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Sample records for normal diet concentrations

  1. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  2. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

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    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  3. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  4. Normal lactate concentration range in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Aida, Noriko; Shibasaki, Jun; Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Endo, Mamiko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki

    2016-11-01

    Lactate peaks are occasionally observed during in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans of the neonatal brain, even in healthy patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of neonatal brain lactate concentration, as a definitive normal range would be clinically valuable. Using a clinical 3T scanner (echo/repetition times, 30/5000ms), single-voxel MRS data were obtained from the basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CS) in 48 healthy neonates (postconceptional age (PCA), 30-43weeks), nine infants (age, 1-12months old), and 20 children (age, 4-15years). Lactate concentrations were calculated using an MRS signal quantification program, LCModel. Correlations between regional lactate concentration and PCA (neonates), or age (all subjects) were investigated. Absolute lactate concentrations of the BG and CS were as follows: neonates, 0.77mM (0-2.02) [median (range)] and 0.77 (0-1.42), respectively; infants, 0.38 (0-0.79) and 0.49 (0.17-1.17); and children, 0.17 (0-0.76) and 0.22 (0-0.80). Overall, subjects' lactate concentrations decreased significantly with age (Spearman: BG, n=61, ρ=-0.38, p=0.003; CS, n=68, ρ=-0.57, p<0.001). However, during the neonatal period no correlations were detected between lactate concentration in either region and PCA. We determined normal ranges of neonatal lactate concentration, which may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Further studies regarding changes in brain lactate concentration during development would help clarify the reasons for higher concentrations observed during the neonatal period, and contribute to improvements in diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs.

  6. Plasma galanin concentrations in obese, normal weight and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitti, C; Brunani, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Dubini, A; Bendinelli, P; Maroni, P; Cavagnini, F

    1995-05-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of eating behavior. No information is available on its concentrations in the biological fluids in human obesity, and this study aimed to clarify this. We measured plasma galanin and serum insulin levels in 30 obese, 35 normal weight and 11 anorectic women. Mean galanin values were quite similar in obese and control subjects (76.8 +/- 3.20 vs 76.1 +/- 2.33 pg/ml) and only slightly reduced in anorectic patients (67.9 +/- 2.30 pg/ml). Insulin levels were significantly increased and decreased in obese and anorectic patients, respectively, compared to controls. Insulin correlated positively with BMI in the whole group of subjects studied (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and in the obese subgroup (r = 0.56, P < 0.02). No correlations could be detected between WH ratio, insulin and galanin concentrations and between galanin and BMI. In conclusion, plasma galanin concentrations appear to be comparable in obese, normal weight and anorectic subjects. This does not exclude a role of galanin in the regulation of eating behavior since variations of the peptide in discrete brain areas may not be detectable in general circulation and peripheral sources of the peptide may contribute to its plasma levels. Also, our data suggest that galanin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in humans.

  7. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

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    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of plasma myoglobin concentrations in normal persons

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    Milanov, S.; Milkov, V. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Plasma myoglobin concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 53 normal persons (29 women and 24 men) with ages ranging from 19 to 76 years. The average values for myoglobin concentrations in the plasma of 29 women, aged 19 to 76 years, are 4a.09 +- 4.51 ng/ml, while in 24 healthy men, aged 20 to 74 years, they are 54.39 +-4.68 ng/ml. The obtained results for the plasma myoglobin level in men are higher than the ones recorded in women at statistical significance p<0.05. In the group under study the plasma myoglobin values disclose also age-related differences, although lacking statistical significance (p>0.10).

  9. Effects of clay on toxin binding capacity, ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, and growth of steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelo, D S; Lancaster, N A; Melnichenko, S; Muegge, C R; Schoonmaker, J P

    2017-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of a smectite clay on toxin binding capacity, ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, and growth of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 72 Angus × Simmental steers were blocked by BW (395 ± 9.9 kg) and randomly allotted to 3 treatments (4 pens/treatment and 6 steers/pen) to determine the effects of increasing amounts of clay (0, 1, or 2%) on performance. The clay was top-dressed on an 80% concentrate diet at a rate of 0, 113, or 226 g/steer daily to achieve the 0, 1, and 2% treatments, respectively. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 606 kg. In Exp. 2, 6 steers (596 ± 22.2 kg initial BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods) to determine the effects of increasing amounts of clay on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 3, 150 mg of clay was incubated in 10 mL of rumen fluid with 3 incremental concentrations (6 replicates per concentration) of aflatoxin B (AFB) or ergotamine tartate (ET) to determine binding capacity. During the first 33-d period, there was a quadratic effect of clay on ADG ( clay and then decreasing from 1 to 2% clay. However, during the second 30-d period, clay linearly decreased ADG and G:F ( ≤ 0.03) and overall ADG, DMI, and G:F were not impacted ( ≥ 0.46). Clay linearly decreased marbling score ( = 0.05). Hepatic enzyme activity did not differ among treatments on d 0 or at slaughter ( ≥ 0.15). Clay linearly decreased ruminal lactate and propionate, linearly increased formate and the acetate:propionate ratio ( ≤ 0.04), and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase butyrate. Clay tended to linearly increase ( = 0.06) OM and CP apparent digestibility. Ruminal pH, urine pH, and other digestibility measures did not differ among treatments ( ≥ 0.15). Clay was able to effectively bind AFB and ET at concentrations above the normal physiological range (52 and 520 μg/mL), but

  10. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP.

  11. Effects of kiwi consumption on plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance in the context of a normal diet.

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    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Mendizabal-Gallastegui, Nere; de la Fuente, Aventina de la Cal; Otegui-Ilarduya, Luis; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A; de Cabo Laso, Angela; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Among fruits, kiwi is one of the richest in vitamins and polyphenols and has strong anti-oxidant effects. We aimed to analyze the relationship between the consumption of kiwi and plasma lipid values, fibrinogen, and insulin resistance in adults within the context of a normal diet and physical-activity. Cross-sectional study. Participants (N = 1469), who were free of cardiovascular diseases, completed a visit, which included the collection of information concerning the participant's usual diet and kiwi consumption using a previously validated, semi-quantitative, 137-item food-frequency-questionnaire. Fasting laboratory determinations included plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance. Regular physical-activity was determined using accelerometry. Consumers of at least 1 kiwi/week presented higher plasma values of HDL-cholesterol (mean difference 4.50 [95% CI: 2.63 to 6.36]) and lower triglyceride values (mean difference -20.03 [95% CI: -6.77 to -33.29]), fibrinogen values (mean difference -13.22 [95% CI: -2.18 to -24.26]) and HOMAir values (mean difference -0.30 [95% CI: -0.09 to -0.50]) (p Consumption of at least one kiwi/week is associated with lower plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and improved plasma lipid profile in the context of a normal diet and regular exercise.

  12. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

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    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  13. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  14. Intake and nutrient digestibilies of all-concentrate diet form forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total or 20 animals comprising 10 rams and 10 bucks were involved in a digestibility study to assess the nutritive value of a combination of yam peel, ... The dry matter intakes in the all-concentrate diet by the sheep and goat ( > 4% of body weight) were higher (p<0.05) than obtained for the conventional diet of grass hay ...

  15. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2...... diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned...

  16. Normal concentrations of heavy metals in autistic spectrum disorders.

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    Albizzati, A; Morè, L; Di Candia, D; Saccani, M; Lenti, C

    2012-02-01

    Autism is a neurological-psychiatric disease. In the last 20 years we witnessed a strong increase of autism diagnoses. To explain this increase, some scientists put forward the hypothesis that heavy metal intoxication may be one of the causes of autism. The origin of such an intoxication was hypothesised to be vaccines containing thimerosal as antimicrobic preservative. This preservative is mainly made up of mercury. The aim of our research was to investigate the correlation between autism and high biological concentrations of heavy metals. Seventeen autistic patients, between 6 and 16 years old (average: 11.52 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females), were investigated, as well as 20 non autistic subjects from neuropsychiatric service between 6 and 16 years (average: 10.41 DS: 3.20) (15 males and 2 females). In both groups blood, urine and hair samples were analysed trough means of a semiquantitative analysis of heavy metal dosing. The metals analysed were Lead, mercury, cadmium and aluminium, since their build-up may give both neurological and psychiatric symptoms. The comparison of the mean values of the concentrations between the groups, performed with ANOVA test, has shown no statistically relevant differences. There wasn't correlation between autism and heavy metal concentration.

  17. Numerical modelling of pyrolysis in normal and reduced oxygen concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The predictive capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fire models depends on the accuracy with which the source term due to fuel pyrolysis can be determined. The pyrolysis rate is a key parameter controlling fire behavior, which in turn drives the heat feedback from the flame to the fuel surface. In the present study an in-depth pyrolysis model of a semi-transparent solid fuel (here, clear polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA) with spectrally-resolved radiation and a moving gas/solid interface was coupled with the CFD code ISIS of the IRSN which included turbulence, combustion and radiation for the gas phase. A combined genetic algorithm/pyrolysis model was used with Cone Calorimeter data from a pure pyrolysis experiment to estimate a unique set of kinetic parameters for PMMA pyrolysis. In order to validate the coupled model, ambient air flaming experiments were conducted on square slabs of PMMA with side lengths of 10, 20 and 40 cm. From measurements at the center of the slab, it was found that i) for any sample size, the experimental regression rate becomes almost constant with time, and ii) although the radiative and total heat transfers increase significantly with the sample size, the radiative contribution to the total heat flux remains almost constant (∼80%). Coupled model results show a fairly good agreement with the literature and with current measurements of the heat fluxes, gas temperature and regressing surface rate at the center of the slabs. Discrepancies between predicted and measured total pyrolysis rate are observed, which result from the underestimation of the flame heat flux feedback at the edges of the slab, as confirmed by the comparison between predicted and observed topography of burned samples. Predicted flame heights based on a threshold temperature criterion were found to be close to those deduced from the correlation of Heskestad. Finally, in order to predict the pyrolysis of PMMA under reduced ambient oxygen concentration, a two

  18. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

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    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.

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    Taylor, Matthew K; Sullivan, Debra K; Swerdlow, Russell H; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging. Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. The study began in November 2013 and is currently ongoing. Results: Amyloid was elevated in 26% ( n = 33) of participants. HGLDiet pattern adherence ( P = 0.01), sugar intake ( P = 0.03), and carbohydrate intake ( P = 0.05) were significantly higher in participants with elevated amyloid burden. The HGLDiet pattern was positively associated with amyloid burden both globally and in all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and education (all P ≤ 0.001). Individual dietary glycemic measures (sugar intake, carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load) were also positively associated with global amyloid load and nearly all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and educational level ( P ≤ 0.05). Cognitive performance was associated only with daily sugar intake, with higher sugar consumption associated with poorer global cognitive performance (global composite measure and Mini-Mental State Examination) and performance on subtests of Digit Symbol, Trail Making Test B, and Block Design, controlling for age, sex, and education. Conclusion: A high-glycemic diet was associated with greater cerebral amyloid burden, which suggests diet as a potential modifiable behavior for cerebral amyloid accumulation and subsequent Alzheimer

  20. Digestibilidade, degradabilidade e concentração amoniacal no rúmen de bovinos alimentados com polpa cítrica peletizada normal ou queimada Digestibility, degradability and concentration of ruminal ammonia in bovines fed diet with citrus pulp in pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Felicio Porcionato

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a digestibilidade e a degradabilidade de dois tipos de polpa cítrica peletizada: normal (PCPN e queimada (PCPQ, bem como o potencial de produção de nitrogênio amoniacal com dois níveis de inclusão na ração (40 e 60%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois tipos de polpa e dois níveis de inclusão e testemunha. A inclusão de polpa cítrica peletizada (PCP nas dietas, normal ou queimada, aumentou os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes, quando comparados com a ração testemunha, exceto para a proteína bruta (PB. Com relação aos coeficientes de digestibilidade para os dois tipos de PCP, verificou-se maior digestibilidade dos nutrientes da PCPN em relação à PCPQ, principalmente em relação a PB, FDN e FDA, pressupondo que a utilização da PCPQ pode comprometer a qualidade da ração, ocasionando perdas na produtividade dos animais. A PCPN apresentou maiores taxas de degradação da MS e FDN, quando comparada à PCPQ. Verificou-se que o potencial de degradação foi alcançado com 48 horas de incubação para MS e FDN, para todos os tratamentos. Para produção de N-NH3 não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Contudo, a PCPQ pode ser utilizada na alimentação de bovinos, sendo sua utilização pautada na relação custo benefício.The objective of this research was to evaluate the digestibility and the in situ degradation of two types of citrus pulp in pellets: regular (CPPR and burned (CPPB, as well the potential of production of N-NH3 in the rumen, with two levels in the diet (40 and 60%. A randomized blocks design, in a 2 x 2 (two kinds of pulp and two inclusions levels factorial and control, was used. The inclusion of citrus pulp in the diets, regular or burned, increased the coefficients of digestibility of the nutrients when compared with the control ration, except for the crude protein. A higher coefficient of

  1. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  2. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

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    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  3. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  4. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  5. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P energy retention as fat (P < 0.01). This increased nutritional

  6. Gut Microbiota, Microinflammation, Metabolic Profile, and Zonulin Concentration in Obese and Normal Weight Subjects

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    Agnieszka Żak-Gołąb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF-α, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r=0.43, P<0.001, body mass (r=0.30, P<0.01, BMI (r=0.33, P<0.01, fat mass and fat percentage (r=0.31, P<0.01 and r=0.23, P<0.05, resp.. Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r=0.33, P<0.01 and plasma zonulin (r=0.26, P<0.05 but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r=0.27, P<0.05 and serum glucose concentration (r=0.18, P<0.05 and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r=-0.23, P<0.05. Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  7. Effect of 60Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Habibullah, M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of /sup 60/Co-irradiation on normal and low protein diet fed rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, S S [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Zoology; Habibullah, M [Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Neurobiology Lab.

    1980-06-01

    The effect of whole-body irradiation (Co-60) on the brain tissue in Holtzmann strain adult male rats was studied. Two doses of irradiation (450 R,950 R) were tried on animals which were fed on normal as well as low protein diets over a period of 10 generations. In the normal rats, 450 R initially caused a lowered total protein. DNA and RNA content in the brain. After 7 days a tendency towards normalcy was observed. In the 950 R irradiated normal rats the diminution of protein content appeared irreversible. In malnourished 450 R irradiated rats, the protein content rose less steeply over the 7 days of observation. A higher dose of 950 R enhanced this effect on protein and also lowered the DNA content on day 5. The RNA content in the 950 R group with malnutrition showed a marked increase towards or beyond control perhaps as an expression of uncoupled feedback control. The paper gives evidence that protein deficiency may interfere with cellular regeneration in irradiated brain.

  9. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  10. [Behavior of circadian rhythm of ACTH and cortisol in 16 normal subjects after a balanced normocaloric diet and after a high protein diet (Cosinor mean method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellini, M; Giovannini, C; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Borboni, P

    1983-01-31

    In 16 normal subjects the circadian rhythm of ACTH has been studied during normal calories diet and after a 15 days period of high protein content diet (2 g/Kg body weight). The statistical study, according Cosinor method, has shown a significant increase of the mesor and of the amplitude, but has not shown any change of the ACTH and Cortisol rhythm, after hyperproteic diet. Data advise the increase of the tonic and fasic secretion of both hormones and shown the mantained acrophase. The action of the protein on the ACTH and Cortisol secretion does not seem related to mechanism like stress, neither to the probable mediation of intestinal like-ACTH messengers. On the contrary it seems related to a direct stimulus on the diencephalo-pituitary axis; it is possible that some amino-acids (tryptophan, arginine) act as a mediator, even if data concern just the effect of the over mentioned amino-acid in large doses.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRUCTOSE CONTENT OF A NORMAL KUWAITI DIET AND THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Al-Salem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This project investigates the prevalence of fructose intake in a normal Kuwaiti diet. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in Kuwait has been on the rise in the last 2 decades; at the moment just over 74 percent of the population is overweight or obese, according to the World Health Organization. Fructose intake has recently received considerable negative media attention, as the use of high fructose corn syrups has become more widely used. Fructose intake has been believed to be linked with a rise in Metabolic Syndrome and an increase in obesity. It has been considered that moderate fructose consumption of ≤50g/day or ∼10% of total energy has no harmful effect on lipids and of ≤100g/day does not influence body weight. In this study 60 adult participants filled out a two day detailed food diary including quantities. The diaries were then analyzed by a dietitian using the USDA nutrient database and the Food Processor program version 9.9.0, and the total fructose intake per day of the normal Kuwaiti diet was calculated. In addition a 24- hour urine collection for fructose was measured to correlate the results with the food diaries. Once the results were tabulated and verified, a mean fructose intake of 27.9 grams was calculated, ranging in daily fructose intakes from 2.8 g to 101.6g per day. In conclusion the results showed an average daily intake of 27.9 grams of fructose, which is lower than the estimated moderate intake therefore, cannot be the major cause of metabolic syndrome or obesity in Kuwait.

  12. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  13. The biochemical changes in hippocampal formation occurring in normal and seizure experiencing rats as a result of a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Kutorasinska, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Figiel, Henryk; Dumas, Paul; Sandt, Christophe; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-04-07

    In this study, ketogenic diet-induced biochemical changes occurring in normal and epileptic hippocampal formations were compared. Four groups of rats were analyzed, namely seizure experiencing animals and normal rats previously fed with ketogenic (KSE and K groups respectively) or standard laboratory diet (NSE and N groups respectively). Synchrotron radiation based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy was used for the analysis of distributions of the main organic components (proteins, lipids, compounds containing phosphate group(s)) and their structural modifications as well as anomalies in creatine accumulation with micrometer spatial resolution. Infrared spectra recorded in the molecular layers of the dentate gyrus (DG) areas of normal rats on a ketogenic diet (K) presented increased intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) absorption band. This originates from the stretching vibrations of carbonyl groups and probably reflects increased accumulation of ketone bodies occurring in animals on a high fat diet compared to those fed with a standard laboratory diet (N). The comparison of K and N groups showed, moreover, elevated ratios of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) for DG internal layers and increased accumulation of creatine deposits in sector 3 of the Ammon's horn (CA3) hippocampal area of ketogenic diet fed rats. In multiform and internal layers of CA3, seizure experiencing animals on ketogenic diet (KSE) presented a lower ratio of absorbance at 1634 and 1658 cm(-1) compared to rats on standard laboratory diet (NSE). Moreover, in some of the examined cellular layers, the increased intensity of the 2924 cm(-1) lipid band as well as the massifs of 2800-3000 cm(-1) and 1360-1480 cm(-1), was found in KSE compared to NSE animals. The intensity of the 1740 cm(-1) band was diminished in DG molecular layers of KSE rats. The ketogenic diet did not modify the seizure induced anomalies in the unsaturation level of lipids or the number of creatine deposits.

  14. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  15. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Andrew J; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for (137)Caesium, (90)Strontium and (131)Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide (210)Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  18. Assessment of epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) migrating into foods: comparison with ESBO-like epoxy fatty acids in our normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann-Brem, Sandra; Grob, Koni

    2006-08-01

    Epoxidized soy bean oil (ESBO) was found to be toxic for rats, but the toxic constituent is unknown. It became an issue as the migration from the gaskets in the lids for jars into oily foods regularly far exceeds the European legal limit (overall migration limit and specific migration limit derived from the tolerable daily intake (TDI)). In the context of risk management it was of interest to determine the epoxidized fatty acids of ESBO in those foods of our normal diet which are expected to contain the highest concentrations, i.e., oxidized edible oils (including degraded frying oils), fried foods, bakery ware and roasted meat. The contribution of epoxy oleic acid from ESBO to our diet turned out to be negligible. If this acid were the toxic component in ESBO, the toxicological assessment would primarily be a warning regarding oxidized fats and oils. The contribution of diepoxy linoleic acid from ESBO might be similar to the exposure from oxidized fats and oils of our diet, whereas the intake of triepoxy linolenic acid from ESBO exceeds that from normal food by around two orders of magnitude. Hence use of an epoxidized edible oil virtually free of linolenic acid would be inconspicuous in our diet.

  19. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  20. Post-embriononic development of Chrysomya putoria(Diptera: Calliphoridae on a diet containing ampicillin in different concentrations

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    ADRIANA C.P. FERRAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotic ampicillin on the growth and development of Chrysomya putoria. Third-generation, first instar larvae (L1 reared on 60 grams of homogenate+agar 65% were treated with ampicillin sodium. The experiment consisted of four replicates (40 larvae/replicate of each antibiotic concentration tested (T1: 466µg/mL ; T2: 81.33 mg/mL and T3: 166.66mg/mL and a T4: control. The body mass of the mature larvae, after they abandoned the diet, were recorded in batches of five. The variation between the mean body mass of larvae and the duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of the development, viability and normal rates were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no significant differences between the four treatments in the following parameters: body mass of larvae that discontinued the diet as well as the duration of larval, pupal, and total development. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from those expected. Normality rates were 100% for all treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for larval and overall viability, but pupal viability differed significantly between T1 and the control, T1 and T2, and between the control and T3. The antibiotic did not appear to significantly alter the development of C. putoria.

  1. Microbial protein synthesis and concentration of urea in dairy heifers fed diets with cactus forage Opuntia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Mercês Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the influence of increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet on the nitrogen balance, the concentrations of urea in urine and plasma and microbial protein synthesis in dairy heifers ¾ Holstein-zebu confined. twenty four heifers were used with initial body weight of 163.00 ± 18 kg, with 8 months old and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replications. It was used sorghum silage, concentrate and increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet (0, 200, 400 and 600 g kg-1. The nitrogen intake, feces and urine, digested and retained with the addition of forage cactus in the diet showed decreasing linear effect. Nitrogen balance was influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet of dairy heifers through the values observed for the digested and retained nitrogen, which can be related to similar effects found for the consumption of nitrogen and the nitrogen excretion in feces and urine. Nitrogen digested percentage of intake and nitrogen retention as a percentage of ingested and digested showed no difference with the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet. The concentration of urea nitrogen in the urine of heifers had a quadratic effect point of maximum excretion level of 275.80 g kg-1 of forage cactus in the diet. Consequently, the excretion of urea nitrogen and urea excretion showed similar effect with maximum points excretion levels of 293.75 and 319.00 g kg-1 of forage in the diet. The concentration of ureic nitrogen in plasma showed no difference, with an average value of 13.19 mg dL-1. Synthesis of nitrogen and microbial crude protein adjusted to the quadratic model. The microbial efficiency was not influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage and concentrate. The urine volume similar to the treatments, with an average of 5.90 liters of urine per day, proving that the creatinine excretion in urine was not influenced

  2. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  3. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  4. Discriminant analysis of normal and malignant breast tissue based upon INAA investigation of elemental concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwanhoong Ng; Senghuat Ong; Bradley, D.A.; Laimeng Looi

    1997-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of six trace element concentrations measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in 26 paired-samples of malignant and histologically normal human breast tissues shows the technique to be a potentially valuable clinical tool for making malignant-normal classification. Nonparametric discriminant analysis is performed for the data obtained. Linear and quadratic discriminant analyses are also carried out for comparison. For this data set a formal analysis shows that the elements which may be useful in distinguishing between malignant and normal tissues are Ca, Rb and Br, providing correct classification for 24 out of 26 normal samples and 22 out of 26 malignant samples. (Author)

  5. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  6. Serum uric acid concentration in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus during diet or glibenclamide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, I.H.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate serum uric acid concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is a case control study conducted in Al-Wafa Diabetic Center in Mosul over a period of one year starting from January 1, 2005 to January 1, 2006. Serum glucose concentration and uric acid concentration were measured in both control and patient's groups (group 1 patients on diet therapy, group 2 patients on glibenclamide therapy and group 3 involve naturopathic patients). Serum glucose concentration was high in the diabetic groups as compared with the control group (P 0.2) except in group-3 (P<0.05). A negative correlation was reported between hyperglycemia and uric acid concentration of the different groups. Serum uric acid concentration is slightly reduced in type 2 diabetic patients particularly in the complicated patients with peripheral neuropathy and this may be due to the oxidative stress that decreases the antioxidant capacity of the body involving uric acid. (author)

  7. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in the New Zealand diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Andrew J.; Gaw, Sally; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Glover, Chris N.

    2016-01-01

    To support New Zealand's food safety monitoring regime, a survey was undertaken to establish radionuclide activity concentrations across the New Zealand diet. This survey was undertaken to better understand the radioactivity content of the modern diet and also to assess the suitability of the current use of milk as a sentinel for dietary radionuclide trends. Thirteen radionuclides were analysed in 40 common food commodities, including animal products, fruits, vegetables, cereal grains and seafood. Activity was detected for 137 Caesium, 90 Strontium and 131 Iodine. No other anthropogenic radionuclides were detected. Activity concentrations of the three natural radionuclides of Uranium and the daughter radionuclide 210 Polonium were detected in the majority of food sampled, with a large variation in magnitude. The maximum activity concentrations were detected in shellfish for all these radionuclides. Based on the established activity concentrations and ranges, the New Zealand diet contains activity concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides far below the Codex Alimentarius guideline levels. Activity concentrations obtained for milk support its continued use as a sentinel for monitoring fallout radionuclides in terrestrial agriculture. The significant levels of natural and anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations detected in finfish and molluscs support undertaking further research to identify a suitable sentinel for New Zealand seafood monitoring. - Highlights: • A radionuclide monitoring program was undertaken across the New Zealand food supply. • 40 food types were analysed for 13 radionuclides. • 137 Cs was present in 15% of foods (range: 0.05–0.44Bq/kg). • Anthropogenic radionuclides displayed compliance with international limits. • 210 Po, 234 U and 238 U were present in most foods with large ranges of activities.

  8. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... Start” intervention study which included 271 children aged 2–6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured...

  9. Low-density lipoprotein concentration in the normal left coronary artery tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louridas George E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood flow and transportation of molecules in the cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis. This computational study elucidates the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL site concentration in the entire normal human 3D tree of the LCA. Methods A 3D geometry model of the normal human LCA tree is constructed. Angiographic data used for geometry construction correspond to end-diastole. The resulted model includes the LMCA, LAD, LCxA and their main branches. The numerical simulation couples the flow equations with the transport equation applying realistic boundary conditions at the wall. Results High concentration of LDL values appears at bifurcation opposite to the flow dividers in the proximal regions of the Left Coronary Artery (LCA tree, where atherosclerosis frequently occurs. The area-averaged normalized luminal surface LDL concentrations over the entire LCA tree are, 1.0348, 1.054 and 1.23, for the low, median and high water infiltration velocities, respectively. For the high, median and low molecular diffusivities, the peak values of the normalized LDL luminal surface concentration at the LMCA bifurcation reach 1.065, 1.080 and 1.205, respectively. LCA tree walls are exposed to a cholesterolemic environment although the applied mass and flow conditions refer to normal human geometry and normal mass-flow conditions. Conclusion The relationship between WSS and luminal surface concentration of LDL indicates that LDL is elevated at locations where WSS is low. Concave sides of the LCA tree exhibit higher concentration of LDL than the convex sides. Decreased molecular diffusivity increases the LDL concentration. Increased water infiltration velocity increases the LDL concentration. The regional area of high luminal surface concentration is increased with increasing water infiltration velocity. Regions of high LDL luminal surface concentration do not necessarily co-locate to the

  10. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  11. Fatty acid and lipidomic data in normal and tumor colon tissues of rats fed diets with and without fish oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Djuric

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Data is provided to show the detailed fatty acid and lipidomic composition of normal and tumor rat colon tissues. Rats were fed either a Western fat diet or a fish oil diet, and half the rats from each diet group were treated with chemical carcinogens that induce colon cancer (azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate. The data show total fatty acid profiles of sera and of all the colon tissues, namely normal tissue from control rats and both normal and tumor tissues from carcinogen-treated rats, as obtained by gas chromatography with mass spectral detection. Data from lipidomic analyses of a representative subset of the colon tissue samples is also shown in heat maps generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. These data display the utility lipidomic analyses to enhance the interpretation of dietary feeding studies aimed at cancer prevention and support the findings published in the companion paper (Effects of fish oil supplementation on prostaglandins in normal and tumor colon tissue: modulation by the lipogenic phenotype of colon tumors, Djuric et al., 2017 [1].

  12. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P 0.7, P < 0.05) with genes and metabolites generally regarded as being involved in disease pathogenesis, suggesting these bacteria may mediate the detrimental effects of HPDs on colonic health. Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. n-3 Fatty acids, Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in normal aging: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Maria F; Koyanagi, Ai; Haro, Josep Maria; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-05-01

    Intake of n-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been shown to slow the progression of age-related cognitive decline, but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the effect of n-3 fatty acids and MedDiet on cognitive outcomes in a cognitively healthy aged population. Relevant published studies from January 2000 to May 2015 were identified by searching three electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and CINHAL. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. Twenty-four studies were included for the systematic review. n-3 fatty acids were associated with better global cognition and some specific cognitive domains though some results were conflicting. Adherence to the MedDiet was also significantly associated with better cognitive performance and less cognitive decline. Finally, better cognitive performance was observed in men compared to women and mixed results were also found for the influence of APOE4 genotype on the association between n-3 fatty acids or MedDiet and cognition. Studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids in the diet and adherence to the MedDiet are beneficial in slowing age-related cognitive decline. However, more high-quality RCTs would be useful to clarify the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplements on cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods for estimating heterocyclic amine concentrations in cooked meats in the US diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, G A; Bogen, K T

    2001-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed in numerous cooked foods commonly consumed in the diet. A method was developed to estimate dietary HA levels using HA concentrations in experimentally cooked meats reported in the literature and meat consumption data obtained from a national dietary survey. Cooking variables (meat internal temperature and weight loss, surface temperature and time) were used to develop relationships for estimating total HA concentrations in six meat types. Concentrations of five individual HAs were estimated for specific meat type/cooking method combinations based on linear regression of total and individual HA values obtained from the literature. Using these relationships, total and individual HA concentrations were estimated for 21 meat type/cooking method combinations at four meat doneness levels. Reported consumption of the 21 meat type/cooking method combinations was obtained from a national dietary survey and the age-specific daily HA intake calculated using the estimated HA concentrations (ng/g) and reported meat intakes. Estimated mean daily total HA intakes for children (to age 15 years) and adults (30+ years) were 11 and 7.0 ng/kg/day, respectively, with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) estimated to comprise approximately 65% of each intake. Pan-fried meats were the largest source of HA in the diet and chicken the largest source of HAs among the different meat types.

  15. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  16. The effect of diet and exercise on plasma metabolilte and hormone concentrations in horses measured before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Blache, D.; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2017-01-01

    :00), and plasma samples were analysed for relevant metabolites and hormones. Plasma leptin concentrations increased after exercise but were not affected by diet, whereas diet and exercise had no effect on the plasma concentrations of ghrelin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Furthermore, diet influenced......Exercise influences different endocrine and metabolic parameters, and information in the literature is sparse for some of these hormones and metabolites in the exercising horse. The aim of the present experiment was to study the metabolic response to exercise when feeding diets with varying...... carbohydrate composition (fibre and starch) under experimental conditions where diet and exercise were standardised and controlled. The response was investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment using four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The dietary treatments were two fibre based diets, hay only...

  17. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  18. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  19. Continuous glucose profiles in obese and normal-weight pregnant women on a controlled diet: metabolic determinants of fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Kristin A; Gerard, Lori; Jensen, Dalan R; Kealey, Elizabeth H; Hernandez, Teri L; Reece, Melanie S; Barbour, Linda A; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2011-10-01

    We sought to define 24-h glycemia in normal-weight and obese pregnant women using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while they consumed a habitual and controlled diet both early and late in pregnancy. Glycemia was prospectively measured in early (15.7 ± 2.0 weeks' gestation) and late (27.7 ± 1.7 weeks' gestation) pregnancy in normal-weight (n = 22) and obese (n = 16) pregnant women on an ad libitum and controlled diet. Fasting glucose, triglycerides (early pregnancy only), nonesterified fatty acids (FFAs), and insulin also were measured. The 24-h glucose area under the curve was higher in obese women than in normal-weight women both early and late in pregnancy despite controlled diets. Nearly all fasting and postprandial glycemic parameters were higher in the obese women later in pregnancy, as were fasting insulin, triglycerides, and FFAs. Infants born to obese mothers had greater adiposity. Maternal BMI (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), late average daytime glucose (r = 0.48, P fasting insulin (r = 0.49, P fasting triglycerides (r = 0.67, P fasting FFAs (r = 0.54, P obese women without diabetes have higher daytime and nocturnal glucose profiles than normal-weight women despite a controlled diet both early and late in gestation. Body fat in infants, not birth weight, was related to maternal BMI, glucose, insulin, and FFAs, but triglycerides were the strongest predictor. These metabolic findings may explain higher rates of infant macrosomia in obese women, which might be targeted in trials to prevent excess fetal growth.

  20. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  1. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  2. Radioimmunologic determination of the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The serum concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 95 normal individuals (41 women and 54 men), 20 to 65 years of age. Depending on sex and age, the tested individuals were divided in four groups: gr. I - 27 women, 20 to 40 years of age; gr. II - 14 women, 4O to 65 years of age; gr. III -35 men, 20 to 40 years of age, and group IV - 19 men, 40 to 65 years of age. The following mean serum CEA levels were obtained in normal individuals: Group I -6.8 +- 1.07 ng/ml; group II - 9.71 +- 1.46 ng/ml; group III - 4.9 +- 0.73 ng/ml; group IV - 7.5 +- 1.5 ng/ml. The CEA levels in the serum of normal individuals varied with age and sex, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p> 0.10). Normal values fo serum CEA concentrations in normal individuals were determined. These values are meant to be used for comparison with serum CEA values in patients with malignant diseases. (author)

  3. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  4. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  5. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  6. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, Victor E.; Robison, William L.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210 Po and 47% of the 210 Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb is 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific

  7. Concentration of 210Po and 210Pb in the diet at the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L; Wong, K M

    1994-09-30

    The concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been determined in many local foods consumed by societies residing on different atolls in the Marshall Islands. The average daily intake of these two naturally occurring radionuclides from local and imported food is estimated to be 2.18 and 0.36 Bq, respectively. Local foods contribute 87% of the 210Po and 47% of the 210Pb associated with the diet. The items contributing the majority of the activity to the diet are derived from the marine environment and include parts of fish, invertebrates, seabirds and eggs of seabirds. The committed effective dose from ingestion of 210Po and 210Pb is approximately 2 mSv/year (200 mrem/year). This pathway now contributes 83% of the natural background irradiation received by residents in the Marshall Islands. Because the naturally occurring radionuclides are omnipresent in terrestrial and marine foods at all atolls, the annual intake and computed dose can be considered as typical values for individuals with comparable diets and inhabiting other islands in the Pacific.

  8. In vitro fermentation characteristics of diets with different forage/concentrate ratios: comparison of rumen and faecal inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicarelli, Fabio; Calabrò, Serena; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Infascelli, Federico; Tudisco, Raffaella; Bovera, Fulvia; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the replacement of rumen fluid with faeces as inoculum in studying the in vitro fermentation characteristics of diets for ruminants using the in vitro gas production technique. Six iso-protein diets with different forage/concentrate ratios were incubated with rumen fluid (RI) or faeces (FI) collected from sheep. Most of the fermentation parameters were influenced by diet and inoculum (P < 0.01). With both inocula, organic matter degradability (dOM), cumulative gas production (OMCV) and maximum fermentation rate (R(max) ) increased as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. R(max) was lower with FI vs RI (P < 0.01); dOM was higher with FI vs RI and the diet × inoculum interaction was significant. As expected, with both inocula, R(max) increased as the neutral detergent fibre content of the diet decreased. Significant correlations were obtained using both inocula between OMCV/dOM and gas/volatile fatty acid (VFA), while the correlation VFA/dOM was significant only with FI. The microbial biomass yield calculated by stoichiometric analysis for all diets was higher with FI vs RI. With FI the organic matter used for microbial growth showed an overall decreasing trend as the amount of concentrate in the diet increased. The results indicate that both faeces and rumen fluid from sheep have the potential to be used as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  10. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  11. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  12. Normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of dust concentration nearby emission source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important component of air. Nowadays, major attention is payed to fine dust. It has considerable environmental impact, including adverse effect on human health. One of important issues regarding PM is the temporal variation of its concentration. The variation contains information about factors influencing this quantity in time. The work focuses on the character of PM concentration dynamics indoors, in the vicinity of emission source. The objective was to recognize between the homogeneous or heterogeneous dynamics. The goal was achieved by detecting normal and anomalous diffusion in fluctuations of PM concentration. For this purpose we used anomalous diffusion exponent, β which was derived from Mean Square Displacement (MSD) analysis. The information about PM concentration dynamics may be used to design sampling strategy, which serves to attain representative information about PM behavior in time. The data analyzed in this work was collected from single-point PM concentration monitoring in the vicinity of seven emission sources in industrial environment. In majority of cases we observed heterogeneous character of PM concentration dynamics. It confirms the complexity of interactions between the emission sources and indoor environment. This result also votes against simplistic approach to PM concentration measurement indoors, namely their occasional character, short measurement periods and long term averaging.

  13. Presenting Thin Media Models Affects Women's Choice of Diet or Normal Snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Barbara; Krause, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Our study explored the influence of thin- versus normal-size media models and of self-reported restrained eating behavior on women's observed snacking behavior. Fifty female undergraduates saw a set of advertisements for beauty products showing either thin or computer-altered normal-size female models, allegedly as part of a study on effective…

  14. The Association of Nailfold Capillaroscopy with Systemic Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Concentration in Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Sung-Hwan; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of nailfold capillaroscopy, heart rate variability (HRV), and clinical characteristics of glaucoma with the plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) level in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study on 25 patients with NTG. Subjects with systemic diseases were excluded. The patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were referred to the Rheumatology Department, where nailfold capillaroscopy and HRV assessment were performed. The patients were assigned to the lowest and highest HRV groups according to the standard deviation value of the qualified normal-to-normal intervals of the HRV assessment. Blood samples from all the subjects were assayed for MMP-9 concentrations. The systemic MMP-9 level was significantly associated with the nailfold capillaroscopy result (ρ = 0.439, p = 0.032). Of the 25 patients, seven had optic disc hemorrhage (ODH). The mean MMP-9 concentration was 4375.6 ± 2923.2 pg/ml in ODH patients and 5932.1 ± 1265.4 pg/ml in patients without ODH. However, there was no significant association of HRV parameters or disc hemorrhage with the systemic MMP-9 level. The systemic MMP-9 level was associated with the nailfold capillaroscopy results in patients with NTG but had no direct association with ODH.

  15. Effects of a prolonged standardized diet on normalizing the human metabolome123

    OpenAIRE

    Winnike, Jason H; Busby, Marjorie G; Watkins, Paul B; O'Connell, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of acute dietary interventions on the human metabolome have been studied, the extent to which the metabolome can be normalized by extended dietary standardization has not yet been examined.

  16. Decreased IGF-1 concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechini, Marie-Laure; Gennero, Isabelle; Grunenwald, Solange; Vezzosi, Delphine; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A decrease of insulin-like growth factor-I levels (IGF-I) has been reported during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with acromegaly before the secretion of placental growth hormone (GH) progressively increases IGF-1 concentration. To evaluate variations of concentrations of IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP3) and GH during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function. Sixteen women (median age 31 years) with as who were followed for benign thyroid disorders (n = 15) or prolactin-secreting microadenoma (n = 1) were evaluated before and in the first trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of GH, IGF-1, IGF-BP3, TSH and estradiol (E2) were measured before and in the first trimester (5.4 ± 2.2 weeks of gestation). Before pregnancy, somatotroph and thyroid functions (median TSH 1.2 mU/L) were normal in all women. At the first trimester IGF-1 levels decreased significantly (before = 210 ng/mL, first trimester = 145 ng/mL, p function, IGF-1 levels decrease in the first trimester of pregnancy without changes in GH or IGF-BP3 levels. These results confirm liver resistance to GH as a consequence of the physiological increase of estrogens during the first trimester.

  17. Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, B J; Van Reenen, C G; Beldman, G; van Delen, J; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments consisted of 1) milk replacer control, 2) pectin-based concentrate, 3) neutral detergent fiber-based concentrate, 4) starch-based concentrate, and 5) mixed concentrate (equal amounts of concentrates of treatments 2, 3, and 4). Concentrate diets were provided as pellets in addition to a commercial milk replacer. Calves were euthanized either at the end of 8 or 12 wk of age. The overall dry matter intake of the concentrate diets varied between 0.37 and 0.52 kg/d. Among the concentrate diets, the dry matter intake was lower in the starch diet (0.37 kg/d of dry matter) and differed between the NDF and pectin diets. The average daily gain for all the dietary treatments varied between 0.70 and 0.78 kg/d. The mixed- and NDF-fed calves had an increased average daily gain (0.78 and 0.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with the starch- and pectin-fed calves (0.70 and 0.71 kg/d, respectively). Rumen fermentation in the calves fed concentrates was characterized by a low pH (4.9 to 5.2), volatile fatty acid concentrations between 100 and 121 mmol/L, and high concentrations of reducing sugars (33 to 66 g/kg of dry matter). The volatile fatty acid concentrations of calves fed concentrates were higher than those of the control calves. All concentrate treatments showed a low acetate-to-propionate ratio in rumen fluid (between 1.3 and 1.9). Among the concentrates, the NDF diet had the highest (55.5%) and starch the lowest (45.5%) molar proportions of acetate. Calves fed the mixed, pectin, and starch diets had significantly higher molar proportions of butyrate (13.1 to 15.8%) than the NDF- and control-fed groups (9

  18. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanett Friis Rohde

    Full Text Available Most children have periods in their life where they reject familiar as well as non-familiar food items and this is often referred to as pickiness. The consequences of pickiness may be malnutrition and, if prolonged, potentially lower body weight. However, studies investigating the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited.To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2-6 years.Data was obtained from the "Healthy Start" intervention study which included 271 children aged 2-6 years susceptible to overweight later in life. Information on pickiness was obtained from a parental questionnaire. Dietary habits were collected by 4-day dietary records filled in by the parents and height and weight were measured by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders.No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 and little picky/non-picky (P = 0.68 children at 15 month follow-up. Picky children had a lower intake of protein (P = 0.01 than non-picky children despite no differences in total energy intake (P = 0.74, or in the other macronutrients, or the intake of fruit and vegetables, though children being a little picky had a lower intake of starch compared to non-picky children (P = 0.05. Results were essentially similar before and after adjustment for key covariates.Our study showed that BMI Z-score after 15 months follow-up was similar for picky and non-picky children. Picky children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition.

  19. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  20. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  1. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  2. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. ...

  3. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  4. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  5. Salivary glucose concentration exhibits threshold kinetics in normal-weight, overweight, and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman ML

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mor-Li Hartman,1 J Max Goodson,1 Roula Barake,2 Osama Alsmadi,3 Sabiha Al-Mutawa,4 Jitendra Ariga,4 Pramod Soparkar,1 Jawad Behbehani,5 Kazem Behbehani,6 Francine Welty7 1Department of Applied Oral Sciences, The Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Department of Nutrition, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 3Genome Center, The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 4Ministry of Health, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 5Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 6The Dasman Diabetes Institute, Dasman, Kuwait; 7Division of Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Background: Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D in adulthood. Testing for features of metabolic syndrome, such as fasting plasma glucose concentration, requires blood sampling which can be difficult in children. Here we evaluated salivary glucose concentration as a surrogate measurement for plasma glucose concentration in 11-year-old US children. Methods: Children from Portland, Maine, and Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a mean age of 10.6±0.2 years provided 6-hour fasting samples of both blood and whole saliva. Salivary glucose levels were measured with a high-sensitivity assay (sensitivity =0.002 mg/dL. Plasma glucose levels were determined by a commercial clinical laboratory. Blood pressure, salivary flow rate, height, and weight were also measured. Results: Of the 65 children enrolled, there were two underweight children (3.1%, 30 normal-weight children (46.2%, 12 overweight children (18.4%, and 21 obese children (32.3%. The mean overall glucose concentrations were 0.11±0.02 mg/dL in saliva and 86.3±0.8 mg/dL in plasma, and these did not differ significantly by body–weight groups. By regression analysis, the plasma concentration equaled 13.5 times the saliva concentration, with a threshold level of 84.8 mg/dL. Salivary glucose values less than threshold plasma

  6. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Ashley; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-11-01

    In healthy normal-weight adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, is commonly observed in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare declines in postprandial glycemic response in normal-weight and obese subjects with ingestion of 6 g ground cinnamon. In a crossover study, subjects consumed 50 g available carbohydrate in instant farina cereal, served plain or with 6 g ground cinnamon. Blood glucose concentration, the main outcome measure, was assessed at minutes 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120. Repeated-measures analysis of variance evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) group, dietary condition, and time on blood glucose. Paired t-test assessed blood glucose at individual time points and glucose area under the curve (AUC) between dietary conditions. Thirty subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, 15 with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9 and 15 with BMIs of 30.0 or more, completed the study. There was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two BMI groups at any time point. However, in a combined analysis of all subjects, the addition of cinnamon to the cereal significantly reduced 120-minute glucose AUC (P=0.008) and blood glucose at 15 (P=0.001), 30 (Pblood glucose was significantly higher with cinnamon consumption (Pglucose response in normal weight and obese adults. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Grape juice concentrate modulates p16 expression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Andressa Orlandeli; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Noguti, Juliana; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Yamamura, Elsa Tiemi Hojo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect the liver from high fat diet injury in rats. The effects of grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry for p53, p16 and p21 were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were distributed into three groups: group 1: negative control; group 2: cholesterol at 1% (w/w) in their diet, treated during 5 weeks; and group 3: cholesterol at 1% in their chow during 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg per day in their drinking-water in the last week only. The results pointed out that treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in the cholesterol-exposed group when compared to group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to modulate p16 immunoexpression when compared to high fat diet group. p53 and p21 did not show any significant statistical differences among groups. Taken together, our results suggest that subchronic grape juice concentrate administration was able to modulate cell cycle control by downregulation of p16 immunoexpression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in rats.

  8. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  9. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  10. Dietary L-cysteine improves the antioxidative potential and lipid metabolism in rats fed a normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seulki; Han, Kyu-Ho; Nakamura, Yumi; Kawakami, Sakura; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Hayakawa, Touru; Onoue, Hirotake; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2013-01-01

    L-cysteine works as a precursor of the antioxidant, glutathione. We investigated the effects of L-cysteine (1% and 2%) on lipid metabolism and the antioxidative system in rats fed a normal diet. Administering L-cysteine dependently decreased the food intake, fat mass weight and body weight dose. Dietary L-cysteine also decreased the triglyceride levels in the serum and liver. However, there were no significant differences in the hepatic TBARS and glutathione (GSH) levels among the groups. The activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the rats receiving 2% L-cysteine were significantly higher (pL-cysteine dose-dependently affected the antioxidative enzyme activities, and the lipid levels in the serum and liver which might be related to the reduced food intake.

  11. Comparative and quantitative determination of total hemoglobin concentration in normal and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Mahesar, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanmethaemoglobin technique is now recommended as the standard method by International Committee for Standardization in Hematology and British Standards Institution 1966. The hemoglobin is treated with reagent containing potassium ferricyanide, Potassium cyanide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ferricyanide forms methamoglobin which is converted to cyanmethaemoglobin by the cyanide. The average values of hemoglobin, percent determined from the blood samples of normal and psoriatic (n=44) males and (n=35) females were 15.0, 12.7, 13.6 and 11.2 g/100ml. The decrease in hemoglobin concentration could be due to anemia resulting during the cell proliferation epidermis in inflammatory state and Keratolytic disorder which take place in psoriasis. (author)

  12. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  13. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet and metabolic state are the main factors determining concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in female polar bears from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Lone, Karen; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Torget, Vidar; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in organisms worldwide, including Polar Regions. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the top predator of Arctic marine ecosystems, accumulates high concentrations of PFASs, which may be harmful to their health. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors (habitat quality, season, year, diet, metabolic state [i.e. feeding/fasting], breeding status and age) predict PFAS concentrations in female polar bears captured on Svalbard (Norway). We analysed two perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) and C 8 -C 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in 112 plasma samples obtained in April and September 2012-2013. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) in red blood cells and plasma, and fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue were used as proxies for diet. We determined habitat quality based on movement patterns, capture position and resource selection functions, which are models that predict the probability of use of a resource unit. Plasma urea to creatinine ratios were used as proxies for metabolic state (i.e. feeding or fasting state). Results were obtained from a conditional model averaging of 42 general linear mixed models. Diet was the most important predictor of PFAS concentrations. PFAS concentrations were positively related to trophic level and marine diet input. High PFAS concentrations in females feeding on the eastern part of Svalbard, where the habitat quality was higher than on the western coast, were likely related to diet and possibly to abiotic factors. Concentrations of PFSAs and C 8 -C 10 PFCAs were higher in fasting than in feeding polar bears and PFOS was higher in females with cubs of the year than in solitary females. Our findings suggest that female polar bears that are exposed to the highest levels of PFAS are those 1) feeding on high trophic level sea ice-associated prey, 2) fasting and 3) with small cubs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P fat oxidation were higher on a high-protein diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  16. Evaluation of total dietary fiber concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Amy K; Larsen, Jennifer A; Owens, Tammy J; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2015-09-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Dry (n = 11) and canned (8) canine therapeutic diets. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber (IDF and SDF), high-molecular-weight SDF (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight SDF (LMWSDF) concentrations were determined. Variables were compared among diets categorized by product guide indication, formulation (dry vs canned), and regulatory criteria for light and low-fat diets. SDF (HMWSDF and LMWSDF) comprised a median of 30.4% (range, 9.4% to 53.7%) of TDF; LMWSDF contributed a median of 11.5% (range, 2.7% to 33.8%) of TDF. Diets for diabetes management had higher concentrations of IDF and TDF with lower proportions of SDF and LMWSDF contributing to TDF, compared with diets for treatment of fat-responsive disease. Fiber concentrations varied within diet categories and between canned and dry versions of the same diet (same name and manufacturer) for all pairs evaluated. Diets classified as light contained higher TDF and IDF concentrations than did non-light diets. All canned diets were classified as low fat, despite providing up to 38% of calories as fat. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations and compositions; veterinarians should request TDF data from manufacturers, if not otherwise available. Consistent responses to dry and canned versions of the same diet cannot necessarily be expected, and diets with the same indications may not perform similarly. Many diets may not provide adequate fat restriction for treatment of dietary fat-responsive disease.

  17. Supra-physiological folic acid concentrations induce aberrant DNA methylation in normal human cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Michelle A; Johnson, Ian T; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2012-07-01

    The micronutrients folate and selenium may modulate DNA methylation patterns by affecting intracellular levels of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and/or the product of methylation reactions S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). WI-38 fibroblasts and FHC colon epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of two forms of folate or four forms of selenium at physiologically-relevant doses, and their effects on LINE-1 methylation, gene-specific CpG island (CGI) methylation and intracellular SAM:SAH were determined. At physiologically-relevant doses the forms of folate or selenium had no effect on LINE-1 or CGI methylation, nor on intracellular SAM:SAH. However the commercial cell culture media used for the selenium studies, containing supra-physiological concentrations of folic acid, induced LINE-1 hypomethylation, CGI hypermethylation and decreased intracellular SAM:SAH in both cell lines. We conclude that the exposure of normal human cells to supra-physiological folic acid concentrations present in commercial cell culture media perturbs the intracellular SAM:SAH ratio and induces aberrant DNA methylation.

  18. Effect of Antibiotics and Diet on Enterolactone Concentration and Metabolome Studied by Targeted and Nontargeted LC-MS Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvig, Anne K; Nørskov, Natalja P; Hedemann, Mette S; Foldager, Leslie; McCarthy-Sinclair, Brendan; Marco, Maria L; Lærke, Helle N; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2017-06-02

    High plant lignan intake is associated with a number of health benefits, possibly induced by the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL). The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in converting dietary lignans into ENL, and epidemiological studies have shown that use of antibiotics is associated with lower levels of ENL. Here we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and nontargeted LC-MS. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in substantially lower concentrations of ENL compared with concentrations detected in untreated animals, whereas the plasma concentrations of plant lignans were unchanged. Both diet and antibiotic treatment affected the clustering of urinary metabolites and significantly altered the proportions of taxa in the gut microbiota. Diet, but not antibiotic treatment, affected the plasma lipid profile, and a lower concentration of LDL cholesterol was observed in the pigs fed a high lignan diet. This study provides solid support for the associations between ENL concentrations and use of antibiotics found in humans and indicates that the lower ENL concentration may be a consequence of the ecological changes in the microbiota.

  19. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size....

  20. Effect of graded levels of Parkia biglobosa in concentrate diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ether extract and hemicellulose contents, digestibility of DM, OM and neutral detergent fibre, and N intake, absorbtion and retentionwere greatest (p<0.05) for the control diet (0%) compared to the PBF based diets. Digestibility of acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin, and N retention (N retained as % of N intake) ...

  1. Effect of diet of Varying Protein concentrations on the Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in protein diet have been reported to result in alterations in calcium homeostasis in the body. Ca2+Mg2+ATPase is an ubiquitous enzyme important in calcium homeostasis in the body. The effect of varying protein diet on the activities of Ca2+ pump across cell membranes is however yet to be fully elucidated.

  2. Effects of concentrated ambient particles on normal and hypersecretory airways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, Jack R; Keeler, Gerald; Wagner, James; Morishita, Masako; Timm, Edward; Hotchkiss, Jon; Marsik, Frank; Dvonch, Timothy; Kaminski, Norbert; Barr, Edward

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that elevated levels of particulate air pollution in urban communities are associated with increases in attacks of asthma based on evidence from hospital admissions and emergency department visits. Principal pathologic features of chronic airway diseases, like asthma, are airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion with excessive amounts of luminal mucus and increased numbers of mucus-secreting cells in regions of the respiratory tract that normally have few or no mucous cells (ie, mucous cell metaplasia). The overall goal of the present project was to understand the adverse effects of urban air fine particulate matter (PM2.5; pollutants in the outdoor air of a local Detroit community with a high incidence of childhood asthma; (2) determine the effects of this community-based PM2.5 on the airway epithelium in normal rats and rats compromised with preexisting hypersecretory airway diseases (ie, animal models of human allergic airway disease--asthma and chronic bronchitis); and (3) identify the chemical or physical components of PM2.5 that are responsible for PM2.5 -induced airway inflammation and epithelial alterations in these animal models. Two animal models of airway disease were used to examine the effects of PM2.5 exposure on preexisting hypersecretory airways: neutrophilic airway inflammation induced by endotoxin challenge in F344 rats and eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in BN rats. A mobile air monitoring and exposure laboratory equipped with inhalation exposure chambers for animal toxicology studies, air pollution monitors, and particulate collection devices was used in this investigation. The mobile laboratory was parked in a community in southwestern Detroit during the summer months when particulate air pollution is usually high (July and September 2000). We monitored the outdoor air pollution in this community daily, and exposed normal and compromised rats to concentrated PM2

  3. Effect of grinding intensity and pelleting of the diet on indoor particulate matter concentrations and growth performance of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulens, T; Demeyer, P; Ampe, B; Van Langenhove, H; Millet, S

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed form and grinding intensity of the pig diet and the interaction between both on the particulate matter (PM) concentrations inside a pig nursery and the growth performances of weanling pigs. Four diets were compared: finely ground meal, coarsely ground meal, finely ground pellets, and coarsely ground pellets. Four weaning rounds with 144 pigs per weaning round, divided over 4 identical compartments, were monitored. Within each weaning round, each compartment was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. A hammer mill with a screen of 1.5 or 6 mm was used to grind the ingredients of the finely ground and coarsely ground feeds, respectively. Indoor concentrations of the following PM fractions were measured: PM that passes through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cutoff at 10 (PM10) , 2.5 (PM2.5), or 1 (PM1) μm aerodynamic diameter, respectively (USEPA, 2004). Feeding pelleted diets instead of meal diets gave rise to higher PM10 (P Grinding intensity had an effect only on PM10 (P grinding intensity was found for any of the PM fractions. Interactions (P grinding intensity on ADFI and ADG were found. Grinding intensity had an effect only on the meal diets with higher ADFI for the coarsely ground meal. Pigs fed the finely ground meal had a lower (P grinding intensity. Pelleting the feed gave rise to a higher G:F. In conclusion, a contradiction between environmental concerns and performance results was found. Feeding pelleted diets to the piglets improved growth performance but also increased indoor PM concentrations.

  4. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, pobese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period.

  5. Impact of an auditory stimulus on baseline cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, T E; Puchot, M L; Cook, A K

    2018-03-19

    Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production. Twenty-eight healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study, with a median age of 4 yr (range 2-9 yr) and a median weight of 20 kg (range 10-27 kg). Dogs were ineligible for inclusion if they had received short- or long-acting glucocorticoids within the previous 30 and 90 d, respectively. Dogs were randomly assigned to group 1 (control; no noise; n = 7), group 2 (brief noise: n = 10), or group 3 (long noise: n = 11). Each dog and owner were directed to a secluded area for approximately 15 min. Group 1 sat in relative quiet, exposed only to the background sounds of a veterinary hospital. Group 2 were exposed to the sound of a wet-dry vacuum in an adjacent hallway during the first 3 min of this period. Group 3 were exposed to random bursts of wet-dry vacuum noise during this period. At the end of the test interval, each dog was escorted to an adjacent examination room for blood collection. Samples were processed within 15 min; serum was frozen at -80°C before measurement of cortisol concentrations. Median serum cortisol concentrations and the proportion of dogs with results dogs with apparently normal adrenal function was therefore rejected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rearing Chrysomya megacephala on artificial diets composed of varying concentrations of albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Martins Mendonça

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala were reared on an artificial diet composed of five different concentrations of albumin (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and the control group was fed on putrid bovine meat. No larvae developed in the 2 and 10% albumin concentrations. The period from newly hatched larvae to adults reared on 4, 6 and 8% albumin was 13.1, 13.1 and 13.6 days, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 11.2 days. Concentrations of 4, 6 and 8% albumin proved viabile for larval periods of 29.3, 44.0 and 57.3%, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 77.3%. Pupal viability was 77.3, 36.4 and 83.7%, while for the control group, it was 84.5%; the newly hatched larvae to adult viability was 21.3, 16.0 and 48.0%, respectively, and for the control group, it was 65.3%.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Calliphoridae em dietas artificiais à base de albumina nas concentrações de 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% e 10% de albumina e como controle foi utilizada a carne bovina moída putrefata. Não houve desenvolvimento nas dietas de concentração 2% e 10% de albumina. A duração do período de larva a adulto foi 13,1; 13,1 e 13,6 dias, respectivamente, e a do controle foi de 11,2 dias. As dietas artificiais nas concentrações 4, 6 e 8% de albumina apresentaram viabilidades larvais de 29,3; 44,0 e 57,3%, respectivamente e o controle 77,3%; as viabilidades de pupa foram 77,3; 36,4 e 83,7% e o controle 84,5%, respectivamente; as viabilidades de larva a adulto foram 21,3; 16,0 e 48,0% e o controle foi de 65,3%, respectivamente.

  7. Free water {sup 3}H concentration in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, S. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Inoue, Y.; Miyamoto, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Takizawa, Y. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Fallout {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected during 1969-88 in Akita Prefecture are reported in this paper. Since {sup 3}H is a potential nuclear fuel for fusion reactors in future, its environmental behavior is important for dose assessment of released {sup 3}H from the plants. Tritium in foods is classified into two types; free water {sup 3}H (FWT) and organically-bound {sup 3}H (OBT). The FWT is practically separated by means of freeze-drying, while the OBT is measured with water sample collected by combustion of dried sample. The OBT concentrations in foods and human tissue samples were reported for {sup 3}H originating from nuclear weapon fallout. We already published {sup 3}H concentrations in diet samples collected in Akita City during 1985-88. Although results for the samples collected in U.S.A. and European countries in the 1970s showed higher specific activity of OBT than FWT, our recent results in Japan indicate almost the same specific activity between them. Since the measurements for the samples in 1960s and 1970s are important to understand the long-term movement of {sup 3}H in the environment, we have searched old diet samples. Recently, diet samples collected in Akita Prefecture during 1969-80 were found and obtained for {sup 3}H analysis. The samples were originally gathered for nutrition survey programs and consisted of duplicate diet samples for 1 day from 10-30 persons. Food samples excluding boiled rice which is the staple food was homogenized by electric mixers after adding tap water. Then, the food and the boiled rice samples were stored in a refrigerator at -20degC. Free water in the samples was collected with lyophilization, then {sup 3}H in the water sample was measured after purification with low-level liquid scintillation counters. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations were measured for 57 diet samples (dish excluding boiled rice) and 17 boiled rice samples. The free water {sup 3}H concentrations in diet and rice samples

  8. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  9. Effect of feeding glucose, fructose, and inulin on blood glucose and insulin concentrations in normal ponies and those predisposed to laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, K E; Bailey, S R; Menzies-Gow, N J; Harris, P A; Elliott, J

    2012-09-01

    Identification of ponies (Equus caballus) at increased risk of pasture-associated laminitis would aid in the prevention of the disease. Insulin resistance has been associated with laminitis and could be used to identify susceptible individuals. Insulin resistance may be diagnosed by feeding supplementary water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and measuring blood glucose and insulin concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the glycemic and insulinemic responses of 7 normal (NP) and 5 previously laminitic (PLP), mixed breed, native UK ponies fed glucose, fructose, and inulin [1 g/(kg·d) for 3 d] or no supplementary WSC (control) in spring and fall after a 7-d adaptation to a pasture or hay diet. Blood samples were taken for 12 h after feeding on each day, and baseline and peak concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin were recorded. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Differences between PLP and NP groups were most marked after glucose feeding with differences in peak glucose (P = 0.02) and peak insulin (P = 0.016) concentrations. Season and diet adaptation also affected results. Peak concentrations of glucose and insulin occurred 2 to 4 h after WSC feeding. Peak insulin concentration was greater and more variable in fall, particularly in PLP adapted to fall pasture. Baseline glucose and insulin concentrations varied between individuals and with season and diet adaptation but were not greater in PLP than NP. Insulin AUC was greater in PLP than NP after feeding both glucose and fructose (P = 0.017), but there were no differences between PLP and NP in glucose AUC. Glycemic and insulinemic changes were less (P ≤ 0.05) after feeding fructose than glucose, although differences between PLP and NP were still evident. Minimal changes in glucose and insulin concentrations occurred after inulin feeding. Measurement of peak insulin 2 h after feeding of a single dose of glucose (1 g/kg) may be a simple and practical way to

  10. Elevation in D-dimer concentrations is positively correlated with gestation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah ZA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah,1 Teddy C Adias,2 Margaret Opiah,3 Siyeoforiye P George,4 Osaro Mgbere,5 Ekere J Essien61Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Ogbia-Town, Nigeria; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 4Postgraduate Hematology Unit, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 5Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 6Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USABackground: D-dimer levels have been reported to increase progressively during pregnancy, but how this affects Nigerian women is not well known.Objective: This study aims to determine the D-dimer concentration and its relationship to other coagulation parameters among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Method: In a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 120 pregnant women and 60 nonpregnant controls, drawn from a tertiary health institution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were assessed, using the standard procedures, for the following parameters: D-dimer concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume.Results: The median D-dimer concentration of 153.1 ng/mL in the pregnant group was found to be significantly elevated when compared with the control value of 118.5 ng/mL (t = 2.348, P = 0.021. Conversely, there was a marked depression in the platelet count among pregnant women (193.5 × 109/L when compared with 229.0 × 109/L in the control group (t = 3.424; P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference in the values for the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time between pregnant and nonpregnant women. D-dimer values correlated positively and significantly with gestation (r = 0

  11. Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatobá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the final body weight, weekly weight gain, yield, apparent feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and feed intake of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed four diets containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC as a replacement for fishmeal, reared in a super-intensive biofloc system. Diets consisted of replacing 209 g kg-1 fishmeal at 0, 33, 66, and 100% SPC. Shrimp were raised in a biofloc system using twelve experimental units stocked with 250 shrimp m-3 under constant aeration (O2>5mg L-1 and temperature (29±0.5 °C. No significant differences among treatments were observed based on water quality parameters. Shrimp fed diets with 0 and 33% substitution exhibited the highest weekly growth (1.88 and 1.79 g per week and final weights (15.2 and 14.7 g compared with shrimp fed the 66 and 100% replacement. A lower feed intake was observed for shrimp fed the 33% SPC diet (3.18 kg per experimental unit compared with 0% replacement (3.62 kg. Shrimp fed the 33% replacement achieved a similar performance and lower feed intake than animals fed diet without replacement.

  12. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background : Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function. Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes. Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants ( n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL ( P almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable circulating HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017

  13. Metabolic Rather Than Body Composition Measurements Are Associated With Lower Serum Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations in Normal Weight and Obese Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. The cause of the relative NP deficiency seen in obese persons is poorly understood, although variation in body composition and metabolic abnormalities has been suggested to play...... a role. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess whether variation in circulating NP concentrations would be associated with differences in metabolic disturbances rather than with differences in body composition. METHODS: In 27 normal weight men (body mass index (BMI) = 20.0-24.9kg/m(2)) and 103 obese...... weight ± SD was 74.9±6.7kg in the normal weight men and 106.1±10.8kg in obese men. Applying multiple regressions, adjusting for age and weight status (normal weight vs. obese), serum MR-proANP concentrations were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin concentrations (β = -0.39; P

  14. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Liver in Response to Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA Induced by High-concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate protein expression patterns of liver in response to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA induced by high-concentrate diet. Sixteen healthy mid-lactating goats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed either a high-forage (HF diet or a high-concentrate (HC diet. The HC diet was expected to induce SARA. After ensuring the occurrence of SARA, liver samples were collected. Proteome analysis with differential in gel electrophoresis technology revealed that, 15 proteins were significantly modulated in liver in a comparison between HF and HC-fed goats. These proteins were found mainly associated with metabolism and energy transfer after identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight. The results indicated that glucose, lipid and protein catabolism could be enhanced when SARA occurred. It prompted that glucose, lipid and amine acid in the liver mainly participated in oxidation and energy supply when SARA occurred, which possibly consumed more precursors involved in milk protein and milk fat synthesis. These results suggest new candidate proteins that may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate liver adaptation to SARA.

  15. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  16. Effects of pelleted or powdered diets containing soy protein or sodium caseinate on lipid concentrations and bile acid excretion in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteiger, Dustie N; Krul, Elaine S

    2015-08-01

    Custom diets are a convenient vector for oral administration of test articles, but the processing and physical form of a diet can affect its nutritional properties and how it is consumed. Here, the authors evaluated the feeding behavior and physiology of golden Syrian hamsters fed diets of either soy or caseinate protein in pelleted or powdered forms for 28 d to determine whether dietary processing and form mediates the physiological effects of dietary proteins. The authors compared body weight, food consumption, serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglyceride concentration, fecal weight and fecal excretion of bile acids between treatment groups. Hamsters fed powdered diets showed higher food consumption than hamsters fed pelleted diets, regardless of protein source. Hamsters fed soy pelleted diets showed lower serum cholesterol concentration and higher fecal excretion of bile acid than hamsters fed caseinate pelleted diets, and serum cholesterol concentration correlated strongly with fecal excretion of bile acid. This correlation suggests that the physiological effects of soy protein on cholesterol and excretion of bile acid might be related or similarly mediated through diet. The differences observed between hamsters on different diets indicate that dietary form can influence both feeding behavior and the physiological effects of a diet in hamsters.

  17. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of concentrate feeder design on performance, eating and animal behavior, welfare, ruminal health, and carcass quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, M; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2015-06-01

    A total of 240 Holstein bulls (121 ± 2.0 kg initial BW; 99 ± 1.0 d of age), from 2 consecutive fattening cycles, were randomly allocated in 1 of 6 pens and assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments consisting of different concentrate feeder designs: a control feeder with 4 feeding spaces (CF), a feeder with less concentrate capacity (CFL), and a single-space feeder with lateral protections (SF). Each pen had a straw feeder and a drinker. All animals were fed a high-concentrate diet for ad libitum intake. Concentrate consumption was recorded daily using a computerized feeder, straw consumption was recorded weekly, and BW was recorded every 14 d. Animal behavior was registered on d 1, 3, 5, 8, and 14 and every 28 d by scan sampling. Eating behavior at concentrate feeders was filmed on d 12, 125, and 206. On d 7, 120, and 204, samples of rumen contents were collected for measurement of pH and VFA and blood samples were obtained to analyze NEFA, haptoglobin, glucose, and insulin. Animals were slaughtered after 223 d, and HCW and lesions of the rumen wall and liver were recorded. The accumulative concentrate consumption per animal tended (P = 0.09) to be greater with CF than with CFL and SF. Also, CV of concentrate consumption was greater (P carcass data. Also, no differences among treatments in rumen wall evaluation and liver abscesses were observed. At 7 and 204 d of study, SF bulls had greater (P animal welfare in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. However, at the beginning, there was evidence that animals fed using SF had problems with adaptation.

  19. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  20. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Volatile fatty acids production in the rumen of young heifers given diets containing a large proportion of concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshio, Shuichi; Tahata, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Ami, Tsuyako

    1977-01-01

    The rate of production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen of animals on high concentrate feeding was studied with eighteen young heifers fitted with a permanent rumen fistula, using a single injection method of 14 C-acetate and polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to get some basic informations of rumen fermentation on concentrate diets. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The pH value, total VFA concentration, and proportion of each acid on all-concentrate diets showed distinguished differences in comparison with those of the animals fed a large proportion of hay, but varied widely between days and heifers. 2) VFA proportions were significantly correlated with pH. At the pH value of about 5.2, acetic acid was minimum, and propionic acid and valeric acid were maximum in molar proportion. 3) It was suggested that, in the case of all-concentrate feeding for a long period, the VFA production in the rumen was depressed to 33.5-41% of digestible energy. In the animals fed hay and concentrate, the percentage was about 50%. (auth.)

  2. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delayed growth in two German shepherd dog littermates with normal serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyroxine, and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J F; Miller, C L; Cummings, J F; Lothrop, C D

    1990-01-01

    Four German Shepherd Dogs from a litter of 10 were evaluated because of postnatal onset of proportionate growth stunting that clinically resembled well-documented hypopituitary dwarfism in that breed. Although 2 pups had histologic evidence of hypopituitarism, the remaining 2 pups had normal serum growth hormone concentration and adrenocorticotropin secretory capability, and normal adrenal function test and thyroid function study results. Furthermore, the initially stunted German Shepherd Dogs grew at a steady rate until at 1 year, body weight and shoulder height approximated normal measurements. Seemingly, delayed growth in these pups may represent one end of a clinical spectrum associated with hypopituitarism in German Shepherd Dogs.

  4. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  5. In vitro fermentation pattern and acidification potential of different sources of carbohydrates for ruminants given high concentrate diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanzougarene, Z.; Yuste, S.; Vega, A. De; Fondevila, M.

    2017-07-01

    The in vitro fermentation pattern of five sources of carbohydrates of differing nature (maize grain, MZ; sucrose, SU; wheat bran, WB; sugarbeet pulp, BP; and citrus pulp, CT) under conditions of high concentrate diets for ruminants was studied. A first 8 h incubation trial was performed under optimal pH using inoculum from ewes given a fibrous diet, to compare fermentative characteristics of substrates. As planned, incubation pH ranged within 6.3 to 6.6. The gas produced from CT was higher than MZ, SU and BP from 4 and 6 h onwards, and at 8 h, respectively (p<0.05). There were no differences (p>0.05) on total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, nor on acetate or propionate proportions, but butyrate was lowest (p<0.05) with CT and BP. The second incubation trial was performed in a poorly-buffered medium, with inoculum from ewes given a concentrate diet. All substrates showed a gradual drop of pH, being lowest with SU after 4 h (p<0.05). Throughout the incubation, gas production was highest with CT and lowest with MZ and BP (p<0.05). Total 8 h VFA concentration was higher with CT than BP, SU and MZ (p<0.05). Acetate proportion was higher, and that of propionate lower, with BP than WB (p<0.05), butyrate proportion being higher with MZ and WB than with BP and CT (p<0.05). Lactic acid concentration was higher (p<0.05) with SU than WB and BP. Fermentation characteristics and acidification potential of feeds depend on the nature of their carbohydrate fraction, and must be considered for practical applications.

  6. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  7. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; Kelm, Mark A; Hammerstone, John F; Beecher, Gary; Holden, Joanne; Haytowitz, David; Gebhardt, Susan; Prior, Ronald L

    2004-03-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, no data exist concerning their dietary intake. Therefore, PAs in common and infant foods from the U.S. were analyzed. On the bases of our data and those from the USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) of 1994-1996, the mean daily intake of PAs in the U.S. population (>2 y old) was estimated to be 57.7 mg/person. Monomers, dimers, trimers, and those above trimers contribute 7.1, 11.2, 7.8, and 73.9% of total PAs, respectively. The major sources of PAs in the American diet are apples (32.0%), followed by chocolate (17.9%) and grapes (17.8%). The 2- to 5-y-old age group (68.2 mg/person) and men >60 y old (70.8 mg/person) consume more PAs daily than other groups because they consume more fruit. The daily intake of PAs for 4- to 6-mo-old and 6- to 10-mo-old infants was estimated to be 1.3 mg and 26.9 mg, respectively, based on the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics. This study supports the concept that PAs account for a major fraction of the total flavonoids ingested in Western diets.

  8. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  9. In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, Amélie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Schmidely, Philippe; Dhumez, Ophélie; Broudiscou, Laurent P; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg(-1) vs. high (H): 700 g kg(-1)] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4 ) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate-to-propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Occipital Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) Reveals Normal Metabolite Concentrations in Retinal Visual Field Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; van der Grond, Jeroen; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Progressive visual field defects, such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, prevent normal stimulation of visual cortex. We investigated whether in the case of visual field defects, concentrations of metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker for degenerative

  11. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Sandoval-Salazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC. It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats RESULTS: The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats CONCLUSIONS: HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  12. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtemoc; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Trejo-Bahena, Aurora; Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Solís-Ortiz, Martha Silvia

    2016-02-29

    It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC). It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD) could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats. The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats. HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  13. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and 'normal' brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element concentrations in the frontal lobe were determined for twenty six Alzheimer (15 male, 11 female) and twenty six 'normal' (8 male, 18 female) brain tissue samples. In the parietal lobe ten Alzheimer (2 male, 8 female) and ten 'normal' (8 male, 2 female) samples were taken along with ten Alzheimer (4 male, 6 female) and ten 'normal' (6 male, 4 female) from the occipital lobe. For the frontal lobe trace element concentrations were determined using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis while in parietal and occipital regions instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used. Additionally eighteen Alzheimer (9 male, 9 female) and eighteen age matched 'normal' (8 male, 10 female) living subjects were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMRGlu). The rCMRGlu of 36 regions of the brain was investigated including frontal, occipital and parietal lobes as in the trace element study. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the trace element and glucose metabolism data to discover which variables in the resulting dendrograms displayed the most significant separation between Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. (author)

  14. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayi, A.E.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  15. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  16. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  17. Determination of Microbial Nitrogen Production by Using Urinary Allantoin and Blood Metabolite Concentrate in Growing Brahman Cattle Fed the Different Proportion of Roughage and Concentrate in Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Usawang, Sungwon; Kijsamrej, Suriya; Sophon, Sunpetch; Jetana, Thongsuk

    2003-06-01

    Determination of microbial nitrogen synthesis by using urinary allantoin and blood metabolite for evaluating the efficiency of feed utilization, in this study was conducted by using four Brahman bulls (about 1 year old). Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 fixed diets of four combinations of pineapple fibre (P) and concentrate (C) in the proportions, on dry matter basis of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.04(P60:C40), 0.4:0.6(P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The experiment was designed as a 4x4 Latin square design The Results showed that increasing in the proportion of concentrate linearly increased the rumen microbial nitrogen production (p<0.001), the concentrations of Insulin and urea-N in plasma and the concentration of urea-N in the urine, but not affected on the concentrations of glucose and creatinine in plasma. In conclusion, the using of allantoin urinary associated with blood metabolite can evaluate the accuracy in evaluation of feed utilization in Brahman cattle

  18. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  19. Gut microbiota, microinflammation, metabolic profile, and zonulin concentration in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Kocełak, Piotr; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Zientara, Maria; Juszczyk, Lukasz; Martirosian, Gayane; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P zonulin (r = 0.26, P zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.

  20. Peri and Postparturient Concentrations of Lipid Lipoprotein Insulin and Glucose in Normal Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Abdullah; SEVİNÇ, Mutlu; OK, Mahmut

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide uniqe insight into the metabolic disturbences seen after calving cholesterol, triglycerid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and insulin levels in serum were studied before calving (group I), in aerly (group II) and late (group III) lactation in 24 normal cows. Serum lipoproteins were separeted into various density classes by repeated ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that there was a rise in glucose, trygl...

  1. Effect of Postural Change on Plasma Insulin Concentration in Normal Volunteer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Koh, Joo Whan; Joo, Jong Koo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jang Kyu [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The concentrations of some blood constituents are known to be influenced by the postural change. The blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, first, in the supine, and then (30 minutes later) in the erect positions under the fasting state. The effects of a duretic, furose-mide, were also studied under the same condition for 5 consecutive days. The materials were 5 healthy volunteers aging 20-29 years old with out any diabetic past, or family histories. The blood glucose was measured by the Nelson's method, and plasma insulin by the radioimmunoassay method. Following are the results; 1) The plasma insulin concentration in the erect position is slightly higher than in the supine position, however, the increase is statistically insignificant because of the notable individual variations in the values of the supine position. 2) Four out of 5 cases show the increase of about 80% of plasma insulin in the erect position, which is statistically significant if analyzed on the basis of frequency distribution. 3) The blood glucose concentration showed no postural changes. 4) The increase of the plasma insulin concentration in the erect position seems to the result of limited extra vasation of insulin in the lower extremities.

  2. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NE L /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NE L /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  4. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  5. Radioactive concentrations in foodstuffs and the ingestion dose from Romanian relevant diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements of fresh fruits and vegetables, grains (wheat and bread), milk (cheese), meat and meat products from different areas have been done. High-resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, low-level beta total analysis and radiochemical techniques were used. Many radionuclides, both man-made and natural, have been identified. Only a few of them (the man-made Cs, I and Sr as well as the natural 40 K, 7 Be, etc) were of biological importance. In order to predict the ingestion dose, it had to be studied the general pathway of radionuclides to man, including a transfer model to agricultural products and the processes involved in food chain contamination. Modelling the radionuclide behaviour included retention, radioactive decay, metabolic processes and retention after processing. Relevant aspects related to translocation, agricultural practices and food processing were also considered. The human dose due to radioactive intake could be assessed on the basis of a simplified model for radionuclide ingestion and assimilation, considering local conditions and specific diets. As a result the average diets were determined depending on geographical areas (urban, rural, plain and uphill) and age (children, youngsters and adults). The estimated values for yearly ingestion dose vary from a few mSv to tens of mSv (as in the case of 1986 and 1987). (author)

  6. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  7. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  8. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  10. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  11. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Roza, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nutritional factors exert promising actions on the skin, but only scant information is available on the modulating effects of physiologic concentrations of nutrients on the skin condition of humans. Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether nutrient concentrations in serum and

  12. Effects of indomethacin on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects: a study of prostaglandin-dopamine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Davidson, M; Kanof, P; McQueeney, R T; Singh, R R; Davis, K L

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory animals, prostaglandins have been shown to act as endogenous neuromodulators of central dopamine (DA) activity. To examine the interaction between prostaglandins and DA in man, the effect of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, was studied on plasma concentrations of the DA metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA). Indomethacin (150 mg PO) as compared to placebo significantly elevated mean pHVA concentrations in eight normal subjects. Results of this study support the hypothesis that, as in animals, inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis increases central DA turnover in man.

  13. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease....... Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated...

  14. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate ("Eco-Atkins") diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Greaves, Kathryn A; Paul, Gregory; Singer, William

    2009-06-08

    Low-carbohydrate, high-animal protein diets, which are advocated for weight loss, may not promote the desired reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. The effect of exchanging the animal proteins and fats for those of vegetable origin has not been tested. Our objective was to determine the effect on weight loss and LDL-C concentration of a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins from gluten, soy, nuts, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and vegetable oils compared with a high-carbohydrate diet based on low-fat dairy and whole grain products. A total of 47 overweight hyperlipidemic men and women consumed either (1) a low-carbohydrate (26% of total calories), high-vegetable protein (31% from gluten, soy, nuts, fruit, vegetables, and cereals), and vegetable oil (43%) plant-based diet or (2) a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (58% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 25% fat) for 4 weeks each in a parallel study design. The study food was provided at 60% of calorie requirements. Of the 47 subjects, 44 (94%) (test, n = 22 [92%]; control, n = 22 [96%]) completed the study. Weight loss was similar for both diets (approximately 4.0 kg). However, reductions in LDL-C concentration and total cholesterol-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B-apolipoprotein AI ratios were greater for the low-carbohydrate compared with the high-carbohydrate diet (-8.1% [P = .002], -8.7% [P = .004], and -9.6% [P = .001], respectively). Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also seen (-1.9% [P = .052] and -2.4% [P = .02], respectively). A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.

  15. How does the dietary cottonseed hull affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of young bulls finished in a high-concentrate diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emanuel Eiras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets composed by cottonseed hull and meat aging on carcass characteristics and meat quality from young bulls fed on a high-concentrate system. Thirty crossbred bulls were assigned in a complete randomized experimental factorial design with three diets (CH21: cottonseed hull 210 g kg-1on a DM basis, CH27: cottonseed hull 270 g kg-1on a DM basis and CH33: cottonseed hull 330 g kg-1on a DM basis and different aging times (24 hours and 3, 7 and 14 days. Meat from CH27 diets presented smaller LM moisture content (p < 0.05. Total lipids were smaller in CH33 diet (p <0.05. At 24 hours, CH21 diet presented smaller LM cooking loss than other diets. The increasing aging time reduced the shear force (p < 0.001 on the LM. Meat from CH27 diet presented the highest luminosity (p < 0.05 and yellowness values (p < 0.001. Three or seven aging days presented smaller values of LM luminosity. Likewise, the increasing aging time presented greater (p < 0.05 yellowness within the LM. Lipid oxidation was lower from CH21 diet (p < 0.001. The fatty acid composition on LM was similar among diets. The use of cottonseed hull could be useful strategies to improve the meat quality and lean beef production.

  16. Effects of laver diet energy on ovary weight, E2 and P4 concentrations in the course of sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; Huang Yingxiang; He Junping; Geng Gianjun

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of diet energy on ovary weight, E 2 and P 4 concentrations in the course of sexual maturity of layer. Experiment results indicated that ovary, weight and follicles on ovary surface increased with the increase of age and energy level in the course of sexual maturity. Except low-energy group II, ovary weight and maturity follicles (>10mm) of other groups increased evidently at 22 week old. E 2 and P 4 concentrations increased with age and reached a higher level at 22 weeks. E 2 and P 4 concentrations were higher in high-energy groups than in low-energy groups. At 22 weeks, E 2 concentration was higher in control group than in other groups, and E 2 level of higher-energy groups was higher than that of low-energy group II. Compared with low-energy group II, other groups had higher P 4 level. It could be concluded that excessive low energy affect the development of ovary and follicles through affecting E 2 and P 4 levels. (authors)

  17. Preparation of Cass-Soya concentrate for inclusion in poultry diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the best means of processing cassava and soybeans together in a suitable proportion to produce a concentrate of good physical and nutritive quality for feeding to poultry. Samples of cassava and soybeans were subjected to six different processing techniques and mixed together in ...

  18. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  19. Concentration of phytic acid in faeces of calves fed starter diets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Dagmar; Dvořák, R.; Rada, V.; Doubek, J.; Marounek, Milan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 381-385 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0101; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : nutrition * concentrated feed * phosphorus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001

  20. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  1. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  2. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  3. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  4. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  5. Marine diet and tobacco exposure affects mercury concentrations in pregnant women (I from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seafood provides essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and other nutrients to pregnant women and their fetus(es while a diet rich in finfish can be a major pathway of monomethyl mercury (MeHg+ exposure. We measured total mercury concentration ([THg] in hair samples provided by 75 women in Baja California Sur (BCS to assess its relationship with age, parity, tobacco smoke exposure, and diet based on survey methodologies. Generalized linear models (GLM were used to explain the possible association of the different variables with [THg] in hair. Median [THg] in hair was 1.52 μg g−1, ranging from 0.12 to 24.19 μg g−1 and varied significantly by segment. Approximately 72% (54/75 of those evaluated exceed 1 μg g−1 [THg] and 8% (6/75 exceed 5 μg g−1 [THg] in hair. Although frequency of fish consumption contributed significantly to explaining hair [THg], fish consumption only explained 43% of [THg] in a GLM incorporating tobacco exposure and body mass index. This study establishes possible relationships among multiple potential sources of exposure and other factors related to [THg] in hair of women in the prenatal period. A more detailed examination of other sources of exposure and factors contributing to [THg] is warranted.

  6. Normal regional brain iron concentration in restless legs syndrome measured by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Knake

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Knake1, Johannes T Heverhagen2, Katja Menzler1, Boris Keil2, Wolfgang H Oertel1, Karin Stiasny-Kolster11Department of Neurology, Center of Nervous Diseases, 2Department of Radiology, Philipps University, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Using a T2* gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence, regional T2 signal intensity (SI values, a surrogate marker for T2 values, were determined in 12 regions of interest (substantia nigra, pallidum, caudate head, thalamus, occipital white matter, and frontal white matter bilaterally and in two reference regions (cerebrospinal fluid and bone in 12 patients suffering from moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS; mean age 58.5 ± 8.7 years for 12.1 ± 9.1 years and in 12 healthy control subjects (mean age 56.8 ± 10.6 years. Iron deposits shorten T2 relaxation times on T2-weighted MRI. We used regional T2* SI to estimate regional T2-values. A T2-change ratio was calculated for each region of interest relative to the reference regions. We did not find significant differences in any of the investigated brain regions. In addition, serum measures involved in iron metabolism did not correlate with T2 SI values. We could not replicate earlier findings describing reduced regional brain iron concentrations in patients with RLS. Our results do not support the view of substantially impaired regional brain iron in RLS.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pathophysiology, iron, MRI, substantia nigra

  7. Offspring predisposition to obesity due to maternal-diet-induced obesity in rats is preventable by dietary normalization before mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Heriberto; Pomar, Catalina Amadora; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina; Sánchez, Juana

    2017-03-01

    We studied in rats whether the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to maternal dietary obesity may be reverted by obesogenic diet removal 1 month before mating. Female rats were fed a cafeteria diet (CD) from days 10 to 100 and then a standard diet (SD) (postcafeteria rats). One month after CD removal, postcafeteria rats and a group of SD-fed female rats (controls) were mated with males. At weaning, offspring were fed SD and followed until 4 months old. CD was effective at inducing obesity in dams. Its removal led to a reduction in body weight, although, after 30 days, rats retained excess body weight and fat than controls. During lactation, postcafeteria dams showed greater body fat, and higher leptin and adiponectin levels in milk than controls. From 2 months of life, offspring of postcafeteria dams displayed lower body weight than controls, with no differences in the percentage of fat, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, or circulating parameters. Removal of CD in obese rats before gestation, although without complete reversion of body weight excess, may prevent the expected detrimental effects in offspring associated to an excess fat accumulation in adulthood and the related metabolic disturbances. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nutrient digestibility response to sugarcane bagasse addition and corn particle size in normal and high Na diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2018-04-01

    Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0.16 or 0.4%). Protein digestibility coefficient was measured using pooled distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Meanwhile, starch and gross energy digestibility coefficients were measured using pooled duodenal, distal jejunal, and distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Coarsely ground corn (CC) resulted in improved ileal protein digestibility (P digestibility in the duodenum (P digestibility in distal ileum (P digestibility (P digestibility only in birds fed the diet with finely ground corn (FC) and 0.16% Na. These findings demonstrate that SB and CC are able to improve nutrient digestibility. It can be recommended for the poultry industry to use SB and coarsely ground corn in feed to improve the utilization of nutrients.

  9. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Lorrie D; Castellini, J Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S; O'Hara, Todd M

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Anna G.; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Kiowski, Andreas; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Corrent, Etienne; Bartelt, Jörg; König, Bettina; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four-fold (L4) higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control). We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth. PMID:26930301

  11. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimer Leffa, Daniela [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil); Iochims dos Santos, Carla Eliete; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Ferraz Dias, Johnny [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Moraes Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p < 0.001). The Al and Si kidney contents were significantly higher for cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the standard diet showed significant differences for Cl and K (p < 0.05) in comparison to cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver.

  12. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimer Leffa, Daniela; Iochims dos Santos, Carla Eliete; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Ferraz Dias, Johnny; Moraes Andrade, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p < 0.001). The Al and Si kidney contents were significantly higher for cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the standard diet showed significant differences for Cl and K (p < 0.05) in comparison to cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver

  13. Effects of fumaric acid supplementation on methane production and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongjun; Liu, Nannan; Cao, Yangchun; Jin, Chunjia; Li, Fei; Cai, Chuanjiang; Yao, Junhu

    2018-01-01

    In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d). Fps:Cps was higher in the diet with chopped alfalfa hay plus ground corn than in that with ground alfalfa hay plus crushed corn. Both increasing dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation shifted ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns toward more propionate and less acetate in goats. An interaction between dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation was observed for the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P), which was more predominant when FA was supplemented in the low-Fps:Cps diet. Methane production was reduced by FA, and the reduction was larger in the low-Fps:Cps diet (31.72%) than in the high-Fps:Cps diet (17.91%). Fumaric acid decreased ruminal total VFA concentration and increased ruminal pH. No difference was found in ruminal DM degradation of concentrate or alfalfa hay by dietary Fps:Cps or FA. Goats presented a lower ruminal methanogen abundance with FA supplementation and a higher B. fibrisolvens abundance with high dietary Fps:Cps. Adjusting dietary Fps:Cps is an alternative dietary model for studying diet-dependent effects without changing dietary chemical composition. Fumaric acid supplementation in the low-Fps:Cps diet showed greater responses in methane mitigation and propionate increase.

  14. Equilibrium sampling of environmental pollutants in fish: comparison with lipid-normalized concentrations and homogenization effects on chemical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; McLachlan, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    Equilibrium sampling of organic pollutants into the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has recently been applied in biological tissues including fish. Pollutant concentrations in PDMS can then be multiplied with lipid/PDMS distribution coefficients (D(Lipid,PDMS) ) to obtain concentrations in fish lipids. In the present study, PDMS thin films were used for equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intact tissue of two eels and one salmon. A classical exhaustive extraction technique to determine lipid-normalized PCB concentrations, which assigns the body burden of the chemical to the lipid fraction of the fish, was additionally applied. Lipid-based PCB concentrations obtained by equilibrium sampling were 85 to 106% (Norwegian Atlantic salmon), 108 to 128% (Baltic Sea eel), and 51 to 83% (Finnish lake eel) of those determined using total extraction. This supports the validity of the equilibrium sampling technique, while at the same time confirming that the fugacity capacity of these lipid-rich tissues for PCBs was dominated by the lipid fraction. Equilibrium sampling was also applied to homogenates of the same fish tissues. The PCB concentrations in the PDMS were 1.2 to 2.0 times higher in the homogenates (statistically significant in 18 of 21 cases, p equilibrium sampling and partition coefficients determined using tissue homogenates. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  15. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  16. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Participants of a Preventive Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara S B S; Munasinghe, Lalani L; Pham, Truong-Minh; Loehr, Sarah A; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Marco F; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-11-04

    The hypothesized effect of vitamin D on C-reactive protein (CRP) has received substantial attention as a potential means to alleviate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, observational studies have been inconsistent in their reporting of associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and CRP concentrations, and trials and meta analyses have been inconsistent in their conclusions regarding the effect of vitamin D supplementation on CRP concentrations. These supplementation trials were mostly conducted among patients with more or less inflammatory complications and did not consider potential distinctive effects by weight status. To further our understanding of the potential influences of vitamin D on CRP, we analyzed longitudinal observations of 6755 participants of a preventative health program. On average, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 88.3 to 121.0 nmol/L and those of CRP decreased from 1.7 to 1.6 mg/L between baseline and follow up. Relative to obese participants without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, those who showed improvements of <25, 25-50, 50-75, and more than 75 nmol/L at follow up were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.88), 0.54 (0.34-0.85), 0.49 (0.30-0.80), and 0.48 (0.29-0.78) times as likely to have elevated CRP concentrations (≥1 mg/L), respectively. These associations were less pronounced and not statistically significant for normal weight and overweight participants. Herewith, the findings suggest that promotion of adequate serum 25(OH)D concentrations among obese individuals along with healthy lifestyles may alleviate the public health burden associated with cardiovascular disease.

  17. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  18. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorea, Jose G.

    2003-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10 6 km 2 in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable

  19. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  20. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  1. Radioimmunoassay for estimating the concentration of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP-1) in normal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, J.; Regieli, A.; Karski, J.; Witkowska, R.; Golabek, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two modifications of radioimmunoassay of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein are described which differ in their sensitivity and duration of assay and thus in the possibility of their clinical application. Using these methods the concentration of SP-1 was determined in 180 serum samples of healthy pregnant women in different periods of normal pregnancy, 15-non-pregnant women, 16 healthy men, and in 20 samples of amniotic fluid as well as in 15 samples of umbilical vein blood. The described technique of SP-1 radioimmunoassay is useful for assessing the concentration of this protein in the serum of pregnant women during the whole pregnancy. Selection of a proper modification of the method makes the adaptation of its sensitivity and time of the assay possible for the clinical needs. (author)

  2. Normal Bone Mineral Density Associates with Duodenal Mucosa Healing in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of bone mineral density (BMD is frequent in celiac disease (CD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD. The normalization of intestinal mucosa is still difficult to predict. We aim to investigate the relationship between BMD and duodenal mucosa healing (DMH in CD patients on a GFD. Sixty-four consecutive CD patients on a GFD were recruited. After a median period of a 6-year GFD (range 2–33 years, patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan. Twenty-four patients (38% displayed normal and 40 (62% low BMD, 47 (73% DMH, and 17 (27% duodenal mucosa lesions. All patients but one with normal BMD (23 of 24, 96% showed DMH, while, among those with low BMD, 24 (60% did and 16 (40% did not. At multivariate analysis, being older (odds ratio (OR 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03–1.18 and having diagnosis at an older age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03–1.16 were associated with low BMD; in turn, having normal BMD was the only variable independently associated with DMH (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.6–192. In older CD patients and with late onset disease, BMD recovery is not guaranteed, despite a GFD. A normal DXA scan identified CD patients with DMH; thus, it is a potential tool in planning endoscopic resampling.

  3. Normal Bone Mineral Density Associates with Duodenal Mucosa Healing in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease on a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Imeneo, Maria; Marasco, Raffaella; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-01-31

    Impairment of bone mineral density (BMD) is frequent in celiac disease (CD) patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). The normalization of intestinal mucosa is still difficult to predict. We aim to investigate the relationship between BMD and duodenal mucosa healing (DMH) in CD patients on a GFD. Sixty-four consecutive CD patients on a GFD were recruited. After a median period of a 6-year GFD (range 2-33 years), patients underwent repeat duodenal biopsy and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Twenty-four patients (38%) displayed normal and 40 (62%) low BMD, 47 (73%) DMH, and 17 (27%) duodenal mucosa lesions. All patients but one with normal BMD (23 of 24, 96%) showed DMH, while, among those with low BMD, 24 (60%) did and 16 (40%) did not. At multivariate analysis, being older (odds ratio (OR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18) and having diagnosis at an older age (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) were associated with low BMD; in turn, having normal BMD was the only variable independently associated with DMH (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.6-192). In older CD patients and with late onset disease, BMD recovery is not guaranteed, despite a GFD. A normal DXA scan identified CD patients with DMH; thus, it is a potential tool in planning endoscopic resampling.

  4. Use of flow-normalization to evaluate nutrient concentration and flux changes in Lake Champlain tributaries, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Hirsch, Robert M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 20 years of total phosphorus (P) and total nitrogen (N) concentration data for 18 Lake Champlain tributaries using a new statistical method based on weighted regressions to estimate daily concentration and flux histories based on discharge, season, and trend as explanatory variables. The use of all the streamflow discharge values for a given date in the record, in a process called "flow-normalization," removed the year-to-year variation due to streamflow and generated a smooth time series from which trends were calculated. This approach to data analysis can be of great value to evaluations of the success of restoration efforts because it filters out the large random fluctuations in the flux that are due to the temporal variability in streamflow. Results for the full 20 years of record showed a mixture of upward and downward trends for concentrations and yields of P and N. When the record was broken into two 10-year periods, for many tributaries, the more recent period showed a reversal in N from upward to downward trends and a similar reversal or reduction in magnitude of upward trends for P. Some measures of P and N concentrations and yields appear to be related to intensity of agricultural activities, point-source loads of P, or population density. Total flow-normalized P flux aggregated from the monitored tributaries showed a decrease of 30 metric tons per year from 1991 to 2009, which is about 15% of the targeted reduction established by the operational management plan for the Lake Champlain Basin.

  5. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium

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    Zhongyan Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. Methods: RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive. High concentrate diet composed of 35% grass, 55% corn, 8% soya bean meal and 2% additive. In addition to the functional analysis of enriched genes in terms of metabolism, the immune system, and cellular process, the highly correlated genes to the enriched metabolism genes were identified, and the function and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed neighbors were compared among the groups. Results: The variation trends of molar proportions of ruminal SCFAs and those of enriched pathways belonging to metabolism, immune system, and cellular process were altered with the change of diets. With regard to metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were most affected. According to the correlation analysis, both innate and adaptive immune responses were promoted by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. However, the majority of immune responses were suppressed under the 35% concentrate diet. Moreover, the exclusive upregulation of cell growth and dysfunction of cellular transport and catabolism were induced by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. On the contrary, a balanced regulation of cellular processes was detected under the 35% concentrate diet. Conclusions: These results indicated that the

  6. High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Change of Cellular Metabolism Leads to Decreases of Immunity and Imbalance of Cellular Activities in Rumen Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyan; Shen, Hong; Shen, Zanming

    2018-01-01

    In animals, the immune and cellular processes of tissue largely depend on the status of local metabolism. However, in the rumen epithelium, how the cellular metabolism affects epithelial immunity, and cellular processes, when the diet is switched from energy-rich to energy-excess status, with regard to animal production and health, have not as yet been reported. RNA-seq was applied to compare the biological processes altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 10% to 35% with those altered by an increase of dietary concentration from 35% to 65% (dietary concentrate: the non-grass component in diet, including corn, soya bean meal and additive. High concentrate diet composed of 35% grass, 55% corn, 8% soya bean meal and 2% additive). In addition to the functional analysis of enriched genes in terms of metabolism, the immune system, and cellular process, the highly correlated genes to the enriched metabolism genes were identified, and the function and signaling pathways related to the differentially expressed neighbors were compared among the groups. The variation trends of molar proportions of ruminal SCFAs and those of enriched pathways belonging to metabolism, immune system, and cellular process were altered with the change of diets. With regard to metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism were most affected. According to the correlation analysis, both innate and adaptive immune responses were promoted by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. However, the majority of immune responses were suppressed under the 35% concentrate diet. Moreover, the exclusive upregulation of cell growth and dysfunction of cellular transport and catabolism were induced by the metabolism genes enriched under the 65% concentrate diet. On the contrary, a balanced regulation of cellular processes was detected under the 35% concentrate diet. These results indicated that the alterations of cellular metabolism promote the alterations in cellular

  7. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  8. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  9. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  10. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  11. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Iraj; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-05-02

    Both dyslipidemia and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with aging. In this study, the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on inflammasome and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's model (receiving Amyloid-β (Aβ)) and high-fat diet (HFD) model were determined. A total of 120 male Wistar rats, were divided into 12 groups (n = 10), including; healthy control, sham surgery, sham surgery receiving normal saline, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ received rats, Aβ + 8%VCO, Aβ + 10%VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ+8%VCO, and HFD + Aβ + 10%VCO. Following memory and learning tests, blood sample prepared from the heart and hippocampus of rats in each group was kept at -70 °C for genes expression, oxidative stress, and biochemical tests. Aβ and HFD significantly impaired memory and learning by activating of both NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and oxidative stress (p<0.05), while treatment with both 8 and 10% VCO normalized inflammasome genes expression and oxidative stress (p<0.05). The Congo Red, Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test revealed that VCO improved hippocampus histological changes, reduced Aβ plaques and phosphorylated Tau. High-fat diet has exacerbated the effects of Aβ, while VCO showed potential neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  13. Effect of the particle size of maize, rice, and sorghum in extruded diets for dogs on starch gelatinization, digestibility, and the fecal concentration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazolli, R S; Vasconcellos, R S; de-Oliveira, L D; Sá, F C; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2015-06-01

    The influence of rice, maize, and sorghum raw material particle size in extruded dry dog food on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and the fecal concentration of fermentation products was investigated. Three diets with similar nutrient compositions were formulated, each with 1 starch source. Before incorporation into diets, the cereals were ground into 3 different particle sizes (approximately 300, 450, and 600 µm); therefore, a total of 9 diets were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (3 cereals and 3 particle sizes). Fifty-four beagle dogs (12.0 ± 0.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to the diets, with 6 dogs per diet. The digestibility was measured with the chromium oxide method. The data were evaluated with ANOVA considering the carbohydrate source, grinding effect, and interactions. The means were compared with the Tukey test and polynomial contrasts (P 0.05); only GE digestibility was reduced at the largest MGD (P production of feces with less lactate (P dogs fed maize and sorghum foods, an increase in propionate and butyrate concentrations were observed as MGD increased (P dogs fed different particle sizes of the cereal starches in the extruded diets, the digestibility and fecal characteristics were affected, and this effect was ingredient dependent.

  14. Effects of concentrate proportion in the diet with or without Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale on ruminal fermentation and the structural diversity of rumen microbial communities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguhn, Jeannette; Neumann, Dominik; Helm, André; Strobel, Egbert; Tebbe, Christoph C; Dänicke, Sven; Rodehutscorda, Markus

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the concentrate proportion and Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale (FCT) in the diet on nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and structure of the microbial community, utilising a rumen simulation technique and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles based on PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Four diets containing 60% or 30% concentrates on a dry matter basis with or without FCT were incubated. The fermentation of nutrients and microbial protein synthesis was measured. On the last day of incubation, microbial mass was obtained from the vessel liquid, DNA was extracted and PCR-primers targeting archaea, fibrobacter, clostridia, bifidobacteria, bacillii, fungi, and bacteria were applied to separately study the individual taxonomic groups with SSCP. The concentrate proportion affected the fermentation and the microbial community, but not the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Neither the fermentation of organic matter nor the synthesis and composition of microbial protein was affected by FCT. The fermentation of detergent fibre fractions was lower in diets containing FCT compared to diets with uncontaminated triticale. Except for the clostridia group, none of the microbial groups were affected by presence of FCT. In conclusion, our results give no indication that the supplementation of FCT up to a deoxynivalenol concentration in the diet of 5 mg per kg dry matter affects the fermentation of organic matter and microbial protein synthesis. These findings are independent of the concentrate level in the diets. A change in the microbial community composition of the genus Clostridia may be the reason for a reduction in the cellulolytic activity.

  15. Effects of glycerin concentration in steam-flaked corn-based diets with supplemental yellow grease on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttrey, E K; Luebbe, M K; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C; Hales, K E

    2015-07-01

    Forty-eight individually fed crossbred steers (initial BW = 381 ± 7.61 kg) were used to determine the effects of glycerin (GLY) concentration in steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with added yellow grease on animal performance and carcass characteristics. Glycerin was included at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% dietary DM replacing SFC. A completely randomized design was used with steers as the experimental unit, and the model included the fixed effects of diet. Contrast statements were used to determine linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Final BW and DMI were not affected (P > 0.27) by GLY concentration. Average daily gain and G:F based on live BW did not differ as GLY level increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P > 0.33). Carcass-adjusted final BW and carcass-adjusted G:F were also not affected by GLY concentration (P > 0.22); however, carcass-adjusted ADG tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Calculated dietary NEm and NEg did not differ as GLY increased in the diet (P > 0.37). Hot carcass weight tended to respond quadratically, decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY and increasing thereafter (P = 0.10). Likewise, dressing percentage tended to respond quadratically by decreasing from 2.5 to 5% GLY inclusion and increasing to 10% GLY inclusion (P = 0.09). Fat thickness decreased linearly as GLY inclusion increased in the diet (P 0.21). Calculated yield grade (YG) decreased linearly as GLY increased in the diet from 0 to 10% of DM (P = 0.04). Based on our results, there was no animal performance benefit for replacing SFC with GLY in diets containing yellow grease, and the only change in carcass merit was a slight improvement in YG.

  16. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. A study of the concentration of micro and macro nutrients in blenderised liquid diet in nasogastric feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, F.P.; Vege, A.; Swarup, S.; Turel, Z.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the amount of macro (Na, K, P, Ca) and trace elements (Fe, Co, Zn, Mo, Se) present in the blenderised liquid diet in nasogastric feeding of patients having throat cancer. It is concluded that Se, Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn and Na are well within the range of the prescribed elemental requirement per day in the blenderized liquid diet, but macro elements like K, P and Ca require some augmentation in diet. (author) 4 tabs

  18. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  19. The effect of the change from a herbage- to a concentrate-based diet on the oxidative stability of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Biondi, L; Scerra, M; Serra, A; Mele, M; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2013-10-01

    Over 89 days, 10 lambs (S) were fed concentrates and hay in stall, while 9 lambs (P) grazed at pasture. Two groups of 9 animals grazed at pasture until switching to a concentrate-based diet for 14 or 37 days before slaughter (P-S14 and P-S37). The fat content of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) increased with increasing duration of concentrate feeding (P=0.05). As a consequence, the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of the highly peroxidisable (HP) PUFA in the polar lipids was similar between treatments. Lipid oxidation in fresh LM over 8 days of storage was affected by the diet (Pcooked minced LM over 2 days of storage and no difference was found between the P-S14, P-S37 and S treatments. Colour stability of fresh LM was not noticeably affected by the dietary treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  1. Effect of a Diet Enriched with Fresh Coconut Saturated Fats on Plasma Lipids and Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition in Normal Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashree, Rokkam Shankar; Manjunath, N K; Indu, M; Ramesh, M; Venugopal, V; Sreedhar, P; Pavithra, N; Nagendra, Hongasandra R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) (provided by fresh coconut) versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intake (provided by a combination of groundnuts and groundnut oil) on plasma lipids and erythrocyte fatty acid (EFA) composition in healthy adults. Fifty-eight healthy volunteers, randomized into 2 groups, were provided standardized diet along with 100 g fresh coconut or groundnuts and groundnut oil combination for 90 days in a Yoga University. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after the intervention period for the measurement of plasma lipids and EFA profile. Coconut diet increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels significantly. In contrast, the groundnut diet decreased total cholesterol (TC), mainly due to a decrease in HDL levels. There were no differences in the major SFA of erythrocytes in either group. However, coconut consumption resulted in an increase in C14:0 and C24:0 along with a decrease in levels of C18:1 n9 (oleic acid). There was a significant increase in levels of C20:3 n6 (dihomo-gamma linolenic acid, DGLA). Consumption of SFA-rich coconut for 3 months had no significant deleterious effect on erythrocytes or lipid-related factors compared to groundnut consumption. On the contrary, there was an increase in the anti-atherogenic HDL levels and anti-inflammatory precursor DGLA in erythrocyte lipids. This suggests that coconut consumption may not have any deleterious effects on cardiovascular risk in normal subjects.

  2. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Wessels

    Full Text Available In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH. To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2 and four-fold (L4 higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control. We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P < 0.05, liver (1.8-fold, P < 0.05 and cardiac muscle (1.7-fold, P < 0.05, whereas we found no changes in enzyme activity in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa. The L2 diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth.

  3. Effect of feeding a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet on subsequent food intake and blood concentration of satiety-related hormones in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Jimenez, E; Latorre, M A; Castrillo, C

    2018-02-01

    Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement. In week 7 of each period, blood concentrations of active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were determined before and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min post-feeding. The following week, intake of a challenge food offered 180 min after the HC and HF diets was recorded over two days. In comparison to the dogs on the HC diet, those on the HF diet had a higher basal concentration of GLP-1 (p = .010) and a higher total area under the curve over 180 min post-prandial (tAUC 0-180 ) (p = .031). Dogs on the HC diet showed a higher elevation of ghrelin at 180 min (p = .033) and of insulin at 360 min (p = .041), although ghrelin and insulin tAUC 0-180 did not differ between the two diets (p ˃ .10). Diet had no effect on challenge food intake (p ˃ .10), which correlated with the tAUC 0-180 of ghrelin (r = .514, p = .010), insulin (r = -.595, p = .002), and glucose (r = -.516, p = .010). Feeding a diet high in carbohydrate or fat at these inclusion levels does not affect the feeding response at 180 min post-prandial, suggesting a similar short-term satiating capacity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Study of Cloned versus Normal Pigs Fed Either Restricted or Ad Libitum High-Energy Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation...... of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted...... manner (60% of ad libitum) for 6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding...

  5. The relationship between blood metabolites and hormones with intake, gain, and efficiency in beef cattle consuming forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if selected blood metabolites and hormones are related to DMI, ADG, and efficiency in cattle consuming a variety of diets. Approximately 50-d postweaning, a group of crossbred heifers (n=76) were fed a forage-based diet containing (DM basis) 69.8% co...

  6. Nitrogen utilization and digestibility of amino acids by lambs fed a high-concentrate diet with limestone or magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, M L; Webb, K E

    1990-07-01

    Effects were evaluated of high dietary levels of magnesium oxide (MgO) or limestone on DM, OM and CP digestibility, N balance and intestinal absorption of amino acids by lambs fed a high concentrate diet. Twelve wether lambs equipped with abomasal and ileal cannulas were blocked by weight and breeding and allotted to treatments in a randomized block design in two consecutive trials. Diets were control (800 g), control plus 1.5% MgO (812 g), control plus 1.5% limestone (812 g) and control plus 3.0% limestone (824 g) fed in two equal portions at 12-h intervals. Ruminal fluid pH differences were small. The pH of ileal digesta was greater (P less than .05) with MgO than with limestone (8.23 vs 7.73). Fecal pH was higher (P less than .01) for lambs fed all mineral treatments (avg 8.75) than for lambs fed the control (7.61) and was higher (P less than .01) when MgO (9.53) rather than limestone (8.36) was fed. Ruminal NH3N was lower (P less than .01) when lambs were fed MgO (11.9 mg/dl) compared with limestone (avg 31.2 mg/dl). Preintestinal DM digestibility was greatest (P less than .10) with limestone (avg 49.5%) feeding compared with feeding MgO (31.2%) or the control (35.4%). About 41.5% more essential (P less than .05) and 48% more nonessential (P less than .03) amino acids reached the small intestine when MgO was fed than when limestone was fed. Partial digestibility of amino acids in the small intestine was reduced (P less than .03) an average of 5 percentage units when MgO or limestone was fed. Feeding high levels of MgO or limestone to lambs did not improve the overall digestibility of DM, OM or CP. In fact, feeding high levels of MgO or limestone appeared to be detrimental, reducing intestinal absorption of amino acids.

  7. Application of soybean meal, soy protein concentrate and isolate differing in α-galactosides content to low- and high-fibre diets in growing turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Z; Jankowski, J; Juśkiewicz, J; Lecewicz, A; Slominski, B

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the physiological and growth response of young turkeys (up to 8 weeks of age) to dietary replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by soy protein concentrate (PC) or protein isolate (PI). This replacement resulted in a differentiated dietary concentration of α-galactosides of over 2.5% in the SBM diet, approximately 2% with a mixture SBM and PC, 1% with a PC diet and 0.1% with a PI diet. Each treatment was applied in two ways: with lower (3.5%) or higher (5.3%) dietary crude fibre content, made by supplementation with soybean hulls. The highest and lowest body weight of turkeys was recorded both after the first and second 4-week half of the study in the PC and PI-type diets respectively. A gradual withdrawal of α-galactosides from a diet was accompanied by a decline in ileal tissue mass, ileal viscosity and activity of endogenous maltase (the latter was found to be significant at 4 weeks of age). At the same time, two-way anova revealed that an elevated level of crude fibre (HF treatment) caused an increase in ileal tissue mass (p diet, in contrast to dietary crude fibre level, significantly affected the caecal metabolism. The rate of bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids in the caeca was distinctly diminished by dietary withdrawal of α-galactosides. In conclusion, the soy protein concentrate, in contrast to the protein isolate preparation, exerted positive effects on the turkeys' growth and gastrointestinal tract physiology and should be considered as an effective SBM substitute. © 2009 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  9. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  10. Comparison of three commercially available prescription diet regimens on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Sako, T; Lee, P; Nishimaki, Y; Fukuta, H; Mizutani, H; Honjo, T; Arai, T

    2009-10-01

    Dietary therapy is an important treatment component for diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, the impact of three different commercially available diet regiments (1 general use and 2 aimed for treating obesity and DM) on short-term post-prandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations of five healthy cats to better understand what impact each of these diets may have for diabetic cats. The diet regiments used in this study were as follows: C/D dry (General Use- Low protein, High fat, High carbohydrate, and Low fiber), M/D dry (DM- High protein, High fat, Low carbohydrate, and High Fiber), and W/D dry (DM- Low Protein, Low Fat, High Carbohydrate, and High Fiber). No significant difference in post-prandial serum glucose levels were observed with the C/D (84.6 +/- 1.5 mg/dl) and W/D (83.8 +/- 1.4 mg/dl) dry diets when compared to pre-prandial fasting levels (83.9 +/- 1.4 mg/dl). However, a significant reduction was observed with the M/D diet (78.9 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) which had 50-60% less carbohydrates than either C/D or W/D diet. Unlike what was observed with post-prandial glucose levels, an interesting pattern emerged with post-prandial insulin levels, which were increasing with W/D, C/D, and M/D diets in that order (1.1 +/- 0.2, 1.7 +/- 0.2, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml respectively). Most surprising, though, was the fact that the W/D diet did not seem to stimulate insulin secretion as compared to pre-prandial levels (1.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml) in healthy cats. Interestingly, the W/D diet had high levels of carbohydrate and low levels of protein. Coincidentally, the only diet (M/D) which had a significant reduction in post-prandial glucose also showed the highest increase in post-prandial insulin in healthy cats. Therefore, dietary amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fiber can all have an individual impact on post-prandial glycemia and subsequent insulin requirement levels. Just as concepts regarding dietary management of people with DM are evolving, investigators are

  11. Activation of cellular apoptosis in the caecal epithelium is associated with increased oxidative reactions in lactating goats after feeding a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiyu; Tian, Jing; Cong, Rihua; Sun, Lili; Duanmu, Yongqian; Dong, Haibo; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the ultrastructural changes of the caecal mucosa and the status of epithelial cellular apoptosis and oxidative reactions in lactating goats after prolonged feeding with a high-concentrate diet? What is the main finding and its importance? High-concentrate diet results in ultrastructural damage to the caprine caecal epithelium. Increased oxidative and decreased antioxidative reactions are involved in the process of activating epithelial apoptosis in the caecal epithelium of goats fed a high-concentrate diet. Our results provide new insight into the relationship between abnormal fermentation in the hindgut and damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. The effect of feeding a high-concentrate diet (HC) to lactating ruminants on their hindgut epithelial structure remains unknown. In this study, 12 lactating goats were randomly assigned to either HC (65% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6) or a low-concentrate diet (LC; 35% of dry matter as concentrate; n = 6). After 10 weeks, the epithelial ultrastructure and cell apoptotic status in the caecal mucosa were determined by transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL, respectively. The results showed that the level of free lipopolysaccharide (P epithelium, as evidenced by more TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis showed that there was no significant difference in activated caspase-3, Bax protein expression in caecal epithelial mucosa between HC- and LC-fed goats (P > 0.05). However, the level of malondialdehyde content in the caecal epithelium from HC-fed goats was markedly higher than that in LC-fed goats (P < 0.05), whereas the level of glutathione peroxidase and the superoxide dismutase activity were significantly decreased. Gene expressions of cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the caecal mucosa did not show any significant

  12. Genetics, Diet, and Season Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Concentration in a Yup’ik Study Population from Southwestern Alaska123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohner, Alison E; Wang, Zhican; Yracheta, Joseph; O’Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Black, Jynene; Philip, Jacques; Wiener, Howard W; Tiwari, Hemant K; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tsai, Jesse M; Thornton, Timothy A; Boyer, Bert B; Thummel, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low blood vitamin D concentration is a concern for people living in circumpolar regions, where sunlight is insufficient for vitamin D synthesis in winter months and the consumption of traditional dietary sources of vitamin D is decreasing. Objective: The objective was to characterize the effects of diet, genetic variation, and season on serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations in Yup’ik Alaska Native people living in rural southwest Alaska. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional design that assessed the associations of traditional diet (via a biomarker, the RBC δ15N value), age, gender, body mass index (BMI), community location, and genotype of select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily R, peptide 1 (CYP2R1), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and vitamin D binding protein (GC) with serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in 743 Yup’ik male and female participants, aged 14–93 y, recruited between September 2009 and December 2013. Results: Yup’ik participants, on average, had adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 (31.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL). Variations in diet, BMI, age, gender, season of sample collection, and inland or coastal community geography were all significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. In models not adjusting for other covariates, age, diet, and seasonal effects explained 33.7%, 20.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, of variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Of the 8 SNPs interrogated in CYP2R1 and DHCR7, only rs11023374 in CYP2R1 was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3, explaining 1.5% of variability. The GC haplotype explained an additional 2.8% of variability. Together, age, diet, gender, season of sample collection, BMI, geography of the community, and genotype at rs11023374 explained 52.5% of the variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Conclusions: Lower consumption of the traditional diet was associated with lower serum concentrations of 25(OH

  13. Genetics, Diet, and Season Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Concentration in a Yup'ik Study Population from Southwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohner, Alison E; Wang, Zhican; Yracheta, Joseph; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Black, Jynene; Philip, Jacques; Wiener, Howard W; Tiwari, Hemant K; Stapleton, Patricia L; Tsai, Jesse M; Thornton, Timothy A; Boyer, Bert B; Thummel, Kenneth E

    2016-02-01

    Low blood vitamin D concentration is a concern for people living in circumpolar regions, where sunlight is insufficient for vitamin D synthesis in winter months and the consumption of traditional dietary sources of vitamin D is decreasing. The objective was to characterize the effects of diet, genetic variation, and season on serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations in Yup'ik Alaska Native people living in rural southwest Alaska. This study was a cross-sectional design that assessed the associations of traditional diet (via a biomarker, the RBC δ(15)N value), age, gender, body mass index (BMI), community location, and genotype of select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 family 2, subfamily R, peptide 1 (CYP2R1), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), and vitamin D binding protein (GC) with serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in 743 Yup'ik male and female participants, aged 14-93 y, recruited between September 2009 and December 2013. Yup'ik participants, on average, had adequate concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 (31.1 ± 1.0 ng/mL). Variations in diet, BMI, age, gender, season of sample collection, and inland or coastal community geography were all significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. In models not adjusting for other covariates, age, diet, and seasonal effects explained 33.7%, 20.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, of variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Of the 8 SNPs interrogated in CYP2R1 and DHCR7, only rs11023374 in CYP2R1 was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D3, explaining 1.5% of variability. The GC haplotype explained an additional 2.8% of variability. Together, age, diet, gender, season of sample collection, BMI, geography of the community, and genotype at rs11023374 explained 52.5% of the variability in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Lower consumption of the traditional diet was associated with lower serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3. Younger adults and youth in this community may be at

  14. Characteristics of carcass and of non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate corn or sorghum diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sanches Venturini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs and hoggets finished in the feedlot with high-concentrate corn or sorghum grain-based diets. Thirty-two animals were finished, comprising 16 lambs (milk teeth and 16 hoggets (two teeth, which were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two sheep categories × two grains. For the variables final live weight, live weight at slaughter, hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, carcass compactness index, subjective color, loin-eye area, fasting losses, external organs, internal organs, and for the weights, in kilograms, of neck, shoulder, ribs, and leg, there was a significant difference between categories. In the variables studied for the high-concentrate diets, significant differences were found for the ribs, expressed in relative values. Lambs have much higher fasting losses, a greater proportion of internal organs, and lighter-colored meat compared with hoggets. Hot and cold carcass yields, meat subjective color, and percentage of ribs are higher in feedlot-finished lambs and hoggets fed high-concentrate sorghum-based diets compared with those fed corn-based diets.

  15. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC

  16. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  17. High-concentrate diets based on forages harvested at different maturity stages affect ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-04-01

    Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.

  18. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  19. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  20. What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Courtney L; McGuire, Mark A; Foster, James; Sellen, Daniel W; Kamau-Mbuthia, Elizabeth W; Kamundia, Egidioh W; Mbugua, Samwel; Moore, Sophie E; Prentice, Andrew M; Kvist, Linda J; Otoo, Gloria E; Brooker, Sarah L; Price, William J; Shafii, Bahman; Placek, Caitlyn; Lackey, Kimberly A; Robertson, Bianca; Ruíz, Lorena; Pareja, Rossina G; Bode, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human milk is a complex fluid comprised of myriad substances, with one of the most abundant substances being a group of complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). There has been some evidence that HMO profiles differ in populations, but few studies have rigorously explored this variability. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that HMO profiles differ in diverse populations of healthy women. Next, we examined relations between HMO and maternal anthropometric and reproductive indexes and indirectly examined whether differences were likely related to genetic or environmental variations. Design: In this cross-sectional, observational study, milk was collected from a total of 410 healthy, breastfeeding women in 11 international cohorts and analyzed for HMOs by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was an effect of the cohort (P 4 times higher in milk collected in Sweden than in milk collected in rural Gambia (mean ± SEM: 473 ± 55 compared with 103 ± 16 nmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.05), and disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) concentrations ranged from 216 ± 14 nmol/mL (in Sweden) to 870 ± 68 nmol/mL (in rural Gambia) (P < 0.05). Maternal age, time postpartum, weight, and body mass index were all correlated with several HMOs, and multiple differences in HMOs [e.g., lacto-N-neotetrose and DSLNT] were shown between ethnically similar (and likely genetically similar) populations who were living in different locations, which suggests that the environment may play a role in regulating the synthesis of HMOs. Conclusions: The results of this study support our hypothesis that normal HMO concentrations and profiles vary geographically, even in healthy women. Targeted genomic analyses are required to determine whether these differences are due at least in part to genetic variation. A careful examination of sociocultural, behavioral, and environmental factors is needed to determine their roles in this regard. This

  1. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  2. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  3. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  4. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. II: Effect of genetic strain and diet on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Roche, J R; Kolver, E S

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-six genetically divergent New Zealand and North American Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows grazed pasture, and were offered 0, 3, or 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day for an extended lactation (605 +/- 8.3 d in milk; mean +/- standard error of the mean). Weekly blood samples collected from individual cows from wk 1 to 10 postpartum (early lactation), and from wk 47 to 63 postpartum (extended lactation) were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), calcium, and urea. During early lactation, NEFA and GH concentrations were greater and IGF-I concentrations were less, and increased at a slower rate in North American HF. During this 10-wk period, there were no strain effects on plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, or calcium. During the extended lactation period, North American HF had greater NEFA and GH concentrations; there were strain x diet interactions for insulin and leptin, and a tendency for a strain x diet interaction for glucose. These interactions were primarily due to greater plasma insulin, leptin, and glucose concentrations in the New Zealand HF fed 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day, a result of excessive body condition in this treatment. In this period, there was no strain effect on plasma IGF-I, calcium, or urea concentration. During early lactation, there was a linear increase in glucose and IGF-I, and a linear decrease in GH and urea with increasing concentrate in the diet. However, plasma calcium, NEFA, insulin, and leptin remained unchanged. During the extended lactation period, there was an effect of feed supplementation on GH and urea, which decreased linearly with increasing concentrate in the diet. There was, however, no supplementation effect on NEFA, calcium, or IGF-I. These data indicate potential strain differences in recoupling of the somatotropic axis, insulin resistance, and energy partitioning, and may help explain the physiology behind the previously

  5. Consumer sensory evaluation and chemical composition of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii steaks from cattle finished on forage or concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cattle finishing diet and muscle type on meat quality. Consumer sensory response, proximate composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were assessed from the gluteus medius (GM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of cattle ( = 6 per diet) which were grain-finished (USUGrain) on conventional feedlot or 2 forage diets, a perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil-finished (USUBFT; ), and grass-finished (USUGrass; ). Diet had an interacting effect with muscle for all sensory attributes ( ≤ 0.002), except aroma and flavor ( ≥ 0.078). In forage-finished beef, tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of GM was greater ( 0.05) but the juiciness of TB was more liked than USUGrain GM ( 0.05) between GM and TB. Lower ( 0.05) to both USUGrass and USUGrain beef. However, IMF percent was not impacted by muscle type ( = 0.092). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by muscle dependent on diet ( = 0.016). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by the interaction of muscle × diet ( = 0.016). Between forage diets (USUGrass and USUBFT), -6:-3 ratios were similar ( > 0.05) between GM and TB, whereas within USUGrain, the GM was greater ( 0.05). Strecker aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, and methional were affected ( ≤ 0.036) by muscle and found to have a greater concentration in GM compared with TB. Overall, consumers determined that USUGrain GM and TB had similar ( > 0.05) quality ratings. However, within forage-finished beef, the GM was perceived more frequently ( consumer group grilled GM and TB steaks, grain-finished beef provided more uniform quality and eating experience compared with forage-finished beef.

  6. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, [corrected] controlled trial (SYSDIET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Lea; Rejnmark, Lars; Carlberg, Carsten; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Risérus, Ulf; Savolainen, Markku J; Thorsdottir, Inga; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-06-01

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (healthy Nordic diet (P healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  7. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  8. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Discriminated benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern within a hypocaloric diet program on plasma RBP4 concentrations and other inflammatory markers in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    Personalized nutritional strategies to treat obesity may specifically influence inflammatory markers, in addition to reduce body weight. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a hypocaloric diet based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) on nutritional status as well as on plasma concentrations of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) and other proinflammatory markers. Fourty-one subjects (24F/17M; age: 37 ± 7 years; BMI: 32.2 ± 3.9 kg/m²) were assigned to follow a MDP within a caloric-restricted diet over an 8-week period. Anthropometrical, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured at baseline and endpoint after the nutritional program. Dietary intervention resulted in a mean weight loss of -4.4 ± 2.5 kg (P diet score from baseline was a significant and independent predictor factor for the decrease in plasma RBP4 concentration (P hypocaloric diet accompanying a high adherence to a MDP resulted in specific reductions on proinflammatory markers, in addition to a significant improvement in some metabolic syndrome features induced by weight loss, which could be a good combined strategy to treat obesity as well as related metabolic and inflammatory disorders.

  10. EFECTO DE L-CARNITINA SOBRE EL PESO, NIVELES DE TRIGLICÉRIDOS Y COLESTEROL DE RATONES SOMETIDOS A DIETAS NORMO E HIPERCALÓRICAS | EFFECT OF L-CARNITINE ON WEIGHT, CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES LEVELS OF MICE RECEIVING NORMAL AND HIGH CALORIC DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ojeda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of L-carnitine on weight and serum lipid levels (triglycerides and total cholesterol on NMRI mice. To do so, a factorial arrangement of treatments 22 under a completely randomized design was carried out. Factors considered were the diet (normal and hypercaloric and the inclusion or not of the L-carnitine supplement. L-carnitine was orally administered at a rate of 2 mg/day. Weight [g], serum triglyceride concentrations [mg·dL-1] and total cholesterol [mg·dL-1] were evaluated. Analysis of variance test and Tukey mean comparisons were applied. Non significant differences were found between the type of diet for weight (F = 4.00; p = 0.0575, and cholesterol (F = 0.09; p = 0.7722, or for the administration of L-carnitine for the weight (F = 1.08; p = 0.3096, and cholesterol (F = 0.13; p = 0.7255. For triglycerides, significant differences between the type of diet (F = 12.73; p = 0.0016, and significant interaction between type of diet and the administration of L-carnitine (F = 5.95; p = 0.0228, were found. This effect suggests that the amino acid combined with a low calorie diet could be considered as an alternative to treat cases of hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  12. A comparison of methods used to calculate normal background concentrations of potentially toxic elements for urban soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Katherine A., E-mail: k.rothwell@ncl.ac.uk; Cooke, Martin P., E-mail: martin.cooke@ncl.ac.uk

    2015-11-01

    To meet the requirements of regulation and to provide realistic remedial targets there is a need for the background concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils to be considered when assessing contaminated land. In England, normal background concentrations (NBCs) have been published for several priority contaminants for a number of spatial domains however updated regulatory guidance places the responsibility on Local Authorities to set NBCs for their jurisdiction. Due to the unique geochemical nature of urban areas, Local Authorities need to define NBC values specific to their area, which the national data is unable to provide. This study aims to calculate NBC levels for Gateshead, an urban Metropolitan Borough in the North East of England, using freely available data. The ‘median + 2MAD’, boxplot upper whisker and English NBC (according to the method adopted by the British Geological Survey) methods were compared for test PTEs lead, arsenic and cadmium. Due to the lack of systematically collected data for Gateshead in the national soil chemistry database, the use of site investigation (SI) data collected during the planning process was investigated. 12,087 SI soil chemistry data points were incorporated into a database and 27 comparison samples were taken from undisturbed locations across Gateshead. The SI data gave high resolution coverage of the area and Mann–Whitney tests confirmed statistical similarity for the undisturbed comparison samples and the SI data. SI data was successfully used to calculate NBCs for Gateshead and the median + 2MAD method was selected as most appropriate by the Local Authority according to the precautionary principle as it consistently provided the most conservative NBC values. The use of this data set provides a freely available, high resolution source of data that can be used for a range of environmental applications. - Highlights: • The use of site investigation data is proposed for land contamination studies

  13. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luci...

  14. The effect of a vegetarian versus conventional hypocaloric diet on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, H; Tonstad, S; Rosmus, J; Fisar, P; Mari, A; Hill, M; Pelikanova, T

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a vegetarian versus conventional diet on the serum levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in patients with T2D after 12 weeks of dietary intervention and to assess their relationships with metabolic parameters. Men and women with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegetarian diet without fish or meat (n = 37) or an isocaloric conventional antidiabetic diet (n = 37). Both diets were energy restricted (minus 500 kcal/day). All foods were provided to the participants. At randomization (week 0) and 12 weeks, the meal test was performed to assess the β-cell function and serum levels of 24 POPs. Dioxins and dioxin-like POPs were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and mass spectrometry after cleanup of the silica and carbon columns. Non-dioxin-like POPs were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Statistical analyses used were repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), a multivariate regression model, and Pearson's correlations. We observed a statistically nonsignificant trend toward increases in the serum levels of most POPs in response to both hypocaloric diets with no differences between groups. In the groups combined, the change in serum concentrations of total POPs was correlated to changes in HbA1c (r = +0.34; p hypocaloric vegetarian and conventional diets did not reduce the POP levels, possibly due to mobilization of fat stores. Our findings support the relationship between POPs and diabetes, especially β-cell function. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00883038, completed. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of juvenile GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Hu, Gengdong; Zhao, Zhixiang; Meng, Shunlong; Fan, Limin; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Chen, Jiazhang

    2018-01-01

    The GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is cultured widely for the production of freshwater fish in China. Streptococcosis, which is related to pathogenic infections, occurs frequently in juvenile and adult female GIFT individuals. Resveratrol (RES) has been used in feed to control these infections in freshwater tilapia. To address the effects of RES on tilapia, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing technology (RNA-Seq, HiSeq. 2500) to explore the global transcriptomic response and specific involvement of hepatic mRNA of juvenile O. niloticus fed with diets containing different concentrations of (0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1g/kg) RES. A total of > 24,513,018 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 23,244 unigenes. The unigenes were annotated by comparing them against non-redundant protein sequence (Nr), non-redundant nucleotide (Nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 12,578 unigenes were annotated to the GO database. A total of 1444 (0.025g/kg RES), 1526 (0.05g/kg RES), and 3135 (0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs), when compared with the controls. A total of 6 (0.025 vs 0.05g/kg RES), 19 (0.025 vs 0.1g/kg RES), and 124 (0.05 vs 0.1g/kg RES) genes were detected as significant DEGs. Six genes, including dnah7x1, sox4, fam46a, hsp90a, ddit4, and nmrk2, were associated with an immune response. These findings provide information on the innate immunity of GIFT and might contribute to the development of strategies for the effective management of diseases and long-term sustainability of O. niloticus culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for the effects of natural plant extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of a high-concentrate diet for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, P W; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2005-11-01

    Six natural plant extracts and three secondary plant metabolites were tested at five doses (0, 0.3, 3, 30, and 300 mg/L) and two different pH (7.0 and 5.5) in a duplicate 9 x 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine their effects on in vitro microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from heifers fed a high-concentrate finishing diet. Treatments were extracts of garlic (GAR), cinnamon (CIN), yucca (YUC), anise (ANI), oregano (ORE), and capsicum (CAP) and pure cinnamaldehyde (CDH), anethole (ATL), and eugenol (EUG). Each treatment was tested in triplicate and in two periods. Fifty milliliters of a 1:1 ruminal fluid-to-buffer solution were introduced into polypropylene tubes supplied with 0.5 g of DM of a 10:90 forage:concentrate diet (15.4% CP, 16.0% NDF; DM basis) and incubated for 24 h at 39 degrees C. Samples were collected for ammonia N and VFA concentrations. The decrease in pH from 7.0 to 5.5 resulted in lower (P cattle diets may differ depending on ruminal pH. When pH was 5.5, GAR, CAP, YUC, and CDH altered ruminal microbial fermentation in favor of propionate, which is more energetically efficient.

  17. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  18. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  19. Concentration Trends for Lead and Calcium-Normalized Lead in Fish Fillets from the Big River, a Mining-Contaminated Stream in Southeastern Missouri USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; McKee, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005-2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005-2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  20. Insulin sensitivity is normalized in the third generation (F3 offspring of developmentally programmed insulin resistant (F2 rats fed an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin John F

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy, and then maintained on energy-restricted diets post weaning over three generations. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats (F0 were mated with control males and protein malnourished during pregnancy/lactation. F1 offspring were then weaned to adequate but energy-restricted diets into adulthood. F1 dams were fed energy-restricted diets throughout pregnancy/lactation. F2 offspring were also fed energy-restricted diets post weaning. F2 pregnant dams were maintained as described above. Their F3 offspring were split into two groups; one was maintained on the energy-restricted diet, the other was maintained on an adequate diet consumed ad libitum post weaning. Results F2 animals fed energy-restricted diets were insulin resistant (p ad libitum postweaning diets (p Conclusion Maternal energy-restriction did not consistently program reduced insulin sensitivity in offspring over three consecutive generations. The reasons for this remain unclear. It is possible that the intergenerational transmission of developmentally programmed insulin resistance is determined in part by the relative insulin sensitivity of the mother during pregnancy/lactation.

  1. Immediate Effect of 3% Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution on Tear MUC5AC Concentration and Corneal Wetting Ability in Normal and Experimental Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Eon; Song, Jong-Suk; Kang, Boram; Eom, Youngsub; Kim, Hyo-Myung

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the immediate effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution on tear MUC5AC concentration, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive goblet cells, and tear film stability in normal and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) rat models. Rats were divided into normal and KCS groups. 3% of diquafosol solution was instilled into the right eye and normal saline into the left eye in both groups. To determine the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration, tears were collected after 3% diquafosol instillation every 5 min up to 20 min. The tear film stability and the numbers of PAS-positive goblet cells were compared in both models. After diquafosol instillation, tear MUC5AC concentration increased steadily for 15 min, at which point the MUC5AC concentration reached its peak. In both normal and KCS groups, the MUC5AC concentration at 15 min was higher after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution (17.77 ± 2.09 ng/ml in the normal group, 9.65 ± 3.51 ng/ml in the KCS group) than that after saline instillation (13.74 ± 2.87 ng/ml in the normal group, 8.19 ± 3.99 ng/ml in the KCS group) (p = 0.018 for both). The corneal wetting ability was significantly longer after instillation of 3% diquafosol solution compared with that after instillation of normal saline in the normal group (p = 0.018). The percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells after the instillation of 3% diquafosol solution was significantly lower than that after instillation of normal saline in both models (p = 0.018 for both). Diquafosol ophthalmic solution was effective in stimulating mucin secretion in both normal and KCS rat models, and the peak time of tear MUC5AC concentration was 15 min after diquafosol instillation. The increased tear MUC5AC concentration was accompanied by improved tear film stability and a decreased percentage of PAS-positive goblet cells.

  2. Effect of a multivitamin preparation supplemented with phytosterol on serum lipids and infarct size in rats fed with normal and high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although complex multivitamin products are widely used as dietary supplements to maintain health or as special medical food in certain diseases, the effects of these products were not investigated in hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, here we investigated if a preparation developed for human use containing different vitamins, minerals and trace elements enriched with phytosterol (VMTP) affects the severity of experimental hyperlipidemia as well as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal or cholesterol-enriched (2% cholesterol + 0.25% cholate) diet for 12 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. From week 8, rats in both groups were fed with a VMTP preparation or placebo for 4 weeks. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured at week 0, 8 and 12. At week 12, hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion to measure infarct size. Results At week 8, cholesterol-fed rats showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level as compared to normal animals, however, serum triglyceride level did not change. VMTP treatment significantly decreased serum cholesterol level in the hyperlipidemic group by week 12 without affecting triglyceride levels. However, VMTP did not show beneficial effect on infarct size. The inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the antioxidant uric acid were also not significantly different. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that treatment of hyperlipidemic subjects with a VMTP preparation reduces serum cholesterol, the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it does not provide cardioprotection. PMID:24063587

  3. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  4. Fisetin-Rich Extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Improve Blood Flow Rates in Mice Fed Both Normal and High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Won Kyun; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Sang-Jae; Hong, Seokmann; Jeon, Sung Ho

    2016-02-01

    Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well elucidated. In this study, using newly developed protocols, we prepared urushiol-free but fisetin-enriched RVS extracts and investigated their effects on the vascular immune system. We found that the water-soluble fractions of detoxified RVS with the flavonoid fisetin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, RVS can reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX2 gene expression levels, which are responsible for NO and PGE2 production, respectively, in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Because inflammation is linked to the activation of the coagulation system, we hypothesized that RVS and its active component fisetin possess anticoagulatory activities. As expected, we found that both RVS and fisetin could inhibit the coagulation of human peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in vivo RVS treatment could return the retarded blood flow elicited by a high-fat diet (HFD) back to the normal level in mice. In addition, RVS treatment has significantly reduced body weight gained by HFD in mice. Taken together, the fisetin-rich RVS extracts have potential antiplatelet and antiobesity activities and could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve blood circulation.

  5. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  6. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  7. Testicular histology and blood testosterone levels of male rabbit after given concentrated diets containing calliandra leaf meal and pineapple peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, I.; Ermayanti, N. G. A. M.; Suarni, N. M. R.; Narayani, I.; Suaskara, I. B. M.

    2018-03-01

    Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn is one of a highly protein source of forage, however, it is not widely used for non ruminant feed because it contains antinutritional substances in the form of condensed tannin. Tannin can bind proteins, this tannin-protein complexes are difficult to be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, then will be defecated outside the body. To optimize the utilization of calliandra in the diet, pineapple peels were added as a source of protease (bromelain). Beside of waste utilization, it is expected that bromelain can degrade the tannin-protein complexes thereby reducing the negative effects of tannins. This research is a feeding experiment on male rabbit (Lepus sp), five weeks old. The diet formulation is prepared according to the standardized diet of the local rabbit. This experiment used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments i.e. control group which were only given commercial feed (R0), commercial feed contained 15% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R1), commercial feed contained 30% of Calliandra leaf meal and 30% of pineapple peel (R2), and commercial feed contained 45% of Calliandra and 30% of pineapple peel (R3). The treatment was done for three months. The results of this study on the reproduction of male rabbits showed that the increase of calliandra leaf meal level in a diet containing 30% of pineapple peels affected the testicular histology, and also decreased the diameter of seminiferous tubule and blood testosterone levels of male rabbits.

  8. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  9. SUPPLEMENTATION EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND SAPONIN EXTRACTS TO DIETS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGE TO CONCENTRATE RATIO ON In vitro RUMEN FERMENTATION AND METHANOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yogianto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of combining tannin and saponin extracts onruminal methane emission of diets with different proportion of forage to concentrate in the in vitrofermentation. The experiment was conducted in a factorial block design. The first factor was theproportion of forage:concentate in diets (70:30 and 30:70 and the second was addition of tannin andsaponin extracts (control, tannins, saponins, tannins + saponins in the dose of 2 mg/ml. Variablesobserved were gas production kinetics, methane production, dry matter digestibility (DMD, organicmatter digestibility (OMD and ammonia concentration. Results revealed that addition of tannins,saponins and their combination generally lowered total gas and methane production during 24 and 48 hof incubation period in both types of diets (P<0.05, but combination of tannins and saponins comparedwith their separated forms did not show any significant differences. The addition of tannins, saponinsand their combination reduced DMD, OMD and ammonia significantly (P<0.05. It can be concludedthat the addition of tannin, saponin and their combination at a dose of 2 mg/ml could reduce methaneemission but followed by a decline in the DMD, OMD and ammonia.

  10. [Appreciation of selenium concentration in blood and tissues of male rat as a result of diet ingredients changes and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Dolot, Anna; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen B group vitamins on concentration of selenium in blood serum and tissues and activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver of male rats was examined in the conducted experiment. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with granulated mixes. Group I with basic mix containing among other things full grains, Group II with modified mix in which full grains were exchanged for wheat flour and in part with saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. The experiment was conducted for six weeks during which the amount of consumed feeding stuff was calculated currently and once a week body mass of the animals was checked. When the experiment was finished the activity of GSH-Px was determined by spectrophotometric method in blood and liver whereas concentration of selenium in blood serum, muscles and in liver by fluorometric method. It was ascertained that the change of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins was in favour of lowering the amount of selenium in the examined tissues, and the decrease was not only the result of lower amount of the consumed element, but also of its increased usage, forced by the changes taking place under the influence of diet components and its supplementation.

  11. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  12. Using precursor ion scan of 184 with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for concentration normalization in cellular lipidomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsi-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Yang, Sin-Yu; Wang, San-Yuan; Li, Yu-Liang; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2017-06-08

    Cellular lipidomic studies have been favored approaches in many biomedical research areas. To provide fair comparisons of the studied cells, it is essential to perform normalization of the determined concentration before lipidomic analysis. This study proposed a cellular lipidomic normalization method by measuring the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) contents in cell extracts. To provide efficient analysis of PC and SM in cell extracts, flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-MS/MS) with a precursor ion scan (PIS) of m/z 184 was used, and the parameters affecting the performance of the method were optimized. Good linearity could be observed between the cell extract dilution factor and the reciprocal of the total ion chromatogram (TIC) area in the PIS of m/z 184 within the dilution range of 1- to 16-fold (R 2  = 0.998). The calibration curve could be used for concentration adjustment of the unknown concentration of a cell extract. The intraday and intermediate precisions were below 10%. The accuracy ranged from 93.0% to 105.6%. The performance of the new normalization method was evaluated using different numbers of HCT-116 cells. Sphingosine, ceramide (d18:1/18:0), SM (d18:1/18:0) and PC (16:1/18:0) were selected as the representative test lipid species, and the results showed that the peak areas of each lipid species obtained from different cell numbers were within a 20% variation after normalization. Finally, the PIS of 184 normalization method was applied to study ischemia-induced neuron injury using oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) on primary neuronal cultured cells. Our results showed that the PIS of 184 normalization method is an efficient and effective approach for concentration normalization in cellular lipidomic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Effects of High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Diet Composition on Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Normal Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trapala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E.; Mendez, Jose D.; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Palma-Cordova, Leydi C.; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    The macronutrient component of diets is critical for metabolic control and insulin action. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high fat diets (HFDs) vs. high carbohydrate diets (HCDs) on metabolic control and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty animals divided into five groups (n = 6) were fed: (1) Control diet (CD); (2) High-saturated fat diet (HSFD); (3) High-unsaturated fat diet (HUFD); (4) High-digestible starch diet, (HDSD); and (5) High-resistant starch diet (HRSD) during eight weeks. HFDs and HCDs reduced weight gain in comparison with CD, however no statistical significance was reached. Calorie intake was similar in both HFDs and CD, but rats receiving HCDs showed higher calorie consumption than other groups, (p < 0.01). HRSD showed the lowest levels of serum and hepatic lipids. The HUFD induced the lowest fasting glycemia levels and HOMA-IR values. The HDSD group exhibited the highest insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol content. In conclusion, HUFD exhibited the most beneficial effects on glycemic control meanwhile HRSD induced the highest reduction on lipid content and did not modify insulin sensitivity. In both groups, HFDs and HCDs, the diet constituents were more important factors than caloric intake for metabolic disturbance and insulin resistance. PMID:22754464

  14. The Effects of Different Types of Antioxidants (Se, Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Broiler Diets on the Growth Performance, Skin Pigmentation and Liver and Plasma Antioxidant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Karadas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of the addition of different antioxidants to broiler diets on their live performance, liver antioxidant composition and concentrations, immune response, and meat and skin color. A total of 945 three-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both genders were randomly allocated to one of nine dietary treatments (n=105, with three replicates 35 chicks per pen, as follows: T1: control (commercially available corn-and soybean-based broiler diet; T2: selenium (control+0.5 mg/kg Sel-PlexTMSe yeast; T3: vitamin E (control+200 mg/kg Kavimix-E-50 a-tocopherol acetate; T4: lutein (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lutein Beads XB; T5: lycopene (control+100 mg/kg 5% Lyco Beads XB;T6: canthaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rRed;T7: apo-ester (control+25 mg/kg 10% Carophyll(rYellow; T8: lutein+zeaxanthin (control+25 mg/kg Xamacol(r; and T9: b-carotene (control+100 mg/kg 10% Rovimix(r. Feed (starter, grower, developer and finisher phases and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion values and plasma carotene concentrations were recorded weekly, and liver antioxidant concentrations were recorded at the end of the experiment. Newcastle disease (LaSota vaccination was performed on day 22. HI titers were measured on days 14, 21, 35 and 42 to determine the effects of the antioxidants on the immune system. The addition of selenium, vitamin E, and carotenoid supplements to the commercial broiler diet significantly increased antioxidant accumulation in the liver and the plasma. All antioxidants assessed significantly improved the immune response. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation also significantly improved total carotenoid concentrations in the plasma. The carotenoids enhanced skin and meat color. None of the supplements tested influenced growth (p>0.05.

  15. Effects of nutrition level of concentrate-based diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P  0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).

  16. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  17. The associations between metals/metalloids concentrations in blood plasma of Hong Kong residents and their seafood diet, smoking habit, body mass index and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan Yan; Leung, Clement Kai Man; Lin, Che Kit; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-09-01

    The concentrations of metals/metalloids in blood plasma collected from 111 healthy residents (51 female, 60 male) in Hong Kong (obtained from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, from March to April 2008) were quantified by means of a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Results showed that concentrations of these toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, and Pb in Hong Kong residents were not serious when compared with other countries. Males accumulated significantly higher (p diet habit, body mass index (BMI), and age. More intensive studies involving more samples are needed before a more definite conclusion can be drawn, especially on the causal relationships between concentrations of metals/metalloids with dietary preference and lifestyle of the general public.

  18. Raapzaadeiwitconcentraat en erwteneiwitconcentraat in biologisch biggenvoer = Canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentratrate in diets for organically housed piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Experimental Farm Raalte it was investigated whether canola protein concentrate and pea protein concentrate are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for organically housed piglets. It is concluded that both protein concentrates are suitable protein-rich feedstuffs for piglets. Feed intake and

  19. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  20. Hierarchical clustering of Alzheimer and "normal" brains using elemental concentrations and glucose metabolism determined by PIXE, INAA and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Spyrou, NM; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL

    Brain tissue samples, obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from both left and right hemispheres of three regions of the cerebrum, namely the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes for both Alzheimer and 'normal' subjects. Trace element

  1. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...

  2. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  3. Short communication: Effect of the feed presentation form on the intake pattern, productive traits and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gimeno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional disorders like ruminal acidosis are common in Spanish beef production system, in which animals are fed diets with a high content in starch. This experiment studied the effect of feed presentation form (concentrate and straw offered separately, CD, or mixed in form of briquettes, BR on the pattern of intake, growth and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. The experiment was performed with 40 Holstein male calves, 32 of them for determining feed intake pattern and productive rates, and the remaining 8, which were previously provided with a ruminal cannula, to monitor rumen pH in two 21-day consecutive periods following a change-over design. Animals fed BR reduced feed intake rate during the first hour after feeding (18.6 vs. 24.0% of daily intake p<0.001, but this diet promoted a lower rumen pH at all sampling times compared with CD (daily average of 5.98 vs. 6.33; p<0.001 and tended to promote a lower total feed intake (7.08 vs. 9.77 kg DM/d; p<0.001 and daily weight gain (1.43 vs. 1.76 kg/d; p=0.056. Offering the concentrate and the straw mixed in form of briquettes is not useful to prevent ruminal acidosis and improve growth, probably due to both a reduced particle size of straw and avoided self-regulation of straw intake along the day.

  4. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  5. Plasma IGF-I, INSL3, testosterone, inhibin concentrations and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls with normal and abnormal semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Kawate, N; Hannan, M A; Kohama, N; Tamada, H

    2018-07-01

    The relationships between semen abnormalities and peripheral concentrations of testicular and metabolic hormones in beef bulls are unclear. Here we compared plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), testosterone, inhibin concentrations, and scrotal circumferences surrounding puberty in Japanese Black beef bulls (n = 66) with normal or abnormal semen. We collected blood samples and measured scrotal circumferences monthly from 4 to 24 months of age. Semen was collected weekly from 12 months until at least 18 months of age. Fresh semen was evaluated for semen volume, sperm motility, concentrations, and morphological defects. The normal fresh semen was frozen by a standard method and examined for post-thaw sperm motility and fertility. Bulls were classified as having either normal post-thaw semen (n = 45) or abnormal semen (n = 21, when at least one of the above test items was abnormal for 6 months). Abnormal semen was classified into abnormal fresh or low-fertility post-thaw which evaluated for rates of transferable embryos. The abnormal fresh was categorized as having sperm morphological defects, low motility, and morphological defects plus low motility. Scrotal circumferences were smaller for the abnormal-semen group vs. the normal-semen group at 20 and 24 months (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin concentrations in the abnormal-semen group were lower than those of the normal-semen group (p IGF-I; 6, 9, 11-14, 17, and 20-21 months for INSL3; 5, 8-13, 16, 17, 19, and 20 months for inhibin). The plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in the abnormal-semen bulls vs. normal-semen bulls only at 22 months (p IGF-I and inhibin concentrations for low-fertility post-thaw semen (p IGF-I, INSL3, and inhibin surrounding puberty may be associated with semen aberration in beef bulls. Notably, the combined sperm abnormality of morphological defects and low motility in fresh semen could involve lowered INSL3, whereas the low

  6. Effects of vitamin E from supplements and diet on colonic α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in persons at increased colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Brenner, Dean E; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.

  7. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  8. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qumar

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8 or interruptedly (Int; n = 8. Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1 and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4. Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline, while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides

  9. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose glucose excursion.

  10. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Norrapoke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05; however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05 among dietary treatments (p>0.05; however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05 milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS.

  11. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  12. Elemental concentrations and tracer uptake behavior of manganese, zinc, and selenium in brain of normal mice during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarohda, Tohru; Yabushita, Yuko; Kanayama, Yousuke; Amano, Ryohei; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations and uptake behavior of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in mouse brain were studied by a multitracer technique, neutron activation analysis and autoradiography. Comparative concentrations on Mn, Zn, and Se and tracer uptake behavior of 54 Mn, 65 Zn, and 75 Se were examined in brains of 1-, 4-, 8-, 21-, and 56-day-old mice, and evaluated in terms of brain concentration (parts per million, ppm) and brain uptake rate (the radioactivity percentage of injected dose per gram of brain, %dose/g), respectively. As a result, the brain concentrations of Mn increased with growth, although those of Se and Zn did not change. On the other hand, the uptakes of the three tracers by brains of 1-day-old mice were much higher than those of older ones. Using radioactive 54 Mn as a single tracer, autoradiography was examined to determine the Mn uptake regional distribution in brains of 1-, 8-, and 21-day-old mice, and a higher regional uptake of Mn by the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus in brains of young mice was observed. (author)

  13. The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the present review, the quantitative impact of dietary aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin concentrations on performance of pigs and broilers is evaluated, with special emphasis on low concentrations of these toxins. Also, responses in performance of pigs and broilers to these three

  14. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J

    2017-12-01

    The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of

  15. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FIVE ADULