to confirm the diagnosis and formulate the management plan. A case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is presented here, which presented to us with severe respiratory distress and stridor. Urgent tracheostomy had to be performed before definitive management could be started. Definitive treatment was excision through modified transpalatal with sublabial route, which resulted in successful outcome.

  4. Chordoma of skull base presenting as nasopharyngeal mass

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    Sant Prakash Kataria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the nasopharynx is most commonly regarded by the otolaryngologist as a primary site of neoplastic involvement, it is also an avenue of spread of base-of-the-skull tumors presenting as bulging nasopharyngeal masses. Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor of the skull base and sacrum thought to originate from embryonic remnants of the notochord. Chordomas arising from the skull base/clivus are typically locally aggressive with lytic bone destruction. The optimal treatment may be photon/proton radiotherapy alone or combined with a gross total resection, when feasible. We report a case of intracranial chordoma presenting as nasopharyngeal mass.

  5. TFPI-2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shumin; Ma, Ning; Murata, Mariko; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Tingting; Du, Chunping; Yu, Nana; Mo, Yingxi; Lin, Longde; Zhang, Jinyan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated epigenetically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Transcriptional expression levels of TFPI-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Methylation status were investigated by methylation specific PCR and bisulfate genomic sequencing. The role of TFPI-2 as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC was addressed by re-introducing TFPI-2 expression into the NPC cell line CNE2. TFPI-2 mRNA transcription was inactivated in NPC cell lines. TFPI-2 was aberrantly methylated in 66.7% (4/6) NPC cell lines and 88.6% (62/70) of NPC primary tumors, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. TFPI-2 expression could be restored in NPC cells after demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of TFPI-2 in NPC cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 by promoter hypermethylation is a frequent and tumor specific event in NPC. TFPI-2 might be considering as a putative tumor suppressor gene in NPC

  6. Cripto-1 overexpression is involved in the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Gang; Wu, Lirong; Weng, Desheng; Li, Xiangping; Yao, Kaitai

    2009-01-01

    Human Cripto-1, a member of the EGF-CFC family, is indispensable for early embryonic development. Cripto-1 plays an important oncogenic role during tumorigenesis and is overexpressed in a wide range of epithelial carcinomas, yet little is known about Cripto-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study was to analyze the roles of Cripto-1 in the progression and clinical characteristics in NPC clinical samples and cell lines. The expression of Cripto-1 at mRNA level was detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR, and western blot was used to examine the protein expression. Cripto-1 expression and its clinical characteristics were investigated by performing immunohistochemical analysis on a total of 37 NPC clinical tissue samples. Lentiviral vectors were constructed to get an efficient expression of anti-Cripto-1 siRNA in CNE-2 and C666-1 cells, with invalid RNAi sequence as control. After the inhibition of the endogenous Cripto-1, the growth, cell cycle and invasion of cells were detected by MTT, FACS and Boyden chamber assay respectively. Moreover, in vivo, the proliferation of the tumor cells was evaluated in xenotransplant nude mice model with whole-body visualizing instrument. The results of real-time RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expression level of Cripto-1 was markedly higher in NPC cell lines than that in the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell at both mRNA and protein levels. RT-PCR of 17 NPC tissues showed a high expression rate in 76.5% (13/17) cases. In an immunohistochemical study, Cripto-1 was found to express in 54.1% (20/37) cases of NPC. In addition, Cripto-1 overexpression was significantly associated with N classification (p = 0.034), distant metastasis (p = 0.036), and clinical stage (p = 0.007). Inhibition of endogenous Cripto-1 by lentivirus-mediated RNAi silencing technique suppressed NPC cell growth and invasion in vitro. In vivo, the average weight (p = 0

  7. Treatment of nasopharyngeal tumors: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Vignot, S.; Mazeron, J.J.; Noel, G.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The conventional radiotherapy and the associated treatments improved the prognostic of nasopharyngeal cancer. A better selection of the patients who must have a more aggressive treatment also probably contributed to this improvement. Even if a relation could be found between the locoregional relapse rate and the distant relapse rate, these two events remain often independent. It results from it that the improvement of local control rate necessarily does not result in a better control of the disease. The patients with a locally advanced tumor, with or not an invasion of the base of the skull and/or neurological symptoms, must have an aggressive locally treatment. This probably includes the increase in dose delivered to the tumor via a more conformational radiotherapy, a brachytherapy, radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions or other techniques. Dose within the tumor must be at least 70 Gy and the prophylactic nodal dose, at least 50 Gy. CT scan and MRI are essential for delineating the volumes of interest. The protocols of hyperfractionated radiotherapy did not give convincing results. Association with chemotherapy allowed, on the other hand, an improvement of the prognostic locally advanced cancers. Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was largely used to attempt to limit the risks of systemic dissemination, but an improvement of results was not clearly demonstrated. An improvement of the rates of survival and control of the disease, on the other hand, was observed in a certain number of studies with the chemoradiotherapy. In the event of locoregional relapse, an aggressive attitude can allow the control of the disease in the absence of systemic dissemination. Salvage treatments are, however, disappointing for when distant relapse occurs which suggests. (author)

  8. Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Zhang ZC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Chen Zhang,1,* Sha Fu,1,* Fang Wang,1 Hai-Yun Wang,1 Yi-Xin Zeng,2 Jian-Yong Shao11Department of Molecular Diagnostics, 2Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common tumor in Southern China, but the oncogene mutational status of NPC patients has not been clarified. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined in 123 NPC patients. The relationships between mutational status and clinical data were assessed with a χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. In 123 patients, 21 (17.1% NPC tumors were positive for mutations in eight oncogenes: six patients had PIK3CA mutations (4.9%, five NRAS mutations (4.1%, four KIT mutations (3.3%, two PDGFRA mutations (1.6%, two ABL mutations (1.6%, and one with simultaneous mutations in HRAS, EGFR, and BRAF (1%. Patients with mutations were more likely to relapse or develop metastasis than those with wild-type alleles (P=0.019. No differences or correlations were found in other clinical characteristics or in patient survival. No mutations were detected in oncogenes AKT1, AKT2, CDK, ERBB2, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, JAK2, KRAS, MET, and RET. These results demonstrate an association between NPC and mutations in NRAS, KIT, PIK3CA, PDGFRA, and ABL, which are associated with patient relapse and metastasis. Keywords: NPC, oncogene, mutation

  9. Salvage photodynamic therapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, Giovanni; Rosso, S; Fadda, G L; Fantini, M; Crosetti, Erika

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of photodynamic therapy (NP-PDT) in the palliative management of recurrent/persistent nasopharyngeal cancer (NFC). Six patients with persistent/recurrent NPC underwent PDT with palliative intent. NP-PDT was delivered by three different methods depending on the localization, size and depth of the lesion: type I NP-PDT: transnasal direct illumination of postero-superior recurrence; type II NP-PDT: transnasal direct illumination of the whole nasopharynx; type III NP-PDT: transoral direct or interstitial illumination of lateral recurrence. In this case, the ENT-magnetic navigation system (MNS) was extremely useful in identifying the tumor and its distance from the ICA. Both patients treated with NP-PDT type I are free from disease at 38 and 71 months after treatment; both patients treated with NP-PDT type II experienced further local and loco-regional recurrence of disease within 16 months; one died of the disease while the second underwent a second palliative treatment, NP-PDT type I, and is currently living with the disease; of the two patients who underwent NP-PDT type III, one died as a result of regional and systemic recurrence without local recurrence while the second experienced a superficial recurrence. He underwent a second NP-PDT type III treatment and is currently free from disease at 21 months. NP-PDT is a non-invasive and simple treatment modality that may have an important role in the treatment of selected cases of persistent/recurrent NPC in its early stage, not suitable for a conventional therapeutic protocol. Coupling NP-PDT with the ENT-MNS can be an effective strategy to obtain more precise light delivery within the tumor, particularly in lateral and parapharyngeal localization. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.-W.; Wong, Victy Y.W.; Tung, Stewart Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the treatment outcome in patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with non-metastatic, locally recurrent NPC who were treated with curative intent between 1998 and 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. The International Union Against Cancer T-stage distribution at recurrence (rT) was as follows: rT1-14, rT2-7, rT3-3, and rT4-6. All patients were treated with SRT with a daily fractional dose of 2.5-4.5 Gy (median, 3 Gy) in 8-22 fractions (median, 18 fractions). Total equivalent dose (TED) was calculated by the linear-quadratic formula without a time factor correction. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate, and local failure-free survival (LFFS) rate for the whole group were 40%, 41.4%, and 56.8%, respectively. The 3-year LFFS rates of rT1-2 and rT3-4 diseases were 65% and 66.7%, respectively. Seven of nine patients who received a TED <55 Gy recurred locally compared with 4 of 21 patients who received ≥55 Gy. Their corresponding 5-year LFFS rates were 22.2% and 75.8% (p = 0.005). The TED was the only factor significant in affecting the local control on univariate analyses. Conclusion: SRT is an effective treatment for locally recurrent NPC. TED ≥55 Gy should be given to secure a higher local control rate. The late complication rates were acceptable for patients with rT1-2 disease. For patients with rT3-4 disease, more works need to be done to further decrease the late complications.

  11. Radiation-induced xerostomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of radiation-induced xerstomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, to emphasize the need for prompt oral care to prevent untoward effects of xerostomia and to improve patients' quality of life. CASE REPORT: A 60 year old man diagnosed of radiation-induced xerostomia, after 6 ...

  12. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... promotes the elevation of interleukin-10 secretion. Cheng-Shi Wang1 ... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in the ... Immune function has close relationship with the patho- genesis of ... Liver is the major organ responsible for the synthesis of primary bile acids, and the function of bacteria in the ...

  13. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas in Denmark 1981-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glad, H; Vainer, B; Buchwald, C

    2007-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare tumor in young males, with a non-negligible potential for recurrence. Preoperative embolization is a safe procedure that diminishes the peroperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The endoscopic approach was used...

  14. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a 20 year old Nigerian male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents misdiagnosis of a 20 year old male with Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Methods: The case record of a 20year old male who presented with recurrent spontaneous profuse epistaxis, progressive nasal obstruction, hyponasality and conductive hearing loss with mass in the post nasal space ...

  15. Paediatric nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.N.; Borg, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue tumour in children, with the head and neck region accounting for 35-40% of cases. Nasopharyngeal RMSs tend to grow rapidly and invade adjacent structures. Both the intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma studies and the European Studies have established that the ideal management of this disease is multimodal, using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This case series examines the role of radiotherapy in the management of paediatric nasopharyngeal RMSs, with particular reference to long-term morbidity and disease-free survival. The cases of five children with nasopharyngeal RMS were reviewed and a systematic review of the literature contained in the PubMed databases was conducted to establish 24 individually detailed cases. Management in all patients was multimodal, using a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy as well as surgery. External beam radiotherapy is an integral component of treatment for nasopharyngeal RMSs. With more patients surviving for longer periods, more long-term sequelae of radiotherapy have been reported. Complications include sensorineural deafness, endocrine manifestations following radiation of the pituitary gland, cranial nerve palsies, second malignancies within the radiation field, cataract formation, retinopathy and growth disturbance. Morbidity from radiotherapy may be considerable and depends on the field and dose of radiation. Current advances in radiotherapy are aimed at improving the rate of tumour control and reducing such complications. Recent improvements in imaging and conformal techniques have the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with radiotherapy in this cohort.

  16. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  17. Chemo-radiation in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a patient with advanced nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, (T4 N2 MO) who had chemo-radiation with Cisplatin based chemotherapy and total midplane dose of 60 Gray external beam radiation. Six years after treatment patient has remained disease free and the primary site histologically confirmed ...

  18. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 5th People's Hospital of Ji'nan, Ji'nan ... Purpose: To investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate (ETF) on naso-pharyngeal ... malignant solid tumors of head and neck which ... Excess irradiation could result in severe side .... protein bands were probed with corresponding.

  19. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, R.; Indrasari, S.R.; Herdini, C.; Martini, S.; Isfandiari, A.; Romdhoni, A.C.; Adham, M.; Mayangsari, I.D.; van Werkhoven, E.; Wildeman, M.A.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Hermani, B.; Kentjono, W.A.; Haryana, S.M.; Schmidt, M.K.; Tan, I.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. Design: The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12

  20. Effectiveness of a multicentre nasopharyngeal carcinoma awareness programme in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Martini, Santi; Isfandiari, Atoillah; Romdhoni, Achmad C.; Adham, Marlinda; Mayangsari, Ika D.; van Werkhoven, Erik; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Hariwiyanto, Bambang; Hermani, Bambang; Kentjono, Widodo A.; Haryana, Sofia M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tan, I. Bing

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) awareness programme on the short-term and long-term improvement of knowledge and referral of patients with NPC by primary healthcare centres (PHCCs) staff in Indonesia. The NPC awareness programme consisted of 12 symposia including a

  1. Nasopharyngeal Epstein-Barr Virus Load: An Efficient Supplementary Method for Population-Based Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    Full Text Available Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies is frequently used in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC mass screening. However, the large number of seropositive subjects who require close follow-up is still a big burden. The present study aimed to detect the nasopharyngeal EBV load in a high-risk population seropositive for antibodies against EBV, as well as to examine whether assay for nasopharyngeal EBV DNA load might reduce the number of high-risk subjects for follow-up and improve early detection of NPC. A prospective and population-based cohort study was conducted in southern China from 2006 through 2013. Among 22,186 participants, 1045 subjects with serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA titers ≥ 1:5 were defined as high-risk group, and were then followed-up for NPC occurrence. Qualified nasopharyngeal swab specimens were available from 905 participants and used for quantitative PCR assay. Our study revealed that 89% (802/905 subjects showed positive EBV DNA in nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal EBV load in females was higher than that in males. The nasopharyngeal EBV load increased with increasing serum VCA/IgA titers. Eight cases of newly diagnosed NPC showed an extremely elevated EBV load, and 87.5% (7 of 8 patients were early-stage NPCs. The EBV loads of 8 NPCs were significantly higher than those of 897 NPC-free subjects (mean, 2.8 × 10(6 copies/swab [range 4.8 × 10(4-1.1 × 10(8] vs. 5.6 × 10(3 [range 0-3.8 × 10(6]. Using mean EBV load in NPC-free population plus two standard deviations as cut-off value, a higher diagnostic performance was obtained for EBV load test than serum VCA/IgA test (area under ROC, 0.980 vs 0.895. In conclusion, in a prospective and population-based study we demonstrated that an additional assay of EBV load in the nasopharynx among high-risk individuals may reduce the number of subjects needed to be closely followed up and could serve as part of a NPC

  2. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease. Inhibits pathogenic enteric bacteria. Decrease luminal pH; Secrete bacteriocidal proteins; Colonization resistance; Block epithelial binding – induce MUC2. Improves epithelial and mucosal barrier integrity. Produce ...

  3. Transcriptional patterns, biomarkers and pathways characterizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuguo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a complicated process involving genetic predisposition, Epstein-Bar Virus infection, and genetic alterations. Although some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been previously reported in NPC, a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of NPC in the context of global gene expression, transcriptional pathways and biomarker assessment remains to be elucidated. Methods Total RNA from 32 pathologically-confirmed cases of poorly-differentiated NPC was divided into pools inclusive of four consecutive specimens and each pool (T1 to T8 was co-hybridized with pooled RNA from 24 normal non-cancerous nasopharyngeal tissues (NP to a human 8K cDNA array platform. The reliability of microarray data was validated for selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Stringent statistical filtering parameters identified 435 genes to be up-regulated and 257 genes to be down-regulated in NPC compared to NP. Seven up-regulated genes including CYC1, MIF, LAMB3, TUBB2, UBE2C and TRAP1 had been previously proposed as candidate common cancer biomarkers based on a previous extensive comparison among various cancers and normal tissues which did not, however, include NPC or NP. In addition, nine known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, MIF, BIRC5, PTTG1, ATM, FOXO1A, TGFBR2, PRKAR1A, KLF5 and PDCD4 were identified through the microarray literature-based annotation search engine MILANO, suggesting these genes may be specifically involved in the promotion of the malignant conversion of nasopharyngeal epithelium. Finally, we found that these differentially expressed genes were involved in apoptosis, MAPK, VEGF and B cell receptor signaling pathways and other functions associated with cell growth, signal transduction and immune system activation. Conclusion This study identified potential candidate biomarkers, oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes involved in several

  4. Epstein-Barr virus infection and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the other side of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Francesco; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Giuliano, Mario; D'Aniello, Carmine; Gnoni, Antonio; Cavaliere, Carla; Licchetta, Antonella; Pisconti, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    Oncogenic viruses may have a significant impact on the therapeutic management of several malignancies besides their well-known role in tumor pathogenesis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells of the nasopharynx by various molecular mechanisms mostly involving activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. EBV infection can also induce the expression of several immunogenic peptides on the plasma membrane of the infected cells. Importantly, these virus-related antigens may be used as targets for antitumor immunotherapy-based treatment strategies. Two different immunotherapy strategies, namely adoptive and active immunotherapy, have been developed and strongly improved in the recent years. Furthermore, EBV infection may influence the use of targeted therapies for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) considering that the presence of EBV can induce important modifications in cell signaling. As an example, latent membrane protein type 1 is a viral transmembrane protein mainly involved in the cancerogenesis process, which can also mediate overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in NPC cells, rendering them more sensitive to anti-EGFR therapy. Finally, EBV may induce epigenetic changes in the infected cells, such as DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, that can sustain tumor growth and can thus be considered potential targets for novel therapies. In conclusion, EBV infection can modify important biological features of NPC cells, rendering them more vulnerable to both immunotherapy and targeted therapy.

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus as a Promising Immunotherapeutic Target for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a pathogen that infects more than 90% of global human population. EBV primarily targets B-lymphocytes and epithelial cells while some of them infect monocyte/macrophage, T-lymphocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs. EBV infection does not cause death by itself but the infection has been persistently associated with certain type of cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL, and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL. Recent findings have shown promise on targeting EBV proteins for cancer therapy by immunotherapeutic approach. Some studies have also shown the success of adopting EBV-based therapeutic vaccines for the prevention of EBV-associated cancer particularly on NPC. In-depth investigations are in progress to refine the current therapeutic and vaccination strategies. In present review, we discuss the highly potential EBV targets for NPC immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccine development as well as addressing the underlying challenges in the process of bringing the therapy and vaccination from the bench to bedside.

  6. Reduced hypothalamic blood flow after radiation treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: SPECT studies in 34 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieng, P.U.; Huang, T.S.; Chang, C.C.; Chong, P.N.; Tien, R.D.; Su, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic blood flow, the authors performed 44 regional cerebral blood flow studies with 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) on four normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologically proved nasopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three men and 15 women, 30-65 years old, were divided into four study groups: group 1 served as a control and consisted of four normal volunteers and six patients studied prior to cranial irradiation; group 2 patients had cranial irradiation half a year before the SPECT study (n = 12, one from group 1); group 3 patients were irradiated 1 year before the study (n = 13, three from group 1 and two from group 2); and group 4 patients were irradiated at least 5 years before SPECT imaging (n = 9). Six patients were studied twice. Quantification of the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies was done separately by three radiologists to obtain the hypothalamus/occipital (H/O) and hypothalamus/parasagittal (H/P) ratios. Endocrinologic studies were performed in all cases and the hypothalamus-thyrotroph-thyroid, hypothalamus-gonadotroph-testis (ovary), hypothalamus-lactotroph, hypothalamus-somatotroph, and hypothalamus-corticotroph-adrenal axes were evaluated separately. They determined that regional hypothalamic blood flow was reduced after cranial irradiation in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The H/O ratio of groups 3 and 4 did not differ from that of group 2 (one-half year after cranial irradiation). The H/O ratio was significantly reduced 6 months and 1 year after cranial irradiation; mean ± SD = 0.5801 ± 0.0829 (p less than .025), 0.5725 ± 0.0791 (p less than .01) versus 0.6477 ± 0.0458 before cranial irradiation, respectively

  7. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  8. Antinuclear antibodies in the sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Masuda, K.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshizaki, T.; Umeda, R. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We studied the production of heterophile antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the sera of 50 patients, 20 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 30 with other head and neck cancers (laryngeal cancer and maxillary cancer), before and after radiation therapy. A higher incidence of ANAs was found in the sera of patients with NPC and ANA production in these patients was higher after radiation therapy. We therefore performed in vitro experiments to explore the mechanisms of ANA production in the serum of postirradiated NPC patients. X-ray-irradiated NPC-derived cells (NPC-KT) produced a large amount of Epstein-Barr virus (NPC EBV) compared with non-irradiated NPC-KT cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma EBV-infected lymphocytes produced high levels of ANAs. These data suggest that lymphocytes infected by EBV from NPC cells may produce ANAs in the sera of NPC patients.

  9. Imaging of nasopharyngeal diseases; Bildgebung bei Erkrankungen des Nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S.; Hofmockel, T. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Halle (Germany); Knipping, S. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Halle (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    This article gives an overview about the main nasopharyngeal pathologies and incidental findings, which a radiologist could be confronted with in daily practice. These include nasopharyngeal cysts, lymphoid hyperplasia, juvenile angiofibroma, carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Typical radiological findings, possibilities for making a specific diagnosis, differential diagnosis and description of the spread of a neoplasm are the central points. Investigation techniques and clinical signs are briefly summarized. (orig.) [German] Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber nasopharyngeale Erkrankungen und Zufallsbefunde, mit denen der Radiologe haeufig und weniger haeufig konfrontiert werden kann. Dazu zaehlen zystische Raumforderungen, die hyperplastische Rachenmandel, das juvenile Nasenrachenfibrom, Nasopharynxkarzinom und Non-Hodgkin-Lymphom. Im Vordergrund stehen dabei das radiologische Erscheinungsbild, Moeglichkeiten einer artdiagnostischen Zuordnung, differenzialdiagnostische Aspekte und bei Neoplasien Aussagen zur Ausbreitungsdiagnostik. Untersuchungstechnische und klinische Aspekte sowie die Diagnosesicherung werden kurz erwaehnt. (orig.)

  10. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinsheng; Jiang Yuanshi; Cao Xibiao; Zhan Yongzhong; Yang Liye; Chen Jianxiu; Chen Chengwu; Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  11. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Children: Comparison of Conventional and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Bahl, Gaurav; Muckaden, MaryAnn; Pai, Suresh K.; Gupta, Tejpal; Banavali, Shripad; Arora, Brijesh; Sharma, Dayanand; Kurkure, Purna A.; Ramadwar, Mukta; Viswanathan, Seethalaxhmi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Qureshi, Sajid; Deshpande, Deepak D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in reducing the acute toxicities associated with conventional RT (CRT) in children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 36 children with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital between June 2003 and December 2006, were included in this study. Of the 36 patients, 28 were boys and 8 were girls, with a median age of 14 years; 4 (11%) had Stage II and 10 (28%) Stage III disease at presentation. All patients had undifferentiated carcinoma and were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and RT. Of the 36 patients, 19 underwent IMRT and 17 underwent CRT. Results: After a median follow-up of 27 months, the 2-year locoregional control, disease-free, and overall survival rate was 76.5%, 60.6%, and 71.3%, respectively. A significant reduction in acute Grade 3 toxicities of the skin (p = 0.006), mucous membrane (p = 0.033), and pharynx (p = 0.035) was noted with the use of IMRT. The median time to the development of Grade 2 toxicity was delayed with IMRT (skin, 35 vs. 25 days, p = 0.016; mucous-membrane, 39 vs. 27 days, p = 0.002; and larynx, 50 vs. 28 days, p = 0.009). The duration of RT significantly influenced disease-free survival on multivariate analysis (RT duration >52 days, hazard ratio = 5.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-26.45, p = 0.034). The average mean dose to the first and second planning target volume was 71.8 Gy and 62.5 Gy with IMRT compared with 66.3 Gy (p = 0.001) and 64.4 Gy (p = 0.046) with CRT, respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT significantly reduces and delays the onset of acute toxicity, resulting in improved tolerance and treatment compliance for children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Also, IMRT provided superior target coverage and normal tissue sparing compared with CRT

  12. The effects of combining ionizing radiation and adenoviral p53 therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Lax, Stuart A.; Kim, John; Klamut, Henry; Liu Feifei

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease of the head/neck region, with a 5-year survival level of approximately 65%. To explore gene therapy as a novel approach which might improve outcome, we have shown previously that introduction of human recombinant wild-type p53 mediated by the adenoviral vector (Ad5CMV-p53) was cytotoxic in two human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines (CNE-1 and CNE-2Z). The current work was designed to determine whether this strategy, combined with ionizing radiation (XRT), was more effective than either treatment alone. Methods and Materials: CNE-1, CNE-2Z, and a normal human nasopharyngeal fibroblast strain, KS1, were infected with 2- and 6-plaque-forming units (pfu)/cell of Ad5CMV-p53, respectively. These doses were iso-effective for β-galactosidase activity in the CNE-1 and CNE-2Z cells. XRT was administered 24 h post-infection, and Western blot analyses were conducted for p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , bax, and bcl-2 2 days after XRT. Cell survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Presence of DNA ladders reflecting apoptosis was detected using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: The combination of Ad5CMV-p53 plus XRT (2, 4, and 6 Gy) resulted in an approximately 1-log greater level of cytotoxicity compared to that observed with XRT alone for both NPC cell lines. The two modalities appear to be interacting in a synergistic manner in cancer cells, but not in KS1 fibroblasts. XRT alone stimulated minimal p53 expression in control cells; Ad5CMV-p53 alone induced significant recombinant p53 expression, which was not further enhanced by the addition of XRT. Similar observations were made for p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression. No changes were observed for bax or bcl-2 expression with any of these treatments. Apoptosis was induced following 4 Gy of XRT alone, but was observed after only 2 Gy when combined with Ad5CMV-p53. Cell cycle analysis indicated that Ad5CMV-p53

  13. Disruption of Pyridine Nucleotide Redox Status During Oxidative Challenge at Normal and Low-Glucose States: Implications for Cellular Adenosine Triphosphate, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Reducing Capacity in Colon Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Maloney, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We recently demonstrated that menadione (MQ), a redox cycling quinone, mediated the loss of mitochondrial glutathione/glutathione disulfide redox balance. In this study, we showed that MQ significantly disrupted cellular pyridine nucleotide (NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH) redox balance that compromised cellular ATP, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and NADPH-dependent reducing capacity in colonic epithelial cells, a scenario that was exaggerated by low glucose. In the cytosol, MQ induced NAD+ loss concurrent with increased NADP+ and NAD kinase activity, but decreased NADPH. In the mitochondria, NADH loss occurred in conjunction with increased nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase activity and NADP+, and decreased NADPH. These results are consistent with cytosolic NAD+-to-NADP+ and mitochondrial NADH-to-NADPH shifts, but compromised NADPH availability. Thus, despite the sacrifice of NAD+/NADH in favor of NADPH generation, steady-state NADPH levels were not maintained during MQ challenge. Impairments of cellular bioenergetics were evidenced by ATP losses and increased mitochondrial O2 dependence of pyridine nucleotide oxidation–reduction; half-maximal oxidation (P50) was 10-fold higher in low glucose, which was lowered by glutamate or succinate supplementation. This exaggerated O2 dependence is consistent with increased O2 diversion to nonmitochondrial O2 consumption by MQ-semiquinone redox cycling secondary to decreased NADPH-dependent MQ detoxication at low glucose, a situation that was corrected by glucose-sparing mitochondrial substrates. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2151–2162. PMID:21083422

  14. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Cite as: Wang C-S, Liu S-H, Peng J, Tang C, Zhu W-G. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients .... stein-Barr virus in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin. J. Cancer 2014; 33(11): 556 PubMed. -568. 2. Mrizak D, Martin N, Barjon C, Jimenez-Pailhes AS,. Mustapha R, Niki T, Guigay J, Pancre V, ...

  15. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikoti Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 24-year-old male presenting urgently with a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA with difficulty breathing, inability to swallow, and respiratory distress following throat swelling. The swelling was reduced with administration of dexamethasone and the JNA was surgically resected within 48 hours. This presentation was atypical given the acuity of presentation and the patient’s older age.

  16. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  17. Clinical application of preoperative TAE in the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu'e; Zhang Jingxian; Tang Wenheng; Yan Zhiping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of the preoperative intra-arterial embolization of the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. Methods: The treatment group of 7 male patients with the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas were undergone angiographic evaluation and embolization of tumor-feeding vessels before surgery. All patients were embolized with gelfoam particles and PVA. The control group of 7 patients received surgical treatment without preoperative embolization. The authors compared the volumes of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations between the two groups. Results: All patients achieved symptomatic remission, with no complications. Comparing with the control group, the amount of intraoperative bleeding and the blood transfusions during operations were much less in the treatment group submitted to endovascular embolization. Marked edema in the peripheral region of tumor of the treatment group made the tumor easy to be dissociated. Conclusion: The intraoperative bleeding can be reduced significantly by preoperative embolization of supplying arteries to the nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, therefore it should be used routinely as an adjunct to surgery. (authors)

  18. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  19. Role of surgical approaches: influencing tumour recurrence in nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, R.; Khan, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Results: Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Conclusion: Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant. (author)

  20. Evaluation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Puspitasari, D.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of head and neck cancer with a poor prognosis because of the position of the tumor adjacent to the skull base and vital structures. Degradation of extracellular matrix that will cause tumor cells to invade surrounding tissues, vascular or lymphatic vessels. One that plays a role in the extracellular matrix degradation process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). MMP-9 plays a role in tumor invasion process, metastasis and induction of tumor tissue vascularization. To determine the expression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a descriptive study was conducted by examining immunohistochemistry MMP-9 in 30 NPC tissues that had never received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination. Frequency distribution of NPC patient mostly in the age group 41-50 years old and 51-60 years were nine people (30.0%); men (73.3%) and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (53.3%) histopathology type. The overexpression of MMP-9 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were mostly found in advance stage.

