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Sample records for normal language development

  1. Kinematic differentiation of prosodic categories in normal and disordered language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    Prosody is complex and hierarchically organized but is realized as rhythmic movement sequences. Thus, observations of the development of rhythmic aspects of movement can provide insight into links between motor and language processes, specifically whether prosodic distinctions (e.g., feet and prosodic words) are instantiated in rhythmic movement output. This experiment examined 4-7-year-old children's (both normally developing and specifically language impaired) and adults' productions of prosodic sequences that were controlled for phonetic content but differed in morphosyntactic structure (i.e., content vs. function words). Primary analyses included kinematic measures of rhythmic structure (i.e., amplitude and duration of movements in weak vs. strong syllables) across content and function contexts. Findings showed that at the level of articulatory movement, adults produced distinct rhythmic categories across content and function word contexts, whereas children did not. Children with specific language impairment differed from normally developing peers only in their ability to produce well-organized and stable rhythmic movements, not in the differentiation of prosodic categories.

  2. A new Approach to the Study of Russian Language Acquisition in Preschool Children with Normal and Abnormal Development

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    Lebedeva T.V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibilities of using a standardized method of psychological evaluation of the Russian language development in preschool children. We provide a rationale for the relevance of timely differentiation of children with language and speech difficulties in modern educational practice. We present the results of comparative analysis of language and speech development in the two groups of children 5-6 years old: normally developing (N=92 and with language and speech disorders (N=59. We describe the diagnostic potential of this research tool for clinical sample of children with speech and language disorders, reveal differences in the development of Russian language between the two groups of children. The data obtained can be used in solving the problems of differentiated correctional help to pre-school children with impaired language and speech development.

  3. Associations between the size of the amygdala in infancy and language abilities during the preschool years in normally developing children.

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    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choe, Myong-sun; Flax, Judy; Grant, P Ellen; Benasich, April A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, structural MRI studies in children have been used to examine relations between brain volume and behavioral measures. However, most of these studies have been done in children older than 2 years of age. Obtaining volumetric measures in infants is considerably more difficult, as structures are less well defined and largely unmyelinated, making segmentation challenging. Moreover, it is still unclear whether individual anatomic variation across development, in healthy, normally developing infants, is reflected in the configuration and function of the mature brain and, as importantly, whether variation in infant brain structure might be related to later cognitive and linguistic abilities. In this longitudinal study, using T1 structural MRI, we identified links between amygdala volume in normally developing, naturally sleeping, 6-month infants and their subsequent language abilities at 2, 3 and 4 years. The images were processed and manually segmented using Cardviews to extract volumetric measures. Intra-rater reliability for repeated segmentation was 87.73% of common voxel agreement. Standardized language assessments were administered at 6 and 12 months and at 2, 3 and 4 years. Significant and consistent correlations were found between amygdala size and language abilities. Children with larger right amygdalae at 6 months had lower scores on expressive and receptive language measures at 2, 3, and 4 years. Associations between amygdala size and language outcomes have been reported in children with autism. The findings presented here extend this association to normally developing children, supporting the idea that the amygdalae might play an important but as yet unspecified role in mediating language acquisition. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Semantic Differences of Definitional skills between Persian Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Normal Language Developing Children

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    Mehri Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge are the effective factors for definitional skills. This study investigated definitional skills both content and form in children with specific language impairment. Materials and Method: The participants were 32 Children in two groups of 16 SLI and 16 normal children, matched with age, sex and educational level. The SLI group was referred from Learning Difficulties Centers and Zarei Rehabilitation Center in Tehran, as well as the control group who was selected by randomized sampling from normal primary schools. The stimuli were 14 high frequency nouns from seven different categories. The reliability was calculated by interjudge agreement and the validity was assessed by content. Data was analyzed using independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences between mean scores of content and form of the definitional skills in two groups. The mean and SD scores of the content of word definition were M= 45.87, SD=12.22 in control group and M=33.18, SD= 17.60 for SLI one, out of possible 70 points (P= 0.025. The mean and SD scores of the form of word definition were M= 48.87, SD= 9.49 in control group and M= 38.18, SD= 12.85 for SLI one, out of 70 points (P= 0.012. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that, language problems of the SLI children may not let them semantic represention in order to form and present a complete process of word definition. Although this skill in children with SLI is inadequate, all the definitions given by SLI children were consistent with the categories of content and form of word definition used in this study. Therefore, an exact planning and intervention by speech and language pathologist can be effective for this skill. Linguistic intervention especially in semantic and grammatical aspects not only improves the definition of familiar words but also it might be useful for the definition of new words, consequently lead to educational and

  5. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  6. The normal and pathological language

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Luis D.

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary development of normal and pathological psychology has achieved in recent decades, thanks to the dual method of objective observation and oral survey enabled the researcher spirit of neuro-psychiatrist penetrate the intimate mechanism of the nervous system whose supreme manifestation is thought. It is normal psychology explaining the complicated game of perceptions: their methods of transmission, their centers of projection, its transformations and its synthesis to construct ...

  7. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  8. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…

  9. Speech and Language Development after Infant Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Betsy P.; Singer, Lynn T.

    1990-01-01

    When assessed for speech/language development, 31 children (age 1-12) fitted with endotracheal tubes for more than 3 months beginning by age 13 months showed overall language functioning within normal limits and commensurate with cognitive ability. However, a pattern of expressive language disability was noted in the oldest group. (Author/JDD)

  10. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  11. Developing Bigraphical Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Troels Christoffer

    In this dissertation, we study bigraphical languages—languages based on the theory for bigraphs and bigraphical reactive systems developed by Milner and coworkers. We begin by examining algebraic theory for binding bigraphs. We give a term language for binding bigraphs and develop a complete......, a prototype tool for experimenting with bigraphical reactive systems. In a second line of work, we study bigraphical reactive systems as a vehicle for developing a language to model biochemical reactions at the level of cells and proteins. We discuss and isolate B,R-calculi, a family of bigraphical reactive...

  12. Normal Language Skills and Normal Intelligence in a Child with de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Thomas H.; Kelly, Desmond P.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this case report is a two-year, seven-month-old girl with de Lange syndrome, normal intelligence, and age-appropriate language skills. She demonstrated initial delays in gross motor skills and in receptive and expressive language but responded well to intensive speech and language intervention, as well as to physical therapy.…

  13. Perfil comunicativo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal de linguagem Communicative profile of children between 1 and 3-years old with normal language development

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    Mirtes Adiles Sandri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: traçar o perfil comunicativo (habilidades comunicativas e interacionais, compreensão verbal e aspectos do desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças entre 1 e 3 anos com desenvolvimento normal da linguagem, correlacionando com as variáveis faixa etária e gênero. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 24 crianças (12 meninos e 12 meninas, divididas em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (G1 - crianças de 1 e 2 anos e Grupo 2 (G2 - crianças de 2 e 3 anos. O instrumento de avaliação utilizado foi o Protocolo de Observação Comportamental (PROC (Zorzi e Hage, 2004. RESULTADOS: na análise dos dados quantitativos houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os grupos por faixa etária (PPURPOSE: to trace the communicative profile (communicative and interactive abilities, verbal comprehension and cognitive development aspects of children with normal linguistic development between 1 and 3-year old, correlating with the variables of age groups and gender. METHODS: twenty-four children (12 boys and 12 girls took part in the study, divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1 - children between 1 and 2-year old, and Group 2 (G2 -children between 2 and 3-year old. The used protocol was Behavioral Observation Protocol ("Protocolo de Observação Comportamental - PROC" (Zorzi and Hage, 2004. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the quantitative data when the groups where compared by their age (P<0.05. When comparing qualitative data by their age group, children of the G2 were better (P<0.05, except in the item with regards to the oral language understanding, which resulted being equivalent between the groups (P=0.217. There was no significant statistical difference related to gender, however, we observed superiority in female gender. CONCLUSION: the used test was sensitive for identifying the differences in performance between the two age groups, with regards to the communicative profile of the studied children.

  14. Hemispheric Language Dominance of Language-Disordered, Articulation-Disordered, and Normal Children.

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    Pettit, John M.; Helms, Suzanne B.

    1979-01-01

    The hemispheric dominance for language of three groups of six- to nine- year-olds (ten language-disordered, ten articulation-disordered, and ten normal children) was compared, and two dichotic listening tests (digits and animal names) were administered. (Author/CL)

  15. Evidence for Website Claims about the Benefits of Teaching Sign Language to Infants and Toddlers with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H.; White, Karl R.; Grewe, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The development of proficient communication skills in infants and toddlers is an important component to child development. A popular trend gaining national media attention is teaching sign language to babies with normal hearing whose parents also have normal hearing. Thirty-three websites were identified that advocate sign language for hearing…

  16. Infant and Toddler Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jill Englebright

    A child's need for formal communication may be as much an emotional need as a cognitive need. Several theories attempt to explain children's language development, including the theories developed by B. F. Skinner, Noam Chomsky, and J. Bruner. Most children typically follow a standard sequence of language development: crying and cooing, babbling,…

  17. Developing Language in Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Ingrid C.

    2011-01-01

    The Foreign Language in the Elementary Schools (FLES) program in Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS) provides an opportunity for all students in an elementary school to learn a world language at an early age with a focus on developing students' communicative competence. Technology plays a major role in helping students develop communicative…

  18. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  19. Multi-language Development Enviroments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge

    -language software systems are heavily interrelated, existing development environments do not sufficiently support developers in development of such systems. In particular, handling relations between heterogeneous artifacts is not supported at development time. This thesis (a) studies the characteristics...... environments. I address these research goals by applying tool prototyping, technical experiments, user experiments, surveys, and literature survey as ethodological tools. The main results of this thesis are (a) a taxonomy for construction, comparison, and characterization of multi-language development...

  20. A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Smits, Roel; van Hout, Roeland

    2004-11-01

    An evaluation of vowel normalization procedures for the purpose of studying language variation is presented. The procedures were compared on how effectively they (a) preserve phonemic information, (b) preserve information about the talker's regional background (or sociolinguistic information), and (c) minimize anatomical/physiological variation in acoustic representations of vowels. Recordings were made for 80 female talkers and 80 male talkers of Dutch. These talkers were stratified according to their gender and regional background. The normalization procedures were applied to measurements of the fundamental frequency and the first three formant frequencies for a large set of vowel tokens. The normalization procedures were evaluated through statistical pattern analysis. The results show that normalization procedures that use information across multiple vowels (``vowel-extrinsic'' information) to normalize a single vowel token performed better than those that include only information contained in the vowel token itself (``vowel-intrinsic'' information). Furthermore, the results show that normalization procedures that operate on individual formants performed better than those that use information across multiple formants (e.g., ``formant-extrinsic'' F2-F1). .

  1. Linguistically deprived children: meta-analysis of published research underlines the importance of early syntactic language use for normal brain development

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    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed all published reports of individuals not exposed to syntactic language until puberty: two feral children, who grew up without hearing any language, and eight deaf linguistic isolates, who grew up communicating to their families using homesign or kitchensign, a system of gestures which allows them to communicate simple commands but lacks much in the way of syntax. A common observation in these individuals is the lifelong difficulty understanding syntax and spatial prepositions, even after many years of rehabilitation. This debilitating condition stands in stark contrast to linguistic isolates’ performance on memory as well as semantic tests: they could easily remember hundreds of newly learned words and identify previously seen objects by name. The lack of syntactic language comprehension in linguistic isolates may stem from inability to understand words and/or grammar or inability to mentally synthesize known objects into novel configurations. We have previously shown that purposeful construction of novel mental images is the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC ability to dynamically control posterior cortex neurons (Vyshedskiy et al. 2017. Here we have ranked all tests performed on linguistic isolates by their reliance on the LPFC control of the posterior cortex: a the amount of posterior cortex territory that needs to be recruited by the LPFC and b the number of disparate objects that have to be combined together by the LPFC in order to answer the test question. According to our analysis, linguistic isolates performed well in all tests that did not involve the LPFC control of the posterior cortex, showed decreasing scores in tests that involved greater recruitment of the posterior cortex by the LPFC, and failed in tests that involved greatest recruitment of posterior cortex necessary for mental synthesis of multiple objects. This pattern is consistent with inadequate frontoposterior connections in linguistic isolates

  2. Software development without languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Haywood S.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

  3. A Report on Language Materials Development for Seven Philippine Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKaughan, Howard; Mirikitani, Leatrice

    This report, a follow up to H. McKaughan's article "Language Materials Development" (Philippine Journal for Language Teaching; v2 n1-2 1969), reports on a project at the Pacific and Asian Linguistic Institute (PALI) of the University of Hawaii to develop a set of materials for seven Philippine languages: Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon,…

  4. Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra; Polirstok, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Language Development: Understanding Language Diversity in the Classroom offers comprehensive coverage of the language development process for pre- and in-service teachers while emphasizing the factors that further academic success in the classroom, including literacy skills, phonological awareness, and narrative. With chapters written by respected…

  5. Language Planning, English Language Education and Development Aid in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased status of English as the language of international communication and business has meant that development aid has increasingly been used to finance language planning initiatives aimed at improving and/or expanding English language education. The intended outcome of this aid is often to provide expanded economic returns and…

  6. The missing link in language development of deaf and hard of hearing children: pragmatic language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberis, Dianne; Beams, Dinah; Dalpes, Molly; Abrisch, Amanda; Baca, Rosalinda; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine

    2012-11-01

    This article will provide information about the Pragmatics Checklist, which consists of 45 items and is scored as: (1) not present, (2) present but preverbal, (3) present with one to three words, and (4) present with complex language. Information for both children who are deaf or hard of hearing and those with normal hearing are presented. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are significantly older when demonstrating skill with complex language than their normal hearing peers. In general, even at the age of 7 years, there are several items that are not mastered by 75% of the deaf or hard of hearing children. Additionally, the article will provide some suggestions of strategies that can be considered as a means to facilitate the development of these pragmatic language skills for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Language and Identities: The Exceptional Normality of Italy

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    John J. Kinder

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Language issues loom large in current debates on Italian identity/identities, indigenous minorities in Italy and, of course, immigration. While the context of language debates in early 21st century Italy presents new realities and challenges, the fundamental issues are the same as those originally defined by the first European language planner, Dante, and reworked by successive theorists. The debates turn on exclusions and inclusions, on levels of multiple identities, on understandings of otherness. It is no accident that language is at once as a provocation for debates on identity and a metaphor of those debates, for the tensions that run through the debates lie at the heart of language itself. All cultures have a narrative that explains diversity among languages and cultures, either as the result of a mistake or as divine punishment. The Biblical accounts of Creation, Babel and Pentecost provide the framework for European understandings of language diversity. These accounts capture the paradoxical nature of human language, which characterizes us a species and is a tool for building unity between persons and groups, but is, by its nature, always and inevitably an expression of diversity, in time and space. These contradictions are being played out in current language debates as emigration, return migration, internal migration and immigration elicit new constructions of ‘Italianness’, the literary canon and the social weight of the different varieties of language present on Italian soil and in Italian communities abroad.

  8. LANGUAGE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT: HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS

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    Trisna Dinillah Dinillah Harya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language can change and develop by itself slowly. Language can change and development because of adaptation of development and pattern change and system of society life, such as level of education, social, culture and technology mastery. Language change and development can occur internally and externally. In this article the changes internally and language development will be reviewed by looking through the study of historical change and development language based on the history of its development. While changes in external and development will be explored through the study of Sociolinguistics by examining and looking at changes and developments that language is influenced by socio-cultural factors that occur in society. Changes internally initially occurred in the behavior of speakers in their everyday lives to adjust to each other, and followed by a tendency to innovate in groups of people who are already familiar, then followed by other changes in sequence, which ultimately makes a language different each other, although originally derived from a single language family. Changes in the external language change and language development is caused by the contact of a language with other languages, where humans as social beings who have been cultured either interconnected or inter-ethnic nations in the world in a country. Key words: Language Changes, Internal Change, External Change, Historical linguistics

  9. Input and language development in bilingually developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2013-11-01

    Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children's skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on bilingual first language development for children under 5 years of age. We describe the rate of development in single and total language growth, we describe effects of quantity of input and quality of input on growth, and we describe effects of family composition on language input and language growth in bilingual children. We provide recommendations for language assessment of young bilingual children and consider implications for optimizing children's dual language development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Language Development and the Integrationist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Talbot J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of integrationist literature on the study of language and on a wide range of language-related fields of inquiry, there is as yet no integrationist investigation of the field of language acquisition. This paper argues for the need of an integrationist study of what children learn about language and of how they learn it.…

  11. Tendências da aquisição lexical em crianças em desenvolvimento normal e crianças com Alterações Específicas no Desenvolvimento da Linguagem Trends on lexical acquisition in children within normal development and children with developmental language disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Perina Gândara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever as semelhanças e diferenças encontradas ao longo da aquisição lexical por crianças em desenvolvimento normal e crianças com Alterações Específicas no Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (AEDL, por meio de um amplo levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados (SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Web of Science, Dedalus, que abrangeu as últimas décadas de estudos na área. Os estudos selecionados, de natureza observacional ou experimental, mostraram grande variedade de achados relacionados ao desenvolvimento do vocabulário, abrangendo as tendências e variações e também outras habilidades envolvidas no processo de aquisição lexical. De maneira geral, os resultados sugerem que as alterações lexicais que constituem um dos marcos inicialmente observados em crianças com AEDL são justificadas por dificuldades observadas em habilidades e/ou características influenciadas ou diretamente relacionadas aos mecanismos envolvidos no processamento da informação, que comprometem a qualidade e a recuperação das representações fonológicas e semânticas correspondentes a um novo item lexical. Entretanto, vários estudos sugerem que situações ostensivas e de grande suporte contextual que enfoquem poucas novas palavras favorecem a aquisição lexical de crianças com AEDL.The aim of the present study was to describe the similarities and differences found throughout lexical acquisition between normally developing children and children with developmental language disorder through an extensive literature review. The search was carried out in the databases SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Web of Science and Dedalus, and covered the last decades of studies in the area. The selected studies, of observational or experimental nature, showed great variability of findings related to vocabulary development, describing tendencies and variations, and also other abilities enrolled in the lexical acquisition process. Generally, the

  12. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  13. Language and the Developing Child: Pivotal Ideas of Katrina de Hirsch.

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    Jansky, Jeannette Jefferson

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the contributions of Katrina de Hirsch to the understanding of developmental language disabilities, particularly in the areas of neurophysiological immaturity, the cluttering syndrome, the prediction of reading failure, and normal language development. (Author/DB)

  14. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Physical Development: What’s Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article ... growth . The timing and speed of a child's physical development can vary a lot, because it is ...

  15. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  16. Challenges in clinical natural language processing for automated disorder normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Robert; Khare, Ritu; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Identifying key variables such as disorders within the clinical narratives in electronic health records has wide-ranging applications within clinical practice and biomedical research. Previous research has demonstrated reduced performance of disorder named entity recognition (NER) and normalization (or grounding) in clinical narratives than in biomedical publications. In this work, we aim to identify the cause for this performance difference and introduce general solutions. We use closure properties to compare the richness of the vocabulary in clinical narrative text to biomedical publications. We approach both disorder NER and normalization using machine learning methodologies. Our NER methodology is based on linear-chain conditional random fields with a rich feature approach, and we introduce several improvements to enhance the lexical knowledge of the NER system. Our normalization method - never previously applied to clinical data - uses pairwise learning to rank to automatically learn term variation directly from the training data. We find that while the size of the overall vocabulary is similar between clinical narrative and biomedical publications, clinical narrative uses a richer terminology to describe disorders than publications. We apply our system, DNorm-C, to locate disorder mentions and in the clinical narratives from the recent ShARe/CLEF eHealth Task. For NER (strict span-only), our system achieves precision=0.797, recall=0.713, f-score=0.753. For the normalization task (strict span+concept) it achieves precision=0.712, recall=0.637, f-score=0.672. The improvements described in this article increase the NER f-score by 0.039 and the normalization f-score by 0.036. We also describe a high recall version of the NER, which increases the normalization recall to as high as 0.744, albeit with reduced precision. We perform an error analysis, demonstrating that NER errors outnumber normalization errors by more than 4-to-1. Abbreviations and acronyms are found

  17. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... enrich his vocabulary and language skills by making reading a part of your everyday routine. At this ...

  18. Maturation of Speech and Language Functional Neuroanatomy in Pediatric Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devous, Michael D., Sr.; Altuna, Dianne; Furl, Nicholas, Cooper, William; Gabbert, Gretchen; Ngai, Wei Tat; Chiu, Stephanie; Scott, Jack M., III; Harris, Thomas S.; Payne, J. Kelly; Tobey, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the relationship between age and resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in regions associated with higher order language skills using a population of normal children, adolescents, and young adults. Method: rCBF was measured in 33 normal participants between the ages of 7 and 19 years using single photon…

  19. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  20. Milestones in Language Planning and Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hywel

    2017-01-01

    This paper tracks the changing relationships between language planning and development aid over a period of 70 years from the end of the Second World War to the present day. Drawing on documentary resources--in particular, the published proceedings of the Language and Development Conferences (LDCs)--the paper identifies a number of significant…

  1. The Development of Ojibway Language Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant-Williams, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    Revitalization of the Nishinaabeg language started in 1998 with the development of language materials. A committee on Nishinaabemwin orthography advised on the development of the text and writing system. Teaching methods follow the four parts of Medicine Wheel teachings: spiritual, emotional, physical, and mental. An interactive hockey game and a…

  2. Language Planning and Development Aid: The (In)Visibility of Language in Development Aid Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Benson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Despite the essential role of local, regional, national and international languages in human development, there is little reference to language planning in development aid discourse. Beginning with definitions of development aid and language planning, the paper examines how the two were linked in pre- and post-colonial times, showing how language…

  3. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  4. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  5. Otitis Media and Speech/Language Development in Late-Talkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea; And Others

    This study examines otitis media as a possible factor associated with increased risk for communicative handicap in a group of children with a possible vulnerability for language delay: "late-talkers." Speech and language outcomes at ages 3 and 4 were examined in 28 late talkers and 24 children with normal language development. Late…

  6. Development of Mandarin spoken language after pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Li, Gang; Meng, Zhaoli

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate early spoken language development in young Mandarin-speaking children during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation, as measured by receptive and expressive vocabulary growth rates. Growth rates were compared with those of normally hearing children and with growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants. Receptive and expressive vocabularies were measured with the simplified short form (SSF) version of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) in a sample of 112 pediatric implant recipients at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Implant ages ranged from 1 to 5 years. Scores were expressed in terms of normal equivalent ages, allowing normalized vocabulary growth rates to be determined. Scores for English-speaking children were re-expressed in these terms, allowing direct comparisons of Mandarin and English early spoken language development. Vocabulary growth rates during the first 12 months after implantation were similar to those for normally hearing children less than 16 months of age. Comparisons with growth rates for normally hearing children 16-30 months of age showed that the youngest implant age group (1-2 years) had an average growth rate of 0.68 that of normally hearing children; while the middle implant age group (2-3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.65; and the oldest implant age group (>3 years) had an average growth rate of 0.56, significantly less than the other two rates. Growth rates for English-speaking children with cochlear implants were 0.68 in the youngest group, 0.54 in the middle group, and 0.57 in the oldest group. Growth rates in the middle implant age groups for the two languages differed significantly. The SSF version of the MCDI is suitable for assessment of Mandarin language development during the first 24 months after cochlear implantation. Effects of implant age and duration of implantation can be compared directly across

  7. The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccavale, Terry

    2007-01-01

    It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

  8. Proportional and functional analogical reasoning in normal and language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Erskine, B J; Freed, D B

    1988-11-01

    Teachers often use analogies in classroom settings to clarify new concepts for their students. However, analogies may inadvertently confuse the youngster who has difficulty identifying the one-to-one comparisons underlying them. Although analogical reasoning has been studied extensively in normal children, no information was available concerning this construct in children having a specific language impairment. Thus, it was unknown to what extent they might be deficient in analogical reasoning. Therefore, in the present study, 20 children ages 6-8 years (mean age = 7:6) having normal nonverbal intelligence but deficits in language comprehension were administered tasks of verbal and perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and a problem-solving task of functional analogical reasoning. Compared to a normal-language control group matched on the basis of chronological age and sex, the language-impaired group was deficient in all three tasks of analogical reasoning. However, when the factor of nonverbal intelligence was controlled statistically, the differences between the groups on each of the tasks were removed. Additional findings were that verbal proportional analogical reasoning was significantly correlated to perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and to functional analogical reasoning. Implications for assessment and intervention with young school-age language-impaired children are discussed.

  9. New Frontiers in Language Evolution and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, D Kimbrough; Dale, Rick; Griebel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and its focus on research in language evolution with emphasis on theory as well as computational and robotic modeling. A key theme is based on the growth of evolutionary developmental biology or evo-devo. The Special Issue consists of 13 articles organized in two sections: A) Theoretical foundations and B) Modeling and simulation studies. All the papers are interdisciplinary in nature, encompassing work in biological and linguistic foundations for the study of language evolution as well as a variety of computational and robotic modeling efforts shedding light on how language may be developed and may have evolved. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Development of the Tensoral Computer Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferziger, Joel; Dresselhaus, Eliot

    1996-01-01

    The research scientist or engineer wishing to perform large scale simulations or to extract useful information from existing databases is required to have expertise in the details of the particular database, the numerical methods and the computer architecture to be used. This poses a significant practical barrier to the use of simulation data. The goal of this research was to develop a high-level computer language called Tensoral, designed to remove this barrier. The Tensoral language provides a framework in which efficient generic data manipulations can be easily coded and implemented. First of all, Tensoral is general. The fundamental objects in Tensoral represent tensor fields and the operators that act on them. The numerical implementation of these tensors and operators is completely and flexibly programmable. New mathematical constructs and operators can be easily added to the Tensoral system. Tensoral is compatible with existing languages. Tensoral tensor operations co-exist in a natural way with a host language, which may be any sufficiently powerful computer language such as Fortran, C, or Vectoral. Tensoral is very-high-level. Tensor operations in Tensoral typically act on entire databases (i.e., arrays) at one time and may, therefore, correspond to many lines of code in a conventional language. Tensoral is efficient. Tensoral is a compiled language. Database manipulations are simplified optimized and scheduled by the compiler eventually resulting in efficient machine code to implement them.

  11. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  12. Developing an English Language Textbook Evaluation Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Hajimohammadi, Reza; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the considerations that were taken into account in the development of a tentative English language textbook evaluation checklist. A brief review of the related literature precedes the crucial issues that should be considered in developing checklists. In the light of the previous evaluation checklists the developers created a…

  13. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  14. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  15. Language Revitalization and the Normalization of Basque: A Study of Teacher Perceptions and Expectations in the Basque Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepción; Etxeberria, Feli; Intxausti, Nahia

    2015-01-01

    In the Basque Country, Northern Spain, Basque (Euskera) and Spanish are official languages. In recent decades, Basque language revitalization and the efforts to make this an unmarked language (normalization) have co-existed with the rapid increase in immigration from outside the Basque region, and most recently from outside Spain. Given the…

  16. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  17. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  18. [Influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Kai; Liu, Gui-Hua; Qian, Qin-Fang; Ge, Pin; Xie, Yan-Qin; Yang, Min-Yan; Wang, Zhang-Qiong; Ou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the influence of home nurture environment on language development and social emotion in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). The 1-3 Years Child Home Nurture Environment Scale, Gesell Developmental Scale, and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment Scale were used for the evaluation of 125 children with DLD. A total of 130 children with normal language development matched for age and sex were enrolled as control group. Compared with the control group, the DLD group had a significantly higher proportion of children in a bad home nurture environment and significantly lower scores of all domains of home nurture environment (Pnurture environment score was positively correlated with the level of language development (r=0.536, Pnurture environment had direct influence on language development in children with DLD and affected their language development via the mediating effect of social emotion. Home nurture environment influences language development and social emotion in children with DLD, and social emotion has a partial mediating effect between home nurture environment and language development.

  19. One-Parent-One-Language (OPOL) Families: Is the Majority Language-Speaking Parent Instrumental in the Minority Language Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…

  20. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... dada" well before their first birthday, and most toddlers can say about 20 words by the time ...

  1. Parents' and speech and language therapists' explanatory models of language development, language delay and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. The aims were to describe, explore and explain the thoughts, understandings, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and feelings held by: a group of parents from East Manchester, UK, whose pre-school children had been referred with suspected language delay; and SLTs working in the same area, in relation to language development, language delay and language intervention. A total of 24 unstructured interviews were carried out: 15 with parents whose children had been referred for speech and language therapy and nine with SLTs who worked with pre-school children. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using Atlas/ti. The data were analysed, subjected to respondent validation, and grounded theories and principled descriptions developed to explain and describe parents' and SLTs' beliefs and views. Parent and SLT data are presented separately. There are commonalities and differences between the parents and the SLTs. Both groups believe that language development and delay are influenced by both external and internal factors. Parents give more weight to the role of gender, imitation and personality and value television and videos, whereas the SLTs value the 'right environment' and listening skills and consider that health/disability and socio-economic factors are important. Parents see themselves as experts on their child and have varied ideas about the role of SLTs, which do not always accord with SLTs' views. The parents and SLTs differ in their views of the roles of imitation and play in intervention. Parents typically try strategies before seeing an SLT. These data suggest that parents' ideas vary and that, although parents and SLTs may share some

  2. Componential Skills in Second Language Development of Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…

  3. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...

  4. Language Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmunt, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, education for sustainable development starts covering wider and wider spheres of interest and human activity. Out of the three main spheres of interest, such as environmental, economic, and socio-cultural, the first two mentioned here seem to be given more attention than the sphere of socio-cultural activity. In this respect, the aim of…

  5. Comparison of fMRI on the cortical organization using two language tasks in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhen; Zhang Caiyuan; Cai Wu; Shen Junkang; Gong Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively study the cortical organization using two different language tasks by BOLD-fMRI in normal subjects: Methods: BOLD-fMRI scan was performed in 8 healthy volunteers with right handiness during executing the two language tasks: picture-naming and word-generation. The AFNI software was used to analyze the functional data and to generate the statistical parametric maps for comparatively studying the activation areas of each task. Results: Both activation patterns for two language tasks shared a common brain network dispersed in frontal, parietal, and occipital lobe. The activation areas of occipital lobe for picture-naming was more obvious than those for word-generation. By contraries, the areas related to language processing for word-generation was more active than picture-imaging. Compared with picture naming, the activation patterns for word-generation was mainly left-lateralized. Conclusion: Both of two tasks can activate the brain network which dedicate to language processing, but each of them has its own characteristics according to the processing patterns. (authors)

  6. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Tracy A.; Besner, Amanda C.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Albano, Anthony D.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Language skills developed during preschool contribute strongly to later reading and academic achievement. Effective preschool assessment and intervention should focus on core components of language development, specifically oral language skills. The Early Language and Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) are a set of…

  7. Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) ( ...

  8. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This note describes and motivates our current plans for an undergraduate course on programming language concepts for software development students. We describe the competences we expect students to acquire as well as the topics covered by the course. We plan to use C# and Scheme as instruction...

  9. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taiwan's Chinese Language Development and the Creation of Language Teaching Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chuan Po

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Teaching in Taiwan in recent years in response to the international trend of development, making at all levels of Chinese language teaching in full swing, for the recent boom in Chinese language teaching, many overseas Chinese language learning for children also had a passion while actively learning Chinese language, and even many overseas…

  11. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  12. Early bilingualism, language attainment, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    The brain demonstrates a remarkable capacity to undergo structural and functional change in response to experience throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that, in many domains of skill acquisition, the manifestation of this neuroplasticity depends on the age at which learning begins. The fact that most skills are acquired late in childhood or in adulthood has proven to be a limitation in studies aimed at determining the relationship between age of acquisition and brain plasticity. Bilingualism, however, provides an optimal model for discerning differences in how the brain wires when a skill is acquired from birth, when the brain circuitry for language is being constructed, versus later in life, when the pathways subserving the first language are already well developed. This review examines some of the existing knowledge about optimal periods in language development, with particular attention to the attainment of native-like phonology. It focuses on the differences in brain structure and function between simultaneous and sequential bilinguals and the compensatory mechanisms employed when bilingualism is achieved later in life, based on evidence from studies using a variety of neuroimaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET), task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and structural MRI. The discussion concludes with the presentation of recent neuroimaging studies that explore the concept of nested optimal periods in language development and the different neural paths to language proficiency taken by simultaneous and sequential bilinguals, with extrapolation to general notions of the relationship between age of acquisition and ultimate skill performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Language in education and language development in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the language in education policy of Zimbabwe. It attempts to highlight the factors that informed the formulation of this policy, as well as the challenges and constraints that have affected its implementation. The country's language in education policy can be traced back to the colonial history of the country, ...

  14. Language development: Progress and challenges in a multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some such challenges discussed include issues like language selection for development, absence of clear language policy and the important issue of attitudes of respective language communities towards language research programmes. The article also looks at how the project and the institute have managed to make ...

  15. Mexican sign language recognition using normalized moments and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-V., J.-Francisco; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Martínez-Martínez, David; H.-G., Margarita

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a framework designed for the Mexican Sign Language (MSL) recognition. A data set was recorded with 24 static signs from the MSL using 5 different versions, this MSL dataset was captured using a digital camera in incoherent light conditions. Digital Image Processing was used to segment hand gestures, a uniform background was selected to avoid using gloved hands or some special markers. Feature extraction was performed by calculating normalized geometric moments of gray scaled signs, then an Artificial Neural Network performs the recognition using a 10-fold cross validation tested in weka, the best result achieved 95.83% of recognition rate.

  16. Language development and assessment in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Most young children make significant progress in learning language during the first 4 years of life. Delays or differences in patterns of language acquisition are sensitive indicators of developmental problems. The dynamic, complex nature of language and the variability in the timing of its acquisition poses a number of challenges for the assessment of young children. This paper summarises the key developmental milestones of language development in the preschool years, providing a backdrop for understanding difficulties with language learning. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterised illustrating the types of language difficulties they exhibit. Genetic evidence for language impairment suggests complex interactions among multiple genes of small effect. There are few consistent neurobiological abnormalities and currently there is no identified neurobiological signature for language difficulties. The assessment of young children's language skills thus focuses on the evaluation of their performances in comparison to typically developing peers. Assessment of language abilities in preschool children should involve an evaluation of both expressive and receptive skills and should include an evaluation of more than one dimension of language. The use of a single measure of a language component, such as vocabulary, is considered inadequate for determining whether preschool children have typical language or language impairment. Available evidence supports the inclusion of measures of phonological short-term memory in the assessment of the language abilities of preschool children. Further study of genetic, neurobiological and early behavioural correlates of language impairments in preschool children is needed.

  17. From Language Learner to Language User in English-Medium Higher Education: Language Development Brokers outside the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaj-Ward, Lia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores, from within the social constructivist paradigm and drawing on data from twenty-one semi-structured interviews with international postgraduate university students approaching the end of a one-year full-time taught Masters degree in the UK, the range of language development brokers that have had an impact on these students'…

  18. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  19. Teaching Strategies to Develop Inquiry and Literacy Skills: "Languaging" in Foreign Language Immersion Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbye, Nicholas; Dorner, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    One-way, or foreign language, immersion schools face unique challenges as they seek to support the literacy development of their students. This manuscript draws on sociocultural theories of literacy development and the concept of languaging, the process of using language to make meaning. Working with two classrooms over one semester, we asked:…

  20. A comparison of the language skills of ELLs and monolinguals who are poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Massey-Garrison, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to examine how oral language abilities relate to reading profiles in English language learners (ELLs) and English as a first language (EL1) learners, and the extent of similarities and differences between ELLs and EL1s in three reading subgroups: normal readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders. The study included 100 ELLs and 50 EL1s in Grade 5. The effect of language group (ELL/EL1) and reading group on cognitive and linguistic skills was examined. Except for vocabulary, there was no language group effect on any measure. However, within ELL and EL1 alike, significant differences were found between reading groups: Normal readers outperformed the two other groups on all the oral language measures. Distinct cognitive and linguistic profiles were associated with poor decoders and poor comprehenders, regardless of language group. The ELL and EL1 poor decoders outperformed the poor comprehenders on listening comprehension and inferencing. The poor decoders displayed phonological-based weaknesses, whereas the poor comprehenders displayed a more generalized language processing weakness that is nonphonological in nature. Regardless of language status, students with poor decoding or comprehension problems display difficulties with various aspects of language.

  1. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  2. TexMo: A Multi-language Development Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary software systems contain a large number of artifacts expressed in multiple languages, ranging from domain-specific languages to general purpose languages. These artifacts are interrelated to form software systems. Existing development environments insufficiently support handling...... relations between artifacts in multiple languages. This paper presents a taxonomy for multi-language development environments, organized according to language representation, representation of relations between languages, and types of these relations. Additionally, we present TexMo, a prototype of a multi-language...... development environment, which uses an explicit relation model and implements visualization, static checking, navigation, and refactoring of cross-language relations. We evaluate TexMo by applying it to development of a web-application, JTrac, and provide preliminary evidence of its feasibility by running...

  3. Subcategory learning in normal and language learning-disabled adults: how much information do they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jessica; Harris, Laurel; Plante, Elena; Gerken, Louann

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if nonreferential morphophonological information was sufficient to facilitate the learning of gender subcategories (i.e., masculine vs. feminine) in individuals with normal language (NL) and those with a history of language-based learning disabilities (HLD). Thirty-two adults listened for 18 min to a familiarization set of Russian words that included either 1 (single-marked) or 2 (double-marked) morphophonological markers indicating gender. Participants were then tested on their knowledge of both trained and untrained members of each gender subcategory. Testing indicated that morphophonological information is sufficient for lexical subcategory learning in both NL and HLD groups, although the HLD group had lower overall accuracy. The HLD group benefited from double-marking relative to single-marking for subcategory learning. The results demonstrated that learning through implicit mechanisms occurred after a relatively brief exposure to the language stimuli. In addition, the weaker overall learning by the HLD group was facilitated when multiple cues to linguistic subcategory were available in the input group members received.

  4. Developing Language in a Developing Body: The Relationship between Motor Development and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2010-01-01

    During the first eighteen months of life, infants acquire and refine a whole set of new motor skills that significantly change the ways in which the body moves in and interacts with the environment. In this review article, I argue that motor acquisitions provide infants with an opportunity to practice skills relevant to language acquisition before…

  5. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  6. Developing Oral Language Skills in Middle School English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…

  7. Notes on Mathematical Language: Development Strings, Development Patterns, String Theory and Conditions Language

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, James T

    2003-01-01

    Mathematics, according to Lancelot Hogben, is the language of size, shape, and order. This note adds two words to the language of mathematics. First, a verb, develop or develops, is introduced to describe a development pattern or development string. These are patterns of development with examples from fibrillation, spread of electric changes in muscles and nerves, and matter changing into energy. The relevance of this idea to the idea in physics called String Theory is discussed. A critical comment on the use of the String, rather than other objects like circles, boxes, or spheres is made. Second, an adjective or adverb called conditions language is introduced. Equations like E=mc2, Coulomb's law, Newton's law of Gravitation, the equation for the definition of pie and the path to peace and war are discussed with relevance to the idea of conditions language. Conditions language is nothing more than including the relevant conditions where the equation works or when it applies in parentheses with the equation. V...

  8. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiya SAHIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explicate teaching of Russian as a foreign language throughout history: to identify the main achievements of the field, to determine methods and materials used in this area, to trace the developing process from the very begging till present days, when teaching Russian language as a foreign language became a separate specific discipline. To achieve the set purposes mentioned above the known nowadays studies on the field of teaching and learning Russian as a foreign language were investigated. Basing on obtained sources, the history of teaching Russian language as a foreign language was divided into two periods: before and after becoming separate discipline. In the article not only the main features, such as theories, methods, sources of each period were studied, but also history of teaching Russian language as a foreign language was evaluated as a unified process. Keywords: Teaching-Learning activities, Russian as a Foreign Language, Historical linguistic process

  9. Language Acquisition and Assessment in Normal and Handicapped Preschool Children: A Review of the Literature. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.

    The second of four documents provides a summary of the scientific literature pertaining to spontaneous language acquisition in handicapped preschool children, and reviews and evaluates procedures for assessing language acquisition in these children. Chapter l focuses on language development in nonhandicapped children after they have acquired their…

  10. Developing language in a developing body: the relationship between motor development and language development*

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Jana M.

    2010-01-01

    During the first eighteen months of life, infants acquire and refine a whole set of new motor skills that significantly change the ways in which the body moves in and interacts with the environment. In this review article, I argue that motor acquisitions provide infants with an opportunity to practice skills relevant to language acquisition before they are needed for that purpose; and that the emergence of new motor skills changes infants’ experience with objects and people in ways that are r...

  11. [Assessing and measuring language development in the child. The Reynell Scales in a Dutch language area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerlaekens, A

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the recent adaptation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language. The existing language tests for the Dutch language are reviewed and the need to adapt a test for young children, measuring both receptive and expressive language development, is argued. The adaptation of the original Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language is described. An extensive standardisation was carried out with 1,288 Dutch-speaking children, carefully selected geographically and according to socio-economic status. The psychodiagnostic results of the standardisation are discussed. As a result there are now norms for children between 2 and 5 years, both for receptive and expressive language development. The adaptation of the original Reynell Scales to Dutch functions under the new name RTOS (Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen).

  12. Language Development and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics in Preschool Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Eun Sook

    2017-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of language development in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the other contributing factors to language development in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study included 172 children with CP who underwent brain MRI and language assessments between 3 and 7 years of age. The MRI characteristics were categorized as normal, malformation, periventricular white matter lesion (PVWL), deep gray matter lesion, focal infarct, cortical/subcortical lesion, and others. Neurodevelopmental outcomes such as ambulatory status, manual ability, cognitive function, and accompanying impairments were assessed. Both receptive and expressive language development quotients (DQs) were significantly related to PVWL or deep gray matter lesion severity. In multivariable analysis, only cognitive function was significantly related to receptive language development, whereas ambulatory status and cognitive function were significantly associated with expressive language development. More than one third of the children had a language developmental discrepancy between receptive and expressive DQs. Children with cortical/subcortical lesions were at high risk for this discrepancy. Cognitive function is a key factor for both receptive and expressive language development. In children with PVWL or deep gray matter lesion, lesion severity seems to be useful to predict language development.

  13. Professional Development Needs of English Language Teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandehroo, Koroush; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed the professional development (PD) needs of school English language teachers at Melaka State in Malaysia. With close cooperation with the Department of Language at the Ministry of Education, the whole population of English language teachers had been studied on their types of professional development needs in instructional…

  14. Oral and Written Language Development of Children Adopted from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathleen A.; Roberts, Jenny A.; Krakow, Rena

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The sharp increase in the number of international adoptions in the United States has prompted a heightened interest in the language development of internationally adopted children. Although recent studies have investigated the early language development of adoptees, little is known about the school-age language and literacy skills of…

  15. Duration of watching TV and child language development in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Audya Perdana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many factors contribute to language development in children. About 5-8% of children in Indonesia experience delayed language skills. Young children need appropriate stimulation for optimal development. Children who watch television (TV for long periods of time may receive less two-way interaction, the appropriate stimulation for learning. As such, shorter duration of the appropriate stimulation may impede language development in small children. Objective To assess for an association between duration of watching TV and language development in young children. Methods This cross-sectional study was done with primary data collected from questionnaires. Subjects, aged 18 months to 3 years, were from a Jakarta-area community health center (Puskesmas Jatinegara and the Pediatric Growth and Development Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Their language development was tested using the Developmental Pre-screening Questionnaire (Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan, KPSP and the Early Language Milestone (ELM Scale 2 test. Results From a total of 84 subjects, 47 (56% had normal and 37 (44% had delayed language development. Duration of watching TV was categorized as 4 hours per day. Children who watched TV >4 hours/day (OR 4.4; 95%CI 1.68 to 11.7; P=0.002, and children who watched both Indonesian and English language TV programs (OR 14.7; 95%CI 1.77 to 123.0; P=0.004 had higher risk of language delay. Other variables such as sex, first age exposed to TV, use of gadgets, and TV in the bedroom had no significant associations with delayed language development. Conclusion Children who watch TV >4 hours/day had four times higher risk of developing language delay. In addition, those who watch TV programs in both Indonesian and English, also have a 14.7 higher risk of delayed language development.

  16. Behavior-Based Early Language Development on a Humanoid Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varshavskaya, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    We are exploring the idea that early language acquisition could be better modelled on an artificial creature by considering the pragmatic aspect of natural language and of its development in human infants...

  17. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  18. DEVELOPING PLURILINGUAL IDENTITY IN THIRD LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HACKETT-JONES A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the notions of plurilingualism and plurilingual identity through the prism of the concepts of multilingualism and multilingual identity and the perspective of the theories of bilingualism. The article suggests that plurilingual identity can be viewed as an objective in third language (second foreign language teaching and contemplates specific characteristic imposed on a third language learner by the process of third language acquisition and the necessity of managing a certain imbalance between the degrees of language command and culture experience in different target languages.

  19. DEVELOPING PLURILINGUAL IDENTITY IN THIRD LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HACKETT-JONES A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the notions of plurilingualism and plurilingual identity through the prism of the concepts of multilingualism and multilingual identity and the perspective of the theories of bilingualism. The article suggests that plurilingual identity can be viewed as an objective in third language (second foreign language teaching and contemplates specific characteristic imposed on a third language learner by the process of third language acquisition and the necessity of managing a certain imbalance between the degrees of language command and culture experience in different target languages.

  20. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Daria; Cumming, Paul; Sloeva, Elena; Kuvshinova, Natalia; Romanov, Dmitry; Nosachev, Gennadii

    2018-01-01

    Deviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD), as distinct from normal sadness (NS) and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states. We studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC), including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes)], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause)], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal)] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann-Whitney U -test and Pearson chi-square test), one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman's and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks' λ) of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p  language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks' λ(40) = 0.009; p  language use distinguishing depression from NS and euthymic state, which points to a potential role of linguistic indicators in diagnosing affective states.

  1. Current Research/Development in Language Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    A discussion of language testing looks at the relationship between the processes of language learning and language testing, particularly from the point of view of pragmatics theory. It outlines some of the theory of Charles Sanders Pierce and its role in the evolution of linguistic theory, as well as the work of other theorists concerning the…

  2. Use of Francophone Tales in Developing Language Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Žugelj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional folktales as an authentic document belong to a literary genre which can be of great use in enhancing foreign language learning. When accompanied by diverse and fun activities, they can con- vert a foreign language learning into a very positive experience for different age groups. Folktales with language exercises for developing different language skills can be a great source for language analysis, vocabulary building and better expression in a foreign language. Its restricted length and its identifiable content make folktales user-friendly for teaching.

  3. Language Development in Children with Language Disorders: An Introduction to Skinner's Verbal Behavior and the Techniques for Initial Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Language development in typically developing children has a very predictable pattern beginning with crying, cooing, babbling, and gestures along with the recognition of spoken words, comprehension of spoken words, and then one word utterances. This predictable pattern breaks down for children with language disorders. This article will discuss…

  4. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.

  5. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Zhukova, Marina A.; Prikhoda, Natalia A.; Korotaeva, Irina V.; Koposov, Roman A.; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development. PMID:27346924

  6. The language of mathematics: investigating the ways language counts for children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study examined how language ability relates to mathematical development in a linguistically and ethnically diverse sample of children from 6 to 9 years of age. Study participants were 75 native English speakers and 92 language minority learners followed from first to fourth grades. Autoregression in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to evaluate the relation between children's language ability and gains in different domains of mathematical cognition (i.e., arithmetic, data analysis/probability, algebra, and geometry). The results showed that language ability predicts gains in data analysis/probability and geometry, but not in arithmetic or algebra, after controlling for visual-spatial working memory, reading ability, and sex. The effect of language on gains in mathematical cognition did not differ between language minority learners and native English speakers. These findings suggest that language influences how children make meaning of mathematics but is not involved in complex arithmetical procedures whether presented with Arabic symbols as in arithmetic or with abstract symbols as in algebraic reasoning. The findings further indicate that early language experiences are important for later mathematical development regardless of language background, denoting the need for intensive and targeted language opportunities for language minority and native English learners to develop mathematical concepts and representations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Concurrent Development of Spelling Skills in Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    The study reported on in this paper investigated the concurrent development of spelling in children learning two languages. The study compared over time and between languages the types of spelling errors made in English as a first language and French as a second. Fortyseven grade one English-speaking children completed an English and French…

  9. Effective Oral Language Development Strategies for Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    This action research study explored first and second grade classroom teachers' knowledge of oral language development and interventions for students at-risk of an oral language delay. This was accomplished through collaboration between a speech-language pathologist and classroom teachers. The data was aligned with assessments, the Response to…

  10. Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…

  11. Aboriginal Language Maintenance, Development, and Enhancement: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnaby, Barbara

    This paper offers a general review of literature relating to the maintenance, development, and enhancement of Aboriginal languages in North America, particularly Canada. Drawing primarily on sociolinguistics, several concepts about language usage and change are outlined that are useful for the purposes of thinking about language maintenance. Next,…

  12. On the development of scientific terminology in African languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The real development of individual languages and the purposeful cultivation of language pride necessarily accentuate races and ethnical differences, which are contrary to the ideal of nation-building. Consequently, languages are subtly denied acknowledged constitutional rights in practice, which will impact negatively on ...

  13. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  14. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  15. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting Preschool Dual Language Learners: Parents' and Teachers' Beliefs about Language Development and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Manz, Patricia H.; Martin, Kristin A.

    2017-01-01

    Guided by Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological theory of human development and Moll's theory of funds of knowledge, the aim of this qualitative study was to examine the beliefs of parents and early childhood teachers on (a) the language development of Spanish-speaking preschool dual language learners (DLLs) and (b) how they can collaborate to support…

  17. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders.

  18. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Basu, Amrita; Kumaran, Senthil S; Khushu, Subash

    2010-01-01

    Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal human subjects. Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90°) with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s) with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2) with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar–occipital–fusiform–thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these areas facilitate language comprehension by activating a semantic

  19. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  20. The Design Space of Multi-Language Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Non-trivial software systems integrate many artifacts expressed in multiple modeling and program- ming languages. However, even though these artifacts heavily depend on each other, existing development envi- ronments do not sufficiently support handling relations between artifacts in different...... languages. By means of a literature survey, tool prototyping and experiments we study the design space of multi-language development environments (MLDEs)—tools that consider the cross-language relations as first artifacts. We ask: what is the state of the art in the MLDE space? What are the design choices...... and challenges faced by tool builders? To what extent MLDEs are desired by users, and for what support features? Our main conclusions are that (a) cross-language re- lations are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language systems, (b) users highly appreciated cross-language sup- port mechanisms of MLDEs and (c...

  1. Developing Cultural Awareness in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemshadsara, Zahra Ghorbani

    2012-01-01

    Culture awareness has become an important focus of modern language education, a shift that reflects a greater awareness of the inseparability of language and culture, and the need to prepare students for intercultural communication. The paper reports on an ongoing study into the presence and status of cultural understanding in EFL teaching. In…

  2. Developing Textbook Materials in Uncommon Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Thomas A.

    Guidelines are offered for preparing and publishing textbook materials in Portuguese and other uncommonly taught languages. The available options for publishing Portuguese materials include two textbook publishers, three university presses, self-publication, and the Cabrilho Press, which produces language textbooks. Methods for submitting…

  3. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHING RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfiya SAHIN

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explicate teaching of Russian as a foreign language throughout history: to identify the main achievements of the field, to determine methods and materials used in this area, to trace the developing process from the very begging till present days, when teaching Russian language as a foreign language became a separate specific discipline. To achieve the set purposes mentioned above the known nowadays studies on the field of teaching and learning Russian as a f...

  4. The Role of Language in Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Various arguments are reviewed about the claim that language development is critically connected to the development of theory of mind. The different theories of how language could help in this process of development are explored. A brief account is provided of the controversy over the capacities of infants to read others' false beliefs. Then the…

  5. Phonological competence development in Italian as second/foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zorman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In language courses and teaching materials for Italian as a second or foreign language little attention is generally paid to the development of phonological competence and of speaking ability. The present study involved 140 pupils of elementary schools with Slovene as the language of instruction in the bilingual area of the Slovene Coastal area where Italian is taught as a second language. The research investigated the impact of phonology teaching and the development of phonological awareness on auditory perception abilities. The findings show that programs for the development of discriminatory listening and phonological segmentation of linguistic input critically influence the pupils’ ability of auditory perception, provided such programs are long-term, systematic, intensive, and carried out through direct interaction between the pupils and speakers of the target language. Consequently, such programs also enhance enhance the development of listening comprehension and communicative competence in the target language.

  6. The Development of English as a Second Language With and Without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of ELLs is organized around 3 topics: timeframe and characteristics of typical English L2 development, comparison of the English L2 development of children with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and strategies for more effective assessment with ELLs. ELLs take longer than 3 years to converge on monolingual norms and approach monolingual norms asynchronously across linguistic subdomains. Individual variation is predicted by age, first language, language learning aptitude, length of exposure to English in school, maternal education, and richness of the English environment outside school. ELLs with SLI acquire English more slowly than ELLs with typical development; their morphological and nonword repetition abilities differentiate them the most. Use of strategies such as parent questionnaires on first language development and ELL norm referencing can result in accurate discrimination of ELLs with SLI. Variability in the language abilities of ELLs presents challenges for clinical practice. Increased knowledge of English language learning development with and without SLI together with evidence-based alternative assessment strategies can assist in overcoming these challenges.

  7. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  8. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  9. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  10. University Language Policies, Internationalism, Multilingualism, and Language Development in South Africa and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines legislation concerning language policy and language choice in the UK and South Africa. In particular an account of the pressures and imperatives to which such policy development must respond is provided. The paper suggests that the comparison between South Africa and the UK is relevant and compelling, not least because both…

  11. Dual Language Teachers' Use of Conventional, Environmental, and Personal Resources to Support Academic Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that investigated the ways in which first-grade dual language teachers drew on various resources to instructionally support academic language development among Spanish-English emergent bilingual students. Classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and document collection were conducted over a…

  12. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  13. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  14. Validity of the language development survey in infants born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu-Poulin, Camille; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Babakissa, Hélène; Lefebvre, Francine; Luu, Thuy Mai

    2016-07-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of language delay. Early identification of language delay is essential to improve functional outcome in these children. To examine the concurrent validity of Rescorla's Language Development Survey and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 18months corrected age in preterm infants. Test accuracy study. 189 preterm infants born Language Development Survey, a parent-reported screening instrument, was administered in French concurrently with the Language Scales of the Bayley-III. Receiver-Operating-Characteristics curves were used to determine optimal cut-off score on the Language Development Survey to identify Bayley-III score language delay as per the Bayley-III. The optimal threshold was ≤10 words for both boys and girls. In girls, lowering the cut-off score decreased sensitivity (79%), but improved specificity (82%), thus lowering the number of false-positives. Our findings support using the Language Development Survey as an expressive language screener in preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supporting Children's Oral Language Development in the Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorrall, Jennifer; Cabell, Sonia Q.

    2016-01-01

    Supporting children's oral language development during the preschool years is critical for later reading success. Research shows that preschool teachers may be missing opportunities to engage children in the kinds of conversations that foster the development of rich oral language skills. Teachers hoping to support these skills can provide children…

  16. Infant Language Development Is Related to the Acquisition of Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A.; Campos, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and…

  17. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  18. Introduction: Sign Language, Sustainable Development, and Equal Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Goedele A. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article has been excerpted from "Introduction: Sign Language, Sustainable Development, and Equal Opportunities" (De Clerck) in "Sign Language, Sustainable Development, and Equal Opportunities: Envisioning the Future for Deaf Students" (G. A. M. De Clerck & P. V. Paul (Eds.) 2016). The idea of exploring various…

  19. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  20. Examining Transcription, Autonomy and Reflective Practice in Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explores language development among a class of L2 students who were required to transcribe and reflect upon spoken performances. The class was given tasks for self and peer-evaluation and afforded the opportunity to assume more responsibility for assessing language development of both themselves and their peers. Several studies…

  1. Language and cognitive development in deaf children: deaf children with deaf and deaf children with hearing parents

    OpenAIRE

    Ajda Pfifer

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews the current studies regarding language and cognitive development in children who are deaf. Deaf communicate orally and with sign language. 90 % of deaf children are born into hearing families and hearing parents in most cases do not know the sign language. Besides, hearing parents usually want for their child to become "normally" speaking. Most of the deaf children born into hearing families have very poor early communication. It is now well established that deaf children ...

  2. DEVELOPING LISTENING SKILLS FOR IMPROVING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lobachova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of developing listening skills for improving foreign language communicative competence. The practical value of using an authentic foreign language text at a foreign language lesson is determined. The ways of the use of the English language recordings in the educational process of students are outlined. It is found out that tracks with foreign information should be used only in the certain methodical situations. Multimedia helps effectively a teacher to achieve outlined objectives of improving foreign language communicative competence for multiple repetition of a speech model for making permanent listening item of language units. The basic stages of work with foreign language recordings are determined: teaching a foreign language listening (teaching to listen and understand the foreign language track means to overcome the methodological difficulties that require a certain amount of time and special training. This is explained by the fact that there are lots of difficulties on the way of understanding a foreign language: an unusual speed of speech, presence of unknown vocabulary, specific rhythms and melody; teaching a foreign language speech with the special models pronounced by foreign speakers (teaching students to practical mastery of a foreign language is intrinsically linked with involvement into the educational process of original English tracks, those are made by highly skilled experts (foreign speakers; learning a new vocabulary due to a dialogue, an extract of a play or a conversation, songs, prose and poetry (it is noted that the students’ interest of learning foreign language songs and poems is extremely high, and it primarily promotes strong learning; analysing the recorded students’ speech (fixing student’s speech and analysing their mistakes is very important at any stage of learning a foreign language for self-control and self-correction.

  3. Language Patterns Discriminate Mild Depression From Normal Sadness and Euthymic State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Smirnova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDeviations from typical word use have been previously reported in clinical depression, but language patterns of mild depression (MD, as distinct from normal sadness (NS and euthymic state, are unknown. In this study, we aimed to apply the linguistic approach as an additional diagnostic key for understanding clinical variability along the continuum of affective states.MethodsWe studied 402 written reports from 124 Russian-speaking patients and 77 healthy controls (HC, including 35 cases of NS, using hand-coding procedures. The focus of our psycholinguistic methods was on lexico-semantic [e.g., rhetorical figures (metaphors, similes], syntactic [e.g., predominant sentence type (single-clause and multi-clause], and lexico-grammatical [e.g., pronouns (indefinite, personal] variables. Statistical evaluations included Cohen’s kappa for inter-rater reliability measures, a non-parametric approach (Mann–Whitney U-test and Pearson chi-square test, one-way ANOVA for between-group differences, Spearman’s and point-biserial correlations to analyze relationships between linguistic and gender variables, discriminant analysis (Wilks’ λ of linguistic variables in relation to the affective diagnostic types, all using SPSS-22 (significant, p < 0.05.ResultsIn MD, as compared with healthy individuals, written responses were longer, demonstrated descriptive rather than analytic style, showed signs of spoken and figurative language, single-clause sentences domination over multi-clause, atypical word order, increased use of personal and indefinite pronouns, and verb use in continuous/imperfective and past tenses. In NS, as compared with HC, we found greater use of lexical repetitions, omission of words, and verbs in continuous and present tenses. MD was significantly differentiated from NS and euthymic state by linguistic variables [98.6%; Wilks’ λ(40 = 0.009; p < 0.001; r = 0.992]. The highest predictors in discrimination between

  4. Myelination progression in language-correlated regions in brain of normal children determined by quantitative MRI assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peijen; Kuan, Chen-Chieh; Kaga, Kimitaka; Sano, Masaki; Mima, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the myelination progression course in language-correlated regions of children with normal brain development by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis compared with histological studies. The subjects were 241 neurologically intact neonates, infants and young children (128 boys and 113 girls) who underwent MRI between 2001 and 2007 at the University of Tokyo Hospital, ranging in age from 0 to 429 weeks corrected by postnatal age. To compare their data with adult values, 25 adolescents and adults (14 men and 11 women, aged from 14 to 83 years) were examined as controls. Axial T2-weighted images were obtained using spin-echo sequences at 1.5 T. Subjects with a history of prematurity, birth asphyxia, low Apgar score, seizures, active systemic disease, congenital anomaly, delayed development, infarcts, hemorrhages, brain lesions, or central nervous system malformation were excluded from the analysis. Seven regions of interest in language-correlated areas, namely Broca's area, Wernicke's area, the arcuate fasciculus, and the angular gyrus, as well as their right hemisphere homologous regions, and the auditory cortex, the motor cortex, and the visual cortex were examined. Signal intensity obtained by a region-of-interest methodology progresses from hyper- to hypointensity during myelination. We chose the inferior cerebellar peduncle as the internal standard of maturation. Myelination in all these seven language-correlated regions examined in this study shared the same curve pattern: no myelination was observed at birth, it reached maturation at about 1.5 years of age, and it continued to progress slowly thereafter into adult life. On the basis of scatter plot results, we put these areas into three groups: Group A, which included the motor cortex, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex, myelinated faster than Group B, which included Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus before 1.5 years old; Group C, consisting of the

  5. Changes in language development among autistic and peer children in segregated and integrated preschool settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S L; Handleman, J S; Kristoff, B; Bass, L; Gordon, R

    1990-03-01

    Five young children with autism enrolled in a segregated class, five other children with autism in an integrated class, and four normally developing peer children in the integrated class were compared for developmental changes in language ability as measured by the Preschool Language Scale before and after training. The results, based on Mann-Whitney U tests, showed that (a) all of the children as a group made better than normative progress in rate of language development, (b) the scores of the autistic children were significantly lower than the peers before and after treatment, and (c) there were no significant differences in changes in language ability between the autistic children in the segregated and integrated classes.

  6. Predictors of spoken language development following pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan P L; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Frijns, Johan H M; Peeraer, Louis; Vermeulen, Anneke; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to make an estimation of the optimal age at implantation to provide maximal opportunities for the child to achieve good language skills afterward. The third aim was to gain more insight into the causes of variability to set recommendations for optimizing the rehabilitation process of prelingually deaf children with CIs. Receptive and expressive language development of 288 children who received CIs by age five was analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study. Outcome measures were language quotients (LQs) on the Reynell Developmental Language Scales and Schlichting Expressive Language Test at 1, 2, and 3 years after implantation. Independent predictive variables were nine child-related, environmental, and auditory factors. A series of multiple regression analyses determined the amount of variance in expressive and receptive language outcomes attributable to each predictor when controlling for the other variables. Simple linear regressions with age at first fitting and independent samples t tests demonstrated that children implanted before the age of two performed significantly better on all tests than children who were implanted at an older age. The mean LQ was 0.78 with an SD of 0.18. A child with an LQ lower than 0.60 (= 0.78-0.18) within 3 years after implantation was labeled as a weak performer compared with other deaf children implanted before the age of two. Contralateral stimulation with a second CI or a hearing aid and the absence of additional disabilities were related to better language outcomes. The effect of environmental factors, comprising multilingualism, parental involvement, and communication mode increased over time. Three years after implantation, the total multiple

  7. The Fifth Milestone in the Development of Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja PETROVČIČ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language has changed drastically in the recent century. Papers on the language development mainly stress four big events in the Chinese history that imposed changes in language, i.e. The May Fourth Movement (1919, establishment of the People’s Republic of China (1949, Cultural Revolution (1966, and China’s reform and opening (1978. According to the features of recent neologisms, we suggest that the widening gap between rich and poor should be considered as the fifth milestone for changes in Chinese language.

  8. Dental Development: Normal Variations and Disturbances of the Developing Dentition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dhamo (Brunilda)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractDental development is defined as a progressive and continuous process determined by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and controlled by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors over time. In this thesis we built three main objectives. The _first objective_ was to assess

  9. Olfactory granule cell development in normal and hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunjes, P C; Schwark, H D; Greenough, W T

    1982-10-01

    Dendritic development was examined in olfactory bulbs of both normal 7-, 14-, 21- and 60-day-old rats and littermates treated on postnatal days 1-4 with 1 microgram/g body weight of L-thyroxine sodium. Tissue was processed via the Golgi-Cox technique and subjected to quantitative analyses of mitral and internal layer granule cell development. These populations of granule cells were selected because their pattern of late proliferation suggested potentially greater susceptibility to postnatal hormonal alterations. Although neonatal hyperthyroidism induces widespread acceleration of maturation, including precocious chemosensitivity, granule cell development was unaffected relative to littermate controls. Both normal and hyperthyroid groups exhibited an inverted U-shaped pattern of cellular development, with rapid dendritic dendritic growth and expansion occurring during the earliest ages tested, but with loss of processes and dendritic field size occurring after day 21.

  10. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  11. First steps toward developing tools for language assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of language and communication skills in young children is directly related to future academic success. Young children who are at risk for language impairment should, therefore, be identified as early as possible. Multilingualism, which has become a universal phenomenon, may mask the presence of ...

  12. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  13. Predictors of Spoken Language Development Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Frijns; prof. Dr. Louis Peeraer; van Wieringen; Ingeborg Dhooge; Vermeulen; Jan Brokx; Tinne Boons; Wouters

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to

  14. Digital-Gaming Trajectories and Second Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Kyle W.; Schulze, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Recent research in digital game-based language learning has been encouraging, yet it would benefit from research methods that focus on the gaming processes and second-language development (Larsen-Freeman, 2015) rather than learner/player reflection or individuals' beliefs about the validity of gameplay. This has proven challenging as research…

  15. Enhancing English Learners' Language Development Using Wordless Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Belinda; Sierschynski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an approach to use wordless picture books to enhance the language development of English language learners. This approach is grounded in best practices to teach ELLs. The process starts with viewing and analyzing the visual images, engaging ELLs in discussion, and ending with students' self-authored texts. The wordless…

  16. Ambiguous Aims: English-Language Voluntourism as Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, Cori

    2016-01-01

    "English-language voluntourism" is a practice whereby people from the Global North teach English in the Global South as an alternative form of travel and means of development assistance. As part of a larger, multisited ethnography, I investigate how in-service and former English-language voluntourism program participants frame short-term…

  17. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  18. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  19. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  20. Language and Communicative Development in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Becerra, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Most individuals with Williams syndrome evidence a cognitive profile including relative strengths in verbal short-term memory and language, and…

  1. Probing Language Teacher Accountability in Utilizing Self-developed Language Teaching Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosoughi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at recognizing constraints on the way of some Iranian language teachers' utilization of self-developed, localized, English language teaching resources. To this aim, three sets of teacher variables on pedagogical and personal accounts were examined including Language teachers' experience (novice/experienced, their educational level (BA/MA/PhD and their gender. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, through stratified sampling, some eighty-three volunteering, English language teachers (Male and Female, who were indulged in the Iranian Ministry of Education (MoE, university settings (public and private and language institutes were randomly selected.  Teachers’ responses to a validated researcher-made questionnaire on language teacher curriculum autonomy revealed an overall significant Multiple R with F (3, 80 =.88, (0.04 but each individual above-cited predictors could not significantly predict teacher curriculum autonomy score. In the second phase for triangulation aims, three above-cited teacher variables were mapped over the insights gained through written interview sessions with some fourteen English language teachers.  Language teachers' self-reported 'challenges' and 'opportunities' for using self-developed language teaching resources for class use were content analyzed. It became evident that teaching experience was mystified in some respects in terms of its influence over interviewed teachers since diverse intentions on the part of the language teachers in this research might have deterred them not to use their full potential over using their own materials in class. Possible reasons for this situation have been fully discussed in the end.

  2. Persian competing word test: Development and preliminary results in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Mahdavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Assessment of central auditory processing skills needs various behavioral tests in format of a test battery. There is a few Persian speech tests for documenting central auditory processing disorders. The purpose of this study was developing a dichotic test formed of one-syllabic words suitable for evaluation of central auditory processing in Persian language children and reporting its preliminary results in a group of normal children.Materials and Methods: Persian words in competing manner test was developed utilizing most frequent monosyllabic words in children storybooks reported in the previous researches. The test was performed at MCL on forty-five normal children (39 right-handed and 6 left-handed aged 5-11 years. The children did not show any obvious problem in hearing, speech, language and learning. Free (n=28 and directed listening (n=17 tasks were investigated.Results: The results show that in directed listening task, there is significant advantage for performance of pre-cued ear relative to opposite side. Right ear advantage is evident in free recall condition. Average performance of the children in directed recall is significantly better than free recall. Average row score of the test increases with the children age.Conclusion: Persian words in competing manner test as a dichotic test, can show major characteristics of dichotic listening and effect of maturation of central auditory system on it in normal children.

  3. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of normal organ development with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The understanding of the presentation of normal organ development on fetal MRI forms the basis for recognition of pathological states. During the second and third trimesters, maturational processes include changes in size, shape and signal intensities of organs. Visualization of these developmental processes requires tailored MR protocols. Further prerequisites for recognition of normal maturational states are unequivocal intrauterine orientation with respect to left and right body halves, fetal proportions, and knowledge about the MR presentation of extrafetal/intrauterine organs. Emphasis is laid on the demonstration of normal MR appearance of organs that are frequently involved in malformation syndromes. In addition, examples of time-dependent contrast enhancement of intrauterine structures are given. (orig.)

  5. Normal motor milestone development for use to promote child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdin A. Husaini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Motor behavior is an essential aspect of child development, and usually assessed in terms of age of achievement of motor milestone. The early detection of infants experiencing subtle delays in motor maturation can allow early intervention in developmental problems. Intervention can be more effective if delays are identified early. In order to facilitate the identification of early delays, the Center of Nutrition and Foods Research and Development in Bogor has designed a simple tool to monitor the child (aged 3 to 18 months motor development. Objective To develop an observable of normal gross motor maturation for use to detect deviance or motor delay. Methods A total of 2100 healthy children, aged 3-18 months, from high socio-economic group, in urban and suburban areas, were studied. Body length, weight and motor development were measured on all children. Gross motor development was measured 17 pre selected milestones: lie, sit, crawl, creep, stand Mth assistance, walk with assistance, stand alone, walk alone, and run. Results There were no differences between males and females in the comparison of attainment motor maturation therefore a sex combined curve was developed. Conclusion The curve of normal motor milestone development can be used as a tool to evaluate motor development over time, and/or as a child development card for use in primary health care.

  6. Working memory in Farsi-speaking children with normal development and cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Zahra; Amidfar, Meysam; Dadgar, Hooshang; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-04-01

    Working memory has an important role in language acquisition and development of cognition skills. The ability of encoding, storage and retrieval of phonological codes, as activities of working memory, acquired by audition sense. Children with cochlear implant experience a period that they are not able to perceive sounds. In order to assess the effect of hearing on working memory, we investigated working memory as a cognition skill in children with normal development and cochlear implant. Fifty students with normal hearing and 50 students with cochlear implant aged 5-7 years participated in this study. Children educated in the preschool, the first and second grades. Children with normal development were matched based on age, gender, and grade of education with cochlear implant. Two components of working memory including phonological loop and central executive were compared between two groups. Phonological loop assessed by nonword repetition task and forward digit span. To assess central executive component backward digit span was used. The developmental trend was studied in children with normal development and cochlear implant as well. The effect of age at implantation in children with cochlear implants on components of working memory was investigated. There are significant differences between children with normal development and cochlear implant in all tasks that assess working memory (p memory between different grades showed significant differences both in children with normal development and in children with cochlear implant (p implied that children with cochlear implant may experience difficulties in working memory. Therefore, these children have problems in encoding, practicing, and repeating phonological units. The results also suggested working memory develops when the child grows up. In cochlear implant children, with decreasing age at implantation and increasing their experience in perceiving sound, working memory skills improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  7. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprian, Gregor; Balassy, Csilla; Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided

  8. MRI of normal and pathological fetal lung development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprian, Gregor [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: gregor.kasprian@meduniwien.ac.at; Balassy, Csilla [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinic of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy of the fetal lung have been used to analyze this process and have already been applied clinically to identify abnormal fetal lung growth. Particularly in conditions such as oligohydramnios and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), pulmonary hypoplasia may be the cause of neonatal death. A precise diagnosis and quantification of compromised fetal lung development may improve post- and perinatal management. The main events in fetal lung development are reviewed and MR volumetric data from 106 normal fetuses, as well as different examples of pathological lung growth, are provided.

  9. Gesture, Play, and Language Development of Spanish-Speaking Toddlers with Developmental Language Disorders: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) examine relationships between the symbolic and language skills of a mixed (developmental language disordered [DLD] and typical language [TL]) Spanish-speaking sample; (b) describe gesture, play, and language skills of DLD and TL groups; (c) compare the development between groups; and (d) explore…

  10. Development of adolescent reading comprehension in language 1 and language 2 : A longitudinal analysis of constituent components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; Stoel, Reinoud D.; de Glopper, C.M.; Hulstijn, Jan

    This study investigated the relationship between reading comprehension development of 389 adolescents in their dominant language (Language 1 [L 1], Dutch) and a foreign language (Language 2 [L2], English). In each consecutive year from Grades 8 through 10, a number of measurements were taken.

  11. Specific language impairment as a maturational lag: evidence from longitudinal data on language and motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Edmundson, A

    1987-08-01

    Longitudinal language-test data on 87 language-impaired children assessed at the ages of four, 4 1/2 and 5 1/2 years were converted to age-equivalent scores to compare the rates of development of children who recover from early language delay with those who have more persisting problems. On most measures, over the 18-month period all the children progressed by about 18 months. Thus although children with good and poor outcomes were distinguished in terms of initial level of performance, they did not differ in rate of progress. Speed on a peg-moving task was closely related to language performance. Children who had a good outcome after early language delay had significantly impaired scores at four years, but subsequently were indistinguishable from a control group. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in peg-moving performance were found for children with good and poor outcomes. No association was found between presumptive aetiological factors and language or pegboard performance. These findings are interpreted in terms of a theory which attributes specific language impairment to a maturational lag in neurological development.

  12. Language and life history: a new perspective on the development and evolution of human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L; Bogin, Barry

    2006-06-01

    It has long been claimed that Homo sapiens is the only species that has language, but only recently has it been recognized that humans also have an unusual pattern of growth and development. Social mammals have two stages of pre-adult development: infancy and juvenility. Humans have two additional prolonged and pronounced life history stages: childhood, an interval of four years extending between infancy and the juvenile period that follows, and adolescence, a stage of about eight years that stretches from juvenility to adulthood. We begin by reviewing the primary biological and linguistic changes occurring in each of the four pre-adult ontogenetic stages in human life history. Then we attempt to trace the evolution of childhood and juvenility in our hominin ancestors. We propose that several different forms of selection applied in infancy and childhood; and that, in adolescence, elaborated vocal behaviors played a role in courtship and intrasexual competition, enhancing fitness and ultimately integrating performative and pragmatic skills with linguistic knowledge in a broad faculty of language. A theoretical consequence of our proposal is that fossil evidence of the uniquely human stages may be used, with other findings, to date the emergence of language. If important aspects of language cannot appear until sexual maturity, as we propose, then a second consequence is that the development of language requires the whole of modern human ontogeny. Our life history model thus offers new ways of investigating, and thinking about, the evolution, development, and ultimately the nature of human language.

  13. DISTANCE EDUCATION: MODERN TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrii O. Kravchenko

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with analyses of modern level of integration of distance education in Ukraine and around the world, it is performed the distance education in educational principles, perspective analyses of modern tendencies in development of language education is presented.

  14. Adding to Product Development Theory - A Language Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Berg, Pekka; Mabogunje, Ade

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores the effect that the languages associated with the applied methods have on product development processes. Product development does increasingly involve more diverse disciplines and expanded cross-disciplinary views. Most importantly, the new disciplines: Design Thinking, and......, Innovation Management have introduced new cross-disciplinary methods and approaches. Some of the most important cognitive processes involved in product development: perceiving, meaning making, conceptualizing, communicating, and learning have been reframed and expanded as new disciplines have been introduced...... of these new languages reveals that the traditional methods applied in product development are highly influenced and limited by the languages that are traditionally associated with the application of these methods. Though language plays an important part in these essential processes it is rarely addressed...

  15. Developing user-centered concepts for language learning video games

    OpenAIRE

    Poels, Yorick; Annema, Jan Henk; Zaman, Bieke; Cornillie, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    This paper will report on an ongoing project which aims to develop video games for language learning through a user-centered and evidence-based approach. Therefore, codesign sessions were held with adolescents between 14 and 16 years old, in order to gain insight into their preferences for educational games for language learning. During these sessions, 11 concepts for video games were developed. We noticed a divide between the concepts for games that were oriented towa...

  16. Descriptive markup languages and the development of digital humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of descriptive markup languages in the development of digital humanities, a new research discipline that is part of social sciences and humanities, which focuses on the use of computers in research. A chronological review of the development of digital humanities, and then descriptive markup languages is exposed, through several developmental stages. It is shown that the development of digital humanities since the mid-1980s and the appearance of SGML, markup language that was the foundation of TEI, a key standard for the encoding and exchange of humanities texts in the digital environment, is inseparable from the development of markup languages. Special attention is dedicated to the presentation of the Text Encoding Initiative – TEI development, a key organization that developed the titled standard, both from organizational and markup perspectives. By this time, TEI standard is published in five versions, and during 2000s SGML is replaced by XML markup language. Key words: markup languages, digital humanities, text encoding, TEI, SGML, XML

  17. Development of an imaging VUV monochromator in normal incidence region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koog, Joong-San

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a development of the two-dimensional imaging monochromator system. A commercial normal incidence monochromator working on off-Rowland circle mounting is used for this purpose. The imaging is achieved with utilizing the pinhole camera effect created by an entrance slit of limited height. The astigmatism in the normal incidence mounting is small compared with a grazing incidence mount, but has a finite value. The point is that for near normal incidence, the vertical focusing with a concave grating is produced at outside across the exit slit. Therefore, by putting a 2-D detector at the position away from the exit slit ({approx}30 cm), a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point on the detector and where it originated in the source is accomplished. This paper consists of (1) the principle and development of the imaging monochromator using the off-Rowland mounting, including the 2-D detector system, (2) a computer simulation by ray tracing for investigations of the imaging properties of imaging system, and aberration from the spherical concave grating on the exit slit, (3) the plasma light source (TPD-S) for the test experiments, (4) Performances of the imaging monochromator system on the spatial resolution and sensitivity, and (5) the use of this system for diagnostic studies on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. (J.P.N.)

  18. Development of an imaging VUV monochromator in normal incidence region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koog, Joong-San.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes a development of the two-dimensional imaging monochromator system. A commercial normal incidence monochromator working on off-Rowland circle mounting is used for this purpose. The imaging is achieved with utilizing the pinhole camera effect created by an entrance slit of limited height. The astigmatism in the normal incidence mounting is small compared with a grazing incidence mount, but has a finite value. The point is that for near normal incidence, the vertical focusing with a concave grating is produced at outside across the exit slit. Therefore, by putting a 2-D detector at the position away from the exit slit (∼30 cm), a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point on the detector and where it originated in the source is accomplished. This paper consists of 1) the principle and development of the imaging monochromator using the off-Rowland mounting, including the 2-D detector system, 2) a computer simulation by ray tracing for investigations of the imaging properties of imaging system, and aberration from the spherical concave grating on the exit slit, 3) the plasma light source (TPD-S) for the test experiments, 4) Performances of the imaging monochromator system on the spatial resolution and sensitivity, and 5) the use of this system for diagnostic studies on the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. (J.P.N.)

  19. Emotion processes in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E; Fine, Sarah; Mostow, Allison; Trentacosta, Christopher; Campbell, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the role of emotions in normal and abnormal development and preventive intervention. The conceptual framework stems from three tenets of differential emotions theory (DET). These principles concern the constructs of emotion utilization; intersystem connections among modular emotion systems, cognition, and action; and the organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Particular emotions and patterns of emotions function differentially in different periods of development and in influencing the cognition and behavior associated with different forms of psychopathology. Established prevention programs have not emphasized the concept of emotion as motivation. It is even more critical that they have generally neglected the idea of modulating emotions, not simply to achieve self-regulation, but also to utilize their inherently adaptive functions as a means of facilitating the development of social competence and preventing psychopathology. The paper includes a brief description of a theory-based prevention program and suggestions for complementary targeted interventions to address specific externalizing and internalizing problems. In the final section, we describe ways in which emotion-centered preventions can provide excellent opportunities for research on the development of normal and abnormal behavior.

  20. Development of the State Correspondence Language of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Abduzhemilev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectvie and materials of the research: In the article the matter for consideration is the problem of the lingual basis in yarlyks of the Crimean Khanate. The author seeks to trace the process of the formation of the state language of the Crimean Khanate on the material of the official letters and decrees. The main statements characterizing the object of the study are formulated. The article presents the views of the famous orientalists, in which the structure of the yarlyk’s language is reflected. An important attention is focused on the ration of the Kipchak and Oguz elements. The period from the 13th century to the 16th century is marked by the development of the language called «desht tili», i.e. the language of Desht-i Kipchak. Results and novelty of the research: The author emphasizes that the language of the yarlyks of the Crimean Khanate is a heritage of the literary language of the Jochid ulus (Golden Horde, and even earlier one – of Desht-i Kipchak. Kipchaks dominated the extremely vast territory. The Kipchak language for a long time was used in the correspondence between Bakhchisaray and Moscow. As for the correspondence between Bakhchisaray and Istanbul, instead of Kipchak there was used Ottoman language. The correspondence between Crimea and Poland was mixed: both Kipchak and Ottoman languages were in use. Concerning the lexical structure of yarlyks, there are many Arabic and Persian words and forms which became inseparable part of the Crimean Tatar language. While the texts of the early yarlyks are full mostly of Turkic words, then in the late yarlyks Arabic and Persian words in some cases displaced original Turkic words. Therefore, today the issue of the reconstruction of the Turkic basis is of high importance. The language of the official correspondence from the Crimean Khanate’s Office is one of the indicators of the development of integral state formation on the map of the Eastern Europe. On the one hand, the language

  1. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  2. Science: the shared language of development

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This year’s conference on “Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean” is being held in Malta from 5 to 8 May. It is the sixth in a series of conferences whose aim is to promote dialogue among countries in the Mediterranean region through the language of science, organised by the “Sharing Knowledge Foundation”. CERN is one of the Foundation’s partners, and today John Ellis, one of CERN’s non-Member State advisors, announced CERN's readiness to donate several hundred computers to various Moroccan universities to encourage their participation in high-energy physics and Grid computing   CERN scientists, including John Ellis and Patrick Fassnacht, participate in the 6th Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean conference in Malta, on Friday 6 May. This gesture of support to the North African region was announced during the sixth "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean" conference. Embracing many of CERN's gu...

  3. MENTAL STATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: THE LONGITUDINAL ROLES OF ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL LANGUAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker Razuri, Erin; Hiles Howard, Amanda R; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R

    2017-05-01

    Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task. Results showed that (a) mental state talk, including belief and desire language, increased over time; (b) there were differences between the type of mental state words used by the mother in insecure versus secure dyads; (c) there were differences in patterns of mental state words used in both mothers and children in insecure versus secure dyads; and (d) attachment appeared to exert a consistent influence over time. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Effects of maternal sensitivity and cognitive and linguistic stimulation on cochlear implant users' language development over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cruz, Ivette; Barker, David H; Tobey, Emily; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Niparko, John K

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of observed maternal sensitivity (MS), cognitive stimulation (CS), and linguistic stimulation on the 4-year growth of oral language in young, deaf children receiving a cochlear implant. Previous studies of cochlear implants have not considered the effects of parental behaviors on language outcomes. In this prospective, multisite study, we evaluated parent-child interactions during structured and unstructured play tasks and their effects on oral language development in 188 deaf children receiving a cochlear implant and 97 normal-hearing children as controls. Parent-child interactions were rated on a 7-point scale using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Early Childcare Study codes, which have well-established psychometric properties. Language was assessed using the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories, the Reynell Developmental Language Scales, and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. We used mixed longitudinal modeling to test our hypotheses. After accounting for early hearing experience and child and family demographics, MS and CS predicted significant increases in the growth of oral language. Linguistic stimulation was related to language growth only in the context of high MS. The magnitude of effects of MS and CS on the growth of language was similar to that found for age at cochlear implantation, suggesting that addressing parenting behaviors is a critical target for early language learning after implantation. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anastasia Is a Normal Developer because She Is Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Based on interviews with 40 Austrian primary school teachers, contends that equitable classroom practices result from beliefs and practices that are part of natural child discourse and are promoted by language learning. Recommends a new discourse of equity for teachers. Describes a project on language teaching based on the psycholinguistic…

  6. Working memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole, S

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between working memory, verbal short-term memory, phonological awareness, and developing language skills was explored longitudinally in children growing up in a multilingual society. A sample of 121 children from Luxembourg were followed from the end of Kindergarten to 1st Grade, and completed multiple assessments of verbal short-term memory, complex working memory, phonological awareness, native and foreign vocabulary knowledge, language comprehension, and reading. Resu...

  7. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  8. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  9. Hormonal influence on language development in physically advanced children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, P; Wilson, B E

    1990-04-01

    Sex differences in language performance have long been noted, with females more verbal and males superior in visual-spatial tasks. Two theories seek to explain the differences in language function. Waber (1976, Science, 193, 572-574) suggests that these sex differences are secondary to differences in bilateral language function related to the faster maturation rate in girls. Geschwind and Galaburda (1985, Archives of Neurology, 42,(I), 428-459; (II), 521-552; (III), 634-654) on the other hand posit an intimate interrelationship of sex hormones, the immune system, and laterality as influencing the ultimate asymmetry of the nervous system, which in turn could account for such differences. In the present study, language function was examined in patients with accelerated maturation caused by conditions with sex hormone elevation (idiopathic precocious puberty and congenital adrenal hyperplasia). The degree of maturational advancement was similar between the two groups. However, significant language performance differences were noted between androgen- vs. estrogen-exposed patients, regardless of genetic sex or diagnosis of the patient, indicating a hormonal effect on language development over time. These data support Geschwind and Galaburda's multifactorial theory for the origin of sex differences in language performance, and argue against Waber's maturational hypothesis.

  10. Is phonology bypassed in normal or dyslexic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, B F; Lefly, D L; Van Orden, G C; Bookman, M O; Smith, S D

    1987-01-01

    A pervasive assumption in most accounts of normal reading and spelling development is that phonological coding is important early in development but is subsequently superseded by faster, orthographic coding which bypasses phonology. We call this assumption, which derives from dual process theory, the developmental bypass hypothesis. The present study tests four specific predictions of the developmental bypass hypothesis by comparing dyslexics and nondyslexics from the same families in a cross-sectional design. The four predictions are: 1) That phonological coding skill develops early in normal readers and soon reaches asymptote, whereas orthographic coding skill has a protracted course of development; 2) that the correlation of adult reading or spelling performance with phonological coding skill is considerably less than the correlation with orthographic coding skill; 3) that dyslexics who are mainly deficient in phonological coding skill should be able to bypass this deficit and eventually close the gap in reading and spelling performance; and 4) that the greatest differences between dyslexics and developmental controls on measures of phonological coding skill should be observed early rather than late in development.None of the four predictions of the developmental bypass hypothesis were upheld. Phonological coding skill continued to develop in nondyslexics until adulthood. It accounted for a substantial (32-53 percent) portion of the variance in reading and spelling performance in adult nondyslexics, whereas orthographic coding skill did not account for a statistically reliable portion of this variance. The dyslexics differed little across age in phonological coding skill, but made linear progress in orthographic coding skill, surpassing spelling-age (SA) controls by adulthood. Nonetheless, they didnot close the gap in reading and spelling performance. Finally, dyslexics were significantly worse than SA (and Reading Age [RA]) controls in phonological coding skill

  11. A Trilogy of Philosophy, Language and National Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against this broad canvass of national development, it is argued that man is the centre-piece of national development and, since the humanities play a leading role in the cultivation of man, no national development paradigm can be conceived and executed without the humanities, especially philosophy and language, ...

  12. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Thorsten

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and

  13. Rapid application development using the Tcl/Tk language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Zeijts, J.

    1995-01-01

    During the last year, high level applications at CEBAF were written using the Tcl/Tk scripting language. This language is rapidly gaining in popularity, in part due to ease of constructing programs with X11 graphical user interfaces, and in part to ease of adding compiled user code for specialized purposes. Extensions to the language provide object oriented programming, which was used to develop a hierarchy of classes relevant for high level accelerator control. We describe basic language features, some 3rd party add-on packages, and local additions to the toolbox. Next we describe features of the accelerator object hierarchy, and finally describe applications written using this toolbox such as the ModelServer prototype, Slow Orbit and Energy Lock, the Linac Energy Management System, and other applications

  14. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments.   Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain.   Conclusion:  In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.

  15. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies

  16. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Yalda; Stringer, Helen; Klee, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Iran. Consequently, there is no information about the prevalence of child language disorders in Iranian population. This review summarizes Iranian studies on child language development and disorder in the preschool years and aims to systematically find the most studied topics in the field of normal development, the assessment and diagnosis of language impairments as well as exploring the current gaps within the body of literature. Three main Iranian academic websites of indexed articles along with four other nonIranian databases were scrutinized for all relevant articles according to the inclusion criteria: Iranian studies within the field of Persian language development and disorders in preschool children published up to December 2013. They are classified according to the hierarchy of evidence and weighed against the criteria of critical appraisal of study types. As this is a type of nonintervention systematic review, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses is modified to be more compatible to the designs of eligible studies, including descriptive studies, test-developing and/or diagnostic studies. Several limitations made the process of searching and retrieving problematic; e.g., lack of unified keywords and incompatibility of Persian typing structure embedded in Iranian search engines. Overall, eligible studies met the criteria up to the third level of the hierarchy of evidence that shows the necessity of conducting studies with higher levels of

  17. Language preference and development of dementia among bilingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtray, Aaron; Saito, Erin; Nakamoto, Beau

    2009-10-01

    In bilingual individuals, regression to a primary language may be associated with development of cognitive impairment and increased risk for development of dementia. This report describes two bilingual patients who presented with early symptoms of dementia after regression to their primary language. The results of this study may help clinicians identify aging bilingual patients who are beginning to develop cognitive impairment or dementia and suggest that further studies on the long term cognitive effects of bilingualism and interactions with the aging process are indicated.

  18. Scholarship and Language Revival: Language Ideologies in Corpus Development for Revived Manx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the role of different ideological viewpoints concerning corpus development within the Manx revival movement in the second half of the twentieth century is explored. In particular, the work of two prominent figures is examined: the Celtic scholar Robert L. Thomson, who published extensively especially on Manx language and literature, and also contributed to the revival, particularly as editor of several pedagogical resources and as a member of the translation committee Coonceil ny Gaelgey, and Douglas Fargher, a tireless activist and compiler of an English-Manx Dictionary (1979. Broadly speaking, Thomson was of a more preservationist bent, cautious in adapting the native resources of the language and wary of straying too far from attested usage of the traditional language, while Fargher was more radical and open especially to borrowing from Irish and Scottish sources. Both were concerned, in somewhat different ways, to remove perceived impurities or corruptions from the language, and were influenced by the assumptions of existing scholarship. A close reading of the work of these scholar-activists sheds light on the tensions within the revival movement regarding its response to the trauma of language death and the questions of legitimacy and authenticity in the revived variety. Particular space is devoted to an analysis of the preface of Fargher’s dictionary, as well as certain features of the body of the work itself, since this volume is probably the most widely consulted guide to the use of the language today. Finally, it is argued that the Manx language movement today would benefit from a reassessment and discussion of the ideological currents of the past and present, and a judicious evaluation of both the strengths and weaknesses of existing reference works.

  19. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  20. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... to provide instruction that accelerates ELs' acquisition of language, literacy, and content knowledge.... Rosalinda Barrera, Assistant Deputy Secretary and Director for English Language Acquisition, Language...

  1. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  2. The Development of Language and Reading Skills in the Second and Third Languages of Multilingual Children in French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Daniel; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between first language (L1) typology, defined as the classification of languages according to their structural characteristics (e.g. phonological systems and writing systems), and the development of second (L2) and third (L3) language skills and literacy proficiency in multilingual children was investigated in this study. The…

  3. Component-based development of software language engineering tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssanyu, J.; Hemerik, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline how Software Language Engineering (SLE) could benefit from Component-based Software Development (CBSD) techniques and present an architecture aimed at developing a coherent set of lightweight SLE components, fitting into a general-purpose component framework. In order to

  4. Facilitating Professional Development for Teachers of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Daniella

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the process of facilitation in professional development for educators. The study relies on discourse analysis of interaction among K-12 teachers and administrators in a Midwestern U.S. state during a semester-long professional development program especially designed for educators working with English language learners (ELLs).…

  5. Developing Children's Language Learner Strategies at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the strategy repertoires and strategy development of six English children who learned foreign languages at primary school. My study differs from mainstream research, in that it focuses on young children and on the development of their strategies, draws on sociocultural theory and uses ethnographic methods. My findings show…

  6. A Methodology For The Development Of Complex Domain Specific Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Risoldi, Matteo; Falquet, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The term Domain-Specific Modeling Language is used in software development to indicate a modeling (and sometimes programming) language dedicated to a particular problem domain, a particular problem representation technique and/or a particular solution technique. The concept is not new -- special-purpose programming language and all kinds of modeling/specification languages have always existed, but the term DSML has become more popular due to the rise of domain-specific modeling. Domain-specific languages are considered 4GL programming languages. Domain-specific modeling techniques have been adopted for a number of years now. However, the techniques and frameworks used still suffer from problems of complexity of use and fragmentation. Although in recent times some integrated environments are seeing the light, it is not common to see many concrete use cases in which domain-specific modeling has been put to use. The main goal of this thesis is tackling the domain of interactive systems and applying a DSML-based...

  7. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student. ...

  8. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either: (a...

  9. Second Language Writing Development: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polio, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    In 1998, Wolfe-Quintero, Inagaki & Kim published a monograph describing measures used in assessing writing development. Despite more recent research on linguistic development (e.g., Bulté & Housen 2012; Verspoor, Schmid & Xu 2012; Connor-Linton & Polio 2014), the volume is still a valuable resource and good starting point for…

  10. Normal Conducting Deflecting Cavity Development at the Cockcroft Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Burt, G; Dexter, A C; Woolley, B; Jones, R M; Grudiev, A; Dolgashev, V; Wheelhouse, A; Mackenzie, J; McIntosh, P A; Hill, C; Goudket, P; Buckley, S; Lingwood, C

    2013-01-01

    Two normal conducting deflecting structures are currently being developed at the Cockcroft Institute, one as a crab cavity for CERN linear collider CLIC and one for bunch slice diagnostics on low energy electron beams for Electron Beam Test Facility EBTF at Daresbury. Each has its own challenges that need overcome. For CLIC the phase and amplitude tolerances are very stringent and hence beamloading effects and wakefields must be minimised. Significant work has been undertook to understand the effect of the couplers on beamloading and the effect of the couplers on the wakefields. For EBTF the difficulty is avoiding the large beam offset caused by the cavities internal deflecting voltage at the low beam energy. Prototypes for both cavities have been manufactured and results will be presented.

  11. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  12. The Impact of Early Social Interactions on Later Language Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the impact of child-directed language input on language development in Spanish-English bilingual infants (N = 25, 11- and 14-month-olds from the Seattle metropolitan area), across languages and independently for each language, controlling for socioeconomic status. Language input was characterized by social interaction variables,…

  13. Ramathibodi Language Development Questionnaire: A Newly Developed Screening Tool for Detection of Delayed Language Development in Children Aged 18-30 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Wantanakorn, Pornchanok; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2015-08-01

    To develop a parental questionnaire for screening children with delayed language development in primary care settings. Ramathibodi Language Development (RLD) questionnaire was developed and completed by groups of 40 typically developing children age 18 to 30 months old and 30 children with delayed language development. The mean score was significantly lower in the delay language group (6.7 ± 1.9), comparing with the typically developing group (9.6 ± 0.7). The optimal ROC curve cut-off score was 8 with corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 72%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.99). The RLD questionnaire was the promising language developmental screening instrument that easily utilized in well-child examination settings.

  14. PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDREN’S COGNITIVE TOWARD LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Ardiah Ningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain how the Cognitive Psychology supports the language development on children. The supporting data was taken from some related books and journals. The data collection is conducted through the proper source collection used for obtaining various information related to the topic. Then the information obtained from many sources was analyzed. The result of the analyses shows that the language acquisition process begins even since infancy period. In this process, the cognitive psychology supported it. In the process of acquiring the language, the children will pass through four steps of Cognitive process namely, sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operation stage, and formal operation stage. The entire stages are related to human’s age. In addition there are some assumptions of children’s cognitive development which are children’s schemas, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.

  15. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  16. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS including the teachers' and parents' forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients.Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001, but teachers' form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031. Besides, Pearson's correlations between teachers' and parents' forms was not significant (p=0.27.Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  17. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  18. Normal development of paranasal sinuses in children: A CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Eui Dong; Choi, Pil Youb; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Chung, Sung Hoon; Chung, Hae Gyeong

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the normal development of the paranasal sinuses in children with CT, authors prospectively studied with brain CT scans of 260 children without known sinus disease, ranging image from 7 days to 16 years. Maximal anteroposterior and transverse diameters(mm) and maximal cross- sectional area(mm 2 ) of both sides of the maxillary sinus were measured with the aid of computer device. As to the ethmoidal and spheroidal sinuses, we simply documented the presence of the aplastic ethmoidal sinus and calculated the age-incidence of the spheroidal sinus pneumatization, respectively.There noted three phases in the development of the maxillary sinus. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the maxillary sinus increased nearly in parallel. The former was always greater than the latter. In no cases was the edathamil sinus aplastic and almost all sinuses were pneumatized even in infants as early as 7 old days. CT identified the conchal pattern of sphenoidal sinus pneumatization infants as early as 11 days old. Sphenoidal sinus pneumatization was seen in 38% of the children under the age of 1 year, 82% of the children between the age of 1 and 2 years, and almost all children older than 2 years. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the maxillary sinus seem to reach the adult size by 8 years of age, and the conchal pattern of sphemoidal sinus pneumatization can be recognized earlier with CT than on the plain radiographs

  19. Target normal sheath acceleration analytical modeling, comparative study and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perego, C.; Batani, D.; Zani, A.; Passoni, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser interaction with solid targets appears to be an extremely promising technique to accelerate ions up to several MeV, producing beams that exhibit interesting properties for many foreseen applications. Nowadays, most of all the published experimental results can be theoretically explained in the framework of the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism proposed by Wilks et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8(2), 542 (2001)]. As an alternative to numerical simulation various analytical or semi-analytical TNSA models have been published in the latest years, each of them trying to provide predictions for some of the ion beam features, given the initial laser and target parameters. However, the problem of developing a reliable model for the TNSA process is still open, which is why the purpose of this work is to enlighten the present situation of TNSA modeling and experimental results, by means of a quantitative comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions of the maximum ion energy. Moreover, in the light of such an analysis, some indications for the future development of the model proposed by Passoni and Lontano [Phys. Plasmas 13(4), 042102 (2006)] are then presented.

  20. What Drives Embryo Development? Chromosomal Normality or Mitochondria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the arrest of euploid embryos with high mtDNA content. Design. A report of 2 cases. Setting. Private fertility clinic. Patients. 2 patients, 45 and 40 years old undergoing IVF treatment. Interventions. Mature oocytes were collected and vitrified from two ovarian stimulations. Postthaw, survived mature oocytes underwent fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number were done using next generation sequencing (NGS. The only normal embryo among the all-biopsied embryos had the highest “Mitoscore” value and was the only arrested embryo in both cases. Therefore, the embryo transfer was cancelled. Main Outcome Measures. Postthaw survival and fertilization rate, embryo euploidy, mtDNA copy number, and embryo development. Results. In both patients, after PGS only 1 embryo was euploid. Both embryos had the highest mtDNA copy number from all tested embryos and both embryos were arrested on further development. Conclusions. These cases clearly demonstrate the lack of correlation between mtDNA value (Mitoscore and chromosomal status of embryo.

  1. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  2. Safety case development with SBVR-based controlled language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Y.; van den Brand, M.G.J.; Kiburse, A.; Desfray, P.; Philipe, J.; Hammoudi, S.; Pires, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Safety case development is highly recommended by some safety standards to justify the safety of a system. The Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) is a popular approach to construct a safety case. However, the content of the safety case elements, such as safety claims, is in natural language. Therefore,

  3. Developing an Intersectional Framework: Engaging "the Decenter" in Language Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Yasmine

    2017-01-01

    The author explores how current scholarship has investigated diversified identities and identification practices using a variable-by-variable approach. This kind of approach focuses on developing in-depth understandings of particular variables of identity, such as race and gender. However, this kind of approach has also limited language studies…

  4. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  5. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  6. Gesture and Signing in Support of Expressive Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ramos, Leslie K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this teacher inquiry is to explore the effects of signing and gesturing on the expressive language development of non-verbal children. The first phase of my inquiry begins with the observations of several non-verbal students with various etiologies in three different educational settings. The focus of these observations is to…

  7. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  8. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  9. The Development of the Causative Construction in Persian Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family, Neiloufar; Allen, Shanley E. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of systematic patterns and exceptions in different languages can be readily examined using the causative construction. Persian allows four types of causative structures, including one productive multiword structure (i.e. the light verb construction). In this study, we examine the development of all four structures in Persian child…

  10. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  11. A report on academic listening development of second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular attention is given to the students' ability to engage successfully in the academic discourse by employing effective listening skills in their second language. Listening tasks were developed within the theoretical and practical framework of active listening. The discussion will focus on the theoretical approach and ...

  12. Intervention and language attitudes: the effects of one development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iilwimi Centre for Multilingualism and the Language Professions ran a development programme for primary school educators from 5 schools in the Helderberg Basin from 2000–2002. The aim of this programme was to help the educators to cope with the demands of the multilingual classroom as learner populations at ...

  13. Language education for character and skill development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and literature as an alternative paradigm shift capable of fostering character and skill development. The research identifies challenges against harnessing language education in Nigeria. These challenges include, poor reading culture, non-availability of literary reading materials. In conclusion, the paper beams its light on ...

  14. WAYS OF DEVELOPING PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Gavrilova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of future specialists into advanced studying of English as the main language of international communication is a relevant problem of modern higher education in Ukraine. This issue relevance is proved by the country's integration into the European educational environment, changes in strategic directions of higher education development in Ukraine, regulations by Ukrainian Government and the Ministry of Education, in particular, the Decree of the President of Ukraine “On Declaring 2016 the Year of English Language in Ukraine”, “Common European Framework on Language Education”. Essential changes which are now taking place in studying foreign languages, especially English, are also associated with the competency paradigm of education that focuses on achieving certain educational results and orienting scientific research of professional pedagogical education in recent years. An important condition for reformatting process of learning a foreign (English language is monitoring future specialists’ academic achievements in this field, particularly future teachers’ ones. The concept “pedagogical monitoring” is interpreted as a system of measures for collecting and analyzing data to study and evaluate the quality of professional training and to make decisions on further improvement of the educational process. The purpose of the article is to highlight and analyze the results of monitoring the level of English of State higher educational establishment “Donbas State Pedagogical University” students and reveal the ways of improving future teachers` English communicative competence. The monitoring stages are assessing the starting level of foreign (English language of students who are not trained in the field of language-related professions using the tests for A2 level standards of Cambridge Educational Syndicate; reformatting the content of learning English at the university: developing and implementing the course

  15. Improving developer productivity with C++ embedded domain specific languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Chao, Evenie; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Domain-specific languages are a useful tool for productivity allowing domain experts to program using familiar concepts and vocabulary while benefiting from performance choices made by computing experts. Embedding the domain specific language into an existing language allows easy interoperability with non-domain-specific code and use of standard compilers and build systems. In C++, this is enabled through the template and preprocessor features. C++ embedded domain specific languages (EDSLs) allow the user to write simple, safe, performant, domain specific code that has access to all the low-level functionality that C and C++ offer as well as the diverse set of libraries available in the C/C++ ecosystem. In this paper, we will discuss several tools available for building EDSLs in C++ and show examples of projects successfully leveraging EDSLs. Modern C++ has added many useful new features to the language which we have leveraged to further extend the capability of EDSLs. At EM Photonics, we have used EDSLs to allow developers to transparently benefit from using high performance computing (HPC) hardware. We will show ways EDSLs combine with existing technologies and EM Photonics high performance tools and libraries to produce clean, short, high performance code in ways that were not previously possible.

  16. Advanced software development workstation project: Engineering scripting language. Graphical editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Software development is widely considered to be a bottleneck in the development of complex systems, both in terms of development and in terms of maintenance of deployed systems. Cost of software development and maintenance can also be very high. One approach to reducing costs and relieving this bottleneck is increasing the reuse of software designs and software components. A method for achieving such reuse is a software parts composition system. Such a system consists of a language for modeling software parts and their interfaces, a catalog of existing parts, an editor for combining parts, and a code generator that takes a specification and generates code for that application in the target language. The Advanced Software Development Workstation is intended to be an expert system shell designed to provide the capabilities of a software part composition system.

  17. Environmental factors influence language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162 with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies.

  18. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  19. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Nadine; Fogliarini, Celine; Viola, Angele; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Viout, Patrick; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Cozzone, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm 3 (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated

  20. MRS of normal and impaired fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France)]. E-mail: nadine.girard@ap-hm.fr; Fogliarini, Celine [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viola, Angele [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Confort-Gouny, Sylviane [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Le Fur, Yann [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Viout, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Levrier, Olivier [Service de Neuroradiologie, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Marseille, Hopital la Timone, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille (France); Cozzone, Patrick [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, UMR CNRS 6612, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine la Timone, Marseille (France)

    2006-02-15

    Cerebral maturation in the human fetal brain was investigated by in utero localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Spectra were acquired on a clinical MR system operating at 1.5 T. Body phased array coils (four coils) were used in combination with spinal coils (two coils). The size of the nominal volume of interest (VOI) was 4.5 cm{sup 3} (20 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm). The MRS acquisitions were performed using a spin echo sequence at short and long echo times (TE = 30 ms and 135 ms) with a VOI located within the cerebral hemisphere at the level of the centrum semiovale. A significant reduction in myo-inositol and choline and an increase in N-acetylaspartate were observed with progressive age. The normal MR spectroscopy data reported here will help to determine whether brain metabolism is altered, especially when subtle anatomic changes are observed on conventional images. Some examples of impaired fetal brain development studied by MRS are illustrated.

  1. White Matter Volume Predicts Language Development in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Caitlin K; Asaro, Lisa A; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Kussman, Barry D; Rivkin, Michael J; Bellinger, David C; Warfield, Simon K; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W; Soul, Janet S

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether brain volume is reduced at 1 year of age and whether these volumes are associated with neurodevelopment in biventricular congenital heart disease (CHD) repaired in infancy. Infants with biventricular CHD (n = 48) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1 year of age. A multitemplate based probabilistic segmentation algorithm was applied to volumetric MRI data. We compared volumes with those of 13 healthy control infants of comparable ages. In the group with CHD, we measured Spearman correlations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and the residuals from linear regression of the volumes on corrected chronological age at MRI and sex. Compared with controls, infants with CHD had reductions of 54 mL in total brain (P = .009), 40 mL in cerebral white matter (P Development-II scores but did correlate positively with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory language development. Infants with biventricular CHD show total brain volume reductions at 1 year of age, driven by differences in cerebral white matter. White matter volume correlates with language development, but not broader developmental indices. These findings suggest that abnormalities in white matter development detected months after corrective heart surgery may contribute to language impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00006183. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spoken Spanish Language Development at the High School Level: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Communicative approaches to teaching language have emphasized the centrality of oral proficiency in the language acquisition process, but research investigating oral proficiency has been surprisingly limited, yielding an incomplete understanding of spoken language development. This study investigated the development of spoken language at the high…

  3. Normalization of Racism through the Language of Democracy: the Case of the Slovenian Democratic Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the question of what kind of discursive strategies enable political parties the proliferation of racist and xenophobic ideas, in terms of a democratic society and within established politics. Theoretically, it is based on studies of racism, populism and the radical right. In the empirical part, elements of racism and (radical-right populism in the discourse of the Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS are analysed, with particular focus on the othering discourse. The discourse analysis includes interviews of party representatives and texts published on party’s websites. The SDS discourse analysis shows that the party articulates social problems through the use of nationalist, nativist and essentialist arguments, and proliferates and normalizes xenophobic and racist ideas by reproducing minorities and political opponents as threats to the Slovenian culture, values and lifestyle, as well as threats to the party itself.

  4. The Unified Problem-Solving Method Development Language UPML

    OpenAIRE

    Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...

  5. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  6. THE ROLE OF AWARENESS IN SECOND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriany Fahriany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychology and cognitive science appear to agree that attention to stimuli is needed for long-term memory storage and that little, if any, learning can take place without attention. One strand of psycholinguistic research that has drawn quite a lot of interest, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective, is the role awareness plays in second language acquisition (SLA. To promote a further understanding of the role of awareness may potentially contribute to L2 development. This article will  briefly describe current theoretical approaches to the role of awareness in language learning,  review recent studies that have employed verbal reports to investigate the effects of awareness on L2 development, and  provide, based on the review, some awareness-raising pedagogical tasks for the L2 classroom setting. Keywords: attention, awareness, detection, feedback, L2 development

  7. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  8. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross­linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning…

  9. The Development of Metaphorical Language Comprehension in Typical Development and in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Van Duuren, Mike; Purser, Harry R. M.; Mareschal, Denis; Ansari, Daniel; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The domain of figurative language comprehension was used to probe the developmental relation between language and cognition in typically developing individuals and individuals with Williams syndrome. Extending the work of Vosniadou and Ortony, the emergence of nonliteral similarity and category knowledge was investigated in 117 typically…

  10. Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikora, Allen P.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.

  11. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  12. Relational Language Facilitates the Development of Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomila, Antoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In several papers, Gentner has shown that relational language facilitates spatial analogical reasoning tasks. In this work we set this question in the context of the development of cognitive flexibility, understood not just as at the representation level, but also at the executive one. To this extent, we modify the design by Ratterman & Gentner (1988 by including order of presentation of the elements as a variable, to increase the executive demands of the task so that the elements to be mentally ordered, which also allows to exclude that the successful answer is based on perceptual appearance. Our results confirm the facilitatory effect of relational language on the development of cognitive flexibility. They also point that a disordered presentation also facilitates correct responses.

  13. A LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT PROFILE OF A VIETNAMESE LEARNER OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani Rohani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study to a Vietnamese English learner. The main objective of the study was to describe how the English of a Vietnamese student developed. Interviews were conducted in order to collect the data. The interviews were tape recorded. The recorded data provided information about the learner’s background. Additionally the data served as a sample of the learner’s spoken English. The analysis of the sample revealed that the learner made several grammatical, syntactical, and phonological errors. With a contrastive analysis theory it could be concluded that one of the factors that might have triggered the errors were the difference between English and Vietnamese language. From a personality point of view, the subject of the study showed several positive personalities that supported the development of his English as a second language.

  14. Language as a Problem of Development: Ideological Debates and Comprehensive Education in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruanni, T.; Tupas, F.

    2009-01-01

    Fixation on language in language policy debates is not a natural given. In fact, it has to be re-examined. This paper argues that another effective way to look at language policy is to suspend talk on language, and instead first engage with social development issues where people are at the heart of the social landscape. It discusses three ways of…

  15. Using Student Contributions and Multiple Representations To Develop Mathematical Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a way to introduce and use mathematical language as an alternative to using vocabulary lists to introduce students to mathematical language in mathematics classrooms. Draws on multiple representations and student language. (YDS)

  16. CHILDREN’S LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN LEARNING SPEAKING AND LISTENING

    OpenAIRE

    Luli Sari Yustina

    2012-01-01

    When observed the children’s learning and their development, teachers need to understand what they see. The process of observing, noting, and recording, with the support of record like the Primary Language Record, helps to develop powers of observation, but also directs attention to what is significant in a child’s behavior. The frameworks present in the Record help to structure these observations and provide the basis for a developing profile of a child’s strengths and need as a learner. The...

  17. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects when they listened to a story in English as a second language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Xu Wei; Liu Hongbiao; He Guangqiang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location when normal subjects listened to a story in English as a second language. Methods: 14 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University, 22-24 years old, 8 male and 6 female. The first they underwent a 99mTc-ECD brain imaging at rest using a dual-head gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a story in English as a second language on a tap for 20 minters. The content of the story is about the deeds of life of a well-known physicist, Aiyinsitan. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the personage in the story, what time and place did the story stated. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during they listened the story. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Their hearing was fell into bad, middle, and good according to the restate content. Results: To compare the rest state, during listen to the story in Chinese and asked to remember the content of story the superior temporal were activated in all 14 subjects, among them, dual in 4 cases, right in 5 cases, and left in 5 cases. The midtemporal (right in 5 cases), inferior temporal (right in 2 cases and left in 3 cases), and pre-temporal (in 1 case) were activated too. The auditory associated areas in frontal lobes were activated in different level, among them left post-inferior frontal (Broca's area) in 8 cases, right post-inferior frontal (Broca's area) in 3 cases, superior frontal in 6 cases (dual in 3 and right in 3), pre-inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes in 9 cases (dual in 6 and right in 3). Other regions that were activated included the parietal lobes (right in 4 and left in 1), the occipital lobes (dual in 4,right in 2 and left in 4)and pre-cingulated gyms (in 1 case). According to the hearing in sequence (bad, middle and good), the activated rate of the occipital lobes is decreasing (100%,75% and 57

  18. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Influence of Second Language Cherokee Immersion on Children's Development of Past Tense in Their First Language, English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Edds, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Metalinguistic skills may develop differently in multilingual and monolingual children. This study investigated effects of immersion in Cherokee as a second language on young children's (4;5-6;1) skills of noticing morphological forms/patterns in English, their first language, by comparing English past tense skills on two nonword and two real-word…

  20. Verbal short-term memory development and spoken language outcomes in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael S; Kronenberger, William G; Gao, Sujuan; Hoen, Helena M; Miyamoto, Richard T; Pisoni, David B

    2013-01-01

    . DSB baseline scores and slopes taken together accounted for an additional 4 to 19% of variance in S/L endpoint measures after controlling for the conventional predictor variables. Verbal STM/WM scores, process measures of information capacity, develop at an average rate in the years after cochlear implantation, but were found to consistently lag in absolute magnitude behind those reported for normal-hearing peers. Baseline verbal STM/WM predicted long-term endpoint S/L outcomes, but verbal STM slopes predicted only endpoint language outcomes. Verbal STM/WM processing skills reflect important underlying core elementary neurocognitive functions and represent potential intervention targets for improving endpoint S/L outcomes in pediatric CI users.

  1. Continuous Professional Development of English Language Teachers: Perception and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdulRahman Al Asmari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Professional development is considered as an essential element in enhancing the teaching and learning process to ensure student learning. Professional development can also be deemed as a cornerstone of teacher professionalism and quality. The governments and educational institutions invest significantly in Continuous Professional Development (CPD to improve teacher quality and to meet the changing needs of the students. To uncover the perceptions and practices of professional development in Saudi Arabia, a survey was conducted at Taif University English Language Centre. The sample consisted of 121 English language teachers from various countries and having varied educational and academic experiences. The survey comprised items relevant to learning approaches, concept of professional development, perceptions and feedback on CPD. The respondents supported lifelong learning and experiential learning leading towards learner centered approach. They perceived the CPD as a challenge to their existing knowledge and classroom practice. However, they expressed their concerns regarding indigenization of activities in CPDs, institutional support in conducting classroom activities, and follow up activities.  Keywords: Professional development, Teacher perception, ELT in Saudi Arabia

  2. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TESTS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harsono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Communicative Approach of teaching English in senior high school in Indonesia has been adopted since the implementation of The 1984 Curriculum, but the tests–the communicative language tests–(CL Tests have not been developed and used properly. The objective of the study is to develop CL Tests for senior high school. The procedure of conducting the study consists of three major steps, that is, identifying the objectives, developing the test specification, and developing the CL Tests. The development of the CL Tests in detail consists of fifteen sub-steps from determining what language skills tested, selecting the suitable source materials, up to rewriting the CL Tests to be used as CL Tests alternative for senior high school. The results of the test development reveal that there are fifteen CL Tests consisting of three tests of listening, three reading, three speaking, and three writing tests. The whole tests have construct and content validity, no complete evidence of concurrent validity with report marks and semester test scores, high to very high inter-rater reliability, and no complete practicality.

  3. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Based on an analysis of previously developed test oriented languages and a study of test language requirements, a high order language was designed to enable test and flight engineers to checkout and operate the proposed space shuttle and other NASA vehicles and experiments. The language is called ALOFT (a language oriented to flight engineering and testing). The language is described, its terminology is compared to similar terms in other test languages, and its features and utilization are discussed. The appendix provides the specifications for ALOFT.

  4. 25 CFR 39.133 - Who decides how Language Development funds can be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who decides how Language Development funds can be used... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.133 Who decides how Language Development funds can be used? Tribal governing bodies or local school...

  5. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  6. Case Study of Teen Mothers' Perceptions of Their Influence on Preschoolers' Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Children born to teen mothers tend to score lower on language development assessments and to have school readiness delays. To support teen mothers and their children in improving language development, educators need information about mothers' daily interactions with their children and how they contribute to their children's language development.…

  7. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds to... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs...

  8. Learning about the Literacy Development of English Language Learners in Asynchronous Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Olesova, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined asynchronous online discussions in the online course "English Language Development" to identify themes related to participants' learning about the language and literacy development of English Language Learners when they facilitated online discussions to determine whether the participants developed sufficient…

  9. Developing a Materialist Anti-Racist Approach to Language Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a materialist anti-racist approach to language activism. This approach combines Joshua Fishman's pioneering work on language activism with critical race theory and the recent materialist turn in applied linguistics. A materialist anti-racist approach to language activism, positions language policy within broader…

  10. Sources, Developments and Directions of Task-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygate, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an outline of the origins, the current shape and the potential directions of task-based language teaching (TBLT) as an approach to language pedagogy. It first offers a brief description of TBLT and considers its origins within language teaching methodology and second language acquisition. It then summarises the current position…

  11. English Language Learners: Development and Intervention--An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy; Leung, Christy Y.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly one in five Americans speaks a language other than English at home; among Americans speaking languages other than English, the largest single language group is Spanish speaking (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004). The increase in the total group of language minority individuals has been dramatic, with their proportion in the U.S. population…

  12. Normal and abnormal neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Zhi; Takahashi, Sentaro; Cui, Chun; Zhang, Rui; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2002-08-01

    Neuronal migration is the critical cellular process which initiates histogenesis of cerebral cortex. Migration involves a series of complex cell interactions and transformation. After completing their final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. This process is guided by radial glial fibers, requires proper receptors, ligands, other unknown extracellular factors, and local signaling to stop neuronal migration. This process is also highly sensitive to various physical, chemical and biological agents as well as to genetic mutations. Any disturbance of the normal process may result in neuronal migration disorder. Such neuronal migration disorder is believed as major cause of both gross brain malformation and more special cerebral structural and functional abnormalities in experimental animals and in humans. An increasing number of instructive studies on experimental models and several genetic model systems of neuronal migration disorder have established the foundation of cortex formation and provided deeper insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal neuronal migration.

  13. Development of Markup Language for Medical Record Charting: A Charting Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Chae, Younbyoung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of trials for collecting electronic medical records (EMRs) exist. However, structuring data format for EMR is an especially labour-intensive task for practitioners. Here we propose a new mark-up language for medical record charting (called Charting Language), which borrows useful properties from programming languages. Thus, with Charting Language, the text data described in dynamic situation can be easily used to extract information.

  14. The Impact of Biculturalism on Language and Literacy Development: Teaching Chinese English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, Sara; Leclere, Judith T.

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2000 United States Census, Americans age five and older who speak a language other than English at home grew 47 percent over the preceding decade. This group accounts for slightly less than one in five Americans (17.9%). Among the minority languages spoken in the United States, Asian-language speakers, including Chinese and other…

  15. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  16. How normal is grammatical development in the right hemisphere following hemispherectomy? The root infinitive stage and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, Susan; de Bode, Stella

    2003-08-01

    We examined the morphosyntax of eight left hemispherectomized children at two different stages and compared it to MLU-matched normals. We found that the language of the hemispherectomies paralleled that of their MLU matches with respect to the specific morphosyntactic characteristics of each stage. Our findings provide strong evidence for the presence of functional categories in all early grammars and demonstrate that grammatical development, regardless of its neural substrate, is highly constrained by UG and follows a narrowly determined course. We discuss our findings within a neurobiological framework in which etiology defines the integrity of the remaining hemisphere, which in turn, determines its potential for linguistic reorganization and/or acquisition.

  17. Discrimination and identification of long vowels in children with typical language development and specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hia; Shafer, Valerie; Kurtzberg, Diane

    2004-05-01

    Researchers have claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have particular difficulties in discriminating and identifying phonetically similar and brief speech sounds (Stark and Heinz, 1966; Studdert-Kennedy and Bradley, 1997; Sussman, 1993). In a recent study (Shafer et al., 2004), children with SLI were reported to have difficulty in processing brief (50 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/). The current study investigated perception of long (250 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/) in 8- to 10-year-old children with SLI and typical language development (TLD). The purpose was to examine whether phonetic similarity in vowels leads to poorer speech-perception in the SLI group. Behavioral and electrophysiological methods were employed to examine discrimination and identification of a nine-step vowel continuum from /I/ to /E/. Similar performances in discrimination were found for both groups, indicating that lengthening vowel duration indeed improves discrimination of phonetically similar vowels. However, these children with SLI showed poor behavioral identification, demonstrating that phonetic similarity of speech sounds, irrespective of their duration, contribute to the speech perception difficulty observed in SLI population. These findings suggest that the deficit in these children with SLI is at the level of working memory or long term memory representation of speech.

  18. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E

    2015-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Transcription factors: normal and malignant development of blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravid, Katya; Licht, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    ... and the Development of the Erythroid Lineage James J. Bieker 71 II TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE MYELOID LINEAGE 85 6 RUNX1(AML1) and CBFB: Genes Required for the Development of All Definitive Hematopoietic Lineages 87 Nancy A. Speck and Elaine Dzierzak 7 PU.1 and the Development of the Myeloid Lineage Daniel G. Tenen 103 vvi CONTENTS 8 CCAAT/Enhancer-...

  20. Conformance test development with the Java modeling language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a Java Specification Request, a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents a model-based development of a TCK test suite and a test execution tool for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ......) profile specification. The Java Modeling Language (JML) is used to model conformance constraints for the profile. JML annotations define contracts for classes and interfaces. The annotations are translated by a tool into runtime assertion checks.Hereby the design and elaboration of the concrete test cases...

  1. The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    A systematic approach to second language curriculum development is outlined, enumerating the phases and activities involved in developing and implementing a sound and effective language program. The first chapter describes a system whereby all language teaching activities can be classified into approaches, syllabuses, techniques, exercises, or…

  2. Language and Literacy Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Schick, Brenda; Spencer, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood hearing loss presents challenges to language development, especially spoken language. In this article, we review existing literature on deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children's patterns and trajectories of language as well as development of theory of mind and literacy. Individual trajectories vary significantly, reflecting access to…

  3. Maternal Gesture Use and Language Development in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Meagan R.; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development.…

  4. Mental Representation and Early Language Development: Directions for Exploring Relationships. Souvenir of Conversation Hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolich, Lorraine McCune; And Others

    This collection of conference abstracts focuses on new directions for research on mental representation and early language development. One page summaries are provided on the following topics: Mental Representation and Initial Language Learning, by Lorraine M. Nicolich; Critical Issues in Language and Cognitive Development, by Roberta Corrigan;…

  5. Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Malaysia--Parallel Development of Language Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of Bahasa Indonesia, the official language of the Republic of Indonesia, and Bahasa Malaysia, the official language of the Federation of Malaysia. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  6. The Development of Morbhasa Innovations for Solving Problems in Thai Language Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Intrakamhaeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to solve the problems of Thai pronunciation by studying the conditions, factors and settings of language therapist (Morbhasa learning activities. The findings are that institutions are driven by different factors when setting learning activities and transmitting Morbhasa innovations. Morbhasa youth projects are aimed at developing leadership in students, particularly those students lacking adequate interpersonal skills. This is the biggest problem because the students have many other activities and burdens that make it difficult for project organizers to arrange schedules. The curriculum is inflexible in accommodating additional subjects, so the teachers have to implement activities after normal class time. They also lack budget, teaching materials, learning media and innovations for motivating students to attend the activities continuously. The teachers lack opportunities to develop their knowledge and understanding of implementation techniques and there is a lack of working staff and reinforcements. The research finds four methods of setting activities. Eight ways of transmitting the innovations were found: 1 by transmitting among friends; 2 by working together; 3 by working with a sense of beliefs and respect; 4 by creating a variety of activities; 5 by using a peer network; 6 by assignments from leaders; 7 by practicing the learning process; and 8 by integrating the seven strategies. The institutions should select appropriate ways for their own context, readiness and limitations. It is believed that the innovations of the language therapist Morbhasa should be widely transmitted in the educational circle to tackle critical problems of Thai language usage.

  7. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  8. Language development in preschool children born after asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simić Klarić, Andrea; Kolundžić, Zdravko; Galić, Slavka; Mejaški Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2012-03-01

    After intrauterine growth retardation, many minor neurodevelopmental disorders may occur, especially in the motor skills domain, language and speech development, and cognitive functions. The assessment of language development and impact of postnatal head growth in preschool children born with asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation. Examinees were born at term with birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, parity and gender. Mean age at the time of study was six years and four months. The control group was matched according to chronological and gestational age, gender and maternal education with mean age six years and five months. There were 50 children with intrauterine growth retardation and 50 controls, 28 girls and 22 boys in each group. For the assessment of language development Reynell Developmental Language Scale, the Naming test and Mottier test were performed. There were statistically significant differences (p language comprehension, total expressive language (vocabulary, structure, content), naming skills and non-words repetition. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between relative growth of the head [(Actual head circumference - head circumference at birth)/(Body weight - birth weight)] and language outcome. Children with neonatal complications had lower results (p language comprehension and total expressive language. Intrauterine growth retardation has a negative impact on language development which is evident in preschool years. Slow postnatal head growth is correlated with poorer language outcome. Neonatal complications were negatively correlated with language comprehension and total expressive language. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ira Hirsh and oral deaf education: The role of audition in language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geers, Ann

    2002-05-01

    Prior to the 1960s, the teaching of speech to deaf children consisted primarily of instruction in lip reading and tactile perception accompanied by imitative exercises in speech sound production. Hirsh came to Central Institute for the Deaf with an interest in discovering the auditory capabilities of normal-hearing listeners. This interest led him to speculate that more normal speech development could be encouraged in deaf children by maximizing use of their limited residual hearing. Following the tradition of Max Goldstein, Edith Whetnall, and Dennis Fry, Hirsh gave scientific validity to the use of amplified speech as the primary avenue to oral language development in prelingually deaf children. This ``auditory approach,'' combined with an emphasis on early intervention, formed the basis for auditory-oral education as we know it today. This presentation will examine how the speech perception, language, and reading skills of prelingually deaf children have changed as a result of improvements in auditory technology that have occurred over the past 30 years. Current data from children using cochlear implants will be compared with data collected earlier from children with profound hearing loss who used hearing aids. [Work supported by NIH.

  10. Brain connectivity in normally developing children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Lewis, John D; Zhao, Lu; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Evans, Alan C

    2016-07-01

    The developing human brain undergoes an astonishing sequence of events that continuously shape the structural and functional brain connectivity. Distinct regional variations in the timelines of maturational events (synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning) occurring at the synaptic level are reflected in brain measures at macroscopic resolution (cortical thickness and gray matter density). Interestingly, the observed brain changes coincide with cognitive milestones suggesting that the changing scaffold of brain circuits may subserve cognitive development. Recent advances in connectivity analysis propelled by graph theory have allowed, on one hand, the investigation of maturational changes in global organization of structural and functional brain networks; and on the other hand, the exploration of specific networks within the context of global brain networks. An emerging picture from several connectivity studies is a system-level rewiring that constantly refines the connectivity of the developing brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Alu Methylation during Normal Development, Aging, and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation primarily occurs on CpG dinucleotides and plays an important role in transcriptional regulations during tissue development and cell differentiation. Over 25% of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome reside within Alu elements, the most abundant human repeats. The methylation of Alu elements is an important mechanism to suppress Alu transcription and subsequent retrotransposition. Decades of studies revealed that Alu methylation is highly dynamic during early development and aging. Recently, many environmental factors were shown to have a great impact on Alu methylation. In addition, aberrant Alu methylation has been documented to be an early event in many tumors and Alu methylation levels have been associated with tumor aggressiveness. The assessment of the Alu methylation has become an important approach for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer. This review focuses on the dynamic Alu methylation during development, aging, and tumor genesis. The cause and consequence of Alu methylation changes will be discussed.

  12. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  13. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.

  14. Role of language in socio – economic development: the semiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lord said if as one people, speaking the same language have begun to do ... When one does not know the language, it means these grammatical aspects are not ..... Therefore, tracking gender gaps and inequalities against each of the.

  15. Normal and Abnormal Embryonic Development in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baken (Leonie)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Research of the past years indicates that the periconception period, the period including gametogenesis and embryogenesis, determines growth and development of the embryo and subsequent pregnancy outcome. Prenatal care starts to focus more on the first-trimester of

  16. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  17. First steps toward developing tools for language assessment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young children who are at risk for language impairment should, therefore, be identified as early as possible. Multilingualism, which has become a universal phenomenon, may mask the presence of language impairment. In South African urban multilingual preschool contexts, the teacher or speech-language therapist is not ...

  18. The importance of language education in national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is an integral part of man. It surpasses communication and social interaction. Language influences thought, and thought often conditions action, and also influences conduct. Language therefore is the strongest medium of transmitting culture and social reality. Democracy is part of the present world order which is ...

  19. The Role of Borrowed Words in Language Development: the Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is essentially a medium of communication. It is a universal human phenomenon. With it we communicate our ideas, thoughts, emotions and messages. A language has to have the capability to express these phenomena. Sometimes, however, a language does not possess all the words necessary for it to capture ...

  20. Cross-Language Support Mechanisms Significantly Aid Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary software systems combine many artifacts specified in various modeling and programming languages, domainspecific and general purpose as well. Since multi-language systems are so widespread, working on them calls for tools with cross-language support mechanisms such as (1) visualizatio...

  1. Longitudinal changes in resting-state fMRI from age 5 to age 6years covary with language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Friederici, Angela D; Margulies, Daniel S; Brauer, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful technique to study the whole-brain neural connectivity that underlies cognitive systems. The present study aimed to define the changes in neural connectivity in their relation to language development. Longitudinal resting-state functional data were acquired from a cohort of preschool children at age 5 and one year later, and changes in functional connectivity were correlated with language performance in sentence comprehension. For this, degree centrality, a voxel-based network measure, was used to assess age-related differences in connectivity at the whole-brain level. Increases in connectivity with age were found selectively in a cluster within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (STG/STS). In order to further specify the connection changes, a secondary seed-based functional connectivity analysis on this very cluster was performed. The correlations between resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and language performance revealed developmental effects with age and, importantly, also dependent on the advancement in sentence comprehension ability over time. In children with greater advancement in language abilities, the behavioral improvement was positively correlated with RSFC increase between left posterior STG/STS and other regions of the language network, i.e., left and right inferior frontal cortex. The age-related changes observed in this study provide evidence for alterations in the language network as language develops and demonstrates the viability of this approach for the investigation of normal and aberrant language development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of differential listening experience on the development of expressive and receptive language in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christi; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Godar, Shelly P; Ellis-Weismer, Susan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that children who are deaf and use cochlear implants (CIs) can communicate effectively using spoken language. Research has reported that age of implantation and length of experience with the CI play an important role in a predicting a child's linguistic development. In recent years, the increase in the number of children receiving bilateral CIs (BiCIs) has led to interest in new variables that may also influence the development of hearing, speech, and language abilities, such as length of bilateral listening experience and the length of time between the implantation of the two CIs. One goal of the present study was to determine how a cohort of children with BiCIs performed on standardized measures of language and nonverbal cognition. This study examined the relationship between performance on language and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) tests and the ages at implantation of the first CI and second CI. This study also examined whether early bilateral activation is related to better language scores. Children with BiCIs (n = 39; ages 4 to 9 years) were tested on two standardized measures, the Test of Language Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, to evaluate their expressive/receptive language skills and nonverbal IQ/memory. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate whether BiCI hearing experience predicts language performance. While large intersubject variability existed, on average, almost all the children with BiCIs scored within or above normal limits on measures of nonverbal cognition. Expressive and receptive language scores were highly variable, less likely to be above the normative mean, and did not correlate with Length of first CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with one cochlear implant, or Length of second CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with two cochlear implants. All children in the present study had BiCIs. Most IQ scores were either at or above that

  3. Saying What We Mean: Making a Case for "Language Acquisition" to Become "Language Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    As applied linguists know very well, how we use language both constructs and reflects our understanding. It is therefore important that we use terms that do justice to our concerns. In this presentation, I suggest that a more apt designation than "multilingual" or "second language acquisition" (SLA) is "multilingual"…

  4. The Impact of the English Language on the Development of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predominance and relegation of the English and Igbo Languages in discourse respectively have been speculated with a paucity of empirical backup. The need arises therefore for a quantitative assessment of the Impact of the English Language on the development of values (language, dressing and religion) among the ...

  5. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  6. Language Development and Impairment in Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including…

  7. Talk to Me, Baby! Supporting Language Development in the First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardige, Betty; Bardige, M. Kori

    2008-01-01

    In their first few years, almost all children learn at least one language, though not equally well. Differences in the quantity, quality, sources, and variety of language inputs and conversation opportunities have a long-lasting effect. This article provides an overview of early language development and explains how talking with babies promotes…

  8. An Understanding of Language Development Models--Pidginization from the Perspective of Chaos Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    With the accelerated globalization, domestic and international communications become more frequent than ever before. As the major media of international communication, languages contact with each other more actively by day. And in the active contact any language would gradually develop and change. Pidgin language is a unique linguistic phenomenon…

  9. Development of a Class for Multiple Precision Arithmetic in C/C++ Language

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 宏

    1998-01-01

    We have defined a floating-point variable of arbitrary length for a calculation of high precision and have developed a set of mathematical functions of it in C/C++ language. The variable and the functions are combined into a class in C++ language. In addition, the functions can be easily converted to those in FORTRAN language.

  10. Parents' Assessment of Their Preschool Children's Bilingual Development in the Context of Family Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Parents' assessment of children's development in the first and the second language is an essential part of their family language policy (FLP) and an important component of parent-child communication. This paper presents a pilot study focused on Russian-speaking immigrant parents' assessment of their children's language knowledge in Russian as a…

  11. Language Development in Context: A Longitudinal Study of Typically-Developing Children and Children with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan; Fein, Deborah

    Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social and lingu......Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social...... and linguistic interactions (Waurlamont et al., 2014). Objectives: We investigate language development trajectories and interpersonal linguistic adaptation over time in a longitudinal corpus of parent-child interactions. Methods: Participants included 66 children, 33 with ASD (MA=33 months at visit 1) and 33 TD...... (linear β: -160, -39; quadratic: 22.92, 5.32), group (β: 332, 100.16), severity (β: -27, -8) and Mullen (β: -6, -1.6). Time significantly interacts with Mullen scores (linear β: 7.4, 1.92; quadratic β: -0.84, -0.2). Children with ASD showed shallower trajectories; higher Mullen scores were associated...

  12. Language and reading development in the brain today: neuromarkers and the case for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide an account of language development in the brain using the new information about brain function gleaned from cognitive neuroscience. This account goes beyond describing the association between language and specific brain areas to advocate the possibility of predicting language outcomes using brain-imaging data. The goal is to address the current evidence about language development in the brain and prediction of language outcomes. Recent studies will be discussed in the light of the evidence generated for predicting language outcomes and using new methods of analysis of brain data. The present account of brain behavior will address: (1) the development of a hardwired brain circuit for spoken language; (2) the neural adaptation that follows reading instruction and fosters the "grafting" of visual processing areas of the brain onto the hardwired circuit of spoken language; and (3) the prediction of language development and the possibility of translational neuroscience. Brain imaging has allowed for the identification of neural indices (neuromarkers) that reflect typical and atypical language development; the possibility of predicting risk for language disorders has emerged. A mandate to develop a bridge between neuroscience and health and cognition-related outcomes may pave the way for translational neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and...

  14. Simultaneous bilingual language acquisition: The role of parental input on receptive vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé

    2013-02-01

    Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.

  15. Theory and Praxis in Community Based Language Development: preliminary findings from applications of the Guide for Planning the Future of Our Language

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard David M.

    2017-01-01

    This study will provide a critique of preliminary results obtained from the application of the ‘Guide for Planning the Future of Our Language’ (Hanawalt, Varenkamp, Lahn, & Eberhard 2015) in minority speech communities. This recent methodological tool was developed to enable and empower minoritized language groups to do their own language planning and to control their own language development. The tool is based on a theoretical approach to community based language development known as the ‘Su...

  16. The Impact of Tympanostomy Tubes on Speech and Language Development in Children with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Amber D; Ford, Matthew D; Choi, Sukgi S; Jabbour, Noel

    2017-09-01

    Objective Describe the impact of hearing loss, tympanostomy tube placement before palatoplasty, and number of tubes received on speech outcomes in children with cleft palate. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care children's hospital. Subjects and Methods Records from 737 children born between April 2005 and April 2015 who underwent palatoplasty at a tertiary children's hospital were reviewed. Exclusion criteria were cleft repair at an outside hospital, intact secondary palate, absence of postpalatoplasty speech evaluation, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, no tubes, first tubes after palatoplasty, or first clinic after 12 months of age. Data from 152 patients with isolated cleft palate and 166 patients with cleft lip and palate were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank-sum, χ 2 , and Fisher exact test and logistic regression. Results Most patients (242, 76.1%) received tubes before palatoplasty. Hearing loss after tubes, but not before, was associated with speech/language delays at 24 months ( P = .005) and language delays ( P = .048) and speech sound production disorders (SSPDs, P = .040) at 5 years. Receiving tubes before palatoplasty was associated with failed newborn hearing screen ( P = .001) and younger age at first posttubes type B tympanogram with normal canal volume ( P = .015). Hearing loss after tubes ( P = .021), language delays ( P = .025), SSPDs ( P = .003), and velopharyngeal insufficiency ( P = .032) at 5 years and speech surgery ( P = .022) were associated with more tubes. Conclusion Continued middle ear disease, reflected by hearing loss and multiple tubes, may impair speech and language development. Inserting tubes before palatoplasty did not mitigate these impairments better than later tube placement.

  17. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of its...

  18. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development program...

  19. CHILDREN’S LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN LEARNING SPEAKING AND LISTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luli Sari Yustina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When observed the children’s learning and their development, teachers need to understand what they see. The process of observing, noting, and recording, with the support of record like the Primary Language Record, helps to develop powers of observation, but also directs attention to what is significant in a child’s behavior. The frameworks present in the Record help to structure these observations and provide the basis for a developing profile of a child’s strengths and need as a learner. There are five dimensions form part of a continuum of learning; they go on being important and developing throughout a person’s life as a learner: Confidence and independence, Experience, Strategies, Knowledge understanding, and reflectiveness. Classroom context is also considered for the young learners in opportunities and experiences. Copyright © 2012 by Al-Ta'lim All right reservedDOI: 10.15548/jt.v19i3.59

  20. Developing the Bilingual Competence in Learning Foreign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Znamenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of bilingualism and its effect on the personality of the speaker. Various types of bilingualism are described along with the factors determining the bilingual competence formation: age, individual experience, socio-cultural conditions of the native and foreign language interaction. The author points out both the positive and negative impact on the native language as the result of the second language learning. The special emphasis is on language interference in the process of learning a foreign language. To make sure the students achieve the adequate degree of its authenticity, and therefore the bilingual competence, the teacher should take into account the specificity of national styles, communicative strategies and speech tactics of both languages. A comparative analysis of linguistic differences of the English and Russian languages is demonstrated on the level of phonetics, vocabulary, grammar and national communicative stylistics. The author maintains that successful inter-language and cross-cultural communication requires the integrative cross-disciplinary approach, consolidation of the linguistic theory and methods of foreign language teaching. 

  1. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  2. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  3. Origine et developpement des industries de la langue (Origin and Development of Language Utilities). Publication K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Homme, Marie-Claude

    The evolution of "language utilities," a concept confined largely to the francophone world and relating to the uses of language in computer science and the use of computer science for languages, is chronicled. The language utilities are of three types: (1) tools for language development, primarily dictionary databases and related tools;…

  4. A NEW CONCEPT IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: APPLICATION OF EUROPEAN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNEYLI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to adapt European Language Portfolio (ELP to teaching Turkish as a foreign languagewhose application has been planned since 2005 in all European countries. With the European Language Passport programEuropean Validity Committee aims to set a langugage learning standard and encourage multi-culturalism among EUcountries. This program targets to find out which langugages the individuals speak and to discover where, how and whenthey have learnt the language. It also provides an opportunity for them to travel, reside and work in European countries.Today, ELP is in progress of becoming a common purpose in Europe. Therefore, ELP must be utilized in teaching Turkishas a foreign language. ELP must be piloted in laboratory schools through experimental studies with an approprietlydeveloped portfolio. Pilot projects must be applied in elementary, secondary, high schools and universities with acollaboration with the Ministry of Education. This study was conducted in TOMER ( the language center of AnkaraUniversity. For this study an experimental design was used. The sample includes 20 students in the control group and 20students in the experimental group. In this study students’ proficiency level of Turkish related to four basic language skills(reading, writing, listening and speaking and their attitude towards ELP application were examined.

  5. Fusing Language Learning and Leadership Development: Initial Approaches and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sheri Spaine; LeLoup, Jean W.; Derby, LeAnn; Reyes, Ramsamooj J.

    2014-01-01

    During a recent visiting professorship at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA), it became clear that language faculty--both military and civilians--stated that they included leadership while teaching foreign languages and cultures. However, many of the same educators could not explicitly spell out their approach to doing so. This gap…

  6. Is Developing Employability Skills Relevant to Adult Language Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, Tita

    2016-01-01

    Open University (OU) students are typically mature students who combine studying part-time with work or caring responsibilities; the average age of OU language students has been dropping, and about 30% of our new students are now under 25. The traditional view of adult learners who study languages is that they often study for pleasure or personal…

  7. Empowering the Foreign Language Learner through Critical Literacies Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneman, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This article examines current pedagogical trends in the foreign language classroom and argues that a critical literacies pedagogical approach (Freire, 1970) should guide instruction. A critical literacies pedagogical approach is then discussed in the context of foreign language teaching and learning, and particular attention in this article is…

  8. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  9. Bidirectional Associations among Sensitive Parenting, Language Development, and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Gustafsson, Hanna; Deng, Min; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in language skills and social competence, both of which are linked to sensitive parenting, characterize early childhood. The present study examines bidirectional associations among mothers' sensitive parenting and children's language skills and social competence from 24 to 36?months in a community sample of 174 families. In addition,…

  10. Early Home Language Use and Later Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between early patterns of home language use (age 4.5 years) and vocabulary growth (ages 4.5 to 12 years) in English and Spanish for 180 Spanish-speaking language minority learners followed from ages 4.5 to 12 years. Standardized measures of vocabulary were administered to children from ages 4.5 to…

  11. Laboratory Studies on Multilingual Cognition and Further Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina; Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Multilingualism is now seen as the norm rather than the exception in an age of migration and supranational entities, and where minority language rights and the consequent educational policies have become more common. The field of applied linguistics reflects that transition: second language acquisition (sla) research is slowly being replaced by…

  12. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however,

  13. Longitudinal adaptation in language development: a study of typically-developing children and children with ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Fein, Deborah

    Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social and lingu......Background: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display distinctive language development trajectories (Tek et al., 2013). Because language-learning is a social endeavor, these trajectories could be partially grounded in the dynamics that characterize the children's social......’s previous behavior. In this study, we tested this model of mutual influence in a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years), consisting of 30 minutes of controlled playful activities between parents and 66 children (33 ASD and 33 matched typically developing (TD), Goodwin et al. 2012). Methods: We first.......Results:Developmental trajectories: Our models described the developmental trajectories (0.3 ASD (β: from -1.14 to -0.86), with an interaction between the two (children with ASD showed shallower trajectories, β: -2.43 to -1...

  14. Effects of Embedded and Direct Language Strategies on Prekindergarten Students' Cognitive and Social Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the effect of a standard of care embedded language strategies program utilized in combination with direct language strategy instruction on the measured expressive language, cognitive development, social emotional development, and language development of prekindergarten students attending three neighborhood…

  15. The Role of Indigenous Languages in National Development: A Case Study of Nigerian Linguistic Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ayodele Olaoye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous languages are indispensable cultural legacies without which all forms of human interactions can be carried out. National development is the development of individuals in a nation. Individuals can develop educationally, socially, politically, economically, and culturally through interaction with government agencies that disseminate policies through various indigenous languages. Development indices such as internal cohesion, integration, unity, economic wellbeing and citizens’ participation in governance are promoted through indigenous languages. Based on these assertions, the author studied the current linguistic situations in Nigeria and found that native languages play fundamental role on issues  such as democracy, technology, metalanguage and linguistic globalization .There are however some challenges in the optimum  utilization of these mother tongues. The major problems being orthographic inadequacy,the multiplicity of minority languages, linguistic desertification and deforestation and  language endangerment.The author then suggests a way forward.

  16. Foreign language as a tool for professional mobility development for students specialising in economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polenova Anna, YU.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the practical aspects of professional mobility development for students specializing in Economics by means of foreign language. It is noted that the potential of a foreign language is not used in full since training in this discipline is delivered separately with the development of professional competence of the future expert. The article analyzes the existing experience of teaching English at non- linguistic faculties using CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning approach. The article suggests the ways of professional mobility development by means of foreign language. It discusses the advantages of innovative teaching, which is aimed at meeting the professional and educational needs of students, the development of professional mobility and creative thinking. It is concluded that studying a foreign language and non-language subject at the same time is an additional means to achieve high educational outcomes.

  17. Sex hormones in early infancy seem to predict aspects of later language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Hesse, Volker; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-02-01

    Sex differences in the development of cognitive behavior such as language have long been of great research interest. Lately, researchers have started to associate language function and brain differences with diverse sex hormones (e.g., testosterone/estradiol). However, results concerning the impact of early postnatal sex hormone concentration on the child's later language development are rare. Here, we analyze the impact of testosterone and estradiol in girls and boys as well as their neurophysiological phonemic discrimination at age 5months on language development at age 4years. Interestingly, we found strong positive estradiol and negative testosterone impact on later language performance at age 4years, which was true for both girls and boys. These results demonstrate that postnatal sex hormone surge might be viewed as one factor determining later language development, independent of gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Beyond Milestones': a randomised controlled trial evaluating an innovative digital resource teaching quality observation of normal child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Anne M; Cunningham, Clare; Sinclair, Adriane J; Rao, Arjun; Lonergan, Amy; Bye, Ann M E

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to create and evaluate the educational effectiveness of a digital resource instructing paediatric trainees in a systematic approach to critical and quality observation of normal child development. A digital educational resource was developed utilising the skills of an expert developmental paediatrician who was videoed assessing normal early child development at a series of critical stages. Videos illustrated aspects of language, sophistication of play and socialisation, cognition, and motor progress. Expert commentary, teaching text and summaries were used. A randomised controlled trial evaluated the resource. Paediatric trainees were recruited from The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network. Outcome measures were repeated at three time points (pre-teaching, immediate-post and 1 month) and included self-rated attitudes, knowledge of markers of development and observational expertise. Qualitative data on teaching usefulness were obtained through open-ended questions. Fifty-six paediatric trainees (registrar 79%, women 82%; mean age 31 years) completed the pre-assessment, 46 the immediate-post and 45 the 1-month follow-up (20% attrition). Compared with the Control group, the Teaching group scored higher over time on markers of development (P = 0.006), observational expertise (P improves knowledge, increases confidence and is useful, providing a structured approach to developmental assessment. The techniques taught can be applied to every paediatric consultation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. The Lexicon of Development: A Quantitative History of the Language of Development Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher David ABSELL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the history of the language of development theory in order to elucidate the nature of its terminology. The history of the principal terms of development theory (economic/sustainable/human development, Third World, and North/(Global South is examined by way of a quantitative study of the frequency of the usage of these terms during the 20th century based on a dataset of millions of digitised books made available by Google Books. The author argues that the results of the study provide empirical evidence that the language of development theory is a historical-ideological construction which is embedded in the structure of the world economy.

  20. Validity and reliability of Preschool Language Scale 4 for measuring language development in children 48-59 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryani Sidarta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence rates for speech and language delay have been reported across wide ranges. Speech and language delay affects 5% to 8% of preschool children, often persisting into the school years.  A cross-sectional study was conducted in 208 children aged 48-59 months to determine the validity and reliability of the Indonesian edition of the Preschool Language Scale version 4 (PLS4 as a screening tool for the identification of language development disorders. Construct validity was examined by using Pearson correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was tested and repeated measurements were taken to establish the stability coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for test-retest reliability. For construct validity, the Pearson correlation coefficient ranged from 0.151-0.526, indicating that all questions in this instrument were valid for measuring auditory comprehension (AC and expressive communication skills (EC. Cronbach’s alpha level ranged from 0.81-0.95 with standard error of measurement (SEM ranging from 3.1-3.3. Stability coefficients ranged from 0.98-.0.99 with ICC coefficient ranging from 0.97-0.99 both of which showed an excellent reliability. This study found that PLS-4 is a valid and reliable instrument. It is easy to handle and can be recommended for assessing language development in children aged 48-59 months.

  1. Language Development of Three- to Twelve-Year-Old Twins Compared to Singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dʼhaeseleer, Evelien; Geenens, Eline; Parmentier, Sarah; Corthals, Paul; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    The language development of twins tends to lag behind in comparison to that of singletons. The purpose of this study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills of 3- to 12-year-old twins with singletons. Secondly, correlations between language differences between twins and singletons and age were investigated. Twenty-four twins with a mean age of 5.1 years participated in the study. The control group consisted of 24 singletons who were matched for gender and age. Language development was investigated using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Twins scored significantly lower for expressive and receptive language skills compared to singletons. Even when excluding preterm-born children, twins still scored significantly lower for expressive language skills. There was no correlation between age and language differences between twins and their matched singletons. Twins score lower for expressive and receptive language skills compared to singletons, and preterm birth cannot be regarded as the main cause for the language delay. The language delay in twins is rather mild but does not seem to decrease with increasing age. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Precursors to Language Development in Typically and Atypically Developing Infants and Toddlers: The Importance of Embracing Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand how language abilities emerge in typically and atypically developing infants and toddlers, it is important to embrace complexity in development. In this paper, we describe evidence that early language development is an experience-dependent process, shaped by diverse, interconnected, interdependent developmental mechanisms,…

  3. Gap-Junctional communication between developing Drosophila muscles is essential for their normal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, M G; Baines, R A; Stebbings, L A; Davies, J A; Bacon, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that a family of proteins, known as the innexins, are structural components of invertebrate gap junctions. The shaking-B (shak-B) locus of Drosophila encodes two members of this emerging family, Shak-B(lethal) and Shak-B(neural). This study focuses on the role of Shak-B gap junctions in the development of embryonic and larval muscle. During embryogenesis, shak-B transcripts are expressed in a subset of the somatic muscles; expression is strong in ventral oblique muscles (VO4-6) but only weak in ventral longitudinals (VL3 and 4). Carboxyfluorescein injected into VO4 of wild-type early stage 16 embryos spreads, via gap junctions, to label adjacent muscles, including VL3 and 4. In shak-B2 embryos (in which the shak-B(neural) function is disrupted), dye injected into VO4 fails to spread into other muscles. In the first instar larva, when dye coupling between muscles is no longer present, another effect of the shak-B2 mutation is revealed by whole-cell voltage clamp. In a calcium-free saline, only two voltage-activated potassium currents are present in wild-type muscles; a fast IA and a slow IK current. In shak-B2 larvae, these two currents are significantly reduced in magnitude in VO4 and 5, but remain normal in VL3. Expression of shak-B(neural) in a shak-B2 background fully rescues both dye coupling in embryonic muscle and whole-cell currents in first instar VO4 and 5. Our observations show that Shak-B(neural) is one of a set of embryonic gap-junction proteins, and that it is required for the normal temporal development of potassium currents in some larval muscles.

  4. Second Language Aquisition and The Development through Nature-Nurture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahfitri Purnama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors regarding which aspect of second language acquisition is affected by individual learner factors, age, learning style. aptitude, motivation, and personality. This research is about English language acquisition of fourth-year child by nature and nurture. The child acquired her second language acquisition at home and also in one of the courses in Jakarta. She schooled by her parents in order to be able to speak English well as a target language for her future time. The purpose of this paper is to see and examine individual learner difference especially in using English as a second language. This study is a library research and retrieved data collected, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed descriptively. The results can be concluded: the child is able to communicate well and also able to construct simple sentences, complex sentences, sentence statement, phrase questions, and explain something when her teacher asks her at school. She is able to communicate by making a simple sentence or compound sentence in well-form (two clauses or three clauses, even though she still not focus to use the past tense form and sometimes she forgets to put bound morpheme -s in third person singular but she can use turn-taking in her utterances. It is a very long process since the child does the second language acquisition. The family and teacher should participate and assist the child, the proven child can learn the first and the second language at the same time.

  5. Attention and Word Learning in Autistic, Language Delayed and Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTenenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that patterns of social attention hold predictive value for language development in typically developing infants. The goal of this research was to explore how patterns of attention in autistic, language delayed, and typically developing children relate to early word learning and language abilities. We tracked patterns of eye movements to faces and objects while children watched videos of a woman teaching them a series of new words. Subsequent test trials measured participants’ recognition of these novel word-object pairings. Results indicated that greater attention to the speaker’s mouth was related to higher scores on standardized measures of language development for autistic and typically developing children (but not for language delayed children. This effect was mediated by age for typically developing, but not autistic children. When effects of age were controlled for, attention to the mouth among language delayed participants was negatively correlated with standardized measures of language learning. Attention to the speaker’s mouth and eyes while she was teaching the new words was also predictive of faster recognition of the newly learned words among autistic children. These results suggest that language delays among children with autism may be driven in part by aberrant social attention, and that the mechanisms underlying these delays may differ from those in language delayed participants without autism.

  6. What You Don't Know Can Hurt You: The Risk of Language Deprivation by Impairing Sign Language Development in Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wyatte C

    2017-05-01

    A long-standing belief is that sign language interferes with spoken language development in deaf children, despite a chronic lack of evidence supporting this belief. This deserves discussion as poor life outcomes continue to be seen in the deaf population. This commentary synthesizes research outcomes with signing and non-signing children and highlights fully accessible language as a protective factor for healthy development. Brain changes associated with language deprivation may be misrepresented as sign language interfering with spoken language outcomes of cochlear implants. This may lead to professionals and organizations advocating for preventing sign language exposure before implantation and spreading misinformation. The existence of one-time-sensitive-language acquisition window means a strong possibility of permanent brain changes when spoken language is not fully accessible to the deaf child and sign language exposure is delayed, as is often standard practice. There is no empirical evidence for the harm of sign language exposure but there is some evidence for its benefits, and there is growing evidence that lack of language access has negative implications. This includes cognitive delays, mental health difficulties, lower quality of life, higher trauma, and limited health literacy. Claims of cochlear implant- and spoken language-only approaches being more effective than sign language-inclusive approaches are not empirically supported. Cochlear implants are an unreliable standalone first-language intervention for deaf children. Priorities of deaf child development should focus on healthy growth of all developmental domains through a fully-accessible first language foundation such as sign language, rather than auditory deprivation and speech skills.

  7. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  8. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2: Use of the basic language and module library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. A.; Cornick, D. E.; Flater, J. F.; Odoherty, R. J.; Peterson, F. M.; Ramsey, H. R.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities of the specified scheduling language and the program module library are outlined. The summary is written with the potential user in mind and, therefore, provides maximum insight on how the capabilities will be helpful in writing scheduling programs. Simple examples and illustrations are provided to assist the potential user in applying the capabilities of his problem.

  9. Transformative New Teaching: Adolescent English Language Learners' Multidimensional Language and Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namsook

    2011-01-01

    In the highest of need for a transformative new pedagogy with adolescent English Language Learners, I designed and conducted this qualitative case study to answer the questions on the in-depth meaning of innovative teaching practices in new times. Grounded in the sociocultural perspectives, and in accordance with the qualitative case study…

  10. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts the strength of hemispheric lateralization for language processing in temporal lobe epilepsy and normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaëlle E; Pustina, Dorian; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael R; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-01-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), determining the hemispheric specialization for language before surgery is critical to preserving a patient's cognitive abilities post-surgery. To date, the major techniques utilized are limited by the capacity of patients to efficiently realize the task. We determined whether resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a reliable predictor of language hemispheric dominance in right and left TLE patients, relative to controls. We chose three subregions of the inferior frontal cortex (pars orbitalis, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis) as the seed regions. All participants performed both a verb generation task and a resting-state fMRI procedure. Based on the language task, we computed a laterality index (LI) for the resulting network. This revealed that 96% of the participants were left-hemisphere dominant, although there remained a large degree of variability in the strength of left lateralization. We tested whether LI correlated with rsFC values emerging from each seed. We revealed a set of regions that was specific to each group. Unique correlations involving the epileptic mesial temporal lobe were revealed for the right and left TLE patients, but not for the controls. Importantly, for both TLE groups, the rsFC emerging from a contralateral seed was the most predictive of LI. Overall, our data depict the broad patterns of rsFC that support strong versus weak left hemisphere language laterality. This project provides the first evidence that rsFC data may potentially be used on its own to verify the strength of hemispheric dominance for language in impaired or pathologic populations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Development of Mobile Server for Language Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumoto, Hiroko; Yoshida, Mitsunobu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the conceptual design of the mobile server software "MY Server" for language teaching drafted by Tokumoto. It is to report how this software is designed and adopted effectively to Japanese language teaching. Most of the current server systems for education require facilities in a big scale including high-spec server machines, professional administrators, which naturally result in big budget projects that individual teachers or small size schools canno...

  12. Language development of children born following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) combined with assisted oocyte activation (AOA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; K. van Lierde; H. Gysels; B. Heindrynckx; Y. Thienpont; H. Roeyers; A. Oostra; K. Bettens; P. de Sutter; G. de Witte; E. D'haeseleer; F. Vanden Meerschaut

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. AIMS: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old

  13. Factors Related to Professional Development of English Language University Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2012-01-01

    Professional development is deemed necessary for university teachers at all levels, as it helps to enhance teaching quality. However, the extent of English language university teachers' professional development might depend on a number of factors. This paper reports on a study investigating English language university teachers' professional…

  14. Individual Differences in Language Development: Relationship with Motor Skill at 21 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Katherine J.; Krawczyk, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    Language development has long been associated with motor development, particularly manual gesture. We examined a variety of motor abilities--manual gesture including symbolic, meaningless and sequential memory, oral motor control, gross and fine motor control--in 129 children aged 21 months. Language abilities were assessed and cognitive and…

  15. Progressive Modularization: Reframing Our Understanding of Typical and Atypical Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; Filippi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The ability to acquire language is a critical part of human development. Yet there is no consensus on how the skill emerges in early development. Does it constitute an innately-specified, language-processing module or is it acquired progressively? One of Annette Karmiloff-Smith's (1938-2016) key contributions to developmental science addresses…

  16. Language Policy and Development Aid: A Critical Analysis of an ELT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, Ruanni; Tabiola, Honey

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights the political and ideological entanglements of language policy and English language teaching with neocolonialism, neoliberalism, and development aid. It does so by examining the explicit and implicit goals and practices of an educational development aid project in Mindanao, Philippines. The US-funded Job Enabling English…

  17. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status and Ethnicity on Speech and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.; Hughes, Amanda; Iqbal, Zafar; Cooper, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the speech and language development of young children. Delays in the development of speech and language can have repercussions for school attainment and life chances. This paper is based on a survey of 3- to 4-year-old children in the city of Stoke-on-Trent in the UK. It analyses the data collected from 255 children…

  18. Atypical Speech and Language Development: A Consensus Study on Clinical Signs in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Bochane, Margot I.; Gerrits, Ellen; van der Schans, Cees P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Luinge, Margreet R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Atypical speech and language development is one of the most common developmental difficulties in young children. However, which clinical signs characterize atypical speech-language development at what age is not clear. Aim: To achieve a national and valid consensus on clinical signs and red flags (i.e. most urgent clinical signs) for…

  19. Measuring and Comparing Academic Language Development and Conceptual Understanding via Science Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Margarita; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this quantitative study measured and compared the academic language development and conceptual understanding of fifth-grade economically disadvantaged English language learners (ELL), former ELLs, and native English-speaking (ES) students as reflected in their science notebook scores. Using an instrument they developed, the authors…

  20. A Comparative Study of Vygotsky's Perspectives on Child Language Development with Nativism and Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastpak, Mehdi; Behjat, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the similarities and differences between Vygotsky's perspectives on child language development with nativism and behaviorism. Proposing the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, Vygotsky emphasized the role of collaborative interaction, scaffolding, and guided participation in language learning. Nativists, on…

  1. Language Development and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics in Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Eun Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of language development in relation to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the other contributing factors to language development in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 172 children with CP who underwent brain MRI and language…

  2. Language Development of Children Born Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Combined with Assisted Oocyte Activation (AOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; De Witte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Sutter, Petra; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. Aims: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old children born following ART using intracytoplasmic…

  3. Examination of the Relationship between Demographic Characteristics of the Family and the Language Development of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the demographic characteristics and the language development of children. In the research, a "Personal Information Form" consisting of 14 items containing information about the demographic structure of the family was used and a "Language Development Checklist"…

  4. Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language : Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nomura, Saeko; Ishida, Saeko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2002-01-01

    ”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece.......”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece....

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  6. Development of Pointing Gestures in Children with Typical and Delayed Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Carina; Ritterfeld, Ute; Grimminger, Angela; Liszkowski, Ulf; Rohlfing, Katharina J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study compared the development of hand and index-finger pointing in children with typical language development (TD) and children with language delay (LD). First, we examined whether the number and the form of pointing gestures during the second year of life are potential indicators of later LD. Second, we analyzed the…

  7. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  8. Expressive Language Development in 45 Cochlear Implanted Children Following 2 Years of Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Profound hearing loss encounters children with delay in speech and language. As it is known language acquisition in young deaf children is a lengthy process, but cochlear implanted children have better spoken language skills than if they had not received the device. According to the importance of cochlear implant in deaf child's language development, this study evaluates the effect of different variables on child's language performance. Methods: 45 cochlear implanted children were tested, all of whom had used the device for at least 2 years. In order to evaluate the children, the NEWSHA test which is fitted for Persian speaking children was performed and language development of the children was compared through stepwise discriminant analysis. Results: After evaluation of the effect of different variables like child's age of implantation, participating in rehabilitation classes, parent's cooperation and their level of education, we came to a conclusion that the child's age of implantation and rehabilitation program significantly develop the child's language performance. Discussion: The value of cochlear implant in improvement of deaf children in speech, language perception, production and comprehension is confirmed by different studies which have been done on cochlear implanted children. Also, the present study indicates that language development in cochlear implanted children is highly related to their age of implantation and rehabilitation program.

  9. [Early development of language in small children with autism spectrum disorder using alternative systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Sevilla, M Sol; Escandell-Bermúdez, M Olga; Castro-Sánchez, José Juan; Martos-Pérez, Juan

    2015-02-25

    The latest research findings show the importance of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in all areas of development, including language. The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems (AACS) favors linguistic and communicative development. To show the effectiveness of AACS to develop oral language in non-verbal toddlers diagnosed with ASD. Thirty children (25 males and 5 females) diagnosed with ASD when they were between 18 and 30 months of age, through the instruments ADOS and ADIR. None of them displayed oral language development at the time of assessment. An intervention program in the area of language was designed based on the use of total communication by the therapist and training the child in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). One year later, the formal aspects of language were assessed with the PLON-R because oral language had been developed. All the children had developed oral language to some extent over a one-year period. Early intervention and the use of AACS with visual props favor the development of oral language in children with ASD in the first years of life.

  10. Polish Vocabulary Development in 2-Year-Olds: Comparisons with English Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Constants, Holly; Bialecka-Pikul, Marta; Stepien-Nycz, Malgorzata; Ochal, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Method: Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = 24.69 months, SD = 0.78). Results: Test-retest…

  11. Study of child language development and disorders in Iran: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Yalda Kazemi; Helen Stringer; Thomas Klee

    2015-01-01

    Child language development and disorder in Iran has been the focus for research by different professions, the most prominent ones among them being psychologists and speech therapists. Epidemiological studies indicate that between 8% and 12% of children show noticeable signs of language impairment in the preschool years; however, research on child language in Iran is not extensive compared to studies in English speaking countries, which are currently the basis of clinical decision-making in Ir...

  12. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was e...

  13. Development of pedagogical design in technology-rich environments for language teaching and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkanen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the development of pedagogical design for language teaching and learning in increasingly technology-rich environments. More specifically, it focuses on the process of design, enactment and analysis of language and literacy pedagogies in technology-rich environments. Two substudies are reported in five articles, each of which approaches pedagogical design from a different perspective. The first substudy examined (a) what pedagogical choices language studen...

  14. INDUSTRIAL ROBOT ARM SIMULATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT USING JAVA-3D AND MATLAB SIMULINK PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wirabhuana, Arya

    2011-01-01

    Robot Arms Simulation Software development using Structured Programming Languages, Third Party Language, and Artificial Intelligence Programming Language are the common techniques in simulating robot arms movement. Those three techniques are having its strengths and weaknesses depend on several constraints such as robot type, degree of operation complexity to be simulated, operator skills, and also computer capability. This paper will discuss on Robot Arms Simulation Software (RSS) developmen...

  15. Digital gaming and second language development: Japanese learners interactions in a MMORPG

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are identified as valuable arenas for language learning, as they provide access to contexts and types of interaction that are held to be beneficial in second language acquisition research. This paper will describe the development and key features of these games, and explore claims made regarding their value as environments for language learning. The discussion will then examine current research. This is followed by an analysis of t...

  16. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Prediction in a visual language: real-time sentence processing in American Sign Language across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M; Borovsky, Arielle; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2018-01-01

    Prediction during sign language comprehension may enable signers to integrate linguistic and non-linguistic information within the visual modality. In two eyetracking experiments, we investigated American Sign language (ASL) semantic prediction in deaf adults and children (aged 4-8 years). Participants viewed ASL sentences in a visual world paradigm in which the sentence-initial verb was either neutral or constrained relative to the sentence-final target noun. Adults and children made anticipatory looks to the target picture before the onset of the target noun in the constrained condition only, showing evidence for semantic prediction. Crucially, signers alternated gaze between the stimulus sign and the target picture only when the sentential object could be predicted from the verb. Signers therefore engage in prediction by optimizing visual attention between divided linguistic and referential signals. These patterns suggest that prediction is a modality-independent process, and theoretical implications are discussed.

  18. Habilidades de resolução de conflito e ocorrência de disfluências comuns em crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem Conflict resolution abilities and normal disfluencies in normally developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: (1 Investigar as habilidades de resolução de conflito (RC de crianças em idade escolar; (2 Verificar a relação entre a ocorrência de disfluências comuns (DC e o desenvolvimento das habilidades de RC. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 20 crianças em desenvolvimento normal de linguagem, com idades entre sete e dez anos. As crianças foram submetidas a uma triagem, na qual foram realizadas as provas de Fonologia, Consciência Fonológica e Leitura e Escrita; aquelas que obtiveram desempenho esperado para sua faixa etária passaram por avaliação, sendo realizadas as provas de RC e de Fluência. Na prova de RC, as respostas foram categorizadas em 28 categorias, para então, serem pontuadas. Na prova de fluência, foi verificada a ocorrência de DC. RESULTADOS: Na prova de RC, as crianças obtiveram entre 5 e 14 pontos (M=10,7, porém não se observou correlação entre a pontuação total e a idade cronológica (p=0,361. Na prova de Fluência, a ocorrência de DC variou de 4 a 24 (M=10. Observou-se que não há correlação estatística significante entre a pontuação na prova de RC e a ocorrência de DC (p=0,899. CONCLUSÕES: Na prova de RC, as crianças utilizaram principalmente estratégias unilaterais para a resolução dos conflitos e as estratégias não se tornaram mais sofisticadas com o passar da idade. Ao comparar o desempenho das crianças na prova de RC à ocorrência de DC, não foi possível estabelecer relação direta entre as duas variáveis.PURPOSE: The aims of this study were: (1 to investigate conflict resolution (CR abilities in normally developing school-aged children; (2 to verify whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of normal disfluencies (ND and the development of conflict resolution abilities. METHODS: Twenty normally developing children, whose ages ranged between seven and ten, participated in this study. The participants underwent a language screening test, covering the following

  19. Do the early development of gestures and receptive and expressive language predict language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Lind, A; Matomäki, J; Haataja, L; Lapinleimu, H; Lehtonen, L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear what the predictive value of very early development of gestures and language is on later language ability in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500g) children. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of early gestures and a receptive lexicon measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3, as well as the predictive value of receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0 for language skills at 5;0 in VLBW children. The subjects were 29 VLBW children and 28 full-term children whose language development has been followed intensively between the ages of 0;9 and 2;0 using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Developmental Inventory and the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS III). At 5;0, five selected verbal subtests of the Nepsy II test and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were used to assess children's language skills. For the first time in VLBW children, the development of gestures measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3 was shown to correlate significantly and positively with language skills at 5;0. In addition, both receptive and expressive language ability measured at 2;0 correlated significantly and positively with later language skills in both groups. Moreover, according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the receptive language score of the RDLS III at 2;0 was a clear and significant predictor for language skills at 5;0 in both groups. The findings particularly underline the role of early receptive language as a significant predictor for later language ability in VLBW children. The results provide evidence for a continuity between early language development and later language skills. After reading this article, readers will understand the associations between the very early (≤2 years of age) development of gestures and language (i.e. early receptive lexicon, expressive lexicon at 2;0, receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0) and the language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born

  20. A systematic literature review of sex differences in childhood language and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Andrew; Adhikari, Aditi; Weinberg, Lauren S; Choo, Ai Leen; Garnett, Emily O; Chow, Ho Ming; Chang, Soo-Eun

    2018-06-01

    The extent of sex differences in childhood language development is unclear. We conducted a systematic literature review synthesizing results from studies examining sex differences in brain structure and function relevant to language development during childhood. We searched PubMed and Scopus databases, and this returned a total of 46 published studies meeting criteria for inclusion that directly examined sex differences in brain development relevant to language function in children. The results indicate that: (a) sex differences in brain structure or function do not necessarily lead to differences in language task performance; (b) evidence for sex differences in brain and language development are limited; (c) when present, sex differences often interact with a variety of factors such as age and task. Overall, the magnitude of sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories associated with language is not as significant as previously thought. Sex differences were found, however, in studies employing tighter age ranges. This suggests that sex differences may be more prominent during certain developmental stages but are negligible in other stages, likely due to different rates of maturation between the sexes. More research is needed to improve our understanding of how sex differences may arise due to the influence of sex hormones and developmental stages, and how these differences may lead to differences in various language task performance. These studies are expected to provide normative information that may be used in studies examining neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently affect more males than females, and also often affect language development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  2. Audiovisual sentence repetition as a clinical criterion for auditory development in Persian-language children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi-Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Vahab, Maryam; Rahimi, Zahra; Mayahi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    It is important for clinician such as speech-language pathologists and audiologists to develop more efficient procedures to assess the development of auditory, speech and language skills in children using hearing aid and/or cochlear implant compared to their peers with normal hearing. So, the aim of study was the comparison of the performance of 5-to-7-year-old Persian-language children with and without hearing loss in visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual presentation of sentence repetition task. The research was administered as a cross-sectional study. The sample size was 92 Persian 5-7 year old children including: 60 with normal hearing and 32 with hearing loss. The children with hearing loss were recruited from Soroush rehabilitation center for Persian-language children with hearing loss in Shiraz, Iran, through consecutive sampling method. All the children had unilateral cochlear implant or bilateral hearing aid. The assessment tool was the Sentence Repetition Test. The study included three computer-based experiments including visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual. The scores were compared within and among the three groups through statistical tests in α = 0.05. The score of sentence repetition task between V-only, A-only, and AV presentation was significantly different in the three groups; in other words, the highest to lowest scores belonged respectively to audiovisual, auditory-only, and visual-only format in the children with normal hearing (P audiovisual sentence repetition scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.179, n = 92, P = 0.088), but audiovisual sentence repetition scores were found to be strongly correlated with auditory-only scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.943, n = 92, P = 0.000). According to the study's findings, audiovisual integration occurs in the 5-to-7-year-old Persian children using hearing aid or cochlear implant during sentence repetition similar to their peers with normal hearing

  3. Parental Support for Language Development during Joint Book Reading for Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Doll, Emily R.; Stika, Carren J.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Johnson, Karen J.; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.

    2014-01-01

    Parent and child joint book reading (JBR) characteristics and parent facilitative language techniques (FLTs) were investigated in two groups of parents and their young children; children with normal hearing (NH; "n" = 60) and children with hearing loss (HL; "n" = 45). Parent-child dyads were videotaped during JBR interactions,…

  4. The development of children's language and ethical media competences and media skills

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, Raine; Hautaviita, Janika; Meriläinen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    The children's developing media competences and media skills are evaluated in this article on the basis of the evaluation indicator developed by Hautaviita (2012). The indicator has been developed for measuring the 6–9-year-old children's (the preschoolers and the pupils in grades 1-2) media competences. In it, the children's developing media skills are divided into practical, social, language and ethical media competences, of which this article concentrates on the last two, language and ethi...

  5. False belief and semantic language development in children aged 2 to 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Eduardo Bermúdez-Jaimes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We intended to explore and characterize the relationships between the development of understanding childhood theories of mind and the semantic development of language. We used three versions of the false belief task,programmed with Flash, and the Early Language Development Battery in order to assess semantic abilities in 116 children aged two to four years. Significant differences among ages were found for task performance, and positive associations between social comprehension and language development were found in two tasks. Results were interpreted through the interaction proposal by Wellman (1994.

  6. Uneven Expressive Language Development in Mandarin-Exposed Preschool Children with ASD: Comparing Vocabulary, Grammar, and the Decontextualized Use of Language via the PCDI-Toddler Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Naigles, Letitia R; Su, Lin-Yan

    2018-05-21

    Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD. In particular, they could be divided into three distinct subgroups (high verbal, middle verbal, low verbal), all of which manifested relative strengths in lexical and grammatical language compared to pragmatic usage of decontextualized language.

  7. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-05-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/1J9X50aePeU. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. "Inspiration, Ideas, Encouragement": Teacher Development and Improved Use of Technology in Language Teaching through Open Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, Kate; Gallagher-Brett, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study undertaken with language tutors who were engaged in a project to publish and create open educational resources. We sought to investigate how far working with open content could offer language tutors opportunities to develop professionally and acquire new technical knowledge for language teaching. Language educators…

  9. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  10. From Concepts to Design in Developing Languages in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Developing curricula for languages in the context of the Australian Curriculum is a complex undertaking that needs to address a number of demands. These include: the nature of language-and-culture learning for contemporary times within an increasingly diverse linguistic and cultural world; the goals of mainstream education and the…

  11. Developing Testing Accommodations for English Language Learners: Illustrations as Visual Supports for Item Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Kachchaf, Rachel; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Nguyen-Le, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    We address valid testing for English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are schooled in English while they are still acquiring English as a second language. Also, we address the need for procedures for systematically developing ELL testing accommodations--changes in tests intended to support ELLs to gain access to the…

  12. Dealing with Distinctiveness. Development of Chinese in the "Australian Curriculum: Languages"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Andrew; Foster, Marnie; Mao, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some of the distinctive challenges in Chinese language education in schools and discusses how the development of the "Australian Curriculum: Chinese" has responded to these challenges. It details how the curriculum framework outlined in the "Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages" (ACARA, 2011)…

  13. Role of sign language in intellectual and social development of deaf children: Review of foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign psychological publications concerning the sign language as a means of communication in deaf people. The article addresses the question of sing language's impact on cognitive development, efficiency and positive way of interacting with parents as well as academic achievement increase in deaf children.

  14. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  15. Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Liane

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how arts integration can boost the language development of limited English proficient students in kindergarten through second grade. I first review existing research on how young children learn and describe the special challenges faced by children who must learn in an unfamiliar language. I then identify arts-based mechanisms…

  16. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Appendix: Study approach and activity summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The approach and organization of the study to develop a high level computer programming language and a program library are presented. The algorithm and problem modeling analyses are summarized. The approach used to identify and specify the capabilities required in the basic language is described. Results of the analyses used to define specifications for the scheduling module library are presented.

  17. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 1: Study summary and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A high level computer programming language and a program library were developed to be used in writing programs for scheduling complex systems such as the space transportation system. The objectives and requirements of the study are summarized and unique features of the specified language and program library are described and related to the why of the objectives and requirements.

  18. Using a Corpus-Informed Pedagogical Intervention to Develop Language Awareness toward Appropriate Lexicogrammatical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julieta; Yuldashev, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The corpus-informed pedagogical intervention described in this article was developed for an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) course designed for prospective International Teaching Assistants (ITAs) and implemented over the course of two class periods. Its primary goal was to offer students opportunities to gain language awareness of…

  19. "Those Anime Students": Foreign Language Literacy Development through Japanese Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Natsuki

    2006-01-01

    Using multiliteracies and sociocultural perspectives on language and literacy learning, this article describes three Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) students' literacy development through involvement with Japanese popular culture. As part of a larger qualitative ethnographic study, the author interviewed JFL learners who have a particular…

  20. Assessment of Sign Language Development: The Case of Deaf Children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we will describe the development of an assessment instrument for Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) for deaf children in bilingual education programs. The assessment instrument consists of nine computerized tests in which the receptive and expressive language skills of deaf

  1. The ordering of milestones in language development for children from 1 to 6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinge, Margreet R; Post, Wendy J; Wit, Hero P; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To scale language milestones in a group of 527 children to provide an instrument for screening language development. Procedure The questionnaire regarding these milestones was completed by parental report. It was evaluated whether the scaled milestones satisfied the assumptions of the

  2. The ordering of milestones in language development for children from 1 to 6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinge, Margreet R.; Post, Wendy J.; Wit, Hero P.; Goorhuis - Brouwer, Siena

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To scale language milestones in a group of 527 children to provide an instrument for screening language development. Procedure: The questionnaire regarding these milestones was completed by parental report. It was evaluated whether the scaled milestones satisfied the assumptions of the

  3. The Ecological Approach to Language Development: A Radical Solution to Chomsky's and Quine's Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Edward S.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that several of the assumptions underlying Noam Chomsky's and W. V. O. Quine's theories of language acquisition and development are misleading or false. It is argued, among other things, that children do not "acquire" language, but rather learn how to participate in the linguistic community surrounding them. (99 references) (MDM)

  4. Information Technology and Language Development. Occasional Paper InTER/10/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymaszewski, Rachel, Ed.

    This report of a seminar on information technology (IT) and language development begins by presenting background on language skills and information technology in order to define the scope of the topic. The report then pulls together and elaborates on the output of the seminar. The first section discusses media-centered issues, including the design…

  5. The Potential Role(s) of Writing in Second Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…

  6. The Effects of an Early History of Otitis Media on Children's Language and Literacy Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…

  7. Instruction and Development of Second Language Acquisition Pragmatics: An Investigation into Sociolinguistic Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoutezo, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    The problem: The purpose of this study is first to explore the perceptions and attitudes of ESL instructors regarding pragmatics instruction in second language classes. Second, this study is also designed to add to the scholarly literature regarding the importance of pragmatics instruction in developing second language communicative competence.…

  8. The Development of L2 Fluency during Study Abroad: A Cross-Language Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvio, Francesca; Diao, Wenhao; Donovan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Examining speech samples from 75 American university students learning 1 of 3 languages (Mandarin, Russian, and Spanish), this article reports on a study of second language (L2) learners' oral fluency development and its relationship with their gains in holistic proficiency ratings during a semester abroad. In study abroad research, there is a…

  9. Medical Signbank: Bringing Deaf People and Linguists Together in the Process of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; Napier, Jemina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe an Australian project in which linguists, signed language interpreters, medical and health care professionals, and members of the Deaf community use the technology of the Internet to facilitate cooperative language development. A web-based, interactive multimedia lexicon, an encyclopedic dictionary, and a database of…

  10. Language of Instruction: Unlocking Effectiveness of Education and Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the language of instruction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a fundamental educational issue with ramifications for educational access and effectiveness and ultimately national development. Indigenous SSA languages have suffered devaluation in colonial and post-colonial SSA education, and this devaluation alienates the majority of SSA…

  11. Language and Social Development in a Multilingual Classroom: A Dinosaur Project Enriched with Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Monique

    2009-01-01

    With the implementation of the natural approach, the dinosaur study and facilitated block play gave dual language learners many opportunities to acquire a new language, develop social skills, and improve communication abilities. Once teachers identified the barriers to children playing and talking together, they created a classroom environment…

  12. Developing Pedagogical Practices for English-Language Learners: A Design-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; Rose, Brian Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study draws on the application of sociocultural theory to second-language learning and teaching to examine the impact of a design-based research approach on teacher development and literacy instruction to English-language learners (ELLs). Design-based research methodology was employed to derive theoretical suppositions relating to the process…

  13. Language Development or Language Corruption? The Case of Loan-words in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelias Ncube

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article discusses the loan-words in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele (henceforth ISN, particularly looking at their acceptance and/or non-acceptance by the target users of ISN. In Zim-babwe, Ndebele shares the same linguistic environment with English, Shona and the official mi-nority languages such as Kalanga, Tonga and Nambya. A historical heritage also links it with its Nguni sister languages such as Zulu and Xhosa spoken in South Africa. In selecting headwords for ISN, the Ndebele Lexicographic Unit used the frequency-list method, lemmatising words mostly found in the corpus. This method inevitably allowed the adoption of loan-words in the ISN with resultant public protest. The article is divided into two broad sections. The first section gives a gen-eral overview of comments from users of ISN about the inclusion of loan-words in the dictionary. The attitude towards loan-words in the ISN varies with different age groups, the younger gen-eration freely accepting them as part of the Ndebele lexicon as opposed to the older generation. The second section analyses the justification by the editors of ISN for lemmatising loan-words against the views of target users. Reservations against the loan-words in ISN go beyond lexicographic prin-ciples. In the forefront is the users' attitude towards the source language. Language attitudes in Zimbabwe are mainly a result of the socio-political and economic power characterising the differ-ent tribal or ethnic groups in the country. The article concludes by discussing possible solutions to the problem of loan-words to be adopted in the forthcoming Advanced Ndebele Dictionary.


    Keywords: LOAN-WORDS, CULTURAL BORROWING, DIALECT BORROWING, LEXI-CON, ADOPTION, LANGUAGE PURISM, LANGUAGE EMANCIPATION


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Taalontwikkeling of taalbederf? Die geval van leenwoorde in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Hierdie artikel bespreek die leenwoorde in Isichazamazwi Sesi

  14. Language learners as cultural tourists: Development potential of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the increasingly competitive world of English language teaching and learning, the tourism attractiveness of the destination is certain to feature more prominently in the decision making of those who want to learn English, but need to decide where. South Africa can create competitive advantage by packaging its English ...

  15. Battle Management Language: Proof of Principle and Future Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, N. M.de; Krom, P.P.J. de; Schade, U.; Pullen, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 048 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for Multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with Modeling and Simulation. At its May, 2007

  16. Language for education and national development: The case of ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of indigenous African languages in official circles has largely been determined by Africa's contact with the west. In particular this has been the usage of English, French and Portuguese in most of Africa's colonial world. This has attracted the use of such terms as Anglophone, francophone and Lusophone, ...

  17. The Behavior Markup Language: Recent Developments and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhjalmsson, Hannes; Cantelmo, Nathan; Cassell, Justine; Chafai, Nicholas E.; Kipp, Michael; Kopp, Stefan; Mancini, Maurizio; Marsella, Stacy; Marshall, Andrew N.; Pelachaud, Catherine; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Thorisson, Kristinn R.; van Welbergen, H.; van der Werf, Rick J.; Pelachaud, Catherine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Andre, Elisabeth; Collet, Gerard; Karpouzis, Kostas; Pele, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Since the beginning of the SAIBA effort to unify key interfaces in the multi-modal behavior generation process, the Behavior Markup Language (BML) has both gained ground as an important component in many projects worldwide, and continues to undergo further refinement. This paper reports on the

  18. Every teacher a language teacher? Developing awareness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude by highlighting the value of such courses as well as the awareness of multilingualism that it raised with students who were preparing to teach in these linguistically diverse contexts. Keywords: Bi/Multilingualism, teacher education, bi/multilingual language awareness, bi/multilingual materials design ...

  19. An index formula for measuring development in second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grade 12 compositions were analysed and the statistical procedures used in the analysis (correlation, stepwise regression and discriminant analysis) are described. The proposed index formula is Length x EFT/T. This formula can be used in future to determine developmental progress in second language acquisition, and ...

  20. Language and Literacy Development of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Children with the syndrome evidence large individual differences in both broad language and reading abilities. Nevertheless, as a group, children with this syndrome show a consistent pattern characterized by relative…

  1. Developing Multilingual Pedagogies and Research through Language Study and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Shende, Madhur; Suh, Emily K.

    2018-01-01

    Globalisation and increased transnational migration underscore the need for educational responses to multilingualism and multilingual discourses. One way to heighten awareness of multilingual pedagogies (while simultaneously providing data for multilingual research) is the use of reflective language study and journaling by language…

  2. Development of a spoken language identification system for South African languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peché, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available , and complicates the design of the system as a whole. Current benchmark results are established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Language Recognition Evaluation (LRE) [12]. Initially started in 1996, the next evaluation was in 2003..., Gunnar Evermann, Mark Gales, Thomas Hain, Dan Kershaw, Gareth Moore, Julian Odell, Dave Ollason, Dan Povey, Valtcho Valtchev, and Phil Woodland: “The HTK book. Revised for HTK version 3.3”, Online: http://htk.eng.cam.ac.uk/., 2005. [11] M.A. Zissman...

  3. Polycystic ovarian morphology in normal women does not predict the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M K; Hall, J E; Adams, J M; Lee, H; Welt, C K

    2006-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is present in 25% of normal women in the absence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, the natural history of PCOM is unknown. We hypothesized that the presence of PCOM predisposes the development of PCOS. The study was a longitudinal follow-up study over 8.2 +/- 5.2 yr (mean +/- sd; range 1.7-17.5 yr). The study took place in an outpatient setting. Women who took part in a previous study as a normal control and had an ultrasound examination (n = 40) participated. Subjects underwent an interval menstrual history, physical exam, blood sampling, and repeat ultrasound in the follicular phase. Development of PCOS was diagnosed by irregular menses and hyperandrogenism, in the absence of other disorders. Changes in ovarian morphology over time were evaluated. At the baseline visit, 23 women (57.5%) had PCOM and 17 (42.5%) had normal ovarian morphology. One subject with PCOM developed irregular menses and presumptive PCOS. Eleven subjects with PCOM no longer met the criteria for PCOM at follow-up. There was no factor that predicted the change to normal ovarian morphology at the follow-up visit. These data suggest that PCOM in women with regular ovulatory cycles does not commonly predispose the development of PCOS. Although it is unusual to develop PCOM if the ovaries are normal on first assessment, ovaries in women with PCOM no longer meet the criteria for PCOM in approximately half of cases over time.

  4. Postnatal development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus under normal and experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, J.; Bayer, S.

    Studies on postnatal maturation of the dentate gyrus are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: normal development of the dentate gyrus, cytogenesis, morphogenesis, synaptogenesis, gleogenesis, myelogenesis, development of the gyrus under experimental conditions, and effects of x radiation on cytogenesis and morphogenesis

  5. Look Who's Talking: Speech Style and Social Context in Language Input to Infants Are Linked to Concurrent and Future Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2014-01-01

    Language input is necessary for language learning, yet little is known about whether, in natural environments, the speech style and social context of language input to children impacts language development. In the present study we investigated the relationship between language input and language development, examining both the style of parental…

  6. Interaction Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Factors Affecting Speech and Language Development in Treacher-Collins Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treacher-Collins syndrome is a congenital craniofacial disorder with multiple anomalies. This syndrome affects the maxilla, mandible, eyes, middle and outer ears, and soft palate. Conductive hearing loss due to the deformities of the middle and external ears is prevalent. The characteristics of this syndrome include multiple and serious threats to normal communication development in children. In this study, speech and language features of a Persian speaking child with this syndrome are presented.Case: The case was an 8-year old girl with Treacher-Collins syndrome and bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss due to atretic canal. In language and speech assessments, moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors and morphosyntactic deficits were observed. There were 13 phonemes that were incorrectly produced at least in one position. Besides, she used 22 types of phonological processes that were abnormal and disappear before the age of three in normal Persian speaking children.Conclusion: Moderate hearing loss, velopharyngeal incompetency, malocclusion and dental anomalies, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and environmental factors resulted in severe speech and language disorders in this case. These disorders affected her academic performance as well. Moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors, and excessive and abnormal use of phonological processes were not presented as prevalent characteristics of Treacher-Collins syndrome in other resources.

  7. Speech and language development in 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C; Allison, Kristen; McFadd, Emily; Riehle, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    We examined early speech and language development in children who had cerebral palsy. Questions addressed whether children could be classified into early profile groups on the basis of speech and language skills and whether there were differences on selected speech and language measures among groups. Speech and language assessments were completed on 27 children with CP who were between the ages of 24 and 30 months (mean age 27.1 months; SD 1.8). We examined several measures of expressive and receptive language, along with speech intelligibility. Two-step cluster analysis was used to identify homogeneous groups of children based on their performance on the seven dependent variables characterizing speech and language performance. Three groups of children identified were those not yet talking (44% of the sample); those whose talking abilities appeared to be emerging (41% of the sample); and those who were established talkers (15% of the sample). Group differences were evident on all variables except receptive language skills. 85% of 2-year-old children with CP in this study had clinical speech and/or language delays relative to age expectations. Findings suggest that children with CP should receive speech and language assessment and treatment at or before 2 years of age.

  8. Literacy Development in Multicultural Settings with Digital Dual-language Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Turgut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Providing a story in two languages, digital dual-language storybooks can play an important role in supporting EFL students‟ cultural awareness, language and literacy skills. Based on constructivist theoretical framework, this study investigates the impact of digital dual-language storybooks on bilingual learners‟ vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skills.Methods: The participants of the study were ten seventh and eighth grade students who were bilingual in Arabic and Turkish, studying English at an elementary level as a compulsory course at a primary school in Turkey. In order to determine the impact of digital dual-language storybooks, the students read two different digital dual-language storybooks individually at different times. Through the process, think aloud procedures, observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Transcriptions of observations and interviews were analyzed through discourse analysis.Findings and Results: The results of the study indicated that the use of dual language books have a significant impact on learners‟ vocabulary knowledge growth. Using digital dual-language storybooks, learners can develop some strategies for learning new words, make use of images in comprehending the story and engage eagerly to the stories as they reflect and value their own culture and heritage.Conclusions and Recommendations: Awareness about new language systems, diversity and multiculturality in learners‟ immediate environment can be raised.

  9. Evaluating Attributions of Delay and Confusion in Young Bilinguals: Special Insights from Infants Acquiring a Signed and a Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitto, Laura Ann; Holowka, Siobhan

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether early simultaneous bilingual language exposure causes children to be language delayed or confused. Cites research suggesting normal and parallel linguistic development occurs in each language in young children and young children's dual language developments are similar to monolingual language acquisition. Research on simultaneous…

  10. MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION AND ITS IMPACT ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF MILITARY CADETS AT TMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Hilmi Demirel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was three-fold: First, to determine the perspectives of the international and Turkish military cadets at Turkish Military Academy (TMA towards multicultural learning environment and cultural diversity. Second, to analyze to what extent the multicultural learning environment affects the language development of both international and Turkish cadets. Third, to identify the observations and suggestions of language instructors about the best practices that should be applied in multicultural learning setting. A questionnaire and two proficiency tests were conducted on 80 cadets for quantitative data. Qualitative data was gathered from 13 language instructors studying at TMA. It was found that the perspectives of the cadets towards multicultural learning setting were positive. Moreover, the international cadets’ language proficiency developed more than the Turkish cadets. Analysis of the interviews with the language instructors provided important insights into the issue.

  11. Development of in-situ rock shear test under low compressive to tensile normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Takashi; Shin, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an in-situ rock shear testing method to evaluate the shear strength under low normal stress condition including tensile stress, which is usually ignored in the assessment of safety factor of the foundations for nuclear power plants against sliding. The results are as follows. (1) A new in-situ rock shear testing method is devised, in which tensile normal stress can be applied on the shear plane of a specimen by directly pulling up a steel box bonded to the specimen. By applying the counter shear load to cancel the moment induced by the main shear load, it can obtain shear strength under low normal stress. (2) Some model tests on Oya tuff and diatomaceous mudstone have been performed using the developed test method. The shear strength changed smoothly from low values at tensile normal stresses to higher values at compressive normal stresses. The failure criterion has been found to be bi-linear on the shear stress vs normal stress plane. (author)

  12. Towards the Development of a Mexican Speech-to-Sign-Language Translator for the Deaf Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Una parte significativa de la población mexicana es sorda. Esta discapacidad restringe sus habilidades de interacción social con personas que no tienen dicha discapacidad y viceversa. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de un traductor Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas del español mexicano para asistir a personas sin discapacidad a interactuarcon personas sordas. La metodología de diseño propuesta considera limitados recursos para(1 el desarrollo del Reconocedor Automático del Habla (RAH mexicano, el cual es el módulo principal del traductor, y (2 el vocabulario del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LSM disponible para representar las oraciones reconocidas. La traducción Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas fue lograda con un nivel de precisión mayor al 97% para usuarios de prueba diferentes de aquellos seleccionados para el entrenamiento del RAH.A significant population of Mexican people are deaf. This disorder restricts their social interac-tion skills with people who don't have such disorder and viceversa. In this paper we presentour advances towards the development of a Mexican Speech-to-Sign-Language translator toassist normal people to interact with deaf people. The proposed design methodology considerslimited resources for (1 the development of the Mexican Automatic Speech Recogniser (ASRsystem, which is the main module in the translator, and (2 the Mexican Sign Language(MSL vocabulary available to represent the decoded speech. Speech-to-MSL translation wasaccomplished with an accuracy level over 97% for test speakers different from those selectedfor ASR training.

  13. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing and use sign language: considerations and strategies for developing spoken language and literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Debra; Waddy-Smith, Bettie; Doyle, Jane

    2012-11-01

    There is a core body of knowledge, experience, and skills integral to facilitating auditory, speech, and spoken language development when working with the general population of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. There are additional issues, strategies, and challenges inherent in speech habilitation/rehabilitation practices essential to the population of deaf and hard of hearing students who also use sign language. This article will highlight philosophical and practical considerations related to practices used to facilitate spoken language development and associated literacy skills for children and adolescents who sign. It will discuss considerations for planning and implementing practices that acknowledge and utilize a student's abilities in sign language, and address how to link these skills to developing and using spoken language. Included will be considerations for children from early childhood through high school with a broad range of auditory access, language, and communication characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Design, development, implementation and evaluation of a purilingual ICALL system for romance languages aimed at advanced learners

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Plurilingual teaching and learning of Romance languages exploits the similarities between these languages to teach them contrastively and to raise the language awareness of the learner. Several European projects have been devoted to plurilingual teaching and learning of Romance languages. The materials developed in these projects do not involve Natural Language Processing (NLP) capabilities and almost exclusively focus on receptive skills. The research goal of my Ph.D. dissertation was th...

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm development in men following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H; Druce, P S; Ashton, H A

    2008-11-01

    To determine predictors related to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan. Over a 23-year period, 22 961 men participated in an AAA screening programme. Maximum aortic diameter of less than 30 mm was deemed "normal". 4308 of these "normal" individuals were later re-scanned at intervals for research purposes. AAA prevalence was 4.4% at initial scanning. In those with a normal scan, 46 patients subsequently presented with AAAs incidentally detected and 120 (2.8%) had AAAs identified as part of the ongoing surveillance. The median initial aortic size of these 166 men was 25 mm (range 15-29 mm). Over the follow-up period, there have been 24 (14%) AAA-related deaths, 24 patients underwent successful AAA surgery and 36 died of unrelated causes. In those with an initial aortic diameter of <25 mm who later developed an AAA, the odds ratio for AAA-related mortality was 2 (95% CI 1-4.1, p=0.03, x(2)). AAAs can develop following an initial "normal" scan and men with an aortic diameters of 25-29 mm appear to be at greater risk. Surveillance for this sub-group may further reduce the incidence of undiagnosed AAA and AAA-related mortality.

  17. Profiles of verbal working memory growth predict speech and language development in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B; Harris, Michael S; Hoen, Helena M; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2013-06-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of development of verbal STM/WM and speech-language skills. In this study, the authors investigated relations between profiles of verbal STM/WM development and speech-language development over time. Profiles of verbal STM/WM development were identified through the use of group-based trajectory analysis of repeated digit span measures over at least a 2-year time period in a sample of 66 children (ages 6-16 years) with CIs. Subjects also completed repeated assessments of speech and language skills during the same time period. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal STM (digit span forward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and language comprehension skills over time. Clusters representing different patterns of development of verbal WM (digit span backward scores) were related to the growth rate of vocabulary and spoken word recognition skills over time. Different patterns of development of verbal STM/WM capacity predict the dynamic process of development of speech and language skills in this clinical population.

  18. Language development in early childhood in relation to child's gender and parental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies show that parental education and child's gender are the factors that influence child's language development. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to examine the effect of parental education and child's gender on language competence of children aged 3 to 4 years. The sample included 80 randomly chosen children, 39 girls and 41 boys, who were included in one of 13 preschool institutions from different regions of Slovenia. The average age of the children was 3;1 years at the first assessment and 4;1 years at the second assessment, one year later. The characteristics of child'slanguage development were assessed by 3 assessors in 3 different social contexts, in test situation by a trained examiner, in child's home environment by his mother and in the preschool institution by his preschool teacher. Results show a positive effect of mother's educational level on some of the measures of child's language development, e.g. achievements on Language development scale; developmental level of storytelling, mother's estimation of child's language competence, while the father's educational level had no significant effect on any of the obtained measures. Child's gender had only a small effect on his achievements on language expression subscale at the age of 3 and 4 as well as on the preschool teacher's estimations of child's language competence at 4 years of age.

  19. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.

  20. Phonological awareness of children with developmental dysphasia and children with typical language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is the ability of phonological processing of words. Children with developmental dysphasia manifest interference in the development of phonological abilities vital for the development of other language skills. The aim of this study is to investigate phonological awareness in children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia at preschool age. Phonological awareness is tested in 60 preschool children by a part of the ELLA test (Emerging Literacy & Language Assessment. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the tested elements of phonological awareness among children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia. The most significant differences are deletion of phonemes (p≤0.000, replacement of phonemes, as well as segmentation at the level of whole words (p≤0.000.

  1. Reflections on the development of a pre-service language curriculum for the BEd (Foundation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeida Desai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The initiative of the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET in South Africa to strengthen foundation phase teaching has resulted in the development of new foundation phase (Grades R–3 programmes at institutions that did not previously offer them. In this article we reflect on the conceptualisation and development of a pre-service language curriculum for one such programme. We base our discussion on principles that underpin teacher education programme development for early childhood education and on issues and insights about appropriate language curriculum content for a foundation phase teacher. Whilst awaiting the outcome of our accreditation, the authors, as two of the persons who assisted in the design of the language curriculum, thought it appropriate to subject the curriculum to an internal scrutiny whilst we prepare to offer the programme. This internal dialogue is informed by the literature on early language development, particularly in multilingual contexts such as in South Africa.

  2. Echolalia in the language development of autistic individuals: a bibliographical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Andressa Gouveia de Faria; Goldfeld, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    echolalia is one of the most common symptoms among the language characteristics in Autism. to provide a detailed literature revision about the role of echolalia in the language development process of autistic individuals, and to discuss the use of this language feature in the speech-language clinical practice. The researches show classifications and analysis criterions of echolalia in a discursive context. A few of the analyzed studies are against the use of echolalia, pointing that it has no communicative function, and therefore should be discouraged. On the other hand, other studies indicate that echolalia has a communicative value and can be used as a communicative in speech-language intervention. this bibliographical review raises the issue about the importance of evaluating the conditions in which echolalia might occur before considering it as having a communicative value or not.

  3. INTERP, Lexical Analysis for Problems Oriented Language Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perano, K.J.; Kaliakin, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: INTERP is a free format data interpretation subroutine system for lexical analysis. The system is flexible, easy to use, small, and efficient and simplifies the development of a problem oriented language (POL) as well as any other translation preprocessor for an application program. INTERP is currently being used to interpret POL translators for both engineering analysis codes and utility programs. The application callable part of the INTERP subroutine system consists of the configuration routines, the interrogation routines, the logical testing functions, the utility routines, the advanced operations routines, and a string handling library. INTERP processes textual information in the form of strings, which are a primary means of data exchange between INTERP and the application program. The INTERP system can be configured to read data directly from a file opened by the application program or the application program. The INTERP system can be configured to read data directly from a file opened by the application program or the application program may read the data file directly and pass the data to the INTERP system by means of a utility routine. 2 - Method of solution: INTERP is a lexical analyzer which examines a data line with no prior knowledge of what it contains and informs the application program of what was found. Each data line typically consists of a collection of special characters and tokens. A token is defined to be an identifiable unit of information. Each new data line is loaded into an internal line buffer and examined one character at a time until a complete token is read. At this time control is returned to the application program which uses the INTERP logical testing functions to identify the token.Once the identification is made, INTERP continues processing the data line until it reaches the end-of-line. INTERP is then given a new line and the process is repeated. INTERP recognizes three classes of tokens

  4. Biopsychosocial Factors, Life Course Perspective, and Their Influences on Language Development in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Latifah Safriana; Harsono Salimo; Yulia Lanti Retno Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Speech and language disorder if untreated may cause deficiency in reading, verbal, psychosocial, behavioral, and academic abilities. Studies have shown that birthweight, body length at birth, maternal education, parenting style, maternal stress, income at pregnancy, and current income can influence child development. This study aimed to determine the biopsychosocial factors, life course perspective, and their influences on language development in children. Subject and Method: This...

  5. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  6. Spoken language development in oral preschool children with permanent childhood deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia Z; Holt, Colleen M; Dowell, Richard C; Rickards, Field W; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    This article documented spoken language outcomes for preschool children with hearing loss and examined the relationships between language abilities and characteristics of children such as degree of hearing loss, cognitive abilities, age at entry to early intervention, and parent involvement in children's intervention programs. Participants were evaluated using a combination of the Child Development Inventory, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and the Preschool Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals depending on their age at the time of assessment. Maternal education, cognitive ability, and family involvement were also measured. Over half of the children who participated in this study had poor language outcomes overall. No significant differences were found in language outcomes on any of the measures for children who were diagnosed early and those diagnosed later. Multiple regression analyses showed that family participation, degree of hearing loss, and cognitive ability significantly predicted language outcomes and together accounted for almost 60% of the variance in scores. This article highlights the importance of family participation in intervention programs to enable children to achieve optimal language outcomes. Further work may clarify the effects of early diagnosis on language outcomes for preschool children.

  7. Understanding Emotions from Standardized Facial Expressions in Autism and Normal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fulvia

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the recognition of standardized facial expressions of emotion (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) at a perceptual level (experiment 1) and at a semantic level (experiments 2 and 3) in children with autism (N= 20) and normally developing children (N= 20). Results revealed that children with autism were as…

  8. The Dens: Normal Development, Developmental Variants and Anomalies, and Traumatic Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T O′Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate interpretation of cervical spine imagining can be challenging, especially in children and the elderly. The biomechanics of the developing pediatric spine and age-related degenerative changes predispose these patient populations to injuries centered at the craniocervical junction. In addition, congenital anomalies are common in this region, especially those associated with the axis/dens, due to its complexity in terms of development compared to other vertebral levels. The most common congenital variations of the dens include the os odontoideum and a persistent ossiculum terminale. At times, it is necessary to distinguish normal development, developmental variants, and developmental anomalies from traumatic injuries in the setting of acute traumatic injury. Key imaging features are useful to differentiate between traumatic fractures and normal or variant anatomy acutely; however, the radiologist must first have a basic understanding of the spectrum of normal developmental anatomy and its anatomic variations in order to make an accurate assessment. This review article attempts to provide the basic framework required for accurate interpretation of cervical spine imaging with a focus on the dens, specifically covering the normal development and ossification of the dens, common congenital variants and their various imaging appearances, fracture classifications, imaging appearances, and treatment options.

  9. Attainment of gross motor milestones by preterm children with normal development upon school entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dokkum, Nienke H; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Kerstjens, Jorien M

    BACKGROUND: Little is known on the motor development of moderately preterm born (MPT) children, in comparison with early preterm born (EPT) children and fullterm born (FT), for children with normal motor outcomes at school entry. AIMS: To compare attainment rates of gross motor milestones reached

  10. Role of CD56 in Normal Kidney Development and Wilms Tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Li-Wei; Brok, Jesper; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The cell-surface glycoprotein CD56 has three major isoforms that play important roles in cell adhesion and signaling, which may promote cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, or migration. It is an important molecule in normal kidney development and acts as a key marker in Wilms tumor stem...

  11. The construct of cognition in language teacher education and development

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1: Central issues in the field of second language teacher education (SLTE) rest on conceptions of human cognition: what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and how it is used. However, human cognition is not a focus of the academic disciplines which usually are in charge of SLTE programs; research and theory on the nature of human cognition is usually not included in debates on SLTE. The purpose of this dissertation is to use a wide range of work on human cognition to address and evalua...

  12. Hearing, language, motor and social skills in the child development: a screening proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the hearing, language, motor and social skills of children and propose a screening of child development. Methods: 129 preschool children of both sexes, aged between three and six years old, enrolled in educational institutions and 25 teachers of kindergarten from public and private institutions, with no history of hearing disorders, with type A tympanometric curves and the presence of acoustic reflexes participated. For the children, the neuropsychomotor test, Denver II, and the evaluation of sound localization and temporal ordination of three verbal and non-verbal sounds were applied. For the educators responsible for the children, the Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB, was used. Results: most participants with normal SAB presented hearing abilities or standard Denver II; while in the amended SAB group, most participants presented alterations in Denver II or in the auditory abilities tests. It was found, also, that part of the children with standard Denver II were pointed, by the educators, as misbehaving in SAB. Conclusion: the combination of the findings of the Denver II, hearing tests of sound localization and temporal ordination and the SAB Scale is useful in the characterization of child development and, thus, the use of these three instruments for screening in this age group is recommended.

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SYSTEM OF CONTINUED PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gorbunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The system of continued professional education in modern Russia is aimed at raising the level of professional workers’ ability for competition at the global vocational market. Among the most required competences we put an emphasis on the ability for efficient communication in the native and foreign languages pursuing social, cultural and professional interaction. The practical experience proves that students of various courses of study within the system of continued professional education have difficulties while communicating in a foreign language because of a low level of their foreign language communication competence that is based on ability for decoding and producing a discourse. Aim. The article considers the factors to develop students’ ability for decoding and producing a discourse in the format of reflexive positional discussion. Methodology and research methods. Development of the advanced and high level of foreign language competence is possible via introduction of institutional discursive practices into the educational process. Development of foreign language competence in the system of continued professional education is being discussed from the point of synergy of pedagogical science and applied linguistics. System-synergetic, communicative-activity, discursive and technological approaches have been chosen as the methodological base to develop the system of criteria of students’ preparedness and ability to communicate in a foreign language. Methods of analysis and synthesis have been used during the work as well. Results and scientific novelty. The materials presented in the publication make a contribution to the theory and methodology of continued professional education regarding effective experts’ foreign language mastering, and skills acquisition for the most productive interpersonal and professional-oriented communication. Methodologically-based definition and description of the components of subject and

  14. The effectiveness of a mixed methodology implemented in a Beginner’s Spanish Course to develop the four language skills: a quasi-experimental study

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    Kerwin Anthony Livingstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This present article seeks to provide a mixed methodological model for the development and implementation of a Teaching Module for Spanish as a Foreign Language in the face-to-face environment. The primary objective is to portray how methodological principles from different language teaching approaches (such as task based language teaching and cooperative learning can be combined effectively in designing activities for face-to-face contexts. In this regard, empirical evidence is analysed in order to determine the effectiveness of the mixed methodology in the teaching-learning of Spanish as a Foreign Language in the said settings, in a study based on a longitudinal experimental design with pre-test and post-test, but without control group. The results show an increase in the acquisition of specific knowledge in Spanish as a Foreign Language. It is therefore proposed that mixed methodological models be integrated and implemented when designing Teaching Modules for Language Learning, since they are the most suited for Second and Foreign Language Acquisition.

  15. Medical and biologic factors of speech and language development in children (part 2

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    Chernov D.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent data shows that medico-biological aspects of the study of speech and language development in children should be expanded to include an analysis of various socio-cultural factors as the problem requires an interdisciplinary approach. The review stresses the necessity of methodological approach to study of bio- socio-cultural conditions of emerging speech and language abilities in ontogenesis. Psycho-pedagogical aspect involves: informing parents about the medical and biological aspects of speech and language development in childhood; the active involvement of parents in the remedial and preventive activities carried out by specialists; activities to improve the quality and quantity of child-parent interaction depending on the severity and nature of deviations in child speech and language development.

  16. When learning a second language does not mean losing the first: bilingual language development in low-income, Spanish-speaking children attending bilingual preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, A; Díaz, R M; Espinosa, L; Rodríguez, J L

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses two investigations which explored the bilingual language development outcomes of comparable groups of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Mexican American children who either did or did not attended a bilingual (Spanish/English) preschool. Study 1 is a replication of a study by Rodríguez, Díaz, Duran, and Espinosa, involving a new sample of 26 children who attended bilingual preschool for one year and 20 control children who remained at home. Study 2 represents a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up of Rodríguez et al.'s, sample of children during and after the children spent another year at home or in the preschool. In both investigations, standardized, objective measures of three components of children's language proficiency (productive language, receptive language, and language complexity) in English and Spanish were obtained at the beginning and end of the academic year. Contrary to fears that have been expressed by some that early exposure to English would lead to children's native language loss, the results of both studies offered no evidence of Spanish proficiency loss for children attending bilingual preschool. Children who attended bilingual preschool, compared to those who remained at home, showed significant and parallel gains in Spanish language development as well as significant and greater increases in English language proficiency over time. Results are discussed in terms of the need for more systematic research to be conducted in this area to inform policy and practice in the early education and development of language-minority children.

  17. Behavioural patterns of conflict resolution strategies in preschool boys with language impairment in comparison with boys with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Laura; Jansson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Tomas; Hedenbro, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Children with language impairment (LI) experience social difficulties, including conflict management. This paper is therefore motivated to examine behavioural processes guiding preschool peer conflict progression, which ultimately contributes to overall development. To describe behavioural sequences in conflicts between children with typically developing language (TL) and between children with LI. Attention is particularly focused on the conflict resolution strategy reconciliation, i.e. friendly contact between former opponents shortly following conflict termination. It is hypothesized that children with LI, with weaker language skills, experience difficulties attaining effective reconciliation. Unstructured play of 11 boys with LI (4-7-years-old), at a specialized language preschool, and 20 TL boys (4-6-years-old), at mainstream preschools, were video filmed. Conflicts were identified and recorded according to a validated coding system. Recorded conflict details included behavioural sequences constituting conflict cause (conflict period) and in the post-conflict period, reconciliatory behaviours that were classified into six 'categories' (Invitation to play, Body contact, Object offer, Verbal apology, Self-ridicule, Cognition, i.e. offering privileges/negotiating) and the verbal character of accepted behaviours were determined. The mean proportion of individual target children's conflicts in which specific behavioural sequences had occurred were calculated and thereafter compared between and within the groups. Boys with LI reconcile fewer conflicts than TL boys (LI: 47.3 +/- 4.5%; TL: 63.6 +/- 2.0%). Contributory factors include the occurrence of conflicts caused by aberrance, i.e. conflicts initiated by inappropriate behavioural play intensities (i.e. 'a pillow fight' where one partner swings so intensively the other partner cannot participate as a player in the game) and protests that are no longer directed to the opponent within reciprocal exchanges, but

  18. Supporting Academic Language Development in Elementary Science: A Classroom Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Karl Gerhard

    Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage authentically and fully in the science learning that will take place in their classrooms, it is important that they develop their abilities to use science academic language (National Research Council, 2012). For this to occur, teachers must provide support to their students in developing the science academic language they will encounter in their classrooms. Unfortunately, this type of support remains a challenge for many teachers (Baecher, Farnsworth, & Ediger, 2014; Bigelow, 2010; Fisher & Frey, 2010) and teachers must receive professional development that supports their abilities to provide instruction that supports and scaffolds students' science academic language use and development. This study investigates an elementary science teacher's engagement in an instructional coaching partnership to explore how that teacher planned and implemented scaffolds for science academic language. Using a theoretical framework that combines the literature on scaffolding (Bunch, Walqui, & Kibler, 2015; Gibbons, 2015; Sharpe, 2001/2006) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007/2009), this study sought to understand how an elementary science teacher plans and implements scaffolds for science academic language, and the resources that assisted the teacher in planning those scaffolds. The overarching goal of this work is to understand how elementary science teachers can scaffold language in their classroom, and how they can be supported in that work. Using a classroom teaching experiment methodology (Cobb, 2000) and constructivist grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2014) for analysis, this study examined coaching conversations and classroom

  19. English Language Teachers' Professional Development and Identities (Identidad y desarrollo profesional de docentes de inglés)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Alberto; Trejo, Paulina; Roux, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the professional development of two English language teachers in a Mexican language center. In particular, it explores the interplay between professional development, identity and agency, and the part played by English language teaching certificates in all of these. Drawing on a case study methodology, which included the use…

  20. Individualized Teaching and Autonomous Learning: Developing EFL Learners' CLA in a Web-Based Language Skills Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihong; Wen, Fuan; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Teaching listening and speaking in English in China has been given top priority on the post-secondary level. This has lead to the question of how learners develop communicative language ability (CLA) effectively in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) environments. The authors demonstrate a self-developed language skill learning system with…

  1. The Development of Reference Realisation and Narrative in an Australian Contact Language, Wumpurrarni English

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    Samantha eDisbray

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of narrative skill has been investigated extensively in a wide range of languages, cross-linguistically and in multilingual settings (Berman & Slobin, 1994b; Hickmann, 2004; Severing & Verhoeven 2001, Strömqvist & Verhoeven, 2004. The present study investigates the development of reference realisation in narrative among Indigenous children in a remote urban township in Central Australia. The children, aged between 5 and 14 years, are speakers of a contact language, Wumpurrarni English. Language development is rarely investigated among speakers of minority languages, whose language development is often appraised in the majority language, with little attention to language performance in the speaker’s home variety. The present study addresses this gap through a fine-grained qualitative analysis of the development of reference in narrative, drawing on a complex stimulus and a model of discourse strategy. The results show a a developmental trajectory similar to that found in other languages, with children aged eight and under producing simpler and less globally organised narratives than older speaker groups, and b vulnerability to the changing demands of the stimulus among these younger speakers. In addition, a subset of narrations were produced in ‘school variety’, a style more like Standard Australian English, and the results for this set showed that the narrative content and global organisation of the productions by ten- and twelve–year-olds was more similar to the productions of younger children, than like-aged speakers narrating in their home variety. Analysis of speaker responses to two factors of complexity, the stimulus and code choice, illuminated mechanisms for discourse production and development, and suggest that constructing discourse requires co-ordination of an underlying schema and on-line construction of a particular story through the deployment of linguistic devices in a particular narrative context, and

  2. CRITICAL THINKING TECHNOLOGY AS EFFECTIVE MEANS OF DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MANAGERS’ LANGUAGE COMPETENCE

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    Tatiana V. Masharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of the improvement of the students-managers linguistic competence.Methods. The analysis of the features of the linguistic competence formation of the future managers with the help of critical thinking technology was used at the initial stage. The model of the organization of the effective foreign language practicals is developed by means of pedagogical simulation. The testing of the control and the experimental groups with the future statistical data processing is used to evaluate the developed model effectiveness.Results. Methods and teaching techniques are used in compliance with each stage of cognitive activity. The necessary requirements while the organization and the conducting of the foreign language practicals when critical thinking skills learning are stated. The role of the professionally-oriented foreign texts in the higher educational institutions for the critical thinking development and the improvement of the future managers’ linguistic competence is identified.Scientific novelty. A model of foreign language practicals for students of economics using the stages of cognitive activity and methods and techniques of critical thinking is developed. The dependence between the requirements for foreign language practicals and information mastery level is defined.Practical significance. The complex of foreign language practicals for students of economics increasing the level of language training is developed on the basis of theoretical survey and experimental data.

  3. Estrogen and progesterone signalling in the normal breast and its implications for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Heidi N; Clarke, Christine L; Graham, J Dinny

    2018-05-05

    The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are master regulators of the development and function of a broad spectrum of human tissues, including the breast, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, brain and bone. Acting through the nuclear estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), both play complex and essential coordinated roles in the extensive development of the lobular alveolar epithelial structures of the normal breast during puberty, the normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The past decade has seen major advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in the normal breast and in the delineation of the complex hierarchy of cell types regulated by ovarian hormones in this tissue. There is evidence for a role for both ER and PR in driving breast cancer, and both are favourable prognostic markers with respect to outcome. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of ER and PR in the normal breast, and implications for the development and management of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructure, length, and connection of limbic tracts in normal human brain development

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    Qiaowen eYu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cingulum and fornix play an important role in memory, attention, spatial orientation and feeling functions. Both microstructure and length of these limbic tracts can be affected by mental disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, autism, anxiety, and schizophrenia. To date, there has been little systematic characterization of their microstructure, length and functional connectivity in normally developing brains. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data from 65 normally developing right-handed subjects from birth to young adulthood was acquired. After cingulate gyrus part of the cingulum (cgc, hippocampal part of the cingulum (cgh and fornix (fx were traced with DTI tractography, absolute and normalized tract lengths and DTI-derived metrics including fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity were measured for traced limbic tracts. Free water elimination (FWE algorithm was adopted to improve accuracy of the measurements of DTI-derived metrics. The role of these limbic tracts in the functional network at birth and adulthood was explored. We found a logarithmic age-dependent trajectory for FWE-corrected DTI metric changes with fast increase of microstructural integrity from birth to 2-year-old followed by a slow increase to 25-year-old. Normalized tract length of cgc increases with age, while no significant relationship with age was found for normalized tract lengths of cgh and fx. Stronger microstructural integrity on the left side compared to that of right side was found. With integrated DTI and rs-fMRI, the key connectional role of cgc and cgh in the default mode network (DMN was confirmed as early as birth. Systematic characterization of length and DTI metrics after FWE correction of limbic tracts offers insight into their morphological and microstructural developmental trajectories. These trajectories may serve as a normal reference for pediatric patients with

  5. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

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    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  6. Kaspar Hauser's recovery and autopsy: a perspective on neurological and sociological requirements for language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N

    1978-06-01

    The feral children literature has frequently been cited for relevance to understanding historical antecedents of autism. Kaspar Hauser, who appeared in Nuremberg, Germany in 1828, is one of these children, raised under conditions of extreme deprivation. His case history and gradual acquisition of language after age 17 years are summarized. There is strong evidence that he was the prince of Baden, abducted from his cradle in 1812. Findings of postmortem examination, conducted after his assassination, are discussed. Hauser's postadolescent recovery of language contradicts the notion of a "critical period" for language development.

  7. DISTANCE LEARNING FOR DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

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    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of using distance learning for developing knowledge, skills and competences in English Language teaching in contemporary educational process is justified in the article. In this connection the great attention is focused on radical changes in English Language teaching methodology. With the advent of online education the relationships between the lecturers or the tutors and the students alter and become more open and cooperating, because the students get more involved, interested and motivated in learning foreign languages. Apart from this, the main components of distance education are briefly considered.

  8. Language and communication development in preschool children with visual impairment: A systematic review

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    Renata Mosca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. Objectives: This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. Method: A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013 was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. Results: All the selected articles (n = 9 were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Conclusion: Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.

  9. Causal effects on child language development: A review of studies in communication sciences and disorders.

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    Rogers, Clare R; Nulty, Karissa L; Betancourt, Mariana Aparicio; DeThorne, Laura S

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed recent studies published across key journals within the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) to survey what causal influences on child language development were being considered. Specifically, we reviewed a total of 2921 abstracts published within the following journals between 2003 and 2013: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools (LSHSS); American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology (AJSLP); Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (JSLHR); Journal of Communication Disorders (JCD); and the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (IJLCD). Of the 346 eligible articles that addressed causal factors on child language development across the five journals, 11% were categorized as Genetic (37/346), 83% (287/346) were categorized as Environmental, and 6% (22/346) were categorized as Mixed. The bulk of studies addressing environmental influences focused on therapist intervention (154/296=52%), family/caregiver linguistic input (65/296=22%), or family/caregiver qualities (39/296=13%). A more in-depth review of all eligible studies published in 2013 (n=34) revealed that family/caregiver qualities served as the most commonly controlled environmental factor (e.g., SES) and only 3 studies explicitly noted the possibility of gene-environment interplay. This review highlighted the need to expand the research base for the field of CSD to include a broader range of environmental influences on child language development (e.g., diet, toxin exposure, stress) and to consider more directly the complex and dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental effects. Readers will be able to highlight causal factors on child language development that have been studied over the past decade in CSD and recognize additional influences worthy of consideration. In addition, readers will become familiar with basic tenets of developmental systems theory, including the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors

  10. DISTURBANCE OF NORMAL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

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    Lidija Dimitrijević

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the basic motor skills in the first year of life (postural head control, lateral transfers into a lying position, sitting, standing, walking, crawling, grasping... goes on quite spontaneously. A child learns all the motor actions by itself and that is why it is not necessary to “teach” a child to seat, grasp, stand, walk... Teaching a child the basic motor skills stands for a rough, unnecessary and undesirable involvement into spontaneous motor development, and, due to this, the normal adoption of motor skills is slowed down. For the normal motor development, children do not need helping devices (baby buggy, baby jump.... Helping devices suppress in children their natural urge to walk, complicate its development and may have harmful effects like equinus feet, deformed feet and spine and so on.

  11. Trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume maturation in normal brain development

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    Simon Ducharme

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of developmental trajectories of cortical surface area and cortical volume in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. The quality-controlled sample included 384 individual typically-developing subjects with repeated scanning (1–3 per subject, total scans n=753 from 4.9 to 22.3 years of age. The best-fit model (cubic, quadratic, or first-order linear was identified at each vertex using mixed-effects models, with statistical correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory. Analyses were performed with and without controlling for total brain volume. These data are provided for reference and comparison with other databases. Further discussion and interpretation on cortical developmental trajectories can be found in the associated Ducharme et al.׳s article “Trajectories of cortical thickness maturation in normal brain development – the importance of quality control procedures” (Ducharme et al., 2015 [1].

  12. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

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    Mónica Rosselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability. Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested.

  13. Sit to Talk: Relation between Motor Skills and Language Development in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Klaus; Violi, Dominic A

    2016-01-01

    Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development, respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N = 29) were around 3 months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants' language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire) at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants' early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.

  14. Sociocultural Theory and its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

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    Abdul Hameed Panhwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which can help teachers in maximising the effectiveness of their teaching and their student’s learning. The review further suggests that the language pedagogies and activities developed from the sociocultural theory of Vygotsky may not only improve students’ language skills, but it also has potential to develop students’ cognition. Since theory promotes more and more communication of students with each other through scaffolding, that is, the Zone of Proximal development (ZPD in Vygotsky’s language. Thus, the theory directly points towards the promotion of student-centred learning by establishing learner autonomy. Keywords: socio-cultural theory, language, constructivism, pedagogies, students

  15. Sit to talk: Relation between motor skills and language development in infancy

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    Klaus eLibertus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between walking skills and language development have been reported in 10- to 14-month-old infants. However, whether earlier emerging motor milestones also affect language skills remains unknown. The current research fills this gap by examining the relation between reaching and sitting skills and later language development respectively. Reaching and sitting were assessed eight times, starting when infants (N=29 were around three months of age. All assessments were completed and recorded remotely via videoconference using Skype or FaceTime. Subsequently, infants’ language and motor skills were assessed via parent questionnaires (Communicative Development Inventories and Early Motor Questionnaire at 10 and 14 months of age. Results revealed a significant correlation between the emergence of sitting skills and receptive vocabulary size at 10 and 14 months of age. Regression analyses further confirmed this pattern and revealed that the emergence of sitting is a significant predictor of subsequent language development above and beyond influences of concurrent motor skills. These findings suggest that the onset of independent sitting may initiate a developmental cascade that results in increased language learning opportunities. Further, this study also demonstrates how infants’ early motor skills can be assessed remotely using videoconference.

  16. Aida and Her Mainstream Classroom: A Case Study of a Young English Language Learner's Literacy Development

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    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a nine-month study of literacy development of Aida, a young English language learner from Indonesia, who was mainstreamed in a Grade 2 classroom in a primary school in the south-eastern part of Australia. This article initially reviews the literature concerning features of the mainstream classroom conducive for second language learning and for literacy development. Following the presentation of methodological issues, it examines English learning activities in Aida's classroom and highlights her literacy development with examples of her work. The results from this study show that Aida developed literacy skills considered important for her second language and learning development. The variety of English learning activities and the encouraging environment in her classroom contributed much to her literacy development.

  17. Language Development, Delay and Intervention--The Views of Parents from Communities That Speech and Language Therapy Managers in England Consider to Be Under-Served

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    Marshall, Julie; Harding, Sam; Roulstone, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice includes research evidence, clinical expertise and stakeholder perspectives. Stakeholder perspectives are important and include parental ethno-theories, which embrace views about many aspects of speech, language and communication, language development, and interventions. The Developmental Niche Framework…

  18. Bilingual Language Acquisition in a Minority Context: Using the Irish-English Communicative Development Inventory to Track Acquisition of an Endangered Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of language exposure in vocabulary acquisition in Irish, a threatened minority language in Ireland which is usually acquired with English in a bilingual context. Using a bilingual Irish-English adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories) [Fenson, L., V. A. Marchman, D. J. Thal, P. S.…

  19. Effects of Academic and Non-Academic Instructional Approaches on Preschool English Language Learners' Classroom Engagement and English Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    This research compared the relative impact of different preschool activities on the development of bilingual students' English-language skills. The study investigated whether bilingual preschool children would engage more, and use more of their second language (English), during free-play (non-academic) versus teacher-structured (academic)…

  20. Effects of tracheal occlusion with retinoic acid administration on normal lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabaere, Amélie; Marceau, Geoffroy; Coste, Karen; Blanchon, Loïc; Déchelotte, Pierre-Jean; Blanc, Pierre; Sapin, Vincent; Gallot, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Tracheal occlusion (TO) is an investigational therapy for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia that decreases pulmonary hypoplasia, but sustained TO also induces deficient surfactant synthesis. Intramuscular maternal administration of retinoic acid (RA) in a surgical rabbit model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia showed a beneficial effect on lung maturation. We evaluated the potential of RA delivery into the trachea and studied the combined effects of TO and RA on normal lung development. Experiments were performed on normal rabbit fetuses. Liposomes and capric triglyceride (Miglyol ® ), alone and with RA, were administered in the trachea just before TO (d26). Lung morphology and surfactant production were studied at term (d30). Tracheal occlusion increased lung weight and enhanced alveolar development but increased apoptotic activity and decreased surfactant expression. Tracheal injection of RA improved surfactant production to levels of normal controls. We established the potential of liposome and Miglyol as RA vehicle for delivering this bioactive molecule in the fetal airways. Tracheal RA injection seems to oppose the effects of TO in fetuses with normal lungs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Lin, Weili

    2016-12-02

    The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life. Directional normal strain maps revealed that, during the first 6 months, the growth pattern of gray matter is anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous with higher left-right stretch around the temporal lobe and interhemispheric fissure, anterior-posterior stretch in the frontal and occipital lobes, and superior-inferior stretch in right inferior occipital and right inferior temporal gyri. In contrast, anterior lateral ventricles and insula showed an isotropic stretch pattern. Volumetric and directional growth rates were linearly decreased with age for most of the cortical regions. Our results revealed anisotropic and inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical framework.

  2. Sociocultural Theory and its Role in the Development of Language Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hameed Panhwar; Sanaullah Ansari; Komal Ansari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on Vygotskian theory of Socio-cultural learning and constructivist approach to teaching and learning and attempts to relate the socio-cultural theory to constructivism. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the ways socio-cultural theory helps to develop language pedagogies. Critical analysis of the literature on the socio-cultural theory suggests that the theory has potential for forming new context-oriented language teaching-learning pedagogies which c...

  3. Medico-biological factors of speech and language development in young children (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov D.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the main results of medico-biological directions in the study of the factors of children's speech and language. It shows that a variety of pre-, peri-and neonatal developmental factors (teratogenic effects, prematurity, low birth weight, maternal diseases during pregnancy, and chronic diseases of the child had a negative impact on the child-parent relationship that has a lasting influence on child speech and language development.

  4. Development and validation of a Greek language version of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kaoulla, Patricia; Frescos, Nicoletta; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a 19 item questionnaire used to assess the severity and impact of foot pain. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek-language version of the MFPDI and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. Methods The MFPDI was translated into Greek by three bilingual content experts and two bilingual language experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Greek version was admi...

  5. The semantics of verbs in the dissolution and development of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, M; Feier, C D

    1982-03-01

    Evidence of the dissolution (DL) of verbs was examined in the written logs kept daily for 4 1/2 years by a woman (Mrs. W) who suffered from cerebral atrophy of unknown origin. Results were compared with similar analyses of written samples obtained from elementary school children (CWL), from normal adults (AWL) and from the literature on early oral language development (COL). The major finding of this study was that the sequence of the dissolution of verbs, in terms of the meanings expressed, mirrored the sequence of early acquisition. In the DL data reported here, Mrs. W continued to write about dynamic events after she ceased writing about stative events; in COL, children talk about dynamic events before stative events. Based on the AWL and CWL data, frequency of use is rejected as an explanation for the dominance and stability of dynamic relations in DL. Rather, it is suggested that the expression of dynamic relations may be less complex than the expression of stative relations due to possible differences in imagery and implication, but particularly due to the linguistic contexts in which each can be expressed.

  6. Developing CALL for heritage languages: The 7 Keys of the Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Revithiadou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available n this article we present an interactive extensible software, The 7 Keys of the Dragon, for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students that attend primary and secondary education in Greece with the respective languages as their heritage languages. We address the key challenges we encountered during the conceptualization phase of the project development and the specific design choices we implemented in order to accommodate them. Drawing on recent research on the role of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications for young bilingual populations, we aimed at creating a user friendly environment with a clear pedagogical orientation. Furthermore, given that games in language learning are associated with intrinsic motivation and meaningful exposure to the target language, we have integrated a fairy-tale background narrative, a game-inspired reward system, and two cartoon-like assistant characters to stimulate the user’s involvement in the learning tasks. Five chapters for each target language were created, each comprising a text, a variety of scaffolding material and quizzes. The software is designed to provide real-time automatic correction of quizzes and allow for easy expansion with additional quizzes and texts. A separate application for teachers facilitates essay correction and commenting on the students’ language learning progress and achievements.

  7. Research and analysis of contradictions and strategies of Hainan tourism development under the new normal background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiangxiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, China’s economic and social development has entered into a new normal state, the construction of Hainan international tourism island also has entered into the middle and late period. Hainan tourism has made brilliant achievements, but the development contradictions have become increasingly serious. Based on the analysis of the current situation and realistic problems of Hainan tourism, this paper points out five principal problems of Hainan tourism development--industrial status, supply-demand relationship, cultural preservation, subject-object relationship and government-business relationship, and it also proposes strategic suggestions on the great tourism, large interconnection, great culture, big Hainan and big special zone.

  8. A Stepwise Approach to Developing Languages for SIP Telephony Service Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas; Consel, Charles; Reveillere, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Developing a SIP-based telephony service requires a programmer to have expertise in telephony rules and constraints, the SIP protocol, distributed systems, and a SIP API, which is often large and complex. These requirements make the development of telephony software an overwhelming challenge...... a scripting language dedicated to the development of telephony services. This approach enables critical properties of services to be guaranteed and captures expertise on the operational behavior of a service. We have applied this approach to developing the Session Processing Language (SPL) dedicated to SIP...

  9. Early motor development and later language and reading skills in children at risk of familial dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viholainen, Helena; Ahonen, Timo; Lyytinen, Paula; Cantell, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2006-05-01

    Relationships between early motor development and language and reading skills were studied in 154 children, of whom 75 had familial risk of dyslexia (37 females, 38 males; at-risk group) and 79 constituted a control group (32 females, 47 males). Motor development was assessed by a structured parental questionnaire during the child's first year of life. Vocabulary and inflectional morphology skills were used as early indicators of language skills at 3 years 6 months and 5 years or 5 years 6 months of age, and reading speed was used as a later indicator of reading skills at 7 years of age. The same subgroups as in our earlier study (in which the cluster analysis was described) were used in this study. The three subgroups of the control group were 'fast motor development', 'slow fine motor development', and 'slow gross motor development', and the two subgroups of the at-risk group were 'slow motor development' and 'fast motor development'. A significant difference was found between the development of expressive language skills. Children with familial risk of dyslexia and slow motor development had a smaller vocabulary with poorer inflectional skills than the other children. They were also slower in their reading speed at the end of the first grade at the age of 7 years. Two different associations are discussed, namely the connection between early motor development and language development, and the connection between early motor development and reading speed.

  10. Development of a Language for International Law: The Experience of Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the history of interest in developing Esperanto as a lingua franca for international law and diplomacy, beginning with Zamenhof's development of Esperanto and proceeding through the development of a lexicon for the language and through its application to legal issues. Prospects for the future of Esperanto are discussed. (DJD)

  11. Normal development and growth of the human neurocranium and cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friede, H

    1981-01-01

    The literature on normal development and growth of certain areas of the human head is reviewed, starting with the early induction of the desmal neurocranium. the development of the brain capsule with its dural reinforcement bands and their connection with the basicranium is discussed, as is the primordial chondrocranium, including its bone replacement. Growth of the calvaria and the three cranial fossae is also analysed. Special interest is focused on the anterior fossa, as knowledge of the growth in this area is very important for an understanding of pathogenesis and possibilities of treating premature craniosynostosis. Finally it is stressed that close observation of the effects of treatment on this pathology may increase our knowledge of normal growth.

  12. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  13. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  14. Normal Brain-Skull Development with Hybrid Deformable VR Models Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation framework for a clinical application involving skull-brain co-development in infants, leading to a platform for craniosynostosis modeling. Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more sutures are fused early in life, resulting in an abnormal skull shape. Surgery is required to reopen the suture and reduce intracranial pressure, but is difficult without any predictive model to assist surgical planning. We aim to study normal brain-skull growth by computer simulation, which requires a head model and appropriate mathematical methods for brain and skull growth respectively. On the basis of our previous model, we further specified suture model into fibrous and cartilaginous sutures and develop algorithm for skull extension. We evaluate the resulting simulation by comparison with datasets of cases and normal growth.

  15. Normal and abnormal fetal brain development during the third trimester as demonstrated by neurosonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinger, G.; Lev, D.; Lerman-Sagie, T.

    2006-01-01

    The multiplanar neurosonographic examination of the fetus enables superb visualization of brain anatomy during pregnancy. The examination may be performed using a transvaginal or a transfundal approach and it is indicated in patients at high risk for CNS anomalies or in those with a suspicious finding during a routine examination. The purpose of this paper is to present a description of the normal brain and of abnormal findings usually diagnosed late in pregnancy, including malformations of cortical development, infratentorial anomalies, and prenatal insults

  16. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Dagan; Winyard, Paul J D; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of mouse mutants have demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling has a functional role in morphogenesis and differentiation at multiple sites within the forming urinary tract, and urinary tract malformations have been reported in humans with mutations that disrupt SHH signalling. However, there is only strikingly sparse and fragmentary information about the expression of SHH and associated signalling genes in normal human urinary tract development. We used immunohistochemistry ...

  17. Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe-to-profound hearing loss: a closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Baca, Rosalinda L; Sedey, Allison L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to describe the language growth of children with severe or profound hearing loss with cochlear implants versus those children with the same degree of hearing loss using hearing aids. A prospective longitudinal observation and analysis. University of Colorado Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences. There were 87 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss from 48 to 87 months of age. All children received early intervention services through the Colorado Home Intervention Program. Most children received intervention services from a certified auditory-verbal therapist or an auditory-oral therapist and weekly sign language instruction from an instructor who was deaf or hard of hearing and native or fluent in American Sign Language. The Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, were the assessment tools for children 4 to 7 years of age. The expressive language subscale of the Minnesota Child Development was used in the infant/toddler period (birth to 36 mo). Average language estimates at 84 months of age were nearly identical to the normative sample for receptive language and 7 months delayed for expressive vocabulary. Children demonstrated a mean rate of growth from 4 years through 7 years on these 2 assessments that was equivalent to their normal-hearing peers. As a group, children with hearing aids deviated more from the age equivalent trajectory on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd Edition, and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test, 3rd Edition, than children with cochlear implants. When a subset of children were divided into performance categories, we found that children with cochlear implants were more likely to be "gap closers" and less likely to be "gap openers," whereas the reverse was true for the children with hearing aids for both measures. Children who are educated through oral-aural combined with

  18. China's natural gas exploration and development strategies under the new normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China's natural gas industry has experienced a great leap-forward development in the past decade. Since the second half of 2014, however, international oil price has dropped sharply and global oil and gas markets have been sluggish. In China, economy growth rate slows down and resource environments tend to be more restricted. And energy production and consumption revolution speed up, and the development of natural gas industry experience profound changes internally and externally. Through review on the achievements in recent high-speed development and analysis on the future development of China's natural gas industry, it is believed that the growth rates of China's natural gas output and consumption will slow down and the supply and demand fundamentals present loose states. Low-permeability tight, deep–extra deep and unconventional reservoirs will be the principal targets of natural gas exploration and development and the tendency of resource deterioration is inevitable. The pressure to the decrease of gas price rises due to the sustained recession of oil price and the sharp decrease of alternative energy price. The normal means to increase benefits is to control investment strictly and reduce cost greatly. As for the new normal, five suggestions are proposed for natural gas exploration and development in China. Firstly, reinforce exploration continuously by guaranteeing work load and investment at the required level, and tamp the development basis. Secondly, pay much attention to early development evaluation, give prominence to plan implementation design and control productivity construction rhythm. Thirdly, pay attention to the top-level design of mature gas field development and adjustment, with fine description and management as the priority, and improve overall development level. Fourthly, strengthen the researches on exploration and development technologies, with the simplification and practicability of technologies as the focus, and

  19. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  20. Working memory mediates the effects of gestational age at birth on expressive language development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Cantiani, Chiara; Dionne, Ginette; Marini, Andrea; Mascheretti, Sara; Molteni, Massimo; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language. The results demonstrated a developmental cascade of effects, whereby the duration of pregnancy drives vWM functioning that, in turn, may affect expressive linguistic outcome Conclusion: Treatments focused on vWM, specifically to preterm children, may improve their language development, with enduring consequences on educational and psychosocial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).