  1. Prognostic value of Chinese race in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Catherine K.; Wang, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States and common in southern China. Evaluating American patients treated using a uniform technique and staged with CT scanning, we determined whether Chinese and non-Chinese patients differ in presentation and outcome. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1996, 172 patients treated at Massachusetts General Hospital received primary radiotherapy with curative intent for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-one patients (24%) were of Chinese descent, and 41% of cancers were classified as having lymphoepithelioma histologic features. Most patients received twice-daily radiotherapy and a brachytherapy boost, receiving a median dose of 72 Gy to the nasopharynx. Results: At the initial presentation, the Chinese patients were significantly younger, less likely to smoke, more likely to have Stage IV disease, and more likely to have cancer with lymphoepithelioma histologic features. After controlling for stage, age, histologic type, and treatment variables, Chinese patients were significantly more likely to develop distant metastases (p<0.05). Although Chinese race does not predict for local control or overall survival, a younger age, continued tobacco use, total radiation dose, and lymphoepithelioma histologic features do. Conclusion: In a large retrospective analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Chinese and non-Chinese patients differed significantly in presentation--age, stage, and histologic features--and outcome. We suggest as an explanation differences in intrinsic tumor biology rather than differences in treatment techniques or staging systems. Additional trials in endemic countries are needed to confirm the optimal treatment of Chinese and Chinese-American patients

  2. Trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma surgery: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan

    2017-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.

  3. ROLE OF SURGICAL APPROACHES INFLUENCING TUMOUR RECURRENCE IN NASOPHARYNGEAL ANGIOFIBROMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Raza; Hussain, Altaf; Rehman, Fazal; Iqbal, Johar; Khan, Munib; Ullah, Gohar; Khan, Zakir

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is an uncommon tumour constituting less than 1% of all head & neck tumours. This tumour has an aggressive local behaviour if left untreated. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with no common consensus on a single approach. Tumour stage and surgical approaches are the major determinants of outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of surgical approaches on tumour recurrence in patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, PIMS, Islamabad and Ayub Medical Institution, Abbottabad from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 consisting of 34 diagnosed cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. All patients were treated surgically while radiotherapy was given in a few. All patients were followed up for one year. Among 34 patients, 25 were treated by lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy, 5 by mid-facial degloving approach and 3 by transpalatine approach. One patient with cavernous sinus involvement was treated by radiotherapy. Patients were followed up for one year both by clinical examination and imaging if needed. Recurrence was found in 15% (5/33) patients and postop radiotherapy was given to them. Lateral rhinotomy approach with medial maxillectomy is highly effective even in advanced stage JNA for complete removal of the disease. Postoperative radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant.

  4. The adult nasopharyngeal microbiome as a determinant of pneumococcal acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Amelieke Jh; Zomer, Aldert L; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Hijum, Sacha Aft; Ferreira, Daniela M; Shak, Joshua R; Klugman, Keith P; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; de Jonge, Marien I; Gordon, Stephen B; Hermans, Peter Wm

    2014-01-01

    Several cohort studies have indicated associations between S. pneumoniae and other microbes in the nasopharynx. To study causal relationships between the nasopharyngeal microbiome and pneumococcal carriage, we employed an experimental human pneumococcal carriage model. Healthy adult volunteers were assessed for pneumococcal carriage by culture of nasal wash samples (NWS). Those without natural pneumococcal carriage received an intranasal pneumococcal inoculation with serotype 6B or 23F. The composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiome was longitudinally studied by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing on NWS collected before and after challenge. Among 40 selected volunteers, 10 were natural carriers and 30 were experimentally challenged. At baseline, five distinct nasopharyngeal microbiome profiles were identified. The phylogenetic distance between microbiomes of natural pneumococcal carriers was particularly large compared to non-carriers. A more diverse microbiome prior to inoculation was associated with the establishment of pneumococcal carriage. Perturbation of microbiome diversity upon pneumococcal challenge was strain specific. Shifts in microbiome profile occurred after pneumococcal exposure, and those volunteers who acquired carriage more often diverted from their original profile. S. pneumoniae was little prominent in the microbiome of pneumococcal carriers. Pneumococcal acquisition in healthy adults is more likely to occur in a diverse microbiome and appears to promote microbial heterogeneity.

  5. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  6. Relationships between genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related factor gene and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Li; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Guang-Jun; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan; Su, Hong-Xin; Wang, He-Tong

    2014-09-01

    Our study aims to discuss the association between inflammation-related factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We used Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the genetic variation of five SNPs in 194 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 231 healthy subjects. All statistical analysis is performed with statistical product and service solutions v13.0; odds ratio (OR) value and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. There is no relationship between TGFβ1 -869 T/C, IL-6 -634C/G, TGFβ1 -509C/T, IL1 -511C/T and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility. Both single factor and multiple factors analysis showed that IL1a -889 T/T genotype is significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in decreasing the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A highly significant association was found between IL1a -889 T/T genotype and protective genotype as defined by various pathological types. This is more obvious in the protective genotype of the non-keratin-type squamous carcinoma undifferentiated type. We also discovered that genotype G/G and C/G + G/G of IL6 -634 gene are associated with reduced recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. IL1a -889 gene polymorphism and susceptibility is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can potentially decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Han Chinese population in north China. IL1-889 TT genotype is protective genotype for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have provided evidence that the GG genotype of the IL6 -634 gene is associated with recurrent risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The G allele is the protective gene of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence.

  7. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  8. Expression and effects of modulation of the K2P potassium channels TREK-1 (KCNK2) and TREK-2 (KCNK10) in the normal human ovary and epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamaa, A; Jackson, L; Asher, V; van Schalkwyk, G; Warren, A; Keightley, A; Hay, D; Bali, A; Sowter, H; Khan, R

    2013-11-01

    Aberrant expression of potassium (K(+)) channels contributes to cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, and K(+) channel blockers can inhibit cell proliferation. TREK-1 and -2 belong to the two-pore domain (K2P) superfamily. We report TREK-1 and -2 expression in ovarian cancer and normal ovaries, and the effects of TREK-1 modulators on cell proliferation and apoptosis. The cellular localisation of TREK-1 and -2 was investigated by immunofluorescence in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cell lines and in cultured ovarian surface epithelium and cancer. Channel expression in normal ovaries and cancer was quantified by western blotting. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the association between channel expression and disease prognosis, stage, and grade. TREK-1 modulation of cell proliferation in the cell lines was investigated with the MTS-assay and the effect on apoptosis determined using flow cytometry. Expression was identified in both cell lines, ovarian cancer (n = 22) and normal ovaries (n = 6). IHC demonstrated positive staining for TREK-1 and -2 in 95.7 % of tumours (n = 69) and 100 % of normal ovaries (n = 9). A reduction in cell proliferation (P ovaries and ovarian cancer. TREK-1 modulators have a significant effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. We propose investigation of the therapeutic potential of TREK-1 blockers is warranted.

  9. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tops the list of malignancy in Malaysia and ranks first in male malignancy in the state of Sarawak. The majority of the NPC patients presented in the advanced stages and often with distal metastasis usually to the bones. In our local hospital is the new practice of bone scan using Tc99 started last year. Over a period of 9 months from July 2003 to March 2004, 41 NPC patients had the bone scans and our experience in these are reviewed and presented. Method: The NPC patients are selected consecutively including both new and treated patients. The scanner used is Siemen E.cam plus and Technecium (Tc99) the radio-active isotope used. The scan images are read and reported by qualified and trained Radiologists. The bone scans are requested from the ENT Specialist of the ENT department of the Hospital. The bone scan reports are checked by the ENT Specialists and the decisions made as to clinical correlation and further definitive imaging studies. Results: 41 NPC patients were included in the studies, 29 newly diagnosed and bone-canned before treatment started and 12 treated of which 3 being diagnosed having recurrent NPC. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, one was found true positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. 3 of the treated patients had true positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. Hence a total of 4 out of the 41 patients (9.8%) had bone metastasis on positive bone scans. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, 14 were found false positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. 4 of the treated patients had false positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. Hence a total of 18 out of the 41 patients (44%) had no bone metastasis on positive bone scans. There were 6 patients with symptoms referable to the bones' distal to the head and 2 had true positive bone

  10. Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes over Time in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Alamri, Lamia; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation) of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years) and determine their stability over time. Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma living in the Washington D.C. area. Sequence data from the 16S-V4 rRNA gene region (~250 bp) were collected from the samples using the MiSeq platform. Raw data were processed in mothur (SILVA123 reference database) and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU)-based alpha- and beta-diversity metrics were estimated. Relatedness among samples was assessed using PCoA ordination and Procrustes analyses. Differences in microbial diversity and taxon mean relative proportions were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Core microbiome analyses were also performed to identify stable and consistent microbes of the nasopharynx. A total of 2,096,584 clean 16S sequences corresponding to an average of 167 OTUs per sample were generated. Representatives of Moraxella*, Staphylococcus*, Dolosigranulum, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, Streptococcus*, Haemophilus*, Fusobacterium* and a Neisseriaceae genus accounted for 86% of the total reads. These nine genera have been previously found in the nasopharynxes of both infants and adults, but in different proportions. OTUs from the five genera highlighted (*) above defined the nasopharyngeal core microbiome at the 95% level. No significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were observed between seasons, but bacterial mean relative proportions of Haemophilus, Moraxella

  11. Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Diversity Changes over Time in Children with Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome of infants and adults during health and disease; less is known, however, about the composition and temporal dynamics (i.e., longitudinal variation of microbiotas from children and adolescents. Here we use NGS technology to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of asthmatic children and adolescents (6 to 18 years and determine their stability over time.Two nasopharyngeal washes collected 5.5 to 6.5 months apart were taken from 40 children and adolescents with asthma living in the Washington D.C. area. Sequence data from the 16S-V4 rRNA gene region (~250 bp were collected from the samples using the MiSeq platform. Raw data were processed in mothur (SILVA123 reference database and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU-based alpha- and beta-diversity metrics were estimated. Relatedness among samples was assessed using PCoA ordination and Procrustes analyses. Differences in microbial diversity and taxon mean relative proportions were assessed using linear mixed effects models. Core microbiome analyses were also performed to identify stable and consistent microbes of the nasopharynx.A total of 2,096,584 clean 16S sequences corresponding to an average of 167 OTUs per sample were generated. Representatives of Moraxella*, Staphylococcus*, Dolosigranulum, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, Streptococcus*, Haemophilus*, Fusobacterium* and a Neisseriaceae genus accounted for 86% of the total reads. These nine genera have been previously found in the nasopharynxes of both infants and adults, but in different proportions. OTUs from the five genera highlighted (* above defined the nasopharyngeal core microbiome at the 95% level. No significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were observed between seasons, but bacterial mean relative proportions of Haemophilus

  12. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Spratt, Nancy LeeDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT, has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically

  13. Differential diagnosis of primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma focusing on CT, MRI, and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Kang, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Lee, Jong-Kil; Roh, Hwan-Jung

    2012-04-01

    No study has done a comparative analysis of radiologic imaging findings between primary nasopharyngeal lymphoma (PNL) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to analyze computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and to evaluate the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT between PNL and NPC, knowing the imaging features that distinguish PNL from NPC. Cross-sectional study. University tertiary care facility. The authors analyzed the features on CT, MR imaging, and PET/CT of 16 patients diagnosed with PNL and 32 patients diagnosed with NPC histopathologically. Patients with PNL had a larger tumor volume and showed symmetry of tumor shape than did patients with NPC. Patients with PNL also had higher tumor homogeneity than NPC patients on CT, T2-weighted, and postcontrast MR images. All PNL patients showed a high degree of enhancement without invasion to the adjacent deep structure. The involvement of the Waldeyer ring was significantly higher in PNL patients. Cervical and retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy and PET/CT SUV max showed no significant difference between PNL and NPC. If the images present a bulky, symmetric nasopharyngeal mass with marked homogeneity, a high degree of enhancement, and a higher Waldeyer ring involvement combined with no invasion into the deep structure, PNL should be considered over NPC.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging and 1H-MRS study on radiation-induced brain injury after nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Z; Qiu, S-J; Lv, X-F; Wang, Y-Y; Liang, Y; Xiong, W-F; Ouyang, Z-B

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the metabolic characteristics of the temporal lobes following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). DTI and (1)H-MRS were performed in 48 patients after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in 24 healthy, age-matched controls. All patients and controls had normal findings on conventional MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), three eigenvalues λ1, λ2, λ3, N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatinine (Cr), and Cho/Cr were measured in both temporal lobes. Patients were divided into three groups according to time after completion of radiotherapy: group 1, less than 6 months; group 2, 6-12 months; group 3, more than 12 months. Mean values for each parameter were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean FA in group 1 was significantly lower compared to group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Group-wise comparisons of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values among all the groups were not significantly different. Eigenvalue λ1 was significantly lower in groups 1 and 3 compared to the control group (p < 0.05). NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in each group compared to the control group (p < 0.01 for both). The decrease in NAA/Cho was greatest in group 1. There were no significant between-group differences regarding Cho/Cr. A combination of DTI and (1)H-MRS can be used to detect radiation-induced brain injury, in patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathophysiology of Corneal Scarring in Persistent Epithelial Defects After PRK and Other Corneal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven E; Medeiros, Carla S; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2018-01-01

    To analyze corneal persistent epithelial defects that occurred at 3 to 4 weeks after -4.50 diopter (D) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits and apply this pathophysiology to the treatment of persistent epithelial defects that occur after any corneal manipulations or diseases. Two of 168 corneas that had -4.50 D PRK to study epithelial basement membrane regeneration developed spontaneous persistent epithelial defects that did not heal at 3 weeks after PRK. These were studied with slit-lamp photographs, immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transmission electron microscopy. Myofibroblasts developed at the stromal surface within the persistent epithelial defect and for a short distance peripheral to the leading edge of the epithelium. No normal epithelial basement membrane was detectable within the persistent epithelial defect or for up to 0.3 mm behind the leading edge of the epithelium, although epithelial basement membrane had normally regenerated in other areas of the zone ablated by an excimer laser where the epithelium healed promptly. A persistent epithelial defect in the cornea results in the development of myofibroblasts and disordered extracellular matrix produced by these cells that together cause opacity within, and a short distance beyond, the persistent epithelial defect. Clinicians should treat persistent epithelial defects within 10 days of non-closure of the epithelium to facilitate epithelial healing to prevent long-term stromal scarring (fibrosis). [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(1):59-64.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis and poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hai-Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to analyse the expression of Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC specimens, and to evaluate its correlation with clinicopathologic features, including survival of patients with NPC Methods NPC tissue microarrays (TMAs were constructed from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC, another three centers on mainland China, Singapore and Hong Kong. Using quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blotting techniques, we detected mRNA and protein expression of SPARC in NPC cell lines and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs induced by Bmi-1 (NPEC2 Bmi-1. The difference of SPARC expression in the cell lines was tested using a t-test method. The relationship between the SPARC expression and clinicopathological data was assessed by chi-square. Survival analysis was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier approach with log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results The expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were markedly higher in NPC cell lines than in NPEC2 Bmi-1. Especially, the expression levels of SPARC mRNA and protein were much lower in the 6-10B than in the 5-8 F (P = 0.002, P = 0.001. SPARC immunostaining revealed cytoplasmic localization in NPC cells and no staining in the stroma and epithelium. In addition, high level of SPARC positively correlated with the status of distant metastasis (P = 0.001 and WHO histological classification (P = 0.023. NPC patients with high SPARC expression also had a significantly poorer prognosis than patients with low SPARC expression (log-rank test, P P P Conclusions SPARC expression is common in NPC patients. Our data shows that elevated SPARC expression is a potential unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with NPC.

  17. Post-radiation mucocele in two patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, M.; Hammami, B.; Achour, I.; Chakroun, A.; Charfeddine, I.; Ghorbel, A.; Frikha, M.; Daoud, J.

    2011-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman, with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which was treated by radiotherapy nine years previously, presented with occasional diplopia and recent headaches. A nasopharyngeal biopsy showed no recurrence. The imaging revealed a sphenoidal sinus mucocele. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele allowed clinical improvement. A 56-year-old woman presented, five years after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a fronto-orbital mass. CT-scan revealed a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele. Nasopharyngeal biopsy showed tumour recurrence. Marsupialization of mucocele was performed. Recurrence of the carcinoma was treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Sphenoidal sinus mucocele developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma has rarely been reported. CT scan and MRI are useful tools in making the diagnosis. Biopsy is required to diagnose recurrence or associated radio-induced tumor. Endoscopic approach gives good results. (authors)

  18. Nasopharyngeal cancer mimicking otitic barotrauma in a resource-challenged center: a case report

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    Daniel Adekunle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nasopharyngeal cancer commonly manifests with cervical lymphadenopathy, recurrent epistaxis and progressive nasal obstruction. Neuro-ophthalmic and otologic manifestations can also occur. Isolated otologic presentations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare and the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer may not be foremost in the list of differentials. Case presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old Nigerian woman with bilateral conductive hearing loss and tinnitus after air travel. There were no other symptoms. The persistence of the symptoms after adequate treatment for otitic barotrauma necessitated re-evaluation, which led to a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancer. Conclusion Isolated otologic manifestations of nasopharyngeal cancer are rare in regions with low incidence of the disease. There is a need for it to be considered as a possible differential in patients presenting with bilateral serous otitis media.

  19. Use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats: six cases (2005-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick; Todd, Kimberly; Rondeau, Mark P; Reiter, Alexander M

    2008-11-01

    To determine outcome associated with use of a balloon-expandable metallic stent for treatment of nasopharyngeal stenosis in dogs and cats. Retrospective case series. 3 dogs and 3 cats. All 6 animals had severe inspiratory stertor at initial examination. Two animals had no orifice present at the stenosis. Nasopharyngeal stenosis was diagnosed and stent size determined by use of computed tomography. A percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon premounted with a balloon-expandable metallic stent was placed over a guidewire, advanced through the stenotic lesion under fluoroscopic and rhinoscopic guidance, and dilated to restore patency. All animals had immediate resolution of clinical signs after stent placement. The procedure took a median of 38 minutes (range, 22 to 70 minutes). One animal with a stenosis located far caudally needed the tip of the stent resected because of hairball entrapment and exaggerated swallowing. Both animals without an orifice in the stenosis had tissue in-growth requiring a covered stent. All animals were reexamined 6 to 12 weeks after treatment via rhinoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, or a combination of techniques. All animals lacked signs of discomfort; 5 of 6 were breathing normally 12 to 28 months after the procedure. Transnasal balloon-expandable metallic stent placement may represent a rapid, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment in animals with nasopharyngeal stenosis. If the stenosis is extremely caudal in the nasopharynx, serial balloon dilatation might be considered prior to stent placement. A covered stent should be considered initially if the stenosis is completely closed.

  20. Engineering stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo tissue recombination, and in vitro co-cultures. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying morphogenetic processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of human tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance. Objectives: Bioengineering strategies to promote EMIs using human epithelial and mesenchymal cells have enabled the development of human in vitro models of adult epidermal and glandular tissues. In this review, we describe recent bioengineered models of human epithelial tissue and organs that can instruct the design of organotypic models of human developmental processes.Methods: We reviewed current bioengineering literature and here describe how bioengineered EMIs have enabled the development of human in vitro epithelial tissue models.Discussion: Engineered models to promote EMIs have recapitulated the architecture, phenotype, and function of adult human epithelial tissue, and similar engineering principles could be used to develop models of developmental morphogenesis. We describe how bioengineering strategies including bioprinting and spheroid culture could be implemented to

  1. Dose Measurements of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord in Conventional Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using RANDO Phantom and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters

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    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy is regarded as the first treatment of choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Despite the advantages of radiotherapy, patients may suffer from a wide range of side-effects due to the presence of many sensitive normal tissues in these regions. If the absorbed dose exceeds the tolerance level in parotid glands and the spinal cord, myelopathy, Lhermitte's sign and xerostomia cannot be avoided. Materials and Methods The head and neck of a RANDO phantom (reference man, which was regarded as a hypothetical patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was evaluated. The full course of treatment consisted of three phases. At the beginning of each phase, an oncologist marked conventional fields on the RANDO phantom using a simulator. For measuring the absorbed dose, Thermoluminescent Dosimeters(TLD chips (TLD-100 were utilized.The absorbed dose by TLDs was read by Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. Results The total absorbed dose was calculated by measuring the absorbed dose in each phase, multiplied by the fraction numbers of each phase; the obtained values were summed up. The results showed that the received doses by spinal cord ranged from 15.24 to 54.56 Gy. Also, the absorbed dose of parotid glands was approximately 39.23 Gy. Conclusion Considering the minimum tolerance dose the absorbed doses in the spinal cord and parotid glands were above the tolerance level. The incidence rate of xerostomia and myelopathy were higher in patients, treated by conventional methods.

  2. Otitis Media and Nasopharyngeal Colonization in ccl3-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniffel, Dominik; Nuyen, Brian; Pak, Kwang; Suzukawa, Keigo; Hung, Jun; Kurabi, Arwa; Wasserman, Stephen I; Ryan, Allen F

    2017-11-01

    We previously found CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) to be a potent effector of inflammation during otitis media (OM): exogenous CCL3 rescues the OM phenotype of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice and the function of macrophages deficient in several innate immune molecules. To further delineate the role of CCL3 in OM, we evaluated middle ear (ME) responses of ccl3 -/- mice to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). CCL chemokine gene expression was evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice during the complete course of acute OM. OM was induced in ccl3 -/- and WT mice, and infection and inflammation were monitored for 21 days. Phagocytosis and killing of NTHi by macrophages were evaluated by an in vitro assay. The nasopharyngeal bacterial load was assessed in naive animals of both strains. Many CCL genes showed increased expression levels during acute OM, with CCL3 being the most upregulated, at levels 600-fold higher than the baseline. ccl3 -/- deletion compromised ME bacterial clearance and prolonged mucosal hyperplasia. ME recruitment of leukocytes was delayed but persisted far longer than in WT mice. These events were linked to a decrease in the macrophage capacity for NTHi phagocytosis and increased nasopharyngeal bacterial loads in ccl3 -/- mice. The generalized impairment in inflammatory cell recruitment was associated with compensatory changes in the expression profiles of CCL2, CCL7, and CCL12. CCL3 plays a significant role in the clearance of infection and resolution of inflammation and contributes to mucosal host defense of the nasopharyngeal niche, a reservoir for ME and upper respiratory infections. Therapies based on CCL3 could prove useful in treating or preventing persistent disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. [Endoscopic transnasal approach for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma without arterial embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Donghui; Qiu, Qianhui; Liang, Minzhi; Tan, Xianggao; Xia, Guangsheng

    2014-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of endoscopic resection without arterial embolism for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and the strategy of decreasing the bleeding during the operation. The clinical data of twenty-five cases of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were retrospective analyzed, including 3 cases of Radowski stageIIa, 5 cases of stageIIb, 4 cases of stageIIc and with 13 cases of stage IIIa. All cases did not receive the arterial embolism, and controlled hypotension were adopted under endoscopic transnasal approach during the tumor resection. Two cases were added the labiogingival incision. During the operation, under the opening vision, cutting out the outside of the infratemporal fossa, and the pterygoid process to adequate exposure the pterygopalatine fossa and infratemporal fossa.Early recognition of anatomical landmarks and establish the safety plane, along the periphery of the tumor to proceed with micro-separation, early blocking tumor nutrient vessels, en bloc resection of the tumor and some other ways to reduce bleeding and tumor resection. Amount of bleeding during operation was 600-1500 ml, none of them had internal carotid artery injury and intracranial injury or some other complication.Follow-up 2-3 years was available in all patients, except 1 case with residual of tumor surrounding the optic nerve, the other 24 cases had no residual tumor and relapses. The preoperative occlusion and artery ligation may not be needed.Surgical technique is the key to reduce blood loss, and it is feasible to have endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with proper operating technique.

  4. CD44+ cancer stem-like cells in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Samantha Wei-Man Lun

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1, immune response (CCR7, IL8 and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11 in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients.

  5. CD44+ Cancer Stem-Like Cells in EBV-Associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu Tim; Cheung, Phyllis Fung Yi; To, Ka-Fai; Woo, John Kong-Sang; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Chow, Chit; Cheung, Chartia Ching-Mei; Chung, Grace Tin-Yun; Cheng, Alice Suk-Hang; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Busson, Pierre; Ng, Margaret Heung-Ling; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a unique EBV-associated epithelial malignancy, showing highly invasive and metastatic phenotype. Despite increasing evidence demonstrating the critical role of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in the maintenance and progression of tumors in a variety of malignancies, the existence and properties of CSC in EBV-associated NPC are largely unknown. Our study aims to elucidate the presence and role of CSCs in the pathogenesis of this malignant disease. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from an EBV-positive NPC cell line C666-1 and its tumor-initiating properties were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays. In these spheroids, up-regulation of multiple stem cell markers were found. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that both CD44 and SOX2 were overexpressed in a majority of sphere-forming C666-1 cells. The CD44+SOX2+ cells was detected in a minor population in EBV-positive xenografts and primary tumors and considered as potential CSC in NPC. Notably, the isolated CD44+ NPC cells were resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and with higher spheroid formation efficiency, showing CSC properties. On the other hand, microarray analysis has revealed a number of differentially expressed genes involved in transcription regulation (e.g. FOXN4, GLI1), immune response (CCR7, IL8) and transmembrane transport (e.g. ABCC3, ABCC11) in the spheroids. Among these genes, increased expression of CCR7 in CD44+ CSCs was confirmed in NPC xenografts and primary tumors. Importantly, blocking of CCR7 abolished the sphere-forming ability of C666-1 in vitro. Expression of CCR7 was associated with recurrent disease and distant metastasis. The current study defined the specific properties of a CSC subpopulation in EBV-associated NPC. Our findings provided new insights into developing effective therapies targeting on CSCs, thereby potentiating treatment efficacy for NPC patients. PMID:23285037

  6. Industrial Pollutants and Nasopharyngeal Cancer: An Open Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicagli, Roberto; Bolla, Gianni; Menicagli, Laura; Esseiridou, Anastassia

    2017-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma represents 0.7% of the total cancer cases in the world with an ASR index of 1.7 and is widely associated with Epstein-Barr virus. It is not common in Italy (ASR index of 0.5) while in China (ASR 1.9), one third of the clinical cases are observed in Guangdong (ASR index 11.3). It is also quite common in Malaysia and Indonesia. The activation of the cancerogenesis process happens after the exposure to some environmental parameters that epidemiological studies have indicated with various dietary habits, mainly for salted fish consumption. The purpose of this work is to highlight such as exposure to compounds, such as formaldehyde, which is present in the different working conditions of these countries and may lead to the real cause to establish the carcinogenic process. The most recent publications regarding the impact of various external factors on Pub Med, Google, TOXLINE, Chem Abstract, were analyzed with the radiological data that were found in Milan hospitals database. The relationship between food consumption and nasopharyngeal cancer are not clear and statistically insignificant in Indonesia. In Malaysia, the preparation of natural rubber for the use of formaldehyde is a dangerous environmental factor. The same exposure is a risk factor in Guangdong, where many workers are employed in the wood panel industry. Incidence of cancer in these Chinese ethnic groups decreases when they migrate to other countries. In the last 5 years, few cases were recorded in Italy, without any apparent change in ethnic environmental factors or HBV infection Discussion: In the production of natural rubber, a lot of people are exposed to formaldehyde during the various steps of preparation and production such as stripping, drying and coagulation without observing proper environmental hygiene precautions. The same working conditions are present in industrial production of wood panels in Guangdong, China. The relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and

  7. Perineural spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Radiological and CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfo, I.; Gaeta, M.; Longo, M.; Faranda, C.; Blandino, A.

    1988-01-01

    Perineural spread is well known to be the most insidious form of tumour spread of a number of head and neck malignancies. However, perineural extension of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC) is a poorly recognized event. Four cases of perineural metastases from NC have been detected with pluridirectional tomography and CT. In 3 cases involvement of the Vidian nerve (nervus canalis pterygoidei) and pterygoid canal was observed. In a fourth patient, invasion of one pterygopalatine fossa and perineural spread along ipsilateral maxillary nerve with enlargement and erosion of the foramen rotundum was demonstrated. Radiological diagnosis of clinically unsuspected perineural tumour spread is important because it markedly influences treatment planning and prognosis of NC. (orig.)

  8. Perineural spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Radiological and CT demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfo, I.; Gaeta, M.; Longo, M.; Faranda, C.; Blandino, A.

    1988-11-01

    Perineural spread is well known to be the most insidious form of tumour spread of a number of head and neck malignancies. However, perineural extension of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC) is a poorly recognized event. Four cases of perineural metastases from NC have been detected with pluridirectional tomography and CT. In 3 cases involvement of the Vidian nerve (nervus canalis pterygoidei) and pterygoid canal was observed. In a fourth patient, invasion of one pterygopalatine fossa and perineural spread along ipsilateral maxillary nerve with enlargement and erosion of the foramen rotundum was demonstrated. Radiological diagnosis of clinically unsuspected perineural tumour spread is important because it markedly influences treatment planning and prognosis of NC.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve

  10. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical and radiographic findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, I.S.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Barlow, B.; Carsen, G.; Khakoo, Y.

    1985-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in childhood occurs so infrequently that it is not suspected in affected children until the disease has been present for a long time and local spreading has occurred. The survival rates are therefore quite poor. Six children with NPC are described. A massive local lymph node spread simulating lymphoma was present in half of the patients; in the other half the disease was more subtle, presenting with epistaxis and CNS involvement. If an evaluation of the nasopharynx were part of the initial physical examination in children, the diagnosis of NPC would be made earlier and survival rates would improve.

  11. Dose analysis of boost irradiation of parapharyngeal space in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.

    2000-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) is one of the common spreads of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Since early eighties boost treatment has been routinely given to patients with PPS involvement. The use of oblique facio-cervical field in this treatment posed difficulty in assessing the dose distribution before the 3-D computer systems are available. This study evaluated the variations of dose distribution by different boost techniques on fifteen patients with PPS involvement using 3-D computer planning system. Comparisons were made between different radiation types, photon energies and modes of collimation respectively. Results showed that the dose distributions in the boost treatment were acceptable, as they did not bring the total doses of the normal structures exceeding their tolerance. There was little difference between 6 and 10 MV photons, but significant differences were found between photon and electron beams. Photon beams were better than the electron beams in giving lower doses to the spinal cord and the TM joint with more homogeneous dose to the target volume, whereas electron beams gave better sparing of the lens and temporal lobe. For the photon beams, half-blocked beam was superior to symmetrical beam in reducing the brain stem dose, but there was no advantage to the rest of normal structures. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  12. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Keyur Kamlesh; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Shah, Vikas; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR) was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  13. Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood: nasopharyngeal carcinoma as a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Martinez Vianna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a carcinoma that arises from the nasopharyngeal mucosa and differs from other head and neck carcinomas by its unique histologic, epidemiologic, and biologic characteristics. NPC is rare in most countries, especially Europe and North America. However, it has a high incidence in several regions of South China. The incidence variability of NPC, among different geographical and ethnic groups, indicates a combination of genetic susceptibility, infection by Epstein-Barr virus and environmental factors. NPC is classified into three histological subtypes according to the 1991 World Health Organization classification: squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The symptoms of patients with NPC are related to the primary tumor site and the degree of dissemination. Therefore, patients can remain asymptomatic during a long period of time. Imaging exams and biopsy of the tumor mass generally are sufficient to establish the diagnosis. NPC is a rare disease among children. The authors report a case of a 12-year-old boy who sought medical attention complaining of a progressive growing tumoral mass on the right side of the neck. The computed tomography images of the head and neck and the histological examination of a cervical lymph node biopsy diagnosed a metastatic NPC.

  14. Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma in a Pre-Pubertal Child

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    Subhro Ganguly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (NA are benign fibro-vascular tumours, predominantly occurring in the region around sphenopalatine foramen of adolescent males. Angiofibromas arising outside nasopharynx are termed as Extra-Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (ENA which often gets misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical clinical and biological behaviour. We present a case of angiofibroma of nasal septum in a seven-year-old boy presenting with two months history of left nasal obstruction and occasional nasal bleeding. CECT revealed a contrast enhanced soft tissue mass in left nasal cavity with no extension into the sinuses and nasopharynx. The mass was completely removed by lateral rhinotomy approach and a follow up of ten months showed no recurrence. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of angiofibroma. The age of the patient and the location of the tumour make the case exceptionally rare. We conclude that ENA must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of unilateral vascular nasal mass, and nasal septum should be taken into account as a potential, yet exceptional site for the tumour. Furthermore the age and gender of the patient should not be given utmost importance for diagnosis of angiofibromas.

  15. Prognosis and histology in Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, D.; Ho, J.H.C.; Fong, M.; Chan, C.L.; Tse, C.H.; Lau, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    During 1969-1975, 212 new patients with Stage I nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a tumor apparently confined to the nasopharynx were treated at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The initial histologies of 137 patients were available for review and further studies. The primary tumors were histologically classified into two major types - squamous cell carcinoma (35 patients) and undifferentiated carcinoma (102 patients). The latter was further divided into 4 sub-types: lymphoepithelioma of the Schmincke type, lymphoepithelioma of the Regaud type, spindle cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. Such histological typing of the initial tumor was not of value in predicting the clinical outcome, whether in terms of 5-year crude or disease-free survival rate, or the tendency of the tumor to develop recurrence at the primary site, or distance metastases after a standardized course of radiation therapy. There is not significant correlation between the extent of mononuclear infiltration nor fibrosis in the tumor stroma and the survival or tumor control rates

  16. Choanal stenosis: a rare complication of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfils, P.; Preobrajenski, N. de; Florent, A.; Bensimon, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Choanal stenosis is usually a congenital anomaly in children. Acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a very rare pathology; only two publications report seven cases in the literature. We describe the clinical history, preoperative evaluation, surgical treatment and outcome of a case of acquired choanal stenosis after radiotherapy. The patient, a 56-year-old woman, presented with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (T2- NO-MO) one year before that had been successful treated with radiotherapy (68 Gy). At the end of radiotherapy, she complained of complete nasal obstruction, anosmia and hearing loss due to a bilateral serous otitis media. Bilateral complete choanal stenosis was confirmed by endoscopy and CT scan. Functional endoscopic surgery was performed, and nasal stents were left in place for 3 weeks. One year after, the patient have good airflow, and a patent nasopharynx without choanal stenosis. In conclusion, choanal stenosis is an unusual complication of radiotherapy that can be successfully treated with trans-nasal endoscopic resection. (authors)

  17. Postobstructive pulmonary edema after biopsy of a nasopharyngeal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur Kamlesh Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of 17 year-old male with a nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who developed postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE after removing the endotracheal tube following biopsy. He developed muffled voice, rhinorrhea, dysphagia, odynophagia, and difficulty breathing through nose and weight loss of 20 pounds in the preceding 2 months. A nasopharyngoscopy revealed a fleshy nasopharyngeal mass compressing the soft and hard palate. Head and neck MRI revealed a large mass in the nasopharynx extending into the bilateral choana and oropharynx. Biopsy of the mass was taken under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Immediately after extubation he developed oxygen desaturation, which did not improve with bag mask ventilation with 100% of oxygen, but improved after a dose of succinylcholine. He was re-intubated and pink, frothy fluid was suctioned from the endotracheal tube. Chest radiograph (CXR was suggestive of an acute pulmonary edema. He improved with mechanical ventilation and intravenous furosemide. His pulmonary edema resolved over the next 24 h. POPE is a rare but serious complication associated with upper airway obstruction. The pathophysiology of POPE involves hemodynamic changes occurring in the lung and the heart during forceful inspiration against a closed airway due to an acute or chronic airway obstruction. This case illustrates the importance of considering the development of POPE with general anesthesia, laryngospasm and removal of endotracheal tube to make prompt diagnosis and to initiate appropriate management.

  18. The prognostic significance of parapharyngeal tumour involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, P.Y.; Lee, W.; Yu, P.

    1996-01-01

    From 1984 to 1989, 903 treatment-naive non-disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) were given primary radical radiotherapy. All patients had computed tomographic and endoscopic evaluation of the primary tumour. Potentially significant parameters were analysed by both univariate and multivariate methods for independent significance. In the whole group of patients, the male sex, skull base and cranial nerve(s) involvement, advanced Ho N-level, presence of fixed or partially fixed nodes and nodes contralateral to the side of the bulk of the nasopharyngeal primary, significantly determined survival and distant metastasis rates, whereas skull base and cranial nerve involvement, advanced age and male sex significantly worsened local control. However in the Ho T2No subgroup, parapharyngeal tumour involvement was the most significant prognosticator that determined distant metastasis and survival rates in the absence of the overriding prognosticators of skull base infiltration, cranial nerve(s) palsy, and cervical nodal metastasis. The local tumour control of the Ho T2No was adversely affected by the presence of oropharyngeal tumour extension. The administration of booster radiotherapy (20 Gy) after conventional radiotherapy (60-62.5 Gy) in tumours with parapharyngeal involvement has led to an improvement in local control, short of statistical significance

  19. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube

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    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1 the patient’s bedpartner scored the snoring and (2 the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner’s sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10. The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10 but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.

  20. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  1. A rare case of extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma of the septum in a female child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G B; Shukla, S; Kumari, P; Shukla, I

    2018-02-01

    Extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare but distinct clinical entity, different from juvenile angiofibroma. This clinical record elucidates the only case of extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma arising from the septum in a female child, who presented with epistaxis. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and the case was managed surgically with no recurrence. In a female paediatric patient presenting with epistaxis, extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (of the inferior turbinate) is a rare albeit important differential diagnosis, as it challenges the hormonal theory of angiofibroma aetiopathogenesis.

  2. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Caitlin; Alexander, Sherene; Prabhu, Neeta

    2017-01-15

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease associated with human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings, and most lesions are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously with time. The purpose of this paper is to describe a five-year-old girl who presented with multiple intraoral lesions on the buccal mucosa and tongue, which regressed spontaneously in 15 months.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells treated with cadmium and the role of Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengxi; Shan, Zhongguo; Shaikh, Zahir A

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated cadmium (Cd) with breast cancer. In breast epithelial MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells, Cd has been shown to promote cell growth. The present study examined whether Cd also promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of cancer progression. Human breast epithelial cells consisting of non-cancerous MCF10A, non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 were treated with 1 or 3 μM Cd for 4 weeks. The MCF10A epithelial cells switched to a more mesenchymal-like morphology, which was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. In both non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38 cells, treatment with Cd decreased the epithelial marker claudin-1. In addition, E-cadherin also decreased in the HCC 1937 cells. Even the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin. These changes indicated that prolonged treatment with Cd resulted in EMT in both normal and cancer-derived breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, both the MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells labeled with Zcad, a dual sensor for tracking EMT, demonstrated a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker ZEB-1. Treatment of cells with Cd significantly increased the level of Snail, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of EMT. However, the Cd-induced Snail expression was completely abolished by actinomycin D. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that the expression of Snail was regulated by Cd at the promotor level. Snail was essential for Cd-induced promotion of EMT in the MDA-MB-231 cells, as knockdown of Snail expression blocked Cd-induced cell migration. Together, these results indicate that Cd promotes EMT in breast epithelial cells and does so by modulating the transcription of Snail. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Original Article. Evaluation of Rapid Detection of Nasopharyngeal Colonization with MRSA by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Feng-feng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

  5. Study on change of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Chen Jiaxin; Zhang Lixiang; Wang Tiejian; Han Min; Lu Xiaoling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible changes of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 48 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving primary conventional external beam irradiation were examined before and after radiotherapy to determine their brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SLSEP) and pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP). Results: In comparison with the conditions before radiotherapy, in different periods after radiotherapy abnormal peak latency and interval latency difference were found in BAEP, SLSEP and PRVEP. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy may cause abnormal function of nerve conduction in early periods, which can be showed by BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP, and injury can be timely detected if the three evoked potentials are used together. Thus authors suggest BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP should be examined in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients during and after the radiotherapy so as to find early damage in auditory somatosensory and visual conduction pathways

  6. Nasopharyngeal (Tornwaldt’s Cyst: Rare Finding in a Habitual Snorer

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    Ng WSJ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A nasopharyngeal (tornwaldt’s cyst is uncommon. It is often asymptomotic; however it may cause problem if it too big becomes. We present a case of a 24-year-old Malay girl who had been a habitual snorer for years but was unaware of the significance of her problem. opportunities for an earlier referral and assessment were missed since we were not aware of her history despite previous related but non-specific consultations at our primary healthcare centre. she was referred to us a few years later when her nasopharyngeal cyst became infected. After a course of antibiotics, she proceeded with an endoscopic resection of the nasopharyngeal cyst. A follow-up visit six months later did not reveal a recurrence. this case highlights the importance of a good history for the diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal cyst.

  7. Radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and immunohistochemical analysis of vessel proliferation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulja, Mira; Kujundžić, Milodar; Halaj, Adelaida; Braut, Tamara; Cvjetković, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma presents with symptoms of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The treatment of choice is embolization followed by surgery. Case presentation A 52-year-old man underwent surgery for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma after adjuvant radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of angiofibroma with clinical follow-up after thermocoagulation therapy supported by quantitative, double immunohistochemistry. We found this case of angiofibroma to be of interest owing to the presentation of symptoms leading to biopsy, the pathohistological observations obtained with synchronous Ki67/cluster of differentiation 34 and Ki67/smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry and high pericyte proliferation. Conclusion Coagulation of angiofibroma vessels followed by acquisition of a thick mantle of pericytes in a patient with a nasopharyngeal growth suggests that radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy could be a useful, palliative therapy for bleeding nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, supporting vessel maturation prior to surgical tumor removal. PMID:18706100

  8. Radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and immunohistochemical analysis of vessel proliferation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstulja Mira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma presents with symptoms of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The treatment of choice is embolization followed by surgery. Case presentation A 52-year-old man underwent surgery for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma after adjuvant radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of angiofibroma with clinical follow-up after thermocoagulation therapy supported by quantitative, double immunohistochemistry. We found this case of angiofibroma to be of interest owing to the presentation of symptoms leading to biopsy, the pathohistological observations obtained with synchronous Ki67/cluster of differentiation 34 and Ki67/smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry and high pericyte proliferation. Conclusion Coagulation of angiofibroma vessels followed by acquisition of a thick mantle of pericytes in a patient with a nasopharyngeal growth suggests that radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy could be a useful, palliative therapy for bleeding nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, supporting vessel maturation prior to surgical tumor removal.

  9. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Esther; Bangert, Mark; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  10. Noncoplanar VMAT for nasopharyngeal tumors: Plan quality versus treatment time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Esther, E-mail: e.wild@dkfz.de; Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Oelfke, Uwe [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG, United Kingdom and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the potential of optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments of nasopharyngeal patients and studied the trade-off between treatment plan quality and delivery time in radiation therapy. Methods: For three nasopharyngeal patients, the authors generated treatment plans for nine different delivery scenarios using dedicated optimization methods. They compared these scenarios according to dose characteristics, number of beam directions, and estimated delivery times. In particular, the authors generated the following treatment plans: (1) a 4π plan, which is a not sequenced, fluence optimized plan that uses beam directions from approximately 1400 noncoplanar directions and marks a theoretical upper limit of the treatment plan quality, (2) a coplanar 2π plan with 72 coplanar beam directions as pendant to the noncoplanar 4π plan, (3) a coplanar VMAT plan, (4) a coplanar step and shoot (SnS) plan, (5) a beam angle optimized (BAO) coplanar SnS IMRT plan, (6) a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan, (7) a VMAT plan with rotated treatment couch, (8) a noncoplanar VMAT plan with an optimized great circle around the patient, and (9) a noncoplanar BAO VMAT plan with an arbitrary trajectory around the patient. Results: VMAT using optimized noncoplanar irradiation trajectories reduced the mean and maximum doses in organs at risk compared to coplanar VMAT plans by 19% on average while the target coverage remains constant. A coplanar BAO SnS plan was superior to coplanar SnS or VMAT; however, noncoplanar plans like a noncoplanar BAO SnS plan or noncoplanar VMAT yielded a better plan quality than the best coplanar 2π plan. The treatment plan quality of VMAT plans depended on the length of the trajectory. The delivery times of noncoplanar VMAT plans were estimated to be 6.5 min in average; 1.6 min longer than a coplanar plan but on average 2.8 min faster than a noncoplanar SnS plan with comparable

  11. Late course accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LCAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiayun; Liu Taifu; He Shaoqin; Huan Sulan; Pan Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To study the efficacy of late course accelerated fractionated (LCAF) radiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The end-points were local control, radiation-induced complications, and factors influencing survival. Patients and methods: Between December 1995 and April 1998, 178 consecutive NPC patients were admitted for radiation treatment. The radiation beam used was 60 Co γ or 6 MV X rays. For the first two-thirds of the treatment, two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy were given to the primary lesion, with an interval of ≥6 h, 5 days per week to a total dose of 48 Gy/40 fractions, over a period of 4 weeks. For the last third of the treatment, i.e., beginning the 5th week of treatment, an accelerated hyperfractionated schedule was carried out. The dose per fraction was increased to 1.5 Gy, 2 fractions per day with an interval of ≥6 h, the total dose for this part of the protocol was 30 Gy/20 fractions over 2 weeks. Thus the total dose was 78 Gy in 60 fractions in 6 weeks. Results: All patients completed the treatment. Acute mucositis: none in 2 cases, Grade 1 in 43 cases, Grade 2 in 78 cases, Grade 3 in 52 cases, and Grade 4 in 3 cases. Local control rate: the 5 year nasopharyngeal local control rate was 87.7%, and the cervical lymph nodes local control rate was 85.7%. The 5-year distant metastasis rate was 26.1%, and 5 year survivals were 67.9%, 16 (9%) patients had radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy, 7(4%) patients had temporal lobe or brainstem damage. Conclusions: With this treatment schedule, patients' tolerance was good, local control and 5 year survivals were better than conventional fractionation schedules, and radiation-related late complications did not increase, as 5-year survival rates of conventional fractionation radiotherapy were only 58%. Randomized clinical trials are being carried out to further confirm the efficacy of LCAF for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  13. Profile of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito F. Jayalie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is the most common head and neck malignancy in Indonesia. NPCpresents numerous challenges from non-specific signs and symptoms until lack of awareness from generalpractitioners (GP, which lead to late or missed diagnosis. Early diagnosis and prevention are proposedas the best solutions for this problem. In order to do that, we need a complete and well-managed patients’data. This study aims to reveal the demographic, clinical and histopathologic characteristics of NPC inIndonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted by collecting medical records of all NPC patients in 2010from Otorhinolaryngology Department of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital. The extracted datawere then analyzed to describe the problem of NPC in Indonesia. Out of 167 patients, 68.3% of the patientsare male and most of them are Sundanese and Javanese. Palpable lump in the neck is the most commoncomplaint in presentation (58.1%, followed by nasal congestion (49.1%. Salted fish consumption was themost prevalent risk factor (29.9%. Based on the histopathologic findings, 75.4% of the cases were classifiedas WHO-3 and around half of the patients (51% were in stage IV upon diagnosis. Studying demographic andclinical characteristics of NPC patients is the first step to overcome problems caused by NPC in Indonesia. Keywords: head and neck cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, epidemiology  Profil Karsinoma Nasofaring di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, 2010 Abstrak Karsinoma nasofaring (KNF merupakan keganasan kepala leher yang paling sering di Indonesia.Tanda dan gejala KNF tidak spesifik dan dokter umum kurang waspada sehingga diagnosis terlambat ataugagal. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, diperlukan upaya pencegahan dan deteksi dini yang didasari profil KNF.Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran demografi, gejala klinis dan karakteristik histopatologi pasienKNF di RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dengan

  14. Auto-optimisation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V.W.C.; Kwong, D.W.L.; Sham, J.S.T.; Mui, A.W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of auto-optimisation in the treatment planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Twenty-nine NPC patients were planned by both forward planning and auto-optimisation methods. The forward plans, which consisted of three coplanar facial fields, were produced according to the routine planning criteria. The auto-optimised plans, which consisted of 5-15 (median 9) fields, were generated by the planning system after prescribing the dose requirements and the importance weightings of the planning target volume and organs at risk. Plans produced by the two planning methods were compared by the dose volume histogram, tumour control probability (TCP), conformity index and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: The auto-optimised plans reduced the average planner's time by over 35 min. It demonstrated better TCP and conformity index than the forward plans (P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Besides, the parotid gland and temporo-mandibular (TM) joint were better spared with the mean dose reduction of 31.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The slight trade off was the mild dose increase in spinal cord and brain stem with their maximum doses remaining within the tolerance limits. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the potentials of auto-optimisation for improving target dose and parotid sparing in the 3DCRT of NPC with saving of the planner's time

  15. Auto-optimisation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, V.W.C. E-mail: orvinwu@polyu.edu.hk; Kwong, D.W.L.; Sham, J.S.T.; Mui, A.W.L

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of auto-optimisation in the treatment planning of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Twenty-nine NPC patients were planned by both forward planning and auto-optimisation methods. The forward plans, which consisted of three coplanar facial fields, were produced according to the routine planning criteria. The auto-optimised plans, which consisted of 5-15 (median 9) fields, were generated by the planning system after prescribing the dose requirements and the importance weightings of the planning target volume and organs at risk. Plans produced by the two planning methods were compared by the dose volume histogram, tumour control probability (TCP), conformity index and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: The auto-optimised plans reduced the average planner's time by over 35 min. It demonstrated better TCP and conformity index than the forward plans (P=0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Besides, the parotid gland and temporo-mandibular (TM) joint were better spared with the mean dose reduction of 31.8 and 17.7%, respectively. The slight trade off was the mild dose increase in spinal cord and brain stem with their maximum doses remaining within the tolerance limits. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the potentials of auto-optimisation for improving target dose and parotid sparing in the 3DCRT of NPC with saving of the planner's time.

  16. Hormonal receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: immunohistochemical and tissue microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuofu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dehui; Hu, Li; Liu, Quan; Sun, Xicai

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrated that juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) express high levels of hormone receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with normal nasal mucosa. The interaction between hormone receptors and VEGF may be involved in the initiation and growth of JNA. JNA is a rare benign tumor that occurs almost exclusively in male adolescents. Although generally regarded as a hormone-dependent tumor, this has not been proven in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hormone receptors in JNA and the relationship with clinical characteristics. Standard immunohistochemical microarray analysis was performed on 70 JNA samples and 10 turbinate tissue samples. Specific antibodies for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), progesterone receptor (PR), and VEGF were examined, and the relationships of receptor expression with age, tumor stage, and bleeding were evaluated. RESULTS showed that JNA expressed ER-α (92.9%), ER-β (91.4%), AR (65.7%), PR (12.8%), and VEGF (95.7%) at different levels. High level of VEGF was linked to elevated ER-α and ER-β. There was no significant relationship between hormonal receptors and age at diagnosis, tumor stage or bleeding. However, overexpression of ER-α was found to be an indicator of poor prognosis (p = 0.031).

  17. Therapy effects of gold nanorods on the CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jinyan Shao,1 Jianguo Tang,1 Jian Ji,2 Wenbo Zhou21Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Department of Polymer Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The use of nanocarriers to deliver drugs to tumor tissue is one of the most important strategies in cancer therapeutics. Recently, gold nanorods (GNRs have begun to be used in cancer therapy because of their unique properties. The purpose of this study was to show the potential that GNRs have against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells, using near-infrared (NIR laser light. Transmission electron microscopic and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic investigations confirmed the efficient uptake of the GNRs by CNE-1 and human rhinal epithelia cells. The in vitro NIR photothermal therapy for the CNE-1 and rhinal epithelia cells was designed in three groups: (1 control, (2 laser alone, and (3 GNRs with laser. Fluorescence microscopy images indicated that, at some GNR concentrations and some intensities of NIR laser, GNRs with laser therapy could induce cell death for CNE-1 cells while keeping the rhinal epithelia cells healthy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that using GNRs with NIR laser therapy can selectively destruct CNE-1 cells while having no effect on normal (rhinal epithelia cells.Keywords: photothermal therapy, near-infrared laser, rhinal epithelia cells, cell uptake

  18. Grave's disease induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-An; Li, Xuezhen; Zou, Wen; Zhou, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of thyroid dysfunctions are induced by damage resulting from the relatively high doses of radiation administered to the thyroid and pituitary gland during radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism constitutes the most frequent type of thyroid dysfunction induced by NPC radiotherapy, while hyperthyroidism, particularly Grave's disease, is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of a 40-year-old male who presented with Grave's disease 2 years after receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of NPC. The patient exhibited swelling of the eyes, an increased appetite, decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, increased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) demonstrated by the examination of thyroid function and enlargement of the bilateral intraocular rectus revealed by CT scan. The patient's symptoms were ameliorated following treatment with propylthiouracil and propranolol for 1 month, and the levels of T3 and T4 were restored to normal. The pathophysiological mechanism of radiotherapy-induced hyperthyroidism has yet to be elucidated. Hyperthyroidism is often neglected as several of its clinical manifestations are similar to other complications observed during and following cancer treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor thyroid function following head and neck radiotherapy.

  19. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Vladimir; Šipetić Sandra; Vlajinac Hristina; Stošić-Divjak Svetlana; Ješić Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Serbia is less than one per 100,000 citizens, which classifies it as a region with low incidence for this disease. Objective. The aim of this study was to test some hypotheses of the risk factors for undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) in the low incidence population. Methods. A case-control study was used for the research. The study included 45 cases with histopathological diagnosis of UCNT and 90 controls. ...

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with secondaries at the porta hepatis presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, S; Jayakumar, C R

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have dispelled the previously held concept that head and neck cancer rarely metastases beyond the cervical lymph nodes. Nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported to have a higher incidence of distant metastases compared to other head and neck cancers, the common sites being bone, lung and liver. A case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice because of secondaries at the porta hepatis is presented here.

  1. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J.; Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F.; Frikha, M.

    2011-01-01

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  2. Solo and keratin filaments regulate epithelial tubule morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ryosuke; Kato, Kagayaki; Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-04-28

    Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction. In this study, we examined the roles of Solo and K8/K18 filaments in epithelial tubulogenesis using MDCK cells cultured in 3D collagen gels. Knockdown of either Solo or K18 resulted in rounder tubules with increased lumen size, indicating that Solo and K8/K18 filaments play critical roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules. Moreover, knockdown of Solo or K18 decreased the level of diphosphorylated myosin light chain (a marker of contractile force) at the luminal and outer surfaces of tubules, suggesting that Solo and K8/K18 filaments are involved in the generation of the myosin II-mediated contractile force during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. In addition, K18 filaments were normally oriented along the long axis of the tubule, but knockdown of Solo perturbed their orientation. These results suggest that Solo plays crucial roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules and in regulating myosin II activity and K18 filament organization during epithelial tubule formation.

  3. Immunohistochemical study of epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochicha O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are known to influence the biology (proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of overlying epithelia. In the intestine, myofibroblasts have been demonstrated to be essential for epithelial differentiation. It is therefore hypothesized that myofibroblasts may also be involved in intestinal metaplasia that is characteristic of Barrett esophagus. Objective: This study endeavors to immunohistologically evaluate epithelial-myofibroblast interaction in Barrett′s metaplasia. Materials and Methods: Nineteen archival esophageal endoscopic biopsies of Barrett′s metaplasia were immune-phenotyped for the following epithelial and myofibroblast antigens - cytokeratins (CK 8, 13, 18, CDX2 (Caudal type homeobox 2, a-smooth muscle actin (SMA. Results: α-SMA immunostaining revealed close association between myofibroblasts and metaplastic Barrett′s epithelium but not with normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Myofibroblasts were more prominent in dysplastic than in non-dysplastic Barrett metaplasia. CDX2 and CK 8/18, indicators of intestinal differentiation were expressed in Barrett metaplasia but not normal esophageal squamous epithelium, while the reverse was the case for CK 13, which only stained normal esophageal squamous epithelium. Conclusion: Although their precise role is yet to be clearly defined, sub-epithelial myofibroblasts are very likely involved in the pathogenesis of Barrett′s metaplasia.

  4. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Signaling Pathway: An Update on Molecular Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Tulalamba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an uncommon cancer, which has a distinctive ethnic and geographic distribution. Etiology of NPC is considered to be related with a complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors as well as Epstein-Barr virus infection. Since NPC is located in the silent painless area, the disease is usually therefore diagnosed at the advanced stages; hence early detection of NPC is difficult. Furthermore, understanding in molecular pathogenesis is still lacking, pondering the identification of effective prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Dysregulation of signaling molecules in intracellular signal transduction, which regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion, underlines the basis of NPC pathogenesis. In this paper, the molecular signaling pathways in the NPC are discussed for the holistic view of NPC development and progression. The important insights toward NPC pathogenesis may offer strategies for identification of novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis.

  5. Nasopharyngeal deposition and retention of an insoluble aerosol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamosca, M.; Pagano, P. (ENEA, Bologna (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Forty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed, nose-only, to a 0.67 {mu}m CMAD radiolabelled Carnauba wax aerosol. The animals were sacrificed immediately after a given exposure to determine the rapid nasopharyngeal clearance rate. Clearance times were 12, 20, 30 and 44 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 190, 357, and 549 h. Aerosol amounts remaining in the nasopharynx as a function of time were fitted to a two term exponential decay equation of the form: R(t)=Aexp(-K{sub 1}t) +Bexp(-K{sub 2}t) where the constants were found to be A=0.156{+-}0.007, K{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.3 h{sup -1}, B=0.011{+-} 0.003, and K{sub 2}=0.008{+-} 0.010h{sup -1}. The relative deposition in the nasal region was found to be 20{+-}5%. (author).

  6. Delayed complications of radiotherapy treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.D.; Ahuja, A.T.; Yeung, D.K.; Wong, J.K.T.; Lee, Y.Y.P.; Lam, W.W.M.; Ho, S.S.M.; Yu, S.C.H.; Leung, S.-F.

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is used to treat a wide variety of head and neck tumours that arise in and around the skull base. The delayed effects of radiation damages a range of structures, including the nervous system, bone, major vessels, mucus membranes, pituitary and salivary glands, as well as increasing the risk of radiation-induced neoplasms. In this review the complications resulting from radiation treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a cancer treated with a high dose of radiation to a fairly large region, are illustrated. Many patients with NPC have a long-term survival, so are at risk of developing delayed radiation effects, and hence may demonstrate a wide range of complications on imaging. Other tumours around the skull base treated with radiotherapy include meningiomas, chordomas, chondrosarcomas, pituitary adenomas, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity tumours. In these cases similar complications may be encountered on imaging, although the severity, incidence and location will vary

  7. Nasopharyngeal Mass Diagnosed as Transsphenoidal Encephalocele in an Adult Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Burak; Aksoy, Elif Ayanoglu; Unal, Omer Faruk

    2015-11-01

    Transsphenoidal encephalocele, a rare congenital malformation, is generally diagnosed during childhood when investigating the reason for complaints such as nasal obstruction and recurring cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In this adult patient, the authors identified an asymptomatic transsphenoidal encephalocele after requested monitoring of a pedunculated mass detected in the nasopharynx during nasal endoscopy. After evaluation, the authors decided to follow the patient. Few cases of transsphenoidal encephalocele have been reported, and even fewer have been reported in older patients, with no other anomaly or symptoms. The success of surgical treatment for these masses is debatable. The authors did not consider surgery for this asymptomatic case. With this case presentation, the authors wish to emphasize that without making radiologic assessments of any masses identified in a nasopharyngeal examination, it would be inappropriate to perform a biopsy or any intervention.

  8. Clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Sarawak Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, T S; Selva, K S

    2005-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in Malaysia. The clinical presentation in Sarawak has not been well documented. A retrospective review of 213 selected NPC cases was undertaken on the clinical records in Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, from June 1999 to June 2003. There were 116 patients in Kuching and 97 in Serian. There were twice as many males as females. The youngest patient was 16 and the oldest 88 years old with a mean age of 51 years. The four most common symptoms in order of frequencies were cervical lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, hearing loss and diplopia. 80.8% of the patients presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and about 85% of the patients presented in the advanced stages. Very small percentages of the patients were found to have single presenting symptoms of epistaxis (2.4%) and hearing loss (0.5%).

  9. Intracavitary curietherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer after external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, P.; Panizza, B.M.; Checcaglini, F.; Maranzano, E.; Aristei, C.; Perucci, E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with intracavitary curietherapy to cure small recurring carcinomas or residual local disease 2-6 weeks after completing external radiotherapy. Since 1984 , 10 patients have received intracavitary radiotherapy with customized molds charged with Ir 192. Six of them received a boost dose because of residual disease and for local recurrence. The technique we employed to shape the molds is described, together with the mode of use and the doses to target volume. Due to both the small number of treated cases and the short follow-up, no significant conclusions could be drawn relative to survival time. However, it must be stressed that this therapeutic approach gives a high local control rate with no severe side-effects or sequelae

  10. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: Clinical diagnosis and treatment experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladoje Radmila

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is an infrequent epi-pharyngeal tumor necessitating particular diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in comparison to other benign epipharyngeal tumors due to its expansive growth tendency. Our retrospective study is aimed at presenting clinical casuistry of the tumor in order to evaluate modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities. The study included 13 male patients, aged 13-24 years, who were hospitalized, diagnostically assessed and surgically treated at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia over the period 1990 - June 2001. The following parameters were analyzed: sex, age groups, preoperative symptoms of the disease, diagnostic methods, embolization, local tumor spreading, number and time of tumor relapses and surgical approach.

  11. Use of coblation in resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Daniel E; Poetker, David M; Loehrl, Todd A; Chun, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    We present a series of 4 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) who underwent Coblation-assisted endoscopic resection after preoperative embolization, and discuss the use and advantages of endoscopic Coblation-assisted resection of JNA. Our limited case series suggests that Coblation may be used in the resection of JNA after embolization in a relatively safe, efficient, and effective manner. Coblation allows for decreased bleeding, less need for instrumentation, and improved visualization. There are limited published data in the literature to date on the use of Coblation in endoscopic JNA resection. We describe its use in a more extensive tumor than those previously reported. Further studies are needed to fully define the safety and utility of Coblation technology for this application.

  12. Imaging in the diagnosis of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyaranjan Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare, benign, highly vascular, and locally aggressive tumor that predominantly occurs in adolescent males. Usually, the presenting symptom is a painless nasal obstruction or epistaxis; however, other symptoms may develop depending on the size and extent of the tumor mass. Owing to the vascularity of the tumor, incisional biopsy is not attempted. The diagnosis is dependent on multiplanar imaging modalities like Computed Tomography (CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Angiography. These imaging modalities help in assessing the tumor mass, pre-operative embolization of the feeder vessel, and treatment planning. Usually, patients with JNA are diagnosed by otorhinolaryngologists, but here, we present a rare case of JNA reporting to the dental hospital due to a tender palatal swelling.

  13. Photoradiation therapy of animal tumors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, S.P.; Tao, Z.D.; Xiao, J.Y.; Peng, Y.Y.; Yang, Y.H.; Zeng, Q.S.; Liu, Z.W.

    1990-01-01

    Both animal tumors and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma were submitted to a photoradiation therapy (PRT) trial in order to determine the efficacy and side effects of PRT, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of cytotoxicity. In animal tumors, the inhibition rate was 70%, and of 20 patients, eight achieved complete remission, and ten, significant remission, with an overall response rate of 90%. The blood picture and the values of serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 all remained stable post-PRT. Only three patients developed mild generalized skin photosensitive reactions, and these did not affect subsequent treatment. There was no immunosuppressive effect as evidenced by a tritium-labeled thymidine-incorporated lymphocytoblast transformation assay performed both before and after PRT. Ultrastructural studies at different time intervals after PRT highly suggested that the mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were among the first organelles to be damaged

  14. Arsenic mediated disruption of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies induces ganciclovir susceptibility in Epstein-Barr positive epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, Mark D.; Block, Gregory J.; Shan, Bin; Esteves, Kyle C.; Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K.; Lasky, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML NBs) have been implicated in host immune response to viral infection. PML NBs are targeted for degradation during reactivation of herpes viruses, suggesting that disruption of PML NB function supports this aspect of the viral life cycle. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) has been shown to suppress EBV reactivation. Our finding that LMP1 induces PML NB immunofluorescence intensity led to the hypothesis that LMP1 may modulate PML NBs as a means of maintaining EBV latency. Increased PML protein and morphometric changes in PML NBs were observed in EBV infected alveolar epithelial cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Treatment with low dose arsenic trioxide disrupted PML NBs, induced expression of EBV lytic proteins, and conferred ganciclovir susceptibility. This study introduces an effective modality to induce susceptibility to ganciclovir in epithelial cells with implications for the treatment of EBV associated pathologies.

  15. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  16. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    control expression of many of these miRNA genes. Many of the epigenetically regulated miRNAs identified are deregulated in breast cancer-derived...review board and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. At the time of surgery, a 1 to 3 cm section of the tumor was immediately...transformation process for- ward; the early deregulation of the HOX gene family clusters, which are decisively linked to human carcinogenesis, are one clear

  17. BRCC3 acts as a prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy and mediates radiation resistance in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Ziwei; Xu, Bingqing; Qu, Chen; Tao, Yalan; Chen, Chen; Hua, Wenfeng; Feng, Guokai; Chang, Hui; Liu, Zhigang; Li, Guo; Jiang, Changbin; Yi, Wei; Zeng, Musheng; Xia, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    BRCC3 has been found to be aberrantly expressed in breast tumors and involved in DNA damage response. The contribution of BRCC3 to nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis and radiosensitivity is still unclear. Immunohistochemical analysis of BRCC3 was carried out in 100 nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, and the protein level was correlated to patient survival. BRCC3 expression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines was determined by Western-blotting and real-time PCR. Additionally, the effects of BRCC3 knockdown on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell clongenic survival, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle distribution after irradiation was assessed. The BRCC3 protein level was inversely correlated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient overall survival (P < 0.001) and 3-year loco-regional relapse-free survival (P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BRCC3 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.010). The expression of BRCC3 was much higher in radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells than in radiosensitive cells. Knockdown of BRCC3 increased the cell survival fraction, attenuated DNA damage repair and resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in radioresistant NPC cells. High BRCC3 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients is associated with poor survival. BRCC3 knockdown could abate the radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. These findings suggest the utility of BRCC3 as a prognostic biomarker and novel target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  18. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  19. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    Corneal epithelium is being regenerated throughout life by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) believed to be located in histologically defined stem cell niches in corneal limbus. Defective or dysfunctional LESCs result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) causing pain and decreased visual acuity...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  20. Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  1. Radiation-induced abnormal cortical thickness in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional MRI studies showed that radiation-induced brain necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC in years after radiotherapy (RT could involve brain gray matter (GM and impair brain function. However, it is still unclear the radiation-induced brain morphological changes in NPC patients with normal-appearing GM in the early period after RT. In this study, we acquired high-resolution brain structural MRI data from three groups of patients, 22 before radiotherapy (pre-RT NPC patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated, 22 NPC patients in the early-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-ED, and 20 NPC patients in the late-delayed stage after radiotherapy (post-RT-LD, and then analyzed the radiation-induced cortical thickness alteration in NPC patients after RT. Using a vertex-wise surface-based morphometry (SBM approach, we detected significantly decreased cortical thickness in the precentral gyrus (PreCG in the post-RT-ED group compared to the pre-RT group. And the post-RT-LD group showed significantly increased cortical thickness in widespread brain regions, including the bilateral inferior parietal, left isthmus of the cingulate, left bank of the superior temporal sulcus and left lateral occipital regions, compared to the pre-RT group, and in the bilateral PreCG compared to the post-RT-ED group. Similar analysis with ROI-wise SBM method also found the consistent results. These results indicated that radiation-induced brain injury mainly occurred in the post-RT-LD group and the cortical thickness alterations after RT were dynamic in different periods. Our findings may reflect the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury in NPC patients with normal-appearing GM and an early intervention is necessary for protecting GM during RT.

  2. Changes of serum lipid for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism induced by post-radiotherapy nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Qian; Zhao Baohua; Liang Chaoqian; Li Jianbing; Tian Shiyu; Fan Tingyong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum lipid of pre-and post-treatment by Levothyroxine(LT 4 ) for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT) induced by post-radiotherapy nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC). Methods: From Nov. 1998 to Nov. 2002, 76 NPC pathologically confirmed patients were treated by radiotherapy. The total dose of thy- ;old was 45Gy-60Gy and the median dose was 50Gy. There were 40 patients with normal thyroid function(NC group) and 36 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism(SHT group). The SHT patients received LT 4 treatment from 25 μg/day with the does gyadually increased till thyrotropin(TSH) was normal. The serum levels of TSH, free thyroxine (FT 4 ), free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in NC group and SHT group was measured and compared before and after LT4 treatment. Results: The serum levels of TSH, FT 3 , FT 4 , TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C in pre-and post-treatment SHT group and NC group were significantly different between those in the pre-and post-treatment SHT group was measured aha compared, and pre-treatment SHT group and NC group except HDL-C (P<0.001 or 0.05). Conclusions: Radiotherapy on NPC patients can induce SHT, and LT4 treatment for SHT patients can ameliorates the function of thyroid and metabolism of serum lipid. (authors)

  3. Study on delineation of tumor volume of primary locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jinhua; Dong Shi; Jin Feng; Wu Weili; Gan Jiaying; Chen Haixia; Li Yuanyuan; Gong Xiuyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANC) according to imageological changes before and after induction chemotherapy (IC) in order to decrease high dose area and protect normal tissue better. Methods: Between Mar 2010 to Jan 2011, 11 patients with LANC were enrolled and treated with TPF regimen followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, target volumes were delineated based on fused CT imaging before and after IC following project determination. Tumor target volumes after and before IC were respectively delineated according to imaging tumor residues and were overlaid by CTV nx in order to ensure radical doses for the imaging tumor volume before IC, the resulting differences of tumor target volumes of IC before and after were measured and analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Before and after IC, the average volumes of GTV nx were respectively 44.72 cm 3 and 28.87 (t=3.89, P=0.003), the average volumes of GTV nd were respectively 32.76 cm 3 and 19.82 cm 3 (t=2.47, P=0.033), the volumes of maximum dose area in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball decreased (t=2.93-4.59, all P<0.05). Conclusions: LANC treated by 3 cycle TPF regimen followed by IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy shows significant shrinkage of tumor volume. The volume of high dose region which caused by normally recovered tissues were decreased by re-delineation of target volume in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball of CT images after IC. (authors)

  4. Imaging of Unilateral Meningo-ophthalmic Artery Anomaly in a Patient with Bilateral Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy with epistaxis presented with a rare midline nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that extended lateral into the pterygoid and infratemporal fossae. Pre-operative angiography revealed bilateral prominent feeder arteries and two major anastomotic connections, and a rare left meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly that was the sole path of supply to the eye. A literature search using Pubmed and Medline was conducted. For imaging, a six-vessel study (i.e. external and internal carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides was selected. Embolization of prominent tumor feeder arteries was unsafe for tumor extirpation, but super-selective embolization of both sphenopalatine arteries was performed to control epistaxis. The M-OA anomaly that originated from the maxillary artery (MA was marked by an ophthalmic artery (OA variant with orbital and ocular divisions that coursed through the superior orbital fissure and optic foramen, respectively, each with distinct branching patterns, a middle meningeal artery (MMA with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and two branch variations (i.e. lacrimal and meningeal branches that originated from the anterior branch of the MMA. The lacrimal branch coursed through a cranio-orbital foramen, but the meningeal branch remained outside the orbit. The anatomy of the right OA was normal. The left M-OA anomaly was considered incidental and not tumor-related since the tumor was more prominent on the right side, and no intra-orbital infiltrations occurred. Of clinical significance is that proximal embolization of MA or MMA carries a high risk of visual impairment in cases where M-OA anomalies are the sole mode of supply to the eye.

  5. Promoter methylation inhibits BRD7 expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huaying; Li, Guiyuan; Zhang, Liming; Niu, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Ming; Peng, Cong; Li, Xiayu; Deng, Tan; Shi, Lei; Tan, Yixin

    2008-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a head and neck malignancy with high occurrence in South-East Asia and Southern China. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic inactivation of multiple tumor suppressor genes plays an important role in the tumourigenesis of NPC. BRD7 is a NPC-associated bromodomain gene that exhibits a much higher-level of mRNA expression in normal than in NPC biopsies and cell lines. In this study, we explored the role of DNA methylation in regulation of BRD7 transcription. The presence of CpG islands within BRD7 promoter was predicted by EMBOSS CpGplot and Softberry CpGFinder, respectively. Nested methylation-specific PCR and RT-PCR were employed to detect the methylation status of BRD7 promoter and the mRNA expression of BRD7 gene in tumor cell lines as well as clinical samples. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and luciferase assay were used to detect the effects of cytosine methylation on the nuclear protein binding to BRD7 promoter. We found that DNA methylation suppresses BRD7 expression in NPC cells. In vitro DNA methylation in NPC cells silenced BRD7 promoter activity and inhibited the binding of the nuclear protein (possibly Sp1) to Sp1 binding sites in the BRD7 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of DNA methylation augments induction of endogenous BRD7 mRNA in NPC cells. We also found that methylation frequency of BRD7 promoter is much higher in the tumor and matched blood samples from NPC patients than in the blood samples from normal individuals. BRD7 promoter demethylation is a prerequisite for high level induction of BRD7 gene expression. DNA methylation of BRD7 promoter might serve as a diagnostic marker in NPC

  6. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  7. Transcriptional landscape of glomerular parietal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina A Gharib

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs. In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire.

  8. In vitro culture and characterization of a mammary epithelial cell line from Chinese Holstein dairy cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n=60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing beta-casein (CSN2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA and butyrophilin (BTN1A1. An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs.

  9. The world of epithelial sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisao

    2017-06-01

    An epithelium is a layer of closely connected cells covering the body or lining a body cavity. In this review, several fundamental questions are addressed regarding the epithelium. (i) While an epithelium functions as barrier against the external environment, how is barrier function maintained during its construction? (ii) What determines the apical and basal sides of epithelial layer? (iii) Is there any relationship between the apical side of the epithelium and the apical membrane of an epithelial cell? (iv) Why are hepatocytes (liver cells) called epithelial, even though they differ completely from column-like shape of typical epithelial cells? Keeping these questions in mind, multiple shapes of epithelia were considered, extracting a few of their elemental processes, and constructing a virtual world of epithelia by combining them. Epithelial cells were also classified into several types based on the number of apical domains of each cell. In addition, an intracellular organelle was introduced within epithelial cells, the vacuolar apical compartment (VAC), which is produced within epithelial cells surrounded by external cell matrix (ECM). The VAC interacts with areas of cell-cell contact of the cell surface membrane and is converted to apical membrane. The properties of VACs enable us to answer the initial questions posed above. Finally, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  10. Changes of saliva microbiota in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under chemoradiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Teng, Fei; Huang, Shi; Lin, Zhengmei; Yuan, Xiao; Zeng, Xiaowei; Yang, Fang

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated human oral microbiota in the aetiology of oral and systemic diseases. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an epithelial-originated malignancy, has a complex aetiology not yet fully understood. Chemoradiation therapy of NPC can affect oral microbiota and is usually accompanied by plaque accumulation. Thus, the study aimed to understand the diversity, divergence and development of the oral microbiota in NPC patients and their associated treatment, which might provide useful insights into disease aetiology and treatment side effects. A longitudinal study was designed that included three Chinese adults with NPC. Saliva samples were collected at three time points: prior to the chemoradiation treatment (carcinoma baseline, or CB), 7 months post-treatment (carcinoma-after-therapy phase 1 or CA1) and 12 months post-treatment (carcinoma-after-therapy phase 2 or CA2). Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V1-V3 hypervariable region was employed to characterise the microbiota. Saliva samples of three healthy subjects from our former study were employed as healthy controls. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), Metastats and random forest prediction models were used to reveal the key microbial members associated with NPC and its treatment programme. (1) In total, 412 bacterial species from at least 107 genera and 13 phyla were found in the saliva samples of the NPC patients. (2) PCoA revealed that not only were the microbiota from NPC patients distinct from those of healthy controls (p<0.001) but also that separation was found on the saliva microbiota between pre- and post-therapy (p<0.001) in the NPC samples. (3) At the genus level and the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, Streptococcus was found with lower abundance in NPC samples. (4) Chemoradiation therapy did not incur similar changes in microbiota structure among the three NPC patients; the microbiota in one of them stayed largely steady, while those in the

  11. EBV-encoded miRNAs target ATM-mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Raymond W-M; Hau, Pok-Man; Yu, Ken H-O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H-M; Chak, Wing-Po; Chan, Anthony W-H; Lam, Ka-Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok-Fung; Tin, Edith K-Y; Chau, Shuk-Ling; Pang, Jesse C-S; Kwan, Johnny S-H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee-Fah; Tsao, Sai-Wah; To, Ka-Fai; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2018-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR-BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV-miRNAs, BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'-UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR-BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV-encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT-PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR-BARTs in EBV-positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR-BARTs in inhibiting Zta-induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co-operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency, contributing to the tumorigenesis of NPC. © 2017 The Authors

  12. EBV‐encoded miRNAs target ATM‐mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Raymond W‐M; Hau, Pok‐Man; Yu, Ken H‐O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H‐M; Chak, Wing‐Po; Chan, Anthony W‐H; Lam, Ka‐Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok‐Fung; Tin, Edith K‐Y; Chau, Shuk‐Ling; Pang, Jesse C‐S; Kwan, Johnny S‐H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee‐Fah; Tsao, Sai‐Wah

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR‐BARTs, the EBV‐encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1‐A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV‐encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient‐derived xenografts and an EBV‐positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR‐BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV‐miRNAs, BART5‐5p, BART7‐3p, BART9‐3p, and BART14‐3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double‐strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'‐UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR‐BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV‐encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT‐PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5‐5p, BART7‐3p, BART9‐3p, and BART14‐3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR‐BARTs in EBV‐positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR‐BARTs in inhibiting Zta‐induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co‐operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency

  13. The role of long noncoding RNA-LET in cell proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its mechanism

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    Chen L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lei Chen,1,* Lingling Sun,1,* Lei Dong,2 Peng Cui,3 Ziwei Xia,4 Chao Li,1 Yu Zhu5 1Department of Otolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Multidisciplinary Consultation Center of TCM and Western Medicine, The Affiliated Qingdao Hiser Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical School of Tianjin Medical University, 5Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebral Vessels and Neural Degeneration, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: LncRNA-LET, a recently identified long noncoding RNA, has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor; however, its biological function and mechanism have not been fully investigated. Our research found that there was less expression of LET in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC tissues than normal tissues and that LET might inhibit proliferation, adhesion and invasion of NPC in vitro by enhancing its expression. By contrast, decreased LET expression could promote the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of NPC. In addition, the expression profiles of related genes and MAPK/ERK pathway were also regulated effectively via overexpression or silencing of LET. This result provides comprehensive evidence of LET’s antitumor effect on NPC in vitro, which might provide a new approach for clinical treatment. Keywords: LncRNA-LET, proliferation, invasion, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, MAPK/ERK pathway

  14. Function protection of the parotid gland after intensity modulated radiotherapy for thirty-six patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Xiao Zemin; Liao Yuping; Jiang Wuzhong; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the parotid gland function protection of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) Methods: Thirty-six NPC patients were divided into IMRT group (therapy group) and conventional fraction (CF) group (control group) by random balanced design. Each group had 18 patients. The planning gross tumor volume (pGTV) of nasopharyngeal was treated with a total dose of 72.0 in therapy group, with a total dose of 70.0 Gy in control group (with daily 2.0 Gy/fraction and 5 times/week). Before treatment and at 3, 6, and 9 months, 1 and 2 years after therapy, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyse the dose of parotid. Results: The values of UI were 77.6% and 96.2% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 56.8% and 7.0% in contrast group. The values of EI were 64.1% and 95.3% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 19.4% and 0 in control group. The mean doses of normal side and the trouble side of parotid gland were 20.0 Gy and 31.0 Gy in therapy group and 61.0 Gy and 68.2 Gy in control group. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce radiation dose of parotid glands compared with CF distinctly and thus protect parotid function effectively. (authors)

  15. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Overexpression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Independent Poor Prognosticator That Enhances Cell Growth

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    Hwang, Chung-Feng; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chen, Chang-Han; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hsu, Yao-Chung; Li, Chien-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As a key component of polycomb-repressive complex 2, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) represses target genes through histone methylation and is frequently overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in common carcinomas. For the first time, we reported EZH2 expression and its biological and clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: In NPC cell lines and specimens, endogenous expression of EZH2 mRNA and protein was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. To analyze the effect on cell growth, stable silencing of EZH2 was established in EZH2-expressing TW02 NPC cells with RNA interference. EZH2 immunolabeling was assessable for 89 primary NPC biopsy samples and correlated with clinicopathological variables, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Growth activity of TW02 cells was significantly suppressed (p < 0.001) with stable EZH2 silencing. Compared with normal nasopharyngeal tissue, expression levels of EZH2 transcript and protein were apparently upregulated in NPC specimens. As a continuous variable, higher EZH2 expression preferentially occurred in NPCs of T3 to T4 stages (p = 0.03) and significantly predicted inferior DSS (p = 0.0010) and OS (p = 0.004). The prognostic implications for DSS (p = 0.010) and OS (p = 0.006) still remained valid when using the median (≥60%) of EZH2 immunolabeling index to dichotomize the cohort. In the multivariate model, higher EZH2 expression was an independent adverse factor of both DSS (p = 0.012) and OS (p = 0.011), along with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages III to IV (p = 0.024 for DSS, p = 0.017 for OS). Conclusion: At least partly through promoting cell growth, EZH2 implicates disease progression, confers tumor aggressiveness, and represents an independent adverse prognosticator in patients with NPC.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

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    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyze individual epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa would provide important insight into gastric disease, including chronic gastritis and progression to gastric cancer. However, the successful isolation of viable gastric epithelial cells (parietal cells, neck cells, chief cells, and foveolar cells from gastric glands has been limited due to difficulties in tissue processing. Furthermore, analysis and interpretation of gastric epithelial cell flow cytometry data has been difficult due to the varying sizes and light scatter properties of the different epithelial cells, high levels of autofluorescence, and poor cell viability. These studies were designed to develop a reliable method for isolating viable single cells from the corpus of stomachs and to optimize analyses examining epithelial cells from healthy and diseased stomach tissue by flow cytometry. We performed a two stage enzymatic digestion in which collagenase released individual gastric glands from the stromal tissue of the corpus, followed by a Dispase II digestion that dispersed these glands into greater than 1 × 106 viable single cells per gastric corpus. Single cell suspensions were comprised of all major cell lineages found in the normal gastric glands. A method describing light scatter, size exclusion, doublet discrimination, viability staining, and fluorescently-conjugated antibodies and lectins was used to analyze individual epithelial cells and immune cells. This technique was capable of identifying parietal cells and revealed that gastric epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed mucosa significantly upregulated major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I and II but not CD80 or CD86, which are costimulatory molecules involved in T cell activation. These studies describe a method for isolating viable single cells and a detailed description of flow cytometric analysis of cells from healthy and diseased stomachs. These studies begin to identify effects of

  17. Spontaneous regression of epithelial downgrowth from clear corneal phacoemulsification wound

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    Ryan M. Jaber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous regression of optical coherence tomography (OCT and confocal microscopy-supported epithelial downgrowth associated with clear corneal phacoemulsification wound. Observations: A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented two years after phacoemulsification in the left eye with an enlarging cornea endothelial lesion in that eye. His early post-operative course had been complicated by corneal edema and iris transillumination defects. The patient presented to our clinic with a large geographic sheet of epithelial downgrowth and iris synechiae to the temporal clear corneal wound. His vision was correctable to 20/25 in his left eye. Anterior segment OCT showed a hyperreflective layer on the posterior cornea with an abrupt transition that corresponded to the clinical transition zone of the epithelial downgrowth. Confocal microscopy showed polygonal cells with hyperreflective nuclei suggestive of epithelial cells in the area of the lesion with a transition to a normal endothelial cell mosaic. Given the lack of glaucoma or inflammation and the relatively good vision, the plan was made to closely monitor for progression with the anticipation that he may require aggressive surgery. Over course of subsequent follow-up visits at three, seven and ten months; the endothelial lesion receded significantly. Confocal imaging in the area of the previously affected cornea showed essentially normal morphology with anan endothelial cell count of 1664 cells/mm2. Conclusions and importance: Epithelial downgrowth may spontaneously regress. Though the mechanism is yet understood, contact inhibition of movement may play a role. Despite this finding, epithelial downgrowth is typically a devastating process requiring aggressive treatment. Keywords: Epithelial downgrowth, Spontaneous regression, Confocal microscopy, Contact inhibition of movement

  18. SU-E-T-302: Dosimetric Comparison Between Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Lu, J-Y; Huang, B-T; Zhang, J-Y; Ma, C-C [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) technique with fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: CT datasets of eleven nasopharyngeal-carcinoma patients were included. Dual-arc VMAT and seven-field IMRT plans were created for each case, and were then compared in terms of conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) and delivery time. Results: The D98% (near-minimal dose) of PTV in the VMAT plans was slightly lower than that of the IMRT plans (P < 0.05), while the CI was higher than that of the IMRT plans (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the HI between the two plans (P > 0.05). Compared with the IMRT plans, the VMAT plans demonstrated lower Dmean (mean dose) of the bilateral temporal lobes and the whole surrounding normal tissue (P < 0.05), but slightly higher Dmean of brainstem (P < 0.05). In terms of the other OARs, no significant differences were found (P > 0.05). The MUs of the VMAT plans (672 ± 112) was significantly lower than that of the IMRT plans (917 ± 206), by 25 ± 13% (P < 0.05). The average delivery time of the VMAT plans (2.3 ± 0.1 min) was less than that of the IMRT plans (5.1 ± 0.4 min), by 54 ± 3%. Conclusion: For locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the VMAT technique could achieve equivalent or superior dose distribution of the target and better protect the bilateral temporal lobes, compared with the IMRT technique. Moreover, it could reduce the MU and delivery time effectively.

  19. Volumetric imaging of oral epithelial neoplasia by MPM-SHGM: epithelial connective tissue interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; Resto, Vicente; McCammon, Susan; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    The majority of oral cancers are comprised of oral squamous cell carcinoma in which neoplastic epithelial cells invade across the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI). Invasion is preceded by a multi-component process including epithelial hyperproliferation, loss of cell polarity, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia. In particular, volumetric imaging by these methods can reveal aspects of the 3D microstructure that are not possible by other methods and which could both further our understanding of neoplastic transformation and be explored for development of diagnostic approaches in this disease having only 55% 5-year survival rate. MPAM-SHG were applied to reveal the 3D structure of the critical ECTI interface that plays an integral part toward invasion. Epithelial dysplasia was induced in an established hamster model. MPAM-SHGM was applied to lesion sites, using 780 nm excitation (450-600nm emission) for autofluroescence of cellular and extracellular components; 840 nm using 420 nm bandpass filter for SHG. The ECTI surface was identified as the interface at which SHG signal began following the epithelium and was modeled as a 3D surface using Matlab. ECTI surface area and cell features at sites of epithelial expansion where ECTI was altered were measured; Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology. ROC analysis using ECTI image metrics indicated the ability to delineate normal from neoplasia with high sensitivity and specificity and it is noteworthy that inflammation did not significantly alter diagnostic potential of MPAM-SHGM .

  20. Splenic epithelial cyst

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    Yousuf, M.; Jalali, U.

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

  1. CXCL12 genetic variants as prognostic markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Chen RW

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ruiwan Chen,1,* Yafei Xu,2,* Xiaojing Du,2,* Na Liu,2 Yingqin Li,2 Qingmei He,2 Linglong Tang,2 Yanping Mao,2 Ying Sun,2 Lei Chen,2,* Jun Ma2,* 1Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The chemokine receptor 4/chemokine ligand 12 (CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and recurrence of tumors. Its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the prognostic value of SNPs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC has not been fully investigated. This retrospective study assessed the relationships between CXCR4 rs2228014 and CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphisms and patient outcome in 222 patients newly diagnosed with NPC. The analysis found no significant correlation between the presence of both SNPs and clinicopathological factors. However, univariate analysis showed that N classification, clinical stage, and the CXCL12 rs1801157 polymorphism were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival (P=0.018, 0.028, and 0.013, respectively and progression-free survival (P=0.007, 0.046, and 0.021, respectively. After adjusting clinicopathological factors, multivariate analysis identified CXCL12 rs1801157 as an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival and progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 3.332; 95% confidence interval: 1.597–6.949; P=0.001 and hazard ratio: 2.665 95% confidence interval: 1.387–5.119; P=0.003, respectively. Our results suggest that CXCL12 rs1801157 AA genotype might serve as a potential prognostic factor in patients with NPC. Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CXCR4, CXCL12, polymorphism

  2. Consequential late radiation damage in the skin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Kong Ling; Zhang Youwang; Hu Chaosu; Wu Yongru

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between early and late radiation damage in skin. Methods: 335 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy were evaluated. 240 patients had lymph nodes in the neck at initial diagnosis. The median doses were 70 Gy (55-86 Gy) to the nasopharyngeal region by external beam radiotherapy. The median doses were 64 Gy (46-72 Gy) to the neck with lymph node metastases, 55 Gy (21-67 Gy) to the node-negative neck. 71 patients were treated with facial-neck fields, while 264 patients were treated with pre-auricular fields. Chemotherapy was given in 48 patients. According to the 1995 SOMA scales late radiation damage in the skin was evaluated. Results: The median time from the radiotherapy to follow up was 14 years (range, 5-38 years). 63 patients have grade 0 late radiation reactions in the neck skin, the grade 1,2, 3,4 late radiation reactions in the neck skin were 43.9% (147 patients), 20.9% (70 patients), 13.7% (46 patients) and 2.7% (9 patients), respectively. 44 patients had moist desquamation in the medical records. The grade 1,2,3,4 late radiation reactions in the neck skin were 41%, 23%, 30% and 5%, respectively in patients with moist desquamation, while in patients without moist desquamation, the corresponding rates were 44.3%, 20.6%, 11.3% and 2.4%, respectively. The difference were significant between these two groups by chi-square analysis(χ 2 =17.42, P=0.002). Furthermore, whether patients had positive lymph node in the neck or not, the size of facial-neck fields and higher doses to the neck had more severe late radiation reaction in the neck skin, while age, gender and chemotherapy failed to show any effects on the development of late radiation reactions in the neck skin. Conclusion: The severe early radiation damage in the skin possibly increases the late radiation damage in the neck skin. (authors)

  3. High-grade malignant transformation of a radiation-naïve nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Jordan J; Troob, Scott H; Lanciault, Christian; Andersen, Peter E

    2016-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are typically considered benign vascular neoplasms, with descriptions of high-grade sarcomatous change found only in lesions with prior radiotherapy. We describe the first reported case of high-grade malignant change in a nasopharyngeal angiofibroma naive to radiation. A 45-year-old man presented with left-sided nasal congestion and fullness and was found to have a left-sided nasopharyngeal mass with intracranial extension on CT scan. A biopsy of the mass revealed nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. The patient opted for MRI surveillance, which revealed interval growth 3 years later. Decompression surgery revealed only angiofibroma, but resection 9 months later demonstrated high-grade sarcoma and concomitant angiofibroma. The patient had residual disease which progressed through chemoradiation, and is now pursuing clinical trial enrollment. Malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is extremely rare. As highlighted by this report, high-grade undifferentiated lesions may arise in tumors without previous radiation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2425-E2427, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Radiological, pathological and DNA remission in recurrent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Chan Anthony TC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA (EBV-DNA is a sensitive and specific marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The mainstay of treatment of metastatic NPC is systemic chemotherapy and resection for solitary metastasis. Despite high response rate to chemotherapy, complete remission is uncommonly seen. Case Presentation We report a case of recurrent metastatic NPC in a 43-year-old man, who achieved complete remission three times with chemotherapy and surgery. Serial plasma EBV-DNA levels were measured during the course of disease. The patient had three episodes of recurrences of NPC manifested as distant metastasis. Both time, rise in the plasma EBV-DNA level preceded detection of recurrences by imaging. Following systemic chemotherapy, he achieved complete remission each time, of which was confirmed by 18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and hepatectomy pathology. The plasma EBV-DNA level dropped to zero copy/ml at the time of each remission. Conclusion This case highlights the high chemosensitivity of NPC by illustrating a rare occurrence of complete response of metastatic NPC to chemotherapy. This case also underscores the usefulness of EBV-DNA as a useful tool in monitoring NPC by its ability to detect early recurrence and excellent correlation with treatment response.

  5. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  6. Molecular pathogenesis of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in brazilian patients.

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    Maniglia, Maurício Pereira; Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Costa, Nauyla Miranda da; Jacomini, Marta Lúcia Gabriel; Carvalho, Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de; Molina, Fernando Drimel; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, José Victor

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a vascular tumor of the nasopharynx that accounts for 0.5% of all cancers of the head and neck. It primarily affects males aged 14-25 years. Of the many genes that mediate the development of JNA, GSTM1 has been most frequently associated with this vascular tumor. The loss of expression of GSTM1 (null genotype) is linked to the development of these tumors. The aim of this cross-sectional case study was to examine the prevalence of the GSTM1-null genotype in Brazilian patients with JNA. DNA was extracted from the leukocytes of blood samples from 10 patients. GSTM1 genotypes were analyzed using a PCR-based assay that was designed to identify the wild-type allele of GSTM1. All 10 patients (100%) were males, with a mean age of 17.8 years. The null genotype for GSTM1 was noted in 4 patients (40%)-1 (10%) at Fisch stage I, 1 (10%) at stage III, and 2 (20%) at stage II. No patient with this genotype had stage IV disease. There was no correlation between Fisch classification and GSTM1 genotype (P = .5695). The correlation between age at diagnosis and GSTM1 genotype was not significant (P = .728). The present findings indicate that there is evidence of an association between the GSTM1-null genotype and JNA in this studied Brazilian population.

  7. Surgical Management of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Without Angiographic Embolization

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    Raja Ahmad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare benign neoplasm that occurs almost exclusively in the nasopharynx of adolescent males. Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice. JNA has always presented a management challenge to surgeons because of its vascular nature, site of occurrence, and local tissue destruction. The surgical approaches are either standard open method which include external or intraoral incisions, or the recent advanced approach, i.e. via using the endonasal endoscope. It is widely accepted that the use of preoperative angiographic embolization reduces the occurrence of intraoperative bleeding and facilitates tumour removal. However, angiographic embolization is not available at all centres. The purpose of this article is to present our experience with five patients diagnosed with JNA who were resected without embolization, using various surgical approaches. Two tumours were removed via endonasal endoscopic surgery. None of the tumours were embolized prior to surgery. We highlight the preoperative evaluation of tumour extent, using both computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and the importance of temporary clamping of the external carotid artery intraoperatively. Our results suggest that the latter procedure is a safe and effective means of facilitating surgery and reducing intraoperative bleeding.

  8. Facial Palsy Following Embolization of a Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Harmon, Jeffrey J; Walters, Zoe; Samy, Ravi; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Stevens, Shawn M; Abruzzo, Todd

    2018-05-01

    To describe a case of the rare complication of facial palsy following preoperative embolization of a juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). To illustrate the vascular supply to the facial nerve and as a result, highlight the etiology of the facial nerve palsy. The angiography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of a case of facial palsy following preoperative embolization of a JNA is reviewed. A 13-year-old male developed left-sided facial palsy following preoperative embolization of a left-sided JNA. Evaluation of MR imaging studies and retrospective review of the angiographic data suggested errant embolization of particles into the petrosquamosal branch of the middle meningeal artery (MMA), a branch of the internal maxillary artery (IMA), through collateral vasculature. The petrosquamosal branch of the MMA is the predominant blood supply to the facial nerve in the facial canal. The facial palsy resolved since complete infarction of the nerve was likely prevented by collateral blood supply from the stylomastoid artery. Facial palsy is a potential complication of embolization of the IMA, a branch of the external carotid artery (ECA). This is secondary to ischemia of the facial nerve due to embolization of its vascular supply. Clinicians should be aware of this potential complication and counsel patients accordingly prior to embolization for JNA.

  9. Bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Edward C; Chark, Davin W; Bhandarkar, Naveen D

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is the most common benign neoplasm of the nasopharynx. Almost always unilateral on diagnosis, JNAs are locally invasive and may extend across the midline, giving a false bilateral appearance; as such, true bilateral JNA is exceedingly rare. We present a recent case of true bilateral JNA. Single case report of a patient with bilateral JNA, including clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management. The patient presented with unilateral nasal obstruction and recurrent epistaxis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral, noncontiguous masses. Angiography revealed independent vascular supplies from each respective side with no bilateral supply noted. The patient underwent preoperative embolization followed by endoscopic surgical removal of the larger mass; no complications were noted. Follow-up at 2 years demonstrated no recurrence or growth. The vast majority of JNAs are unilateral, though invasive growth to the contralateral side may appear "bilateral" in presentation. Proper identification of true bilateral JNA is helpful in guiding management, wherein excision of both tumors may not be necessary. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. Recurrent Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Treated with Gamma Knife Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Jung, Hee-Won

    2006-01-01

    Radiosurgery has been rarely applied for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and cumulative reports are lacking. The authors report a case of successful treatment of recurred JNA with gamma knife surgery (GKS). A 48-yr-old man was presented with right visual acuity deterioration and brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) disclosed a 3 cm-sized intraorbital mass in the right orbit. He underwent a right fronto-temporal craniotomy and the mass was subtotally removed to preserve visual function. Histological diagnosis confirmed JNA in typical nature. However, the vision gradually worsened to fail four years after operation. MRI then showed regrowth of the tumor occupying most of the right orbit. GKS was done for the recurred lesion. A dose of 17 Gy was delivered to the 50% isodose line of tumor margin. During the following four-year follow-up period, the mass disappeared almost completely without any complications. Usually JNA can be exclusively diagnosed by radiological study alone. So this report of successful treatment of JNA with GKS may provide an important clue for the novel indication of GKS. PMID:16891831

  11. Conformal radiotherapy for locally advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angio-fibroma

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    Supriya Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the efficacy of radiation in the treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA. Materials and Methods: Data were retrieved for JNA treated with radiotherapy from 1987-2012. The demographics, treatment and outcome data were recorded in predesigned proforma. Results: Data of 32 patients were retrieved. Median age was 17 years (range: 12-33 years. All patients received radiation because of refractory, residual or unresectable locally advanced disease. All patients were planned with a three-dimensional conformal technique (3DCRT. The median radiation dose was 30 Gray (range: 30-45 Gray. Median follow-up was 129 months (range: 1-276 months. At the last follow-up, 13 patients were found to have a radiological complete response. Two patients progressed 38 and 43 months after completion of treatment and opted for alternative treatment. One patient developed squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal ale 15 years after radiation. Conclusion: Conformal radiotherapy shows promise as an alternative treatment approach for locally advanced JNA and confers long-term disease control with minimal toxicity.

  12. Chronic Daily Headache in a Patient With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    Jiann-Jy Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients is a multidisciplinary challenge. Although imaging studies are recommended to identify skull-base invasion, intracranial metastasis or skull-base osteoradionecrosis, a headache diary is also a practical approach. A 42-year-old woman had been bothered with CDH since she was diagnosed with T3N1M0 stage III NPC 2 years earlier. Although the imaging studies did not show any abnormality, the attending doctor informed her that there remained the possibility of an intracranial or skull-base lesion. She was regularly taking painkillers. Eventually, when her headache diary was examined, the diagnosis of chronic migraine superimposed on medication overuse headache was made according to the ICHD-IIR. The CDH abated after 1 week of outpatient detoxification. The following half year was uneventful. In reporting this case, we suggest that it would be of interest to a number of disciplines including otorhinolaryngologists, oncologists and radio-oncologists. By avoiding medication overuse in similar patients, we hope to improve the quality of life of these individuals.

  13. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

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    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  14. Sensorineural hearing loss after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petsuksiri, Janjira; Sermsree, Achariyaporn; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Keskool, Phawin; Thongyai, Kanthong; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom

    2011-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is one of the major long term side effects from radiation therapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. This study aims to review the incidences of SNHL when treating with different radiation techniques. The additional objective is to determine the relationship of the SNHL with the radiation doses delivered to the inner ear. A retrospective cohort study of 134 individual ears from 68 NPC patients, treated with conventional RT and IMRT in combination with chemotherapy from 2004-2008 was performed. Dosimetric data of the cochlea were analyzed. Significant SNHL was defined as > 15 dB increase in bone conduction threshold at 4 kHz and PTA (pure tone average of 0.5, 1, 2 kHz). Relative risk (RR) was used to determine the associated factors with the hearing threshold changes at 4 kHz and PTA. Median audiological follow up time was 14 months. The incidence of high frequency (4 kHz) SNHL was 44% for the whole group (48.75% in the conventional RT, 37% with IMRT). Internal auditory canal mean dose of > 50 Gy had shown a trend to increase the risk of high frequency SNHL (RR 2.02 with 95% CI 1.01-4.03, p = 0.047). IMRT and radiation dose limitation to the inner ear appeared to decrease SNHL

  15. Pregnancy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prognostic evaluation of 27 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie-Hua, Y.; Caisen, L.; Yuhua, H.

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the influence of pregnancy on the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the authors have retrospectively studied 27 patients who either were discovered to be pregnant during radiotherapy (9 patients, herein abbreviated as concurrent group) or became pregnant after treatment (18 patients, herein abbreviated as subsequent group). This material was collected from 811 NPC patients treated in their hospital from March 1958 to 1972. The results obtained are presented as follows: Concurrent pregnancy had a disastrous effect on the prognosis of NPC patients giving a five year survival of only 11% (1/9). This adverse influence was not observed in the subsequent group, yet the time of gestation seemed to be relevant to the prognosis. Two of the three patients who became pregnant within one year of the treatment died of disease, those who became pregnant beyond the second year after irradiation had the best prognosis. All seven patients who became pregnant after the second year of treatment survived. A total of 21 children were born to the patients of these two groups. They have been followed regularly for 10 to 20 years. No deformity, or retardation in growth or mentality was discovered, nor was there any evidence of radiation tumor or leukemia observed

  16. Clinical and evolutive aspects of nasopharyngeal T4 NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalej, M.; Bouaouina, N.; Benna, F.; Frikha, H.; Jallouli, M.; Ellouze, R.; Ben Romdhane, K.; Cammoun, M.; Ben Attia, R.; Daoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the primary cancer of the head and neck localizations in the Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia). From 1970 to 1987, 80 patients with histologically proven T4 NO NPC, were treated with exclusive radiation (70-75 Gy to the primary lesion and 50-55 Gy to cervical lymph nodes). The T4 NO represents 7% of all NPC and 16% of the T4 treated in our Institute. Ninety percent of the patients are over 20 years old with a mean age of 52 years. The sex-ration was 4: 1. Extension to the brain was observed in 55% of the cases. Local control was 70% at 2 months after the end of irradiation. The actuarial survival at 5 years was 47%. Distant metastasis represent 13% (30% for all NPC). The main failure of treatment was local recurrence. The T4 NO is probably a particular entity concerning the age, the response to radiotherapy and the low rate of distant metastasis. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs

  17. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    1996-02-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author).

  18. Hearing disability before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, W.K.; Fong, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper evaluates post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a disability orientated approach, which takes into account binaural hearing. Newly diagnosed patients with NPC were studied before radiotherapy, and at four months (mean 9.2 months) after radiotherapy, provided they remained disease-free. Each patient was examined clinically and with pure tone audiograms. Tympanometry was used to confirm middle ear effusion. Averaged hearing thresholds over 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz were evaluated. If abnormal (> 30 dB), the resultant hearing disability was illustrated by a modified Glasgow Plot. Twenty-three males and 10 females completed the study. Middle ear effusions resulted in 39.3 per cent (binaural in two patients) and 33.3 per cent (binaural in five patients) of patients having hearing disability pre- and post-irradiation respectively. No patient had hearing disability as a result of a sensoineural loss. It is recommended that future reporting of post-irradiation hearing changes in patients with NPC, as in middle ear surgery, be considered from a disability-orientated approach. (author)

  19. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  20. Symptom clusters in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenli; Chan, Carmen W H; Fan, Yuying; Leung, Doris Y P; Xia, Weixiong; He, Yan; Tang, Linquan

    2017-06-01

    Despite the improvement in radiotherapy (RT) technology, patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) still suffer from numerous distressing symptoms simultaneously during RT. The purpose of the study was to investigate the symptom clusters experienced by NPC patients during RT. First-treated Chinese NPC patients (n = 130) undergoing late-period RT (from week 4 till the end) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. They completed a sociodemographic and clinical data questionnaire, the Chinese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory - Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN-C) and the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Head and Neck Scale (FACT-H&N-C). Principal axis factor analysis with oblimin rotation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product-moment correlation were used to analyze the data. Four symptom clusters were identified, and labelled general, gastrointestinal, nutrition impact and social interaction impact. Of these 4 types, the nutrition impact symptom cluster was the most severe. Statistically positive correlations were found between severity of all 4 symptom clusters and symptom interference, as well as weight loss. Statistically negative correlations were detected between the cluster severity and the QOL total score and 3 out of 5 subscale scores. The four clusters identified reveal the symptom patterns experienced by NPC patients during RT. Future intervention studies on managing these symptom clusters are warranted, especially for the nutrition impact symptom cluster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: review of the genetic and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Viviane Boaventura de

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare fibrovascular tumor of unknown etiology, with few studies analyzing its pathogenesis. Objective: Reviewing JNA's pathogenesis, emphasizing genetic and molecular aspects. Method: All the relevant articles indexed in PUBMED and LILACS, besides reference book chapters, published between 1959 and 2007 were reviewed. Results: The sex selectivity seen in JNA may be explained by intranuclear accumulation of androgen receptor and beta-catenin, a co-activator which increases the tumor sensitivity to androgynous. The genetic alterations seen in JNA are most frequently located in sexual chromosomes. A number of growth factors seem to be related to the tumor pathogenesis. The insulin-like growth factor II is highly expressed while the vascular endothelial growth factor and the transforming growth factor beta are released by stromal cells and may influence the JNA's growth and vascularization. Conclusion: In spite of the scarce data describing the JNA etiology and pathogenesis, genetic and molecular factors seem to collaborate to the understanding of the disease's many clinical and morphological features. Knowledge regarding these specific issues could contribute for the establishment of potential therapeutic targets in the future.

  2. The influence of human papillomavirus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Makoto; Kondo, Satoru; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2017-06-01

    Although Japan is a non-endemic area with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the proportion of WHO type I NPC in Japan are different from that in non-endemic areas such as North America and Europe. Recently, it is said that not only Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) but also human papillomavirus (HPV) has an influence on NPC in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of HPV on NPC in Japan. Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens were available for 59 patients with NPC diagnosed between 1996 and 2015. We detected the virus status by p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV PCR, and in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the overall survival by viral status. Among the 59 patients, 49 (83%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 2 (3%) were EBV-positive/HPV-positive, and 8 (16%) were EBV-negative/HPV-negative. All HPV-positive NPCs were co-infected with EBV. There were no significant differences between the overall survival in the three groups (p=0.111). In Japan, HPV was detected in a few patients with NPC, and we suggest that HPV has no influence on NPC carcinogenesis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypothalmic hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.S.L.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Ma, J.T.C.; Ho, J.H.C.; Tse, V.K.C.; Ling, N.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients, one male and seven females, with no pre-existing hypothalamic-pituitary disease, who developed symptoms of hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied 5 years or more after radiotherapy. All were GH deficient. Four of the patients with no GH response during insulin tolerance tests (ITT) showed increased GH in response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF-44). Four patients had impaired cortisol responses to ITT, and gradual but diminished cortisol responses to ovine corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF-41). There was no significant difference between mean peak increments in response to ITT and those in response to CRF-41. TSH responses to TRH were delayed in five and absent in two patients; four of these had low free T4 index. Prolactin was raised in all seven women and increased further in response to TRH. Two patients had impaired gonadotrophin responses to LHRH. None of the patients had clinical or biochemical evidence of diabetes insipidus. These data suggest that post-irradiation hypopituitarism in these patients results from radiation damage to the hypothalamus leading to varying degrees of deficiency of the hypothalamic releasing or inhibitory factors. (author)

  4. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  5. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 ppm ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of the rat nasal cavity and nasopharynx after short-term ozone exposure. Rats were exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate, but no change within the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within the transitional and respiratory epithelia lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway, and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within the epithelium of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates and nasopharynx. We conclude that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days after cessation of exposure

  6. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 PPM ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize changes in the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of rat nasal airways after short- term ozone exposure. Rats were exposed for 7 days (6 h/day) to 0.0, 0.12, or 0.8 ppm ozone, and killed immediately or 7 days after the last exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate immediately after exposure, but no change within epithelia of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within transitional and respiratory epithelium lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within epithelia of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates. We demonstrated that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days post-exposure. (author)

  7. Influence of MRI abnormality in skull base bone on prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Cheng, Lu; Qing, Wei; Yi-Qin, Zhang; Feng, Li

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of skull base bone (SBB) abnormality showed by MRI on prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and methods. From March 1993 to December 1998, 122 NPC patients received prime radiotherapy treatment. All of them were proved pathologically and checked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Every patient received radiation through conjoint facio-cervical field and conventional dose-fractionation schedules. The total dose to the primary tumor was 60 5 Gy (median, 70 Gy). The Kaplan Meier method, the Log-rank test and the Cox regression model were used to evaluate the significance of prognostic factors on NPC patient survival. Results. The overall median survival period was 50 (6 2) months, and the 1, 3 and 5 year-survival rates were, respectively, 99.2%, 87.9%, and 73.3%. The 1, 3, and 5 year-survival rates of abnormality and normality of the SBB on MRI were 98.9%, 87.2%, 71.9%, and 100.0%, 89.8%, 77.0%, respectively (P 0.4233). Gender, age, head pain, SBB abnormality, cranial nerve palsy, cervical lymphadenopathy and primary tumor extent were analyzed with the Cox regression model and SBB abnormality on MRI did not prove to have statistical significance (P = 0.6934). According to the analysis of regrouping, patients with SBB abnormalities ≥ sites have a worse prognosis (P = 0.0427). Then. the above seven factors are analyzed by Cox regression model and the result had statistical significance (P = 0.0385). Conclusion. The SBB abnormality on MRI is of no obvious influence on prognosis of NPC. However, when SBB abnormality sites were ≥ 2, there is obvious statistical significance on the prognosis. (author)

  8. Clinical analysis of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 145 children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juying; Wei Baoqing; Lu Jincheng; Zhu Jun; Zhang Yiqin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome and complications of child and adolescent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1970 to April 1997, the records of 145 NPC patients younger than 21 years of age were reviewed. The clinical stages according to 92' Chinese NPC Staging System were: stage I in 1, II in 8, III in 79 and IV in 57. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy. Before 1988, parallel opposed lateral pre-auricular portals were chiefly used in 75 patients and after 1988, parallel opposed lateral facio-cervical portals were adopted in 70. The radiation dose to the primary tumor ranged 45-80 Gy: 70 Gy in 50 cases and 32 of them also received chemotherapy. Results: Distant metastasis developed in 26 cases, while local and/or regional recurrence in 14. The actuarial overall survival rates of 1-, 3-, 5 , and 10-years were 96.3%, 79.9%, 76.5% and 69.4%, respectively. Among 45 dead cases, 16 did so of metastasis, 11 of local and/or regional recurrence and 18 of other reasons. Univariate analysis suggested that clinical stage, size and site of involved lymph nodes, skull base involvement were significant prognostic factors of survival, whereas sex, age,dose, therapeutic method and chemotherapy were not. Conclusions: 1. Even though the majority of pediatric and adolescent NPC were advanced , it signifies a relatively good survival. 2. As the normal tissue of pediatric and adolescent patients tolerates radiation poorly, prudence should be meticulously practiced in deciding the radiation dose and radiotherapeutic fields

  9. Tendency of quality of life in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Weiwei; Lu Taixiang; Li Jiaxin; Liu Qing; Zhao Chong; Han Fei; Wang Hanyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the tendency of quality of life in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with conventional radiotherapy. Methods: Quality of life in NPC patients was assessed using FACT-H and N and NPC-QOL Patients were divided into nine groups according to the treatment period :before treatment group, 0 -20 Gy group, 20 -50 Gy group, > 50 Gy group, 0 -6 months after treatment group, 6 - 12 mouths group, 1 -2 years group, 2 -3 years group and 3 -5 years group. Scores of FACT-H and N and NPC-QOL were compared between the either two groups. Results: 450 NPC patients were assessed. The total score of FACT-H and N decreased during the treatment and then increased six months after the treatment. The tendencies of physical and functional well-being were similar. The social/family and emotional well-being did not change significantly along with the treatment but the scores of head and neck well-being and NPC-QOL decreased obviously. Xerotomia was aggravated from the initiation of treatment and became the most severe at 6 - 12 months after treatment. 50% - 60% of the patients with disease-free reported severe xerotomia at 3 -5 years after radiotherapy. Incidence of severe trismus increased up to 14% at 3 -5 years after treatment. Conclusions: Quality of life of NPC patients with conventional radiotherapy deteriorates during the treatment period, but recovers to the normal level six months after the treatment. Xerotomia and trismus can affect the quality of life of NPC patients. (authors)

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in the Salvage of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Sufang; Lin Shaojun; Tham, Ivan W.K.; Pan Jianji; Lu Jun; Lu, Jiade J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may be salvaged by reirradiation with conventional techniques, but with significant morbidity. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve the therapeutic ratio by reducing doses to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to address the efficacy and toxicity profile of IMRT for a cohort of patients with locally recurrent NPC. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2009, 70 patients with radiologic or pathologically proven locally recurrent NPC were treated with IMRT. The median time to recurrence was 30 months after the completion of conventional radiation to definitive dose. Fifty-seven percent of the tumors were classified asrT3–4. The minimum planned doses were 59.4 to 60 Gy in 1.8- to 2-Gy fractions per day to the gross disease with margins, with or without chemotherapy. Results: The median dose to the recurrent tumor was 70 Gy (range, 50–77.4 Gy). Sixty-five patients received the planned radiation therapy; 5 patients received between 50 and 60 Gy because of acute side effects. With a median follow-up time of 25 months, the rates of 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 65.8%, 65.8%, and 67.4%, respectively. Moderate to severe late toxicities were noted in 25 patients (35.7%). Eleven patients (15.7%) had posterior nasal space ulceration, 17 (24.3%) experienced cranial nerve palsies, 12 (17.1%) had trismus, and 12 (17.1%) experienced deafness. Extended disease-free interval (relative risk 2.049) and advanced T classification (relative risk 3.895) at presentation were adverse prognostic factors. Conclusion: Reirradiation with IMRT provides reasonable long-term control in patients with locally recurrent NPC.

  11. Associations of Nasopharyngeal Metabolome and Microbiome with Severity among Infants with Bronchiolitis. A Multiomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Wong, Matthew C; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants; however, it remains unclear which infants with bronchiolitis will develop severe illness. In addition, although emerging evidence indicates associations of the upper-airway microbiome with bronchiolitis severity, little is known about the mechanisms linking airway microbes and host response to disease severity. To determine the relations among the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles, microbiome profiles, and severity in infants with bronchiolitis. We conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study of infants (age metabolomic and metagenomic (16S ribosomal RNA gene and whole-genome shotgun sequencing) approaches to 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples collected within 24 hours of hospitalization, we determined metabolome and microbiome profiles and their association with higher severity, defined by the use of positive pressure ventilation (i.e., continuous positive airway pressure and/or intubation). Nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles significantly differed by bronchiolitis severity (P metabolomics to predict bronchiolitis severity and better understand microbe-host interaction.

  12. Association between nasopharyngeal load of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viral coinfection, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thi Thu; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Hien Anh Thi; Nguyen, Cat Dinh Lien; Nguyen, Ai Thi Thuy; Oishi, Kengo; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kiwao; Vu, Thiem Dinh

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, viral coinfection, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is poorly understood. We explored this association in Vietnamese children aged less than 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study of pediatric LRTIs was conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 550 hospitalized children (274 radiologically confirmed pneumonia [RCP] and 276 other LRTIs) were enrolled and 350 healthy controls were randomly selected from the community. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to measure bacterial loads of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and to detect 13 respiratory viruses and bacterial serotypes in nasopharyngeal samples of study participants. The median nasopharyngeal bacterial load of SP was substantially higher in children with RCP compared with healthy controls or children with other LRTIs (P RCP or other LRTIs groups. An increased load of SP in the nasopharynx was associated with RCP, viral coinfection, and presence of pneumococcal capsule.

  13. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the tip of an iceberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipekci, S H; Cakir, M; Kiyici, A; Koc, O; Artac, M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is an important late complication of cranial radiotherapy in children and adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy on pituitary function in adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Pituitary function was evaluated in 30 patients after cranial radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Somatotroph and corticotroph axes were assessed by insulin tolerance test while gonadotroph and thyroid axes were evaluated by basal pituitary and end organ hormone levels at 10-133 months after radiotherapy. At least one hormonal disorder was observed in 28 (93%) patients after radiotherapy. 26 (87%) patients had one or more anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. The rates of pituitary hormone deficiencies were 77% for growth hormone, followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (73%), thyroid-stimulating hormone (27%) and gonadotropins (7%). Hyperprolactinemia was present in 13 (43%) patients. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is more common than expected in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia: a forgotten condition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hamed; Taghavi, Nasim; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia and Heck disease, is a relatively rare condition caused by the human papillomavirus. This case report describes a 92-year-old man who presented with multiple, asymptomatic, circumscribed, soft, flattened papules in different sizes on the retrocommissure of his lower lip. The lesions were of 2 months' duration and had the same coloration as the adjacent normal mucosa. Histopathologic examination showed orthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with acanthosis, some areas of club-shaped rete ridges, and a few superficial epithelial cells with koilocytic changes and a mitosoid-like appearance. A diagnosis of MEH was established. Although MEH tends to occur in the first 2 decades of life, it can be encountered in elderly patients as well.

  15. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  16. Actin-interacting protein 1 controls assembly and permeability of intestinal epithelial apical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Ivanov, Andrei I

    2015-05-01

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs) are crucial regulators of the integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier. The structure and function of epithelial junctions depend on their association with the cortical actin cytoskeleton that, in polarized epithelial cells, is represented by a prominent perijunctional actomyosin belt. The assembly and stability of the perijunctional cytoskeleton is controlled by constant turnover (disassembly and reassembly) of actin filaments. Actin-interacting protein (Aip) 1 is an emerging regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, playing a critical role in filament disassembly. In this study, we examined the roles of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of AJs and TJs in human intestinal epithelium. Aip1 was enriched at apical junctions in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells and normal mouse colonic mucosa. Knockdown of Aip1 by RNA interference increased the paracellular permeability of epithelial cell monolayers, decreased recruitment of AJ/TJ proteins to steady-state intercellular contacts, and attenuated junctional reassembly in a calcium-switch model. The observed defects of AJ/TJ structure and functions were accompanied by abnormal organization and dynamics of the perijunctional F-actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of Aip1 impaired the apico-basal polarity of intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and inhibited formation of polarized epithelial cysts in 3-D Matrigel. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated role of Aip1 in regulating the structure and remodeling of intestinal epithelial junctions and early steps of epithelial morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Identification of nasopharyngeal carcinoma from photoluminescence spectra of 3C-SiC nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fen; Guo, Jun-Hong; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Gu, Jian-Sen; Feng, Li-Ren; Liu, Li-Zhe

    2017-09-01

    The identification of intracellular pH (pHi) during carcinogenesis progression plays a crucial role in the studies of biochemistry, cytology, and clinical medicine. In this work, 3C-SiC nanocrystals (NCs), which can effectively monitor the pH environment by using the linear relation between photoluminescence intensity and surface OH- and H+ concentration, are adapted as fluorescent probes for monitoring carcinogenesis progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Our results demonstrated that 3C-SiC NCs are compatible with living cells and have low cytotoxicity. The pHi measurements in different carcinogenesis environments indicate the validity and sensitivity of this technology in identifying nasopharyngeal carcinoma in application.

  18. Variation on a theme; an overview of the Tn916 / Tn1545 family of mobile genetic elements in the oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eSantoro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci are a major part of the normal microbiota in humans. Most human associated streptococci are considered commensals however a small number of them are pathogenic, causing a wide range of diseases including oral infections such as dental caries and periodontitis and diseases at other body sites including sinusitis and endocarditis, and in the case of Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningitis. Both phenotypic and sequence based studies have shown that the human associated streptococci from the mouth and nasopharynx harbour a large number of antibiotic resistance genes and these are often located on mobile genetic elements known as conjugative transposons or integrative and conjugative elements of the Tn916 / Tn1545 family. These mobile genetic elements are responsible for the spread of the resistance genes between streptococci and also between streptococci and other bacteria. In this review we describe the resistances conferred by, and the genetic variations between the many different Tn916-like elements found in recent studies of oral and nasopharyngeal streptococci and show that Tn916-like elements are important mediators of antibiotic resistance genes within this genus. We will also discuss the role of the oral environment and how this is conducive to the transfer of these elements and discuss the contribution of both transformation and conjugation on the transfer and evolution of these elements in different streptococci.

  19. Efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± low-dose celecoxib in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a phase II-III clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Razmjou-Ghalaei, Sasan; Shafizad, Amin; Ashouri-Taziani, Yaghoub; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Mosleh-Shirazi, Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study that aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin ± celecoxib 100 mg twice daily in locally advanced undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed locally advanced (T3-T4, and/or N2-N3, M0) undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, no prior therapy, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70, and normal organ function. The patients were assigned to receive 7 weeks concurrent chemoradiation (70 Gy) with weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m 2 with either celecoxib 100 mg twice daily, (study group, n = 26) or placebo (control group, n = 27) followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy with cisplatin 70 mg/m 2 on day 1 plus 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m 2 /d with 8-h infusion on days 1-3, 3-weekly for 3 cycles. Overall clinical response rate was 100% in both groups. Complete and partial clinical response rates were 64% and 36% in the study group and 44% and 56% in the control group, respectively (P > 0.25). The addition of celecoxib to concurrent chemoradiation was associated with improved 2-year locoregional control rate from 84% to 100% (P = 0.039). The addition of celecoxib 100 mg twice daily to concurrent chemoradiation improved 2-year locoregional control rate.

  20. Heterogeneity revealed through meta-analysis might link geographical differences with nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in Han Chinese populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Chi-Cking; Yao Shugart, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy highly prevalent in southern China, and incidence rates among Han Chinese people vary according to geographic region. Recently, three independent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) confirmed that HLA-A is the main risk gene for NPC. However, the results of studies conducted in regions with dissimilar incidence rates contradicted the claims that HLA-A is the sole risk gene and that the association of rs29232 is independent of the HLA-A effect in the chromosome 6p21.3 region. We performed a meta-analysis, selecting five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 6p21.3 mapped in three published GWASs and four case–control studies. The studies involved 8994 patients with NPC and 11,157 healthy controls, all of whom were Han Chinese. The rs2517713 SNP located downstream of HLA-A was significantly associated with NPC (P = 1.08 × 10 −91 , odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.55–0.61). The rs29232 SNP exhibited a moderate level of heterogeneity (I 2 = 47 %) that disappeared (I 2 = 0 %) after stratification by moderate- and high-incidence NPC regions. Our results suggested that the HLA-A gene is strongly associated with NPC risk. In addition, the heterogeneity revealed by the meta-analysis of rs29232 might be associated with regional differences in NPC incidence among Han Chinese people. The higher OR of rs29232 and the fact that rs29232 was independent of the HLA-A effect in the moderate-incidence population suggested that rs29232 might have greater relevance to NPC incidence in a moderate-incidence population than in a high-incidence population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1607-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  1. Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelsteen, E; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-12-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for Ricinus communis Fraction 1 (RCA1) in oral carcinomas and in oral epithelial cells during wound healing has been studied by use of fluorescein-tagged RCA1. Biopsies from 15 human oral carcinomas and adjacent normal mucosa showed RCA1 receptors at the cell membranes in the basal and spinous layer of the normal epithelium, whereas receptors could not be demonstrated in invading islands of the tumors. In healing oral wounds from eight humans and three monkeys, RCA1 receptors were demonstrated both in normal epithelium adjacent to the wounds and in the epithelial outgrowth from the wound margin. Titrations, however, showed that the epithelial outgrowth reacted more weakly than did the normal adjacent epithelium. These results support previous in vitro studies showing changes in carbohydrate composition of moving normal cells and of malignant cells, a finding that may be of interest in relation to formation of metastases.

  2. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  3. IL1RL1 gene variants and nasopharyngeal IL1RL-a levels are associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis: a multicenter cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina E Faber

    Full Text Available Targets for intervention are required for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis, a common disease during infancy for which no effective treatment exists. Clinical and genetic studies indicate that IL1RL1 plays an important role in the development and exacerbations of asthma. Human IL1RL1 encodes three isoforms, including soluble IL1RL1-a, that can influence IL33 signalling by modifying inflammatory responses to epithelial damage. We hypothesized that IL1RL1 gene variants and soluble IL1RL1-a are associated with severe RSV bronchiolitis.We studied the association between RSV and 3 selected IL1RL1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1921622, rs11685480 or rs1420101 in 81 ventilated and 384 non-ventilated children under 1 year of age hospitalized with primary RSV bronchiolitis in comparison to 930 healthy controls. Severe RSV infection was defined by need for mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, we examined soluble IL1RL1-a concentration in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children hospitalized with primary RSV bronchiolitis. An association between SNP rs1921622 and disease severity was found at the allele and genotype level (p = 0.011 and p = 0.040, respectively. In hospitalized non-ventilated patients, RSV bronchiolitis was not associated with IL1RL1 genotypes. Median concentrations of soluble IL1RL1-a in nasopharyngeal aspirates were >20-fold higher in ventilated infants when compared to non-ventilated infants with RSV (median [and quartiles] 9,357 [936-15,528] pg/ml vs. 405 [112-1,193] pg/ml respectively; p<0.001.We found a genetic link between rs1921622 IL1RL1 polymorphism and disease severity in RSV bronchiolitis. The potential biological role of IL1RL1 in the pathogenesis of severe RSV bronchiolitis was further supported by high local concentrations of IL1RL1 in children with most severe disease. We speculate that IL1RL1a modifies epithelial damage mediated inflammatory responses during RSV bronchiolitis and thus may serve as a

  4. Multi-institutional Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Planning Strategies and Planning Results for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Ho; Park, Suk Won; Oh, Do Hoon; Choi, Youngmin; Kim, Jeung Kee; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Suh, Hyun Sook; Lee, Rena; Bae, Hoonsik

    2009-01-01

    The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning strategies for nasopharyngeal cancer among Korean radiation oncology facilities were investigated. Five institutions with IMRT planning capacity using the same planning system were invited to participate in this study. The institutions were requested to produce the best plan possible for 2 cases that would deliver 70 Gy to the planning target volume of gross tumor (PTV1), 59.4 Gy to the PTV2, and 51.5 Gy to the PTV3 in which elective irradiation was required. The advised fractionation number was 33. The planning parameters, resultant dose distributions, and biological indices were compared. We found 2-3-fold variations in the volume of treatment targets. Similar degree of variation was found in the delineation of normal tissue. The physician-related factors in IMRT planning had more influence on the plan quality. The inhomogeneity index of PTV dose ranged from 4 to 49% in Case 1, and from 5 to 46% in Case 2. Variation in tumor control probabilities for the primary lesion and involved LNs was less marked. Normal tissue complication probabilities for parotid glands and skin showed marked variation. Results from this study suggest that greater efforts in providing training and continuing education in terms of IMRT planning parameters usually set by physician are necessary for the successful implementation of IMRT. PMID:19399266

  5. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xue; Zhang, Mengxiao; Sun, Yiming; Zhao, Surong; Wei, Yingmei; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which is therefore targeted by therapeutic agents. The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a strong alkylating agent and hexokinase inhibitor, inhibits tumor cell glycolysis and the production of ATP, causing apoptosis. 3-BrPA induces apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines HNE1 and CNE-2Z, which may be related to its molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death in NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. PI staining showed significant apoptosis in NPC cells accompanied by the overproduction of ROS and downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) by 3-BrPA. However, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS and facilitating the recovery of MMP. We elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying 3-BrPA activity and found that it caused mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, leading to necroptosis of NPC cells. We investigated the effects of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, which inhibits apoptosis but promotes death domain receptor (DR)-induced NPC cell necrosis. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis, apparently via a DR signaling pathway and thus abrogates the effects of z-VAD‑fmk. In addition, we demonstrated the effective attenuation of 3-BrPA-induced necrotic cell death by Nec-1. Finally, animal studies proved that 3-BrPA exhibited significant antitumor activity in nude mice. The present study is the first demonstration of 3-BrPA-induced non-apoptotic necroptosis and ROS generation in NPC cells and provides potential strategies for developing agents against apoptosis‑resistant cancers.

  6. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Matthew H., E-mail: stenmark@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); McHugh, Jonathan B. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mukherji, Suresh K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Carey, Thomas E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  7. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings

  8. Head and neck: treatment of primary and relapsed nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is not a common malignancy of the head and neck in the United States and presents a great challenge to the radiation oncologists in this country. Its management is radiotherapeutic and technically demanding and calls for careful treatment techniques to include the primary and the lymphatic drainage areas to high doses while sparing the neighboring organs such as the spinal cord, eyes, temporal lobes and midrain. This refresher course will review the clinical course, pattern of spread with manifestations of various neurologic syndromes of the disease. The radiotherapeutic management of primary lesion will be discussed in detail including the treatment techniques, placement of the irradiation portals, dose levels, etc. Treatment results as reported in the literature as well as those achieved at the MGH will be presented. Special emphasis will be placed on the routine use of intracavitary implant to boost the primary site and its technical aspects. Relapsed NPC after previous radiation therapy presents a difficult problem in management, but can be re-irradiated with occasional success by observing careful technique and fractionated intracavitary brachytherapy and the local control rates will be briefly covered. Recurrent disease in the neck will be managed by neck dissection. Xerostomia is undesirable and common sequelae following radical radiation therapy for NPC. Efforts are being made to decrease its magnitude by using higher energies of photons, i.e. 10 MV to spare a portion of the parotid glands with some promising results. Because of the unique location of the primary lesion, currently a modified BID program (MBID) is used and its techniques and treatment concept are discussed

  9. Leucopenia and treatment efficacy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Zhen; Mao, Yan-Ping; OuYang, Pu-Yun; Tang, Jie; Lan, Xiao-Wen; Xie, Fang-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Leucopenia or neutropenia during chemotherapy predicts better survival in several cancers. We aimed to assess whether leucopenia could be a biological measure of treatment and a marker of efficacy in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (ANPC). We retrospectively analyzed 3826 patients with ANPC who received chemoradiotherapy. Leucopenia was categorised on the basis of worst grade during treatment according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0: no leucopenia (grade 0), mild leucopenia (grade 1–2), and severe leucopenia (grade 3–4). Associations between leucopenia and survival were estimated by Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 3826 patients, 2511 (65.6 %) developed mild leucopenia (grade 1–2) and 807 (21.1 %) developed severe leucopenia (grade 3–4) during treatment; 508 (13.3 %) did not. A multivariate Cox model that included leucopenia determined that the hazard ratios (HR) of death for patients with mild and severe leucopenia were 0.69 [95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) 0.56-0.85, p < 0.001] and 0.75 (95 %CI 0.59-0.95, p = 0.019), respectively; the HR of distant metastasis for patients with mild and severe leucopenia were 0.77 (95 %CI 0.61-0.96, p = 0.023) and 0.99 (95 %CI 0.77-1.29, p = 0.995), respectively. Leucopenia had no effect on locoregional relapse. Our results indicate that mild leucopenia during chemoradiotherapy is associated with improved overall survival and distant metastasis–free survival in ANPC. Mild leucopenia may indicate appropriate dosage of chemotherapy. We can identify the patients who may benefit from chemotherapy if they experienced leucopenia during the treatment. Prospective trials are required to assess whether dosing adjustments based on leucopenia may improve chemotherapy efficacy

  10. Nasopharyngeal tumors: experience of the National Institute of Oncology (INDO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarneti, A.; Cristobal, G.; Fleginsky, M.; Carzoglio, J.; Ronco, A.; Fleginsky, F.; Carlevaro, T.; Luongo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors of the nasopharynx tumors can be considered among the more chemo radiosensitive head and neck. At diagnosis are diagnosed in stages advanced disease. Various clinical studies that were used have been made different plans of chemotherapy in different sequences associated with radiotherapy. the their analysis does not show very different results between plantes and may seen how they have influenced over time by generating different treatment trends in INDO. Objective: To analyze the evolution of patients with tumors of the nasopharynx were treated in the INDO. Material and Methods: 61 patients treated with nasopharyngeal tumors are presented in INDO in the period between 1980 and 1995 These patients were staged according UICC TNM. The extension diagnosis in all cases was clinical imaging. We included all patients with histo pathological confirmation of the injury. Results: The ages were between 13 and 80 years, with a mean of 56.5 years. 77% were male. 25% of patients had no lymph nodes in the neck at diagnosis. These were mostly undifferentiated carcinomas (WHO III). Followed epidermoid carcinomas (WHO I and II). Only one patient had adenocarcinoma. According to the distribution of T was 17% T1, T2 40%, 15% and 26% T3 T4. 77% of patients (43 of 61) occurred in stage IV. In two thirds of patients completed treatment was radiotherapy alone (RT). in the remaining patients the treatment was associated chemotherapy. The median dose was 60 Gy. Cisplatin was used in 68% of cases, as only drug or in combination with other. Overall survival at 3 and 5 years for those patients treated with RT was exclusive 26% and 21%, while for the group receiving combination therapy was 38% and 31 respectively. Conclusions: The overall results in the INDO were poor when compared to report in the international literature. The dose of radiation delivered in that period were below are currently used. The combination with chemotherapy improved results. Reliance continues

  11. Angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gualberto Lescaille Torres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un angiofibroma juvenil nasofaríngeo, en un paciente del consultorio médico No. 9, que pertenece al Policlínico Integral Docente "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" de Marianao. Se reconoce la importancia de realizar una historia clínica detallada, así como un minucioso examen físico, por el médico de familia y el otorrinolaringólogo del área de salud, que incluyó la rinoscopia posterior, para poder llegar al diagnóstico de esa patología, y realizar la extirpación precoz del angiofibroma, mediante el proceder quirúrgico. Se concluyó que el diagnóstico clínico se correspondió con el histopatológico, y que la conducta quirúrgica temprana es resolutiva en la afección.It is presented a case of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a patient with this pathology, from the clicial practice No. 9, in Comprehensive Teaching Polyclinic "Carlos Manuel Portuondo" in Marianao. It recognizes the importance of a thorough clinical history and careful physical examination by the family physician and the otolaryngologist in this health area, including a posterior rhinoscopy, to diagnose this disease and to achieve early removal of the angiofibroma, by a surgical procedure. It was concluded that the clinical diagnosis corresponded to the histopathological diagnosis, and that early surgical treatment is resolute in this condition.

  12. [Evolution in the treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, José Luis; López, Fernando; Suárez, Vanessa; Costales, María; Suárez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign tumour in adolescent males. It may be associated with a significant morbidity because of its anatomical location and its locally destructive growth pattern. Severe haemorrhage constitutes a high risk in JNA and its surgical management could be complex. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data from 43 patients with JNA surgically treated in our Department from 1993 until 2010. Mean postoperative follow-up time was 85 months. Analysis was performed on 42 males and one female. Mean patient age was 16 years old. The most common presenting symptoms were unilateral epistaxis (56%) and nasal obstruction (56%). Using the Fisch staging scale, tumours were classified as stage I in 2 patients, stage II in 9, stage III-a in 13, stage III-b in 13 and stage IV-a in 6. Preoperative selective embolisation was performed on 32 patients (74%). Thirty-three patients (77%) underwent an open surgical approach and 10 (23%) were treated by endoscopic approach. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved in 35 patients (81%) and tumour recurrence was observed in 2 (5%). All lesions treated via transnasal endoscopic approach were stage I and stage II lesions. Surgery is the treatment of choice for JNA. An endoscopic approach is feasible for early-stage lesions (Fisch I and II) and conservative external approaches are still useful in advanced stages (Fisch III and IV). The open approaches proved helpful with respect to exposure, safety, cosmetic outcome and low morbidity. Preoperative embolisation, if possible, is mandatory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma investigated by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jincheng; Wei Baoqing; Chen Wenzhan; Qian Pudong; Zhang Yiqin; Wei Qing; Cha Wenwu; Li Feng; Ni Ming

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) sixth edition staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-nine non-disseminated biopsy-proven NPC patients were studied with MRI before treatment. Retrieval of MRI information enabled us to restage all patients accurately according to the sixth edition of the AJCC staging system. Splitting the respective T and N stages by the significant defining factors identified, the cancer death hazard ratios were modeled by the Cox model in SPSS 10.0 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Results: Single site of skull base abnormality (HR=3.91, 95% CI: 0.74-20.56) has a superior result to others involved in T3 (HR=5.83, 95% CI: 1.24-27.29). Involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely (HR=6.02, 95% CI: 1.55-35.60) was not found to be as a poor prognostic indicator as others involved in T4 (HR=7.81, 95% CI: 1.81-33.63). Less than or equal to 3 cm of N1 (HR=4.01, 95% CI: 0.48-33.83) and N2 (HR=4.72, 95% CI: 0.62-35.78) have a better result than >3 cm of N1 (HR=8.09, 95% CI: 0.95-68.97) and N2 (HR=10.58, 95% CI: 1.32-84.62), respectively. Conclusions: Perhaps, it is better to down-stage single site of skull base abnormality from T3 to T2, and involvement of either anterior or posterior cranial nerves solely from T4 to T3, meanwhile, ≤3 cm of N2 down-stage to N1, >3 cm of N1 up-stage to N2

  14. Targeting Rad50 sensitizes human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Lihong; Huang, Jiancong; Wang, Kai; Li, Jingjia; Yan, Ruicheng; Zhu, Ling; Ye, Jin; Wu, Xifu; Zhuang, Shimin; Li, Daqing; Zhang, Gehua

    2016-01-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is well known for its crucial role in initiating DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways to resistant irradiation (IR) injury and thus facilitating radioresistance which severely reduces radiocurability of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Targeting native cellular MRN function would sensitize NPC cells to IR. A recombinant adenovirus containing a mutant Rad50 gene (Ad-RAD50) expressing Rad50 zinc hook domain but lacking the ATPase domain and the Mre11 interaction domain was constructed to disrupt native cellular MRN functions. The effects of Ad-RAD50 on the MRN functions were assessed in NPC cells lines using western blot, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analyses. The increased radiosensitivity of transient Ad-RAD50 to IR was examined in NPC cells, including MTT assay, colony formation. The molecular mechanisms of radiosensitization were confirmed by neutral comet assay and western bolts. Nude mice subcutaneous injection, tumor growth curve and TUNEL assay were used to evaluate tumor regression and apoptosis in vivo. Rad50 is remarkably upregulated in NPC cells after IR, implying the critical role of Rad50 in MRN functions. The transient expression of this mutant Rad50 decreased the levels of native cellular Rad50, Mre11 and Nbs1, weakened the interactions among these proteins, abrogated the G2/M arrest induced by DSBs and reduced the DNA repair ability in NPC cells. A combination of IR and mutant RAD50 therapy produced significant tumor cytotoxicity in vitro, with a corresponding increase in DNA damage, prevented proliferation and cell viability. Furthermore, Ad-RAD50 sensitized NPC cells to IR by causing dramatic tumor regression and inducing apoptosis in vivo. Our findings define a novel therapeutic approach to NPC radiosensitization via targeted native cellular Rad50 disruption. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2190-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  15. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  16. Analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk factors with Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussem, Alex; de Morais, Sérgio Rodrigues; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new graphical framework for extracting the relevant dietary, social and environmental risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) on a case-control epidemiologic study that consists of 1289 subjects and 150 risk factors. This framework builds on the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) for representing statistical dependencies between the random variables. We discuss a novel constraint-based procedure, called Hybrid Parents and Children (HPC), that builds recursively a local graph that includes all the relevant features statistically associated to the NPC, without having to find the whole BN first. The local graph is afterwards directed by the domain expert according to his knowledge. It provides a statistical profile of the recruited population, and meanwhile helps identify the risk factors associated to NPC. Extensive experiments on synthetic data sampled from known BNs show that the HPC outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms that appeared in the recent literature. From a biological perspective, the present study confirms that chemical products, pesticides and domestic fume intake from incomplete combustion of coal and wood are significantly associated with NPC risk. These results suggest that industrial workers are often exposed to noxious chemicals and poisonous substances that are used in the course of manufacturing. This study also supports previous findings that the consumption of a number of preserved food items, like house made proteins and sheep fat, are a major risk factor for NPC. BNs are valuable data mining tools for the analysis of epidemiologic data. They can explicitly combine both expert knowledge from the field and information inferred from the data. These techniques therefore merit consideration as valuable alternatives to traditional multivariate regression techniques in epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Late toxicities after conventional radiation therapy alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, Jeffrey Kit Loong, E-mail: ntrtkl@nccs.com.sg [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Ha, Tam Cam [Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Ong, Whee Sze [Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Siow, Tian Rui [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Ivan Weng Keong [National University Health System Singapore (Singapore); Yap, Swee Peng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat; Chua, Eu Tiong; Fong, Kam Weng [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wee, Joseph Tien Seng [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Division of Clinical Trials and Epidemiological Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore)

    2012-09-15

    Background and purpose: We sought to evaluate the nature and frequency of late toxicities in a cohort of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Seven-hundred and ninety-six consecutive NPC patients treated using conventional radiotherapy at a single center from 1992 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with histology proven, completely staged, Stage I-IVB World Health Organization Type I-III NPC and completed radical radiotherapy were included. Patients with incomplete staging investigations, distant metastases at diagnosis, previous treatment, and incomplete radiotherapy were excluded. Radiotherapy-related complications were categorized using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Results: Median follow-up was 7.2 years. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival were 69% and 56%, respectively, and the corresponding 10-year rates were 52% and 44%. Among 771 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up post treatment, 565 (73%) developed RT-related complications. Diagnosed neurological complications were cranial nerve palsies (n = 70; 9%), temporal lobe necrosis (n = 37; 5%), Lhermitte's syndrome (n = 7; 1%), and brachial plexopathy (n = 2; 0.3%). Non-neurological complications included xerostomia (n = 353; 46%), neck fibrosis (n = 169; 22%), hypo-pituitarism (n = 48; 6%), hearing loss (n = 120; 16%), dysphagia (n = 116; 15%), otorrhea (n = 101; 13%), tinnitus (n = 94; 12%), permanent tube feeding (n = 61; 8%), trismus (n = 45; 6%), second malignancies within treatment field (n = 17; 2%), and osteo-radionecrosis (n = 13; 2%). Conclusions: While radiotherapy is curative in NPC, many patients suffer significant late treatment morbidities with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  18. Late toxicities after conventional radiation therapy alone for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, Jeffrey Kit Loong; Ha, Tam Cam; Ong, Whee Sze; Siow, Tian Rui; Tham, Ivan Weng Keong; Yap, Swee Peng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat; Chua, Eu Tiong; Fong, Kam Weng; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: We sought to evaluate the nature and frequency of late toxicities in a cohort of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with conventional radiotherapy alone. Methods and materials: Seven-hundred and ninety-six consecutive NPC patients treated using conventional radiotherapy at a single center from 1992 to 1995 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with histology proven, completely staged, Stage I–IVB World Health Organization Type I–III NPC and completed radical radiotherapy were included. Patients with incomplete staging investigations, distant metastases at diagnosis, previous treatment, and incomplete radiotherapy were excluded. Radiotherapy-related complications were categorized using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. Results: Median follow-up was 7.2 years. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival were 69% and 56%, respectively, and the corresponding 10-year rates were 52% and 44%. Among 771 patients with at least 3 months of follow-up post treatment, 565 (73%) developed RT-related complications. Diagnosed neurological complications were cranial nerve palsies (n = 70; 9%), temporal lobe necrosis (n = 37; 5%), Lhermitte’s syndrome (n = 7; 1%), and brachial plexopathy (n = 2; 0.3%). Non-neurological complications included xerostomia (n = 353; 46%), neck fibrosis (n = 169; 22%), hypo-pituitarism (n = 48; 6%), hearing loss (n = 120; 16%), dysphagia (n = 116; 15%), otorrhea (n = 101; 13%), tinnitus (n = 94; 12%), permanent tube feeding (n = 61; 8%), trismus (n = 45; 6%), second malignancies within treatment field (n = 17; 2%), and osteo-radionecrosis (n = 13; 2%). Conclusions: While radiotherapy is curative in NPC, many patients suffer significant late treatment morbidities with conventional radiotherapy techniques.

  19. Comparison of Treatment Results Between Adult and Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, N. Lance; Wolden, Suzanne; Wong, Priscilla; Petrik, David W.; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a bimodal age distribution. In contrast to the adult variant, little is known about the juvenile form. This study examined the treatment results between adult (aNPC) and juvenile NPC (jNPC) patients for future treatment considerations in jNPC. Methods and Materials: The jNPC population included 53 patients treated at two institutions between 1972 and 2004. The aNPC population included 84 patients treated at one institution. The patients had received a median dose of 66 Gy of external beam radiotherapy and 72% underwent chemotherapy. The mean follow-up for surviving patients was 12.6 years for jNPC and 6.6 years for aNPC. Results: The jNPC patients presented with more advance stages than did the aNPC patients (92% vs. 67% Stage III-IV, p = .006). However, jNPC patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) than did aNPC patients. The 5-year OS rate was 71% for jNPC and 58% for aNPC (p = .03). The jNPC group also demonstrated a trend for greater relapse-free survival than the aNPC group (5-year relapse-free survival rate, 69% vs. 49%; p = .056). The pattern of failure analysis revealed that the jNPC patients had greater locoregional control and freedom from metastasis but the differences were not statistically significant. Univariate analysis for OS revealed that age group, nodal classification, and chemotherapy use were significant prognostic factors. Age group remained significant for OS on multivariate analysis, after adjusting for N classification and treatment. Conclusion: Despite more advance stage at presentation, jNPC patients had better survival than did aNPC patients. Future treatment strategies should take into consideration the long-term complications in these young patients.

  20. Stomatin-like protein 2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and predicts poor patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Ding, Wen; He, Jie-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Ze-Biao; Li, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2, also known as STOML2) is a stomatin homologue of uncertain function. SLP-2 overexpression has been suggested to be associated with cancer progression, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes in patients. Our study aim to investigate SLP-2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and its correlation with patient survival. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were analysed in five epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and normal ovarian epithelial cells using real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. SLP-2 expression was investigated in eight matched-pair samples of epithelial ovarian cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues from the same patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the protein expression of paraffin-embedded specimens from 140 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 20 cases with borderline ovarian tumours, 20 cases with benign ovarian tumours, and 20 cases with normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of SLP-2 expression. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer tissues compared with normal ovarian epithelial cells and adjacent noncancerous ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the relative overexpression of SLP-2 was detected in 73.6 % (103/140) of the epithelial ovarian cancer specimens, 45.0 % (9/20) of the borderline ovarian specimens, 30.0 % (6/20) of the benign ovarian specimens and none of the normal ovarian specimens. SLP-2 protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly correlated with the tumour stage (P < 0.001). Epithelial ovarian cancer patients with higher SLP-2 protein expression levels had shorter progress free survival and overall survival times compared to patients with lower SLP-2 protein expression levels. Multivariate analyses showed that SLP-2 expression levels were an independent prognostic

  1. The effects of combining ionizing radiation and adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transfer in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feifei; Li Jianhua; Lax, Stuart; Klamut, Henry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We have previously demonstrated that the introduction of human recombinant wild-type p53 carried by the adenoviral vector (Ad5CMV-p53) into two human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines (CNE-1 and CNE-2Z) resulted in significant cytotoxicity. In the current work, we wanted to evaluate the results of this strategy when combined with ionizing radiation (XRT). Materials and Methods: CNE-1, CNE-2Z, and a normal human nasopharyngeal fibroblast strain KS1, were infected with iso-effective doses of 2, 6 and 6 pfu/cell of Ad5CMV-p53 respectively. XRT was administered 24 hours post-infection, to coincide with the time of maximal recombinant p53 expression. Western blot analyses were conducted for p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , bax and bcl-2. Cell viability was evaluated using both the MTT and clonogenic assays. Presence of apoptosis was determined by using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: We observed that the combination of Ad5CMV-p53 + XRT (2, 4, and 6 Gy) resulted in an approximately 1-log greater level of cytotoxicity compared to that observed with XRT alone for both NPC cell lines. The MTT assay indicated sparing of the KS1 cells when subjected to the identical treatments. XRT alone stimulated minimal p53 expression; Ad5CMV-p53 alone induced significant recombinant p53 expression, which was not further enhanced by the addition of XRT. Similar observations were made for p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression. No changes were observed for bax and bcl-2 expression with any of these treatments. Apoptosis was induced following 4 Gy of XRT alone, but was observed earlier, at 2 Gy when combined with Ad5CMV-p53. Conclusion: Additional cytotoxicity was observed for the NPC cell lines when XRT was combined with Ad5CMV-p53 infection, with concurrent sparing of normal cells (KS1). This cytotoxicity also appeared to be mediated through the induction of the apoptotic pathway. These results support our previous observation of the potential application of this strategy in the

  2. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Molecular Detection of Epstein - Barr virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Sudanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Edris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is the most common cancer arising from the nasopharynx that varies significantly from other cancers of the head and neck in its occurrence, causes, clinical behavior, and treatment. NPC caused by an interaction between infection with EBV and environmental and genetic factors, encompasses a multistep oncogenic process. The frequency of Epstein-Barr virus EBV among nasopharyngeal carcinoma is well known worldwide, however, in the Sudan there is barely a published data. The aim of this study was to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC biopsies obtained from Sudanese patients using Polymerase Chain reaction. Methods This is a descriptive, retrospective hospital based study, conducted at the National Center for ENT diseases and the Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum City, Sudan. Archival blocks were obtained from 82 patients diagnosed as having nasopharyngeal carcinoma were molecularly examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus. Results Eighty two Paraffin fixed tissue sections were examined for the presence of the virus using PCR, EBV was identified in 51/ 82 (62.2% samples and couldn’t be identified in 31/ 82 (37.8% tissue samples. Out of the 51 infected samples, 33/51 (64.7% were found among males and 18/27 (66.7% were found among females. Conclusion The present study is providing strong evidence supporting the general association of EBV infection in NPC among Sudanese patients.

  4. The Potential Effect of Oral Microbiota in the Prediction of Mucositis During Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Interpretation: Oral microbiota changes correlate with the progression and aggravation of radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Microbiota-based strategies can be used for the early prediction and prevention of the incidence of severe mucositis during radiotherapy.

  5. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  6. Risk factors for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in persons with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Søgaard, Ole S; Harboe, Zitta B

    HIV-infected individuals have excess rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. We investigated risk factors for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization at baseline and after 9 months in 96 HIV patients immunized twice with 7- valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine ±1mg CPG 7909. In total, 22 patients...

  7. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; impact on nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and optimizing vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to first assess nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage to evaluate population effects after introduction of PCV7 in the NIP in 2006 and to assess the potential impact of PCV10 as introduced in 2011 on carriage of NTHi in a randomized trial (Part One) and second, to assess

  8. Analysis of factors in successful nasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Shen, Zhisen; Wang, Guoli; Deng, Hongxia; Qiu, Shijie; Zhang, Yuna

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is less traumatic, causes less bleeding, and provides a good curative effect. Using pre-operative embolization and controlled hypotension, reasonable surgical strategies and techniques lead to successful resection tumors of a maximum Andrews-Fisch classification stage of III. To investigate surgical indications, methods, surgical technique, and curative effects of transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, this study evaluated factors that improve diagnosis and treatment, prevent large intra-operative blood loss and residual tumor, and increase the cure rate. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical data and treatment programs of 23 patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent endoscopic resection with pre-operative embolization and controlled hypotension. The surgical method applied was based on the size of tumor and extent of invasion. Curative effects were observed. No intra-operative or perioperative complications were observed in 22 patients. Upon removal of nasal packing material 3-7 days post-operatively, one patient experienced heavy bleeding of the nasopharyngeal wound, which was treated compression hemostasis using post-nasal packing. Twenty-three patients were followed up for 6-60 months. Twenty-two patients experienced cure; one patient experienced recurrence 10 months post-operatively, and repeat nasal endoscopic surgery was performed and resulted in cure.

  9. Preoperative embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Usefulness of IADSA and problems of external carotid ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Ryuichi; Nakagawa, Nobuo; Kohrogi, Yukinori; Izunaga, Hiroshi; Bussaka, Hiromasa; Miyawaki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Ikawa, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Takashi (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-10-01

    Three male cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma are presented. Satisfactory results were obtained by performing preoperative embolization combined with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) in two of them. The other case had undergone external carotid ligation. Usefulness of IADSA in performing preoperative embolization for this disease and problems of external carotid ligation are discussed.

  10. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Sharon D.; Wildeman, Maarten A.; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R.; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L.; van Diessen, Judi N. A.; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I. Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the

  11. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, S.D.; Wildeman, M.A.; Fles, R.; Indrasari, S.R.; Herdini, C.; Wildeman, P.L.; van Diessen, J.N.A.; Tjoknagoro, M.; Tan, I.B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy

  12. Late health effects of childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: nonmelanoma skin cancers, benign tumors, and hormonal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Land, Charles E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2002-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for benign tumors, nonmelanoma skin cancer, thyroid disorders, and conditions

  13. Multimodal treatment, including interferon beta, of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehrlen, Martina; Zwaan, Christian Michel; Granzen, Bernd; Lassay, Lisa; Deutz, Peter; Vorwerk, Peter; Staatz, Gundula; Gademann, Günther; Christiansen, Hans; Oldenburger, Foppe; Tamm, Miriam; Mertens, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report preliminary results from a prospective multicenter study (Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma [NPC] 2003 German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology/German Children's Oncology Group [NPC-2003-GPOH/DCOG]). METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 45 patients (ages 8-20 years),

  14. Elevated expression of CD93 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lili [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tang, Mingming [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226361, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qicheng; You, Bo; Shan, Ying; Shi, Si; Li, Li [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, Songqun, E-mail: hsq@ntu.edu.cn [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); You, Yiwen, E-mail: youyiwen_nantong@163.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-08-05

    CD93, also known as the complement component C1q receptor (C1qRp), has been reported to promote the progression of some cancer types. However, the expression and physiological significance of CD93 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain largely elusive. In this study, we first examined the expression of CD93 in NPC and experimentally manipulated its expression. We observed that vascular CD93 expression is elevated in NPC and is correlated with T classification, N classification, distant metastasis, clinical stage and poor prognosis (all P < 0.05). In addition, overexpression of CD93 promoted angiogenesis in vitro. What’s more, we found that CD93 was highly expressed in NPC tissues and cells, and the regulation of CD93 on cell proliferation was determined by cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay and cell cycle analyses. Our findings provide unique insight into the pathogenesis of NPC and underscore the need to explore novel therapeutic targets such as CD93 to improve NPC treatment. -- Highlights: •This is the first research about the relationship between CD93 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We explored the prognostic significance of vascular CD93 expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. •We researched on angiogenesis and cell proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and how CD93 affected them.

  15. Clinical value of the assistant interventional embolization in treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guobin; Zhou Shi; Liu Junfang; Hu Jinxiang; Long Qingyun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the application of the assistant digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with selective intra-arterial embolization in comprehensive treatment of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: Among 17 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma confirmed by surgery and biopsy from February 2000 to June 2005, 13 cases underwent DSA examination and selective intra-arterial embolization on 1-4 days before surgical operation, and 4 cases with uncontrollable epistaxis through conventional therapy were carried out urgent DSA and embolization as well as surgical operation on a scheduled day. Angiographic manifestations and hemostatic effects and impacts in surgical operation were observed. Results: The extent and blood supply of lesions and the features of feeding artery were clearly demonstrated by DSA. Supplying vessel was mainly maxillary artery originating from external caroted artery in 16 cases, and double supplying vessels from ramus of internal and external carotid arteries in 1 case. In general, the higher the nasopharyngeal angiofibroma grade was the more supplying branches would exist. As for epistaxis patients, the number of the presence of irregular distal vessels and the punctiform extravasation of contrast media were displayed in positive proportion. No severe complications occurred and active bleeding was stopped after embolization and furthermore with less blood loss during surgical operation statistically about 280-1600 ml (460±255.5). Conclusions: DSA examination and selective arterial embolization can not only present more accurate important clinical imaging features but also in favour of stop bleeding and enhance surgical outcomes for patients with nasopharyngeal angiogibroma. (authors)

  16. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  17. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  18. Relationships between Malocclusion, Body Posture, and Nasopharyngeal Pathology in Pre-Orthodontic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šidlauskienė, Monika; Smailienė, Dalia; Lopatienė, Kristina; Čekanauskas, Emilis; Pribuišienė, Rūta; Šidlauskas, Mantas

    2015-06-18

    Malocclusion, body posture, and breathing pattern may be correlated, but this issue is still controversial. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the type of malocclusion, body posture, and nasopharyngeal obstruction in children aged 7-14 years. The study group comprised 94 patients aged 7-14 years (mean±SD: 11.9±2.1 years); 44 (46.8%) males and 50 (53.2%) females. All patients passed an examination performed by the same orthodontist (study model and cephalometric radiograph analysis), orthopedic surgeon (body posture examined from the front, side, and back), and otorhinolaryngologist (anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and pharyngoscopy) in a blind manner. Postural disorders were observed in 72 (76.6%) patients. Hypertrophy of the adenoids was diagnosed in 54 (57.4%) patients, hypertrophy of the tonsils in 85 (90.3%), nasal septum deviation in 51 (54.3%), and allergic rhinitis in 19 (20.2%) patients. There was a statistically significant correlation between presence of kyphotic posture and a reduction in the SNB angle, representing sagittal position of the mandible. Also, there was a statistically significant association between kyphotic posture and nasopharyngeal obstruction (54.1% of patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction were kyphotic, compared with 25% of patients with no nasopharyngeal obstruction; p=0.02). Kyphotic posture and reduced SNB angle were more common among males. We concluded that: 1) there was a significant association between the sagittal position of the mandible (SNB angle) and a kyphotic posture; 2) kyphotic posture was significantly more common among patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction.

  19. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fu, Jinjian; Liang, Zhuoxin; Chen, Jichang

    2017-12-13

    To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region. Summary measures for overall prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and serotype distributions extracted from the analyzed data were determined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 test statistics. Thirty-seven studies were included in this review, and the majority of studies (64.9%) were located in the pre-introduction period of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China. The pooled prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 21.4% (95% CI: 18.3-24.4%). Carriage was highest in children attending kindergartens [24.5%, (19.7-29.3%)] and decreased with increasing age. Before the introduction of PCV7 into China, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 25.8% (20.7-30.9%), the pooled carriage of S. pneumoniae sharply dropped into the 14.1% (11.3-16.9%) by PCV7 vaccination period (P China, the penicillin resistance rate in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children was 31.9% (21.2-42.6%); however, this rate sharply decreased after the introduction of PCV7 in China [21.6%, (7.4-35.9%)], and the difference between the rates during these two time periods was statistically significant (P value China. PCV7 immunization was found to be associated with reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on

  20. Use of nasopharyngeal culture to determine appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stella; Woodbury, Kristin; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2013-04-01

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the top 5 diagnoses for which an antibiotic is prescribed, often without a clear bacterial etiology. This study evaluated whether nasopharyngeal culture and gram stain could serve as a surrogate for endoscopically obtained middle meatal cultures in directing appropriate therapy for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). This study also investigated the utility of a rapid sinus test screen in differentiating bacterial from nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. Thirty-one adult patients met inclusion criteria for ABRS. Samples were obtained from both the middle meatus and nasopharynx for Gram stain and culture. Nasal mucous samples were tested with a rapid sinus test strip measuring pH, levels of protein, nitrites, and leukocyte esterase. Sixty-one percent (61%) of nasopharyngeal and 48% of middle meatal samples grew pathogenic bacteria. The concordance rate was 84% between the 2 sites (p = 0.0006). The following pathogenic organisms were detected: Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. For nasopharyngeal samples, reliance on Gram stain alone exhibited a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 100% and, similarly, for middle meatus samples, 47% and 93%, respectively. The rapid sinus test revealed a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 7%. Nasopharyngeal and middle meatal cultures exhibited high concordance for pathogenic bacteria. Gram stain exhibited moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity. Nasopharyngeal cultures could provide a viable method, especially in a primary care setting, for determining the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy. The rapid sinus test's lack of specificity precluded its utility in the differentiation between bacterial and nonbacterial rhinosinusitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Emerging Roles of Small Epstein-Barr Virus Derived Non-Coding RNAs in Epithelial Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Raymond Wai-Ming; Tong, Joanna Hung-Man; To, Ka-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is an etiological factor in the progression of several human epithelial malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and a subset of gastric carcinoma. Reports have shown that EBV produces several viral oncoproteins, yet their pathological roles in carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. Studies on the recently discovered of EBV-encoded microRNAs (ebv-miRNAs) showed that these small molecules function as post-transcriptional gene regulators and may play a role in the carcinogenesis process. In NPC and EBV positive gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), 22 viral miRNAs which are located in the long alternative splicing EBV transcripts, named BamH1 A rightward transcripts (BARTs), are abundantly expressed. The importance of several miR-BARTs in carcinogenesis has recently been demonstrated. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the oncogenic properties of EBV and may lead to a more effective design of therapeutic regimens to combat EBV-associated malignancies. This article will review the pathological roles of miR-BARTs in modulating the expression of cancer-related genes in both host and viral genomes. The expression of other small non-coding RNAs in NPC and the expression pattern of miR-BARTs in rare EBV-associated epithelial cancers will also be discussed. PMID:23979421

  2. EBV infection is common in gingival epithelial cells of the periodontium and worsens during chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Vincent-Bugnas

    Full Text Available An amplifying role for oral epithelial cells (ECs in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV infection has been postulated to explain oral viral shedding. However, while lytic or latent EBV infections of oro/nasopharyngeal ECs are commonly detected under pathological conditions, detection of EBV-infected ECs in healthy conditions is very rare. In this study, a simple non-surgical tissue sampling procedure was used to investigate EBV infection in the periodontal epithelium that surrounds and attaches teeth to the gingiva. Surprisingly, we observed that the gingival ECs of the periodontium (pECs are commonly infected with EBV and may serve as an important oral reservoir of latently EBV-infected cells. We also found that the basal level of epithelial EBV-infection is significantly increased in chronic periodontitis, a common inflammatory disease that undermines the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. Moreover, the level of EBV infection was found to correlate with disease severity. In inflamed tissues, EBV-infected pECs appear to be prone to apoptosis and to produce larger amounts of CCL20, a pivotal inflammatory chemokine that controls tissue infiltration by immune cells. Our discovery that the periodontal epithelium is a major site of latent EBV infection sheds a new light on EBV persistence in healthy carriers and on the role of this ubiquitous virus in periodontitis. Moreover, the identification of this easily accessible site of latent infection may encourage new approaches to investigate and monitor other EBV-associated disorders.

  3. Prognostic significance of maximum primary tumor diameter in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Deng, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Ning; Lu, Rui-Liang; Zhao, Hai; Chen, Hai-Yang; Li, Shao-En; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Three hundred and thirty-three consecutive, newly-diagnosed NPC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to estimate overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of MPTD. Median follow-up was 66 months (range, 2–82 months). Median MPTD in stage T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 27.9, 37.5, 45.0 and 61.3 mm, respectively. The proportion of T1 patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm was 62.3%; 72% and 62.9% of T2 and T3 patients had a MPTD > 30–50 mm, and 83.5% of T4 patients had a MPTD > 50 mm. For patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, > 30–50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS rates were 85.2%, 74.2% and 56.3% (P < 0.001); 87%, 80.7% and 62.8% (P < 0.001); 88.7%, 86.4% and 72.5% (P = 0.003); and 98.2%, 93.2% and 86.3% (P = 0.012), respectively. In multivariate analysis, MPTD was a prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS, and the only independent prognostic factor for LRFS. For T3-T4 patients with a MPTD ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm, the 5-year OS, FFS and DMFS rates were 70.4% vs. 58.4% (P = 0.010), 77.5% vs. 65.2% (P = 0.013) and 83.6% vs. 73.6% (P = 0.047), respectively. In patients with a MPTD ≤ 30 mm, 5-year LRFS in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 100%, 100%, 88.9% and 100% (P = 0.172). Our data suggest that MPTD is an independent prognostic factor in NPC, and incorporation of MPTD might lead to a further refinement of T staging

  4. Increased phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 is involved in Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Binbin; Huang, Guoliang; Zhang, Xiangning; Li, Rong; Wang, Jian; Dong, Ziming; He, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Increased histone H3 phosphorylation is an essential regulatory mechanism for neoplastic cell transformation. We aimed to explore the role of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine10 (p-H3Ser10) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1)-induced carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The expression of p-H3Ser10 was detected by the immunohistochemical analysis in NPC, chronic nasopharyngitis and normal nasopharynx tissues, and its correlation with LMP1 was analyzed in NPC tissues and cell lines. Using the small interfering RNA (siRNA)-H3 and histone H3 mutant (S10A), the effect of histone H3 Ser10 motif on LMP1-induced CNE1 cell proliferation, transformation and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation were evaluated by CCK-8, focus-forming and reporter gene assay respectively. Mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1) kinase activity and phosphorylation were detected by in vitro kinase assay and western blot. Using MSK1 inhibitor H89 or siRNA-MSK1, the regulatory role of MSK1 on histone H3 phosphorylation and AP-1 activation were analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of p-H3Ser10 was significantly higher in the poorly differentiated NPC tissues than that in chronic nasopharyngitis (p <0.05) and normal nasopharynx tissues (p <0.001). Moreover, high level of p-H3Ser10 was positively correlated with the expression of LMP1 in NPC tissues (χ 2 =6.700, p =0.01; C=0.350) and cell lines. The knockdown and mutant (S10A) of histone H3 suppressed LMP1-induced CNE1 cell proliferation, foci formation and AP-1 activation. In addition, LMP1 could increase MSK1 kinase activity and phosphorylation. MSK1 inhibitor H89 or knockdown of MSK1 by siRNA blocked LMP1-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 and AP-1 activation. EBV-LMP1 can induce phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 via MSK1. Increased phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 is likely a crucial regulatory mechanism involved in LMP1-induced carcinogenesis of

  5. Cranial irradiation for cerebral and nasopharyngeal tumours in children: evidence for the production of a hypothalmic defect in growth hormone release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacklay, A.; Grossman, A.; Ross, R.J.M.; Savage, M.O.; Davies, P.S.W.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Coy, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A synthetic 29-amino acid analogue of human pancreatic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH(1-29)NH 2 ) has recently been shown to stimulate the release of GH in normal subjects. The authors have studied the GH reponse to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in nine children irradiated for brain and nasopharyngeal tumours, who were not growing and were deficient in GH as assessed by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Serum GH rose in response to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in all the children, and in five the peak serum GH response was > 20 mu./1. The data suggest that when hypothalamo-pituitary irradiation results in GH deficiency, this is due to a failure of the synthesis or delivery of endogenous GHRH from the hypothalamus to the pituitary cells. It also suggests that it may be possible to treat such children using synthetic GHRH in place of exogenous GH. (author)

  6. A meta-analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun He

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation can decrease the risk of recurrence and metastasis but not improve the 5 years overall survival and 5 years disease free survival compared to radiotherapy alone in the patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  7. Preoperative Embolization to Improve the Surgical Management and Outcome of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) in a Single Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, J; Holtmannspötter, M; Flatz, W

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare benign neoplasm that occurs almost exclusively in the nasopharynx of adolescent male individuals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of preoperative embolization and the surgical outcome...

  8. Preoperative embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: The role of direct percutaneous injection of cyanoacrylate glue in conjunction with particulate endovascular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel Hakim Osman Kasem

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas before surgery using percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue with endovascular particulate material proved to efficiently devascularize these tumours with lower blood loss during surgery and no major procedural complications.

  9. Retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy in Briard dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, R M; Cabral, L; Gooch, L; Bedford, P G; Boulton, M E

    1996-01-01

    The eyes of normal Briard dogs, Briards affected with inherited retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy (RPED) and a range of normal crossbred and beagle dogs were examined and the histopathology of RPED in the Briard was compared with the histopathological features of ageing in the normal canine retina. RPED was characterised by the accumulation of auto-fluorescent lipofuscin-like inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which initially involved only non-pigmented RPE cells overlying the tapetum but subsequently spread to all pigmented RPE cells. Secondary neuro-retinal degeneration was characterised by a gradual loss of the outer nuclear layer and the subsequent atrophy and degeneration of the inner retina. The loss of primary photoreceptors in the peripheral retina was accompanied by the migration of photoreceptor nuclei and appeared to resemble severe changes due to ageing. Intra-vitreal radiolabelled leucine was used to examine the rate of turnover of the outer segments of the rods in some Briards, but no significant variations were found. The activity of acid phosphatase in RPE was assayed in vitro and showed comparable regional variations in Briard and crossbred dogs. The results suggest that RPED in the Briard is unlikely to be due either to an increased rate of turnover of rod outer segments (and thus an increased phagocytic load) or to a primary insufficiency of lysosomal enzyme.

  10. Exosomes released by EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells convey the viral Latent Membrane Protein 1 and the immunomodulatory protein galectin 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keryer-Bibens, Cécile; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Villemant, Cécile; Souquère, Sylvie; Nishi, Nozomu; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Middeldorp, Jaap; Busson, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Their malignant epithelial cells contain the viral genome and express several antigenic viral proteins. However, the mechanisms of immune escape in NPCs are still poorly understood. EBV-transformed B-cells have been reported to release exosomes carrying the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) which has T-cell inhibitory activity. Although this report suggested that NPC cells could also produce exosomes carrying immunosuppressive proteins, this hypothesis has remained so far untested. Malignant epithelial cells derived from NPC xenografts – LMP1-positive (C15) or negative (C17) – were used to prepare conditioned culture medium. Various microparticles and vesicles released in the culture medium were collected and fractionated by differential centrifugation. Exosomes collected in the last centrifugation step were further purified by immunomagnetic capture on beads carrying antibody directed to HLA class II molecules. Purified exosomes were visualized by electron microscopy and analysed by western blotting. The T-cell inhibitory activities of recombinant LMP1 and galectin 9 were assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by CD3/CD28 cross-linking. HLA-class II-positive exosomes purified from C15 and C17 cell supernatants were containing either LMP1 and galectin 9 (C15) or galectin 9 only (C17). Recombinant LMP1 induced a strong inhibition of T-cell proliferation (IC50 = 0.17 nM). In contrast recombinant galectin 9 had a weaker inhibitory effect (IC50 = 46 nM) with no synergy with LMP1. This study provides the proof of concept that NPC cells can release HLA class-II positive exosomes containing galectin 9 and/or LMP1. It confirms that the LMP1 molecule has intrinsic T-cell inhibitory activity. These findings will encourage investigations of tumor exosomes in the blood of NPC patients and assessment of their effects on various types of target cells

  11. Determinants of the epithelial-muscular axis on embryonic stem cell-derived gut-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Takaki, Miyako; Misawa, Hiromi; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sasahira, Tomonori; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Dome-like structures with epithelial-muscular layers resembling the gut have been derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These domes have been reported to show spontaneous contractions and are called ES gut. In the present study, we examined the epithelial-muscular axis of these domes by detecting differentiation markers. A normal epithelial-muscular axis was exhibited in the domes with spontaneous motility, whereas the domes without spontaneous motility showed either an inverted or obscure axis. To investigate the factors affecting the epithelial-muscular axis, we examined the expression of hedgehog signaling factors in the domes. Expression of hedgehog family factors was detected in the epithelial components of the domes with motility, whereas this expression was inverted or obscure in the domes without motility. Out of the 25 domes, 10 of the 10 motility (+) domes showed a normal epithelial-muscular axis, whereas 14 of the 15 motility (-) domes lacked a normal epithelial-muscular axis. This implies that activin A upregulated the expression of sonic hedgehog and intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the embryoid bodies. These findings suggest that the motility of the ES gut depends on the domes' epithelial-muscular axis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial marker thyroid transcription factor-1 and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Expression of a fms-related oncogene in carcinogen-induced neoplastic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.; Nettesheim, P.; Barrett, J.C.; Gilmer, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Following carcinogen exposure in vitro, normal rat tracheal epithelial cells are transformed in a multistage process in which the cultured cells become immortal and ultimately, neoplastic. Five cell lines derived from tumors produced by neoplastically transformed rat tracheal epithelial cells were examined for the expression of 11 cellular oncogenes previously implicated in pulmonary or epithelial carcinogenesis. RNA homologous to fms was expressed at a level 5-19 times higher than normal tracheal epithelial cells in three of five of the tumor-derived lines. All three lines expressing high levels of fms-related RNA gave rise to invasive tumors of epithelial origin when injected into nude mice. Increased expression of the fms-related mRNA was not due to gene amplification, and no gene rearrangement was detected by Southern analyses. RNA blot analysis using a 3' v-fms probe detected a 9.5-kilobase message in the three tumor-derived lines, whereas both normal rat aveolar macrophages and the human choriocarcinoma line BeWo expressed a fms transcript of ≅ 4 kilobases. The authors conclude from these data that the gene expressed as a 9.5-kilobase transcript in these neoplastic epithelial cells is a member of a fms-related gene family but may be distinct from the gene that encodes the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor

  14. Change of tumor target volume during waiting time for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Yi Junlin; Gao Li; Xu Guozhen; Huang Xiaodong; Zhang Zhong; Luo Jingwei; Li Suyan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of change in tumor target volume of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) while waiting for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: From March 2005 to December 2005, 31 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma received IMRT as the initial treatment at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academic of Medical Sciences. The original simulation CT scan was acquired before IMRT planning. A second CT scan was acquired before the start of radiotherapy. Wait- ing time was defined as the duration between CT simulation and start of radiotherapy. CT-CT fusion was used to minimize the error of delineation between the first tumor target volume (GTV) and the second tumor target volume (sGTV). Tumor target volume was calculated by treatment planning system. T test was carried out to analyse the difference between GTV and sGTV. Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression was used to analyse the influence factor of the change betweent GTV and sGTV. Results: Median waiting time was 18 days (range, 9-27 days). There were significant differences between GTV and sGTV of both primary tumor (P=0.009) and metastatic lymphoma (P=0.005 ). Both Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression showed that the change of primary tumor target volume had significant correlation with the first tumor target volume but had no significant correlation with the waiting time, sex, age, T stage and N stage (1992 Chinese Fuzhou Staging Classification). Conclusions: Within the range of the waiting time ob- served in our study, large volume primary tumor would have had a significant increase in volume, but whether the therapeutic effect would be influenced or not would need to be proved by study of large number of cases. Patients with large volume tumor should be considered to reduce the influence of waiting time by enlarging gross target volume and clinical targe volume and by neoadjuveant chemotherapy. For avoiding the unnecessary high-dose to normal

  15. LASSO NTCP predictors for the incidence of xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2014-01-01

    To predict the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-reported xerostomia among head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed by using quality of life questionnaire datasets from 152 patients with HNSCC and 84 patients with NPC. The primary endpoint was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia after IMRT. The numbers of predictive factors for a multivariable logistic regression model were determined using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with bootstrapping technique. Four predictive models were achieved by LASSO with the smallest number of factors while preserving predictive value with higher AUC performance. For all models, the dosimetric factors for the mean dose given to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid gland were selected as the most significant predictors. Followed by the different clinical and socio-economic factors being selected, namely age, financial status, T stage, and education for different models were chosen. The predicted incidence of xerostomia for HNSCC and NPC patients can be improved by using multivariable logistic regression models with LASSO technique. The predictive model developed in HNSCC cannot be generalized to NPC cohort treated with IMRT without validation and vice versa. PMID:25163814

  16. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C

    2002-07-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness in patients with head and neck irradiation for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, N.M.C.; Lam, W.W.M.; Chook, P.; Woo, K.S.; Liu, K.H.; Leung, S.F.; Wong, K.S.; Metreweli, C.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown to be useful in the evaluation and monitoring of carotid artery atherosclerosis in patients at risk of cardiovascular events. In this study, we aimed to examine the IMT in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received irradiation to the carotid arteries during radiotherapy, and compared them with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one NPC patients (aged between 39 and 69 years) and a group of 51 age-and sex-matched controls were studied by ultrasound. The IMT at the far wall of the common carotid artery was measured three times and the average value taken in each subject. The IMT of both groups were compared. Risk factors for IMT thickness, including hypertension, smoking, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, history of cerebrovascular accidents and cardiovascular disease, were also studied. RESULTS: The mean carotid IMT of patients in the NPC group (2.2+/-1.5 mm) was statistically greater than that in normal controls (0.7+/-0.15 mm) (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the IMT in the right and left common carotid arteries within each group of patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patients with irradiation have increased arterial IMT. As they are asymptomatic the clinical relevance is not clear. So, N.M.C. et al. (2002)

  18. Grave’s disease induced by radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, JIN-AN; LI, XUEZHEN; ZOU, WEN; ZHOU, YAN

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A number of thyroid dysfunctions are induced by damage resulting from the relatively high doses of radiation administered to the thyroid and pituitary gland during radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism constitutes the most frequent type of thyroid dysfunction induced by NPC radiotherapy, while hyperthyroidism, particularly Grave’s disease, is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of a 40-year-old male who presented with Grave’s disease 2 years after receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of NPC. The patient exhibited swelling of the eyes, an increased appetite, decreased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, increased levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) demonstrated by the examination of thyroid function and enlargement of the bilateral intraocular rectus revealed by CT scan. The patient’s symptoms were ameliorated following treatment with propylthiouracil and propranolol for 1 month, and the levels of T3 and T4 were restored to normal. The pathophysiological mechanism of radiotherapy-induced hyperthyroidism has yet to be elucidated. Hyperthyroidism is often neglected as several of its clinical manifestations are similar to other complications observed during and following cancer treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor thyroid function following head and neck radiotherapy. PMID:23946792

  19. Value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma target delineation and radiotherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Feng Yanlin

    2011-01-01

    18 F-FDG PET-CT has widely used in nasopharyngeal carcinoma diagnosis and staging in recent years, it's effecten target volume delineation has received great attention. The article lays stress on the clinical research progress of 18 F-FDG PET-CT in the radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma improve the accuracy of target delineation, reduce the difference of target delineation, guide the dose painting and boost. (authors)

  20. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy technique using 3-D conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Gwi Eon; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Hee Chul; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Sei Kyung; Loh, Juhn Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Although using the high energy photon beam with conventional parallel-opposed beams radio-therapy for nasopgaryngeal carcinoma, radiation-induced xerostomia is a troublesome problem for patients. We conducted this study to explore a new parotid gland sparing technique in 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) in an effort to prevent the radiation-induced xerostomia. We performed three different planning for four clinically node-negative nasopharyngeal cancer patients with different location of tumor(intracranial extension, nasal cavity extension, oropharyngeal extension, parapharyngeal extension), and intercompared the plans. Total prescription dose was 70.2 Gy to the isocenter. For plan-A, 2-D parallel opposing fields, a conventional radiotherapy technique, were employed. For plan-B, 2-D parallel opposing fields were used up until 54 Gy and afterwards 3-D non-coplanar beams were used. For plan-C, the new technique, 54Gy was delivered by 3-D conformal 3-port beams (AP and both lateral ports with wedge compensator, shielding both superficial lobes of parotid glands at the AP beam using BEV) from the beginning of the treatment and early spinal cord block (at 36 Gy) was performed. And bilateral posterior necks were treated with electron after 36 Gy. After 54 Gy, non-coplanar beams were used for cone-down plan. We intercompared dose statistics (Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D95, D05, V95, V05, Volume receiving 46 Gy) and dose volume histograms (DVH) of tumor and normal tissues and NTCP values of parotid glands for the above three plans. For all patients, the new technique (plan-C) was comparable or superior to the other plans in target volume isodose distribution and dose statistics and it has more homogenous target volume coverage. The new technique was most superior to the other plans in parotid glands sparing (volume receiving 46 Gy: 100, 98, 69% for each plan-A, B and C). And it showed the lowest NTCP value of parotid glands in all patients (range of NTCP; 96-100%, 79-99%, 51

  1. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) overexpression in clinical staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Muzakkir, M. M.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular biological research on nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been widely practiced, such as VEGF, EGFR, COX-2 expression and so on. MAPK plays a role in cell growth such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, primarily contributing to gene expression, where p38 MAPK pathway mostly associate with anti-apoptosis and cause cell transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of p38 MAPK in clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma so that the result can be helpful in prognosis and adjunctive therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The research design is descriptive. It was done in THT- KL Department of FK USU/RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan and Pathology Anatomical Department of FK USU. The study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012. The Samples are all patients who diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in oncology division of Otorhinolaryngology Department. p38 MAPK overexpression was found in 21 samples (70%) from 30 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. The elevated of p38 MAPK expression most found on T4 by eight samples (38.1%), N3 lymph node group by nine samples (42.9%), stage IV of clinical staging is as many as 15 samples (71.4%). p38 MAPK most expressed in stage IV clinical staging of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  2. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay M Nawandar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1 promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

  3. The disruption of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Ali R; McDonough, John E; Seyednejad, Nazgol; Hogg, James C; Walker, David C

    2009-12-01

    Progression of COPD is associated with a measurable increase in small airway wall thickness resulting from a repair and remodeling process that involves fibroblasts of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU). The present study was designed to examine the organization of fibroblasts within the lamina propria of small airways with respect to their contacts with the epithelium and with each other in persons with COPD. Transmission electron microcopy (TEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of serial TEM sections were used to estimate the frequency and determine the nature of the contacts between the epithelium and fibroblasts within the EMTU in small airways from 5 controls (smokers with normal lung function), from 6 persons with mild (GOLD-1) and 5 with moderate (GOLD-2) COPD. In airways from control lungs fibroblasts make frequent contact with cytoplasmic extensions of epithelial cells through apertures in the epithelial basal lamina, but the frequency of these fibroblast-epithelial contacts is reduced in both mild and moderate COPD compared to controls (p < 0.01). The 3D reconstructions showed that the cytoplasmic extensions of lamina propria fibroblasts form a reticulum with fibroblast-fibroblast contacts in an airway from a control subject but this reticulum may be reorganized in airways of COPD patients. Development of COPD is associated with significant disruption of the EMTU due to a reduction of contacts between fibroblasts and the epithelium.

  4. Epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid and subsequent breast cancer risk: A historic prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltzell, Kimberly A; Moghadassi, Michelle; Rice, Terri; Sison, Jennette D; Wrensch, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have shown that women with abnormal cytology or epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) have an increased relative risk (RR) of breast cancer when compared to women from whom NAF was attempted but not obtained (non-yielders). This study analyzed NAF results from a group of women seen in a breast clinic between 1970–1991 (N = 2480). Our analysis presented here is an aggregate of two sub-groups: women with questionnaire data (n = 712) and those with NAF visits beginning in 1988 (n = 238), the year in which cancer case information was uniformly collected in California. Cytological classification was determined for a group of 946 women using the most abnormal epithelial cytology observed in fluid specimens. Breast cancer incidence and mortality status was determined through June 2006 using data from the California Cancer Registry, California Vital Statistics and self-report. We estimated odd ratios (ORs) for breast cancer using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age. We analyzed breast cancer risk related to abnormality of NAF cytology using non-yielders as the referent group and breast cancer risk related to the presence or absence of epithelial cells in NAF, using non-yielders/fluid without epithelial cells as the referent group. Overall, 10% (93) of the 946 women developed breast cancer during the follow-up period. Age-adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) compared to non-yielders were 1.4 (0.3 to 6.4), 1.7 (0.9 to 3.5), and 2.0 (1.1 to 3.6) for women with fluid without epithelial cells, normal epithelial cells and hyperplasia/atypia, respectively. Comparing the presence or absence of epithelial cells in NAF, women with epithelial cells present in NAF were more likely to develop breast cancer than non-yielders or women with fluid without epithelial cells (RR = 1.9, 1.2 to 3.1). These results support previous findings that 1) women with abnormal epithelial cells in NAF have an increased risk of breast cancer when compared to

  5. Andrographolide Suppresses Proliferation of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Attenuating NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro has been reported to have anticancer activity in multiple types of cancer due to its capacity to inactivate NF-κB pathway. Previous studies showed the therapeutic potential of targeting NF-κB pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the anticancer activity of Andro in NPC has not been reported. In this study, we defined the anticancer effects of Andro in NPC and elucidated its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that Andro significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (P<0.05, resp.. These anticancer activities were associated with cell apoptosis, cell death and induction of cell cycle arrest, and the downregulation of NF-κB target genes. This work provides evidence that NF-κB pathway is a potential therapeutic target and may also be indispensable in the Andro-mediated anticancer activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  6. Relationship Between Salted Fish Consumption and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: An Evidence-based Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanuliman Putera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to know the relationship between salted fish consumption and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Methods: we searched for the articles from PubMed® and ScienceDirect® based on our clinical question. After filtered with our in- and exclusion criteria, we had six articles about this topic, all of them were case-control studies. All articles were then critically appraised for their validity, importance, and applicability. Results: there was no consistent relationship between salted fish consumption and NPC. Worth to note that those studies wo showed the firm relationship were conducted in Southern China, where the incidence of NPC was extremely high and related to specific Chineese-style salted fish consumption. Conclusion: there was an inconsistent relationship between salted fish consumption and NPC. Key words: salted fish, risk factor, nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  7. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with skull base invasion : intratumoral direct puncture embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hye Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Kee Hyun [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the utility and efficacy of percutaneous direct glue embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas with skull base invasion. In nine cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas with invasion of the skull base, embolization under general anethesia was performed. Using an 18G spinal needle, direct puncture were made via the transnasal or mandibular sciatic notch. A glue-lipiodol mixture (1:1 -1:3) was injected slowly for 15 to 30 seconds under fluoroscopic control; the number of post-embolization angiography and the distribution of embolic materials was assessed on CT within 1-3 days. The mass was surgically removed 3 to 7 days after embolization. Direct glue embolization of juvenile angiofibroma with skull base invasion appears to be a simple and safe procedure. The technique could be used for other hypervascular lesions in the base of the skull or parapharyngeal space. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Clinical value of pre-operative embolization of maxillary artery for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wenke; Shan Hong; Zhu Kangshun; Jiang Zabo; Guan Shouhai; Huang Mingsheng; Li Zhengran; Shen Xinying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of pre-operative embolization for nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Methods: 13 patients with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma confirmed by surgery and biopsy were retrospectively analysed. Bilateral carotid artery angiography was performed for demonstration of the arterial supply of tumor. According to the size and different caliber of arteries, embolization were separately undertaken by different types of coil via 4.1 or 5F Head-Hunter catheter. The embolization efficacy, embolization was evaluated by amount of blood loss. Results: After coil embolization, no complication happened ranging 1-4 days (mean 2 days) in all 13 patients and then all the tumor masses were totally resected with mean blood loss of (584.6 ± 379.4) ml (range 250-1500 ml). Conclusions: Preoperative coils embolization is safe, reliable with less complication especially for reducing intraoperative blood loss and promoting the prognosis. (authors)

  9. Bilateral blindness following anterior nasal packing in a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, A K; Preetam, C; Kumar, R; Samal, D K

    2016-11-01

    Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency encountered in the Emergency Department. Most cases can be managed by simple anterior nasal packing. This is usually a safe and very effective option in an emergency situation, requiring minimal expertise and infrastructure. This paper describes a rare instance of a serious complication following anterior nasal packing in a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. A 27-year-old man diagnosed with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma presented to the Emergency Department with bilateral epistaxis. The patient was stabilised and anterior nasal packing was performed, which controlled the bleeding. Three hours later, the patient developed complete blindness in both eyes. Aggressive medical management was initiated immediately, but failed to restore the patient's vision. Anterior nasal packing is a simple and minimally invasive procedure practised regularly in an Emergency Department setting. However, it can occasionally lead to serious complications such as blindness. Thus, obtaining informed consent is essential to avoid medico-legal consequences in high-risk cases.

  10. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with skull base invasion : intratumoral direct puncture embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Kee Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the utility and efficacy of percutaneous direct glue embolization for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas with skull base invasion. In nine cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas with invasion of the skull base, embolization under general anethesia was performed. Using an 18G spinal needle, direct puncture were made via the transnasal or mandibular sciatic notch. A glue-lipiodol mixture (1:1 -1:3) was injected slowly for 15 to 30 seconds under fluoroscopic control; the number of post-embolization angiography and the distribution of embolic materials was assessed on CT within 1-3 days. The mass was surgically removed 3 to 7 days after embolization. Direct glue embolization of juvenile angiofibroma with skull base invasion appears to be a simple and safe procedure. The technique could be used for other hypervascular lesions in the base of the skull or parapharyngeal space. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  11. Rupture of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after irradiation for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Sasai, Hisanori; Kamakura, Aya; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been external radiotherapy. Rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of irradiation therapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 78 years old man had a history of NPC treated with radiotherapy in 1993. He was admitted to the hospital because of epistaxis. Angiography showed an ICA pseudoaneurysm pointing medially to the nasopharynx. Coil embolization of the ICA was performed, but cerebral infarction occurred. Internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis of the aneurysm and planning the embolization of the ICA. We should be more aware of this complication in NPC patients. (author)

  12. The otological status of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after megavoltage radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, N.L.S.; Choy, A.T.K.; John, D.G.; Hassalt, C.A. van

    1992-01-01

    A middle ear effusion is a common complication of nasopharyngeal carcinoma both before and after radiotherapy. An effusion was found in 38 per cent of patients before radiotherapy and 9 per cent developed an effusion after the start of radiotherapy. Surgical treatment by myringotomy with or without grommet insertion was associated with a high incidence of otorrhoea (26 per cent) which was often refractory to treatment. In view of the frequency of this complication and the fact that a middle ear effusion may not be of concern to an adult patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a wait and see policy may be appropriate in the management of a middle ear effusion in these patients. (Author)

  13. Gene mutation in ATM/PI3K region of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmei; Wu Xinyao; Xia Yunfei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define the correlation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell radiosensitivity and gene mutation in the ATM/PI3K coding region. Methods: The gene mutation in the ATM/PI3K region of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines which vary in radiosensitivity, was monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence-marked ddNTP cycle sequencing technique. Results: No gene mutation was detected in the ATM/PI3K region of either CNE1 or CNE2. Conclusion: Disparity in intrinsic radiosensitivity between different NPC cell lines depends on some other factors and mechanism without being related to ATM/PI3K mutations

  14. Extreme fenestration of the basilar artery associated with cleft palate, nasopharyngeal mature teratoma, and hypophyseal duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S. [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Fujita, I. [Department of Pediatrics, Saga Medical School, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    The authors present the case of a newborn girl with extreme fenestration of the basilar artery. This anomaly was found incidentally during MR imaging study for cleft palate and nasopharyngeal teratoma. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a totally duplicated basilar artery with connections at the proximal and distal ends of the artery, suggesting an extreme fenestration. Duplicated pituitary gland was also found on MR imaging. (orig.)

  15. Extreme fenestration of the basilar artery associated with cleft palate, nasopharyngeal mature teratoma, and hypophyseal duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Sawada, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S.; Fujita, I.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the case of a newborn girl with extreme fenestration of the basilar artery. This anomaly was found incidentally during MR imaging study for cleft palate and nasopharyngeal teratoma. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a totally duplicated basilar artery with connections at the proximal and distal ends of the artery, suggesting an extreme fenestration. Duplicated pituitary gland was also found on MR imaging. (orig.)

  16. Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, J.S.; Gerros, T.C.; Parker, J.E.; Carter, C.A.; LaMarche, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 month old female llama was presented with inspiratory dyspnea. Radiographically, there was a large soft tissue mass nearly occluding the nasopharynx. During endoscopic examination three nasopharyngeal bots were identified embedded in the mass. The larvae were removed and the patient treated with ivermectin. The patient was discharged one week later free of clinical respiratory disease. In follow-up radiographs made 6 weeks later, only residual radiopacity in the area of the mass remained

  17. Long-term survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and late complications of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Mitsuru; Komori, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hideyo; Takimoto, Toru; Umeda, Ryozo

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation remains the mainstay of treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the primary site and the neck. We studied the long-term effects of irradiation in five patients who have survived ten or more years after treatment without recurrence of disease, and we were impressed by the rarity of disabling complications of the treatment. Minor complications were common, and especially troublesome were xerostomia, dental caries, postnasal crusting and neck weakness. (author)

  18. Prevalence of Methicillin?Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, A.G.; Rankin, S.C.; Duffee, L.A.; Morris, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horse...

  19. Invasive growth patterns of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: radiological imaging and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Anna; Szymański, Marcin; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign lesion with locally aggressive nature. Knowledge of its typical growth patterns is crucial for precise preoperative staging and adequate preoperative patient counseling. This pictorial essay focuses on characteristic radiological features and paths of invasive growth of this rare tumor. Also, the impact of accurate preoperative evaluation of tumor extensions on surgical planning and results of treatment are discussed. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Validation of a new prognostic index score for disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Toh, C-K; Heng, D; Ong, Y-K; Leong, S-S; Wee, J; Tan, E-H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma have variable survival outcomes. We previously designed a scoring system to better prognosticate these patients. Here, we report results on validation of this new prognostic index score in a separate cohort of patients. Clinical features and laboratory parameters were examined in 172 patients with univariate and multivariate analyses and a numerical score was derived for each independent prognostic variable. Significant independent prognostic ...

  1. Comparison of SPECT and CT in detecting skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Jinchuan; Pu Nuo; Song Wenzhong; Chen Mingxi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detecting ability of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-three patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined by whole body and skull base SPECT and CT of nasopharynx and skull base before radiotherapy. The results were double-blind compared and evaluated. Results: The overall positive rates of skull base invasion detected by SPECT and CT were 63.5% and 25.4%. In patients with headache, cranial nerve palsy and both, they were 87.9%, 93.3%, 92.3% and 42.4%, 46.7%, 46.2%. In patients with T 1 + T 2 and T 3 + T 4 lesions, they were 37.5%, 90.3% and 0.0%, 51.6%. In patients with N 0 + N 1 and N 2 + N 3 lesions, they were 63.9%, 63.0% and 19.4%, 33.3%. The positive rates of SPECT were higher than those of CT (McNemar Test, P < 0.05). The conformation rate between SPECT and CT was 61.9% and the dissimilitude rate was 38.1%. Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that headache and T stages were risk factors of positive SPECT rate (ORheadache = 3.864, ORTstage= 6.422) while Tstage and Nstage were the risk factors for positive CT rate (ORTstage = 48.932, ORNstage = 2.860). Conclusions: The detection sensitivity of SPECT in skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is superior to that of CT. But its specificity is inferior to that of CT. The detecting results in SPECT are better related to symptoms, signs and stage. Combining headache and cranial nerve palsy with T and N stage, the authors may much improve the results of SPECT and CT in the detection of skull base invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Further study is warranted

  2. Contribution of autophagy inhibitor to radiation sensitization in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhirui; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Wei; Qu song; Pan Wenyan; Guo Ya; Su Fang; Li Xiaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of autophagy in radiation-induced death response of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Methods: MTT method was used to detect cell viability of CNE-2 cells in different time after irradiation. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effect of autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine phosphate) and autophagy inductor (rapamycin) on radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The expressions of LC3 and P62 were measured with Western blot. Cell ultrastructural analysis was performed under an electron microscope.Results Irradiation with 10 Gy induced a massive accumulation of autophagosomes accompanied with up-regulation of LC3-Ⅱ expression in CNE-2 cells. Compared with radiation alone, chloroquine phosphate (CDP) enhanced radiosensitivity significantly by decreasing cell viability (F=25.88, P<0.05), autophagic ratio (F=105.15, P<0.05), and LC3-Ⅱ protein level (F=231.68, P<0.05), while up-regulating the expression of P62 (F=117.52, P<0.05). Inhibition of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=143.72, P<0.05). Rapamycin (RAPA) also significantly decreased cell viability, but increased autophagic ratio and LC3-Ⅱ protein level while down-regulated the expression of P62. Induction of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis (F=167.32, P<0.05). Conclusions: Blockage of autophagy with CDP could enhance radiosensitivity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy could be used as an adjuvant treatment to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (authors)

  3. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM and extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hui Chong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM is a disease that may present with coma, quadriplegia, or no symptoms at all. It is an iatrogenic demyelinating disease caused most frequently by overzealous correction of chronic hyponatremia and excessive swings in serum osmolality. Lesions can also occur outside the pons as extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM. Herein we have reported a case of CPM and EPM in a patient after chemoradiotherapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  4. Extended osteoplastic maxillotomy for total excision of giant multicompartmental juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshy Santosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA is a rare vascular neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in adolescent males. Although benign, it is often locally aggressive and can erode into surrounding tissues and structures resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. In 20% of cases, there is intracranial extension. In this paper, we report on the total excision of a large, recurrent JNA with intracranial extension into the middle cranial fossa encroaching into the cavernous sinus, by right temporal craniotomy and extended osteoplastic maxillotomy.

  5. Haemophilia, AIDS and lung epithelial permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Doherty, M.J.; Page, C.J.; Harrington, C.; Nunan, T.; Savidge, G. (Haemophilia Centre and Coagulation Research Unit, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1990-01-01

    Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer was measured in HIV antibodypositive haemophiliacs (11 smokers, 26 nonsmokers, 5 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)). Lung {sup 99m}Tc DTPA transfer as a marker of lung epithelial permeability was measured as the half time of transfer (from airspace into blood). This half time was faster in smokers compred to nonsmokers and the transfer curve was monoexponential. In nonsmokers no difference was observed between asymptomatic HIV-positive haemophiliacs and normal subjects, with the exception of the lung bases. At the lung basis in HIV-positive haemophiliac nonsmokers the transfer was faster than in normal individuals, implying increased alveolar permeability. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia resulted in a rapid transfer of {sup 99m}Tc DTPA (mean T50 of 2 minutes) and the transfer curve was biphasic, confirming previous observations in homosexual HIV antibody-positive patients with PCP. These changes returned to a monoexponential profile by 6 weeks following successful treatment. The DTPA lung transfer study may enable clinicians to instigate therapy for PCP without the need for initial bronchoscopy and provide a noninvasive method for the reassessment of patients should further respiratory signs or symptoms develop. This method is considered to be highly cost-effective in that it obviates the use of factor VIII concentrates required to cover bronchoscopic procedures and, with its early application and ease of use as a follow-up investigation, permits the evaluation of patients on an outpatient basis, thus reducing hospital costs. (au).

  6. Haemophilia, AIDS and lung epithelial permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Page, C.J.; Harrington, C.; Nunan, T.; Savidge, G.

    1990-01-01

    Lung 99m Tc DTPA transfer was measured in HIV antibodypositive haemophiliacs (11 smokers, 26 nonsmokers, 5 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)). Lung 99m Tc DTPA transfer as a marker of lung epithelial permeability was measured as the half time of transfer (from airspace into blood). This half time was faster in smokers compred to nonsmokers and the transfer curve was monoexponential. In nonsmokers no difference was observed between asymptomatic HIV-positive haemophiliacs and normal subjects, with the exception of the lung bases. At the lung basis in HIV-positive haemophiliac nonsmokers the transfer was faster than in normal individuals, implying increased alveolar permeability. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia resulted in a rapid transfer of 99m Tc DTPA (mean T50 of 2 minutes) and the transfer curve was biphasic, confirming previous observations in homosexual HIV antibody-positive patients with PCP. These changes returned to a monoexponential profile by 6 weeks following successful treatment. The DTPA lung transfer study may enable clinicians to instigate therapy for PCP without the need for initial bronchoscopy and provide a noninvasive method for the reassessment of patients should further respiratory signs or symptoms develop. This method is considered to be highly cost-effective in that it obviates the use of factor VIII concentrates required to cover bronchoscopic procedures and, with its early application and ease of use as a follow-up investigation, permits the evaluation of patients on an outpatient basis, thus reducing hospital costs. (au)

  7. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H 2 O 2 treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

  8. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  9. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Heijink, Irene H

    2018-02-01

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD. Of note, disruption of epithelial junctions may lead to modulation of signaling pathways involved in differentiation, repair, and proinflammatory responses. Epithelial barrier dysfunction may be particularly relevant in COPD, where repeated injury by cigarette smoke exposure, pathogens, inflammatory mediators, and impaired epithelial regeneration may compromise the barrier function. In the current review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of barrier dysfunction in COPD, as well as the molecular mechanisms that underlie the impaired repair response of the injured epithelium in COPD and its inability to redifferentiate into a functionally intact epithelium.

  10. Genetic alterations in Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas and head and neck cancer

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    Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONETXT: Ras gene mutations have been associated to a wide range of human solid tumors. Members of the ras gene family (Ki-ras, Ha-ras and N-ras are structurally related and code for a protein (p21 known to play an important role in the regulation of normal signal transduction and cell growth. The frequency of ras mutations is different from one type of tumor to another, suggesting that point mutations might be carcinogen-specific. OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. We also studied the relative level of Ha-ras mRNA in 32 of the head and neck tumors. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 60 head and neck tumors and in 28 Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (JNA. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Using PCR-SSCP we examined the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. The relative level of Ha-ras mRNA was examined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: None of the head and neck tumors or JNA samples showed evidence of mutations within codons 12, 13, 59 and 61 of Ki-ras or Ha-ras genes. However, 17 (53% of the tumors where gene expression could be examined exhibited increased levels of Ha-ras mRNA compared with the normal tissue derived from the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate for the first time that mutations of Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes are not associated with the development of JNA and confirm previous reports indicating that activating ras mutations are absent or rarely involved in head and neck tumors from western world patients. Furthermore, our findings suggest that overexpression of Ha-ras, rather than mutations, might be an important factor in the development and progression of head and neck tumors.

  11. Telephone information-memory-concentration test used in evaluating cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Yang Xiaoye; Li Ling; Deng Zhuoxia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the telephone information-memory-concentration test (TIMCT) in evaluating the cognitive function of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. Methods: The cognitive function were evaluated by TIMCT and mini mental state examination (MMSE) in 2 weeks for 30 normal persons and 90 NPC patients. And the 90 NPC patients were divided into the 3 months, 2 years and 5 years after radiotherapy groups. All patients were carried out firstly face to face interview and telephone interview 1 time after 2 weeks. Results: The correlation coefficient of all groups between TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were bigger (R=0.850) when MMSE wasn't control variable. And the correlation coefficients between TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were lower (R=0.366) when MMSE was control variable. As for examining time was classification factor, TIMCT (telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) were analyzed by partial correlation analysis. Only normal group was correlated with group of 3 months after radiotherapy and group of 2 years after radiotherapy wasn't correlated with group of 5 years after radiotherapy (R=0.447,0.970,0.200 and 0.062). In addition, the difference plot of TIMCT(telephone) and TIMCT (face to face) indicated that telephone was consistent with face to face interview (MMSE≥28). Both telephone and face to face interview reflected the cognitive function downtrend of research objects. Conclusions: TIMCT (telephone), TIMCT(face to face) and MMSE (face to face) can reflect cognitive function downterend of patients with NPC after radiotherapy. But TIMCT(telephone) used in clinical screening cognitive function impairment of patients with NPC after radiotherapy should be improved further. (authors)

  12. Integrated mRNA and microRNA transcriptome sequencing characterizes sequence variants and mRNA–microRNA regulatory network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma model systems

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    Carol Ying-Ying Szeto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a prevalent malignancy in Southeast Asia among the Chinese population. Aberrant regulation of transcripts has been implicated in many types of cancers including NPC. Herein, we characterized mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes by RNA sequencing (RNASeq of NPC model systems. Matched total mRNA and small RNA of undifferentiated Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-positive NPC xenograft X666 and its derived cell line C666, well-differentiated NPC cell line HK1, and the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP460 were sequenced by Solexa technology. We found 2812 genes and 149 miRNAs (human and EBV to be differentially expressed in NP460, HK1, C666 and X666 with RNASeq; 533 miRNA–mRNA target pairs were inversely regulated in the three NPC cell lines compared to NP460. Integrated mRNA/miRNA expression profiling and pathway analysis show extracellular matrix organization, Beta-1 integrin cell surface interactions, and the PI3K/AKT, EGFR, ErbB, and Wnt pathways were potentially deregulated in NPC. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on selected mRNA/miRNAs in order to validate their expression. Transcript sequence variants such as short insertions and deletions (INDEL, single nucleotide variant (SNV, and isomiRs were characterized in the NPC model systems. A novel TP53 transcript variant was identified in NP460, HK1, and C666. Detection of three previously reported novel EBV-encoded BART miRNAs and their isomiRs were also observed. Meta-analysis of a model system to a clinical system aids the choice of different cell lines in NPC studies. This comprehensive characterization of mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes in NPC cell lines and the xenograft provides insights on miRNA regulation of mRNA and valuable resources on transcript variation and regulation in NPC, which are potentially useful for mechanistic and preclinical studies.

  13. Urgent embolization for the treatment of serious epistaxis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ni Caifang; Liu Yizhi; Jing Yonghai; Zhu Xiaoli; Zou Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical effect and safety of urgent embolization with arterial catheterization in the treatment of serious epistaxis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. Methods: Fifteen patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma occurred serious epistaxis after radiotherapy. Because of failure to respond to the treatment of nasal packing and medication, embolization of the bleeding arteries with gelfoam or steel coils was carried out within 1-4 hours after the bleeding. The target arteries were judged by the internal and external carotid angiographic findings. Results: The embolization procedure was successfully completed, in all of 15 patients within 1.5 hours with the technical successful rate of 100%. The bleeding ceased in all 15 patients with the effective rate of 100%. Mild facial palsy occurred in 2 cases, and facial pain of the affected side in one case. All above symptoms were relived and disappeared in about one week after the procedure, leaving no serious complications. Conclusion: Urgent arterial embolization is an effective, safe and simple method for controlling the serious epistaxis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. Smoking is a poor prognostic factor for male nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Shen, Lu-Jun; Li, Bo-Fei; Gao, Jin; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To evaluate the effect of smoking on prognosis of male nasopharyngeal carcinoma by comparing the treatment outcomes between smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 2450 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were enrolled, including 1865 male patients. Matching was performed between smokers and non-smokers in male patients according to age, UICC clinical stage, T stage, N stage and treatment. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression. Smoking index was calculated by multiplying cigarette packs per day and smoked time (year). Results: In male patients, smokers had significantly lower 5-year overall survival (70.1% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.001) and locoregional recurrent free survival (76.8% vs.82.4%, P = 0.002) compared with non-smokers. Matched-pair analysis showed that smokers kept a high risk of death compared with non-smokers (HR = 2.316, P < 0.001). High degree of smoking index (>15 pack-years) had a poor effect on overall survival (HR = 1.225, P = 0.016). When smoking index was more than 45 and 60 pack-years, the risk for death increased to 1.498 and 1.899 fold compared with non-smokers (P = 0.040, 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Smoking was a poor prognostic factor for male nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The heavier the patients smoked, the poorer prognosis they suffered

  15. Two sampling methods yield distinct microbial signatures in the nasopharynges of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2016-06-16

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during health and disease. Most studies so far have surveyed the nasopharynx as a whole; however, less is known about spatial variation (biogeography) in nasal microenvironments and how sampling techniques may capture that microbial diversity. We used targeted 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and two different sampling strategies [nasal washes (NW) and nasal brushes (NB)] to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota in 30 asthmatic children. Nasal brushing is more abrasive than nasal washing and targeted the inner portion of the inferior turbinate. This region is expected to be different from other nasal microenvironments. Nasal washing is not spatially specific. Our 30 × 2 nasal microbiomes generated 1,474,497 sequences, from which we identified an average of 157 and 186 OTUs per sample in the NW and NB groups, respectively. Microbiotas from NB showed significantly higher alpha-diversity than microbiotas from NW. Similarly, both nasal microbiotas were distinct from each other (PCoA) and significantly differed in their community composition and abundance in at least 9 genera (effective size ≥1 %). Nasopharyngeal microenvironments in asthmatic children contain microbiotas with different diversity and structure. Nasal washes and brushes capture that diversity differently. Future microbial studies of the nasopharynx need to be aware of potential spatial variation (biogeography).

  16. Fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using a flexible bronchoscopic biopsy forcep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Keun; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho

    1996-01-01

    Otolaryngoscopic biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a generalized method which may be associated with inadequate sampling of tissue and patient discomfort. So, we tried fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy using bronchoscopic biopsy forcep and evaluated its safety and efficacy. Prospectively we performed fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy in 11 patients who were radiographically suspected of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The posterior wall of the nasopharynx was coated with barium sulfate under fluoroscopy. A flexible bronchoscopic biopsy forcep with a steerable guiding catheter which was used in removal of intrahepatic duct stones was inserted through the nare. After localization of the tip of the biopsy forcep at tumor site with fluoroscopy, a tissue specimen was obtained. We also tried CT guided biopsy in initial 2cases. Each patient had otolaryngoscopic biopsy to compare the biopsy result and patient discomfort. We could have sufficient amount of tissue for pathological evaluation in 10 of 11 patients by the first pass with the fluoroscopic technique. Contrarily, otolaryngoscopic biopsy was successful in 7 of 11 patients on single passage. Additionally, 2 patients had complaint in our method comparing with 9 patients in otolaryngoscopic biopsy. Fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using the bronchoscopic biopsy forcep is safe and accurate. It can be a appropriate method competing otolaryngoscopic biopsy

  17. Nasopharyngeal Carriage Rate and Serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in Turkish recruits upon entry to the military

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    Ahmet Basustaoglu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine nasopharyngeal carriage rate and serogroup of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from Turkish recruits upon entry to the military. Material and Methods: Nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 1995 soldiers and were inoculated immediately on BBL-modified Thayer-Martin medium plates. The plates were examined for the presence of colonies showing the typical morphology of N. meningitidis. Suspect colonies were screened for oxidase reactivity, and positive colonies were Gram stained. If Gram-negative diplococci were present, a biochemical profile by the API NH system was used for confirmation. Serogrouping of the meningococcal isolates was performed by a slide agglutination technique. Findings: The nasopharyngeal carriage rate of N. meningitidis was found to be 4.2% (n=83. Of these meningococci, 15.6% (n=13 were serogroup Y, 10.8% (n=9 were serogroup W-135, 9.6% (n=8 were serogroup C, 6.1% (n=5 were serogroup B, 2.4% (n=2 were serogroup A. The 46 isolates (55.4% were detected as nonserogroupable. Conclusion: Since serogroup Y and W-135 are predominant in this study population, it was suggest that Turkish recruits should be vaccinated by quadrivalent vaccine (A,C,Y, and W-135 upon the military instead of A+C polysaccharide vaccine and now quadrivalent vaccine has been carried out. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 447-450

  18. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  19. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chunhui; Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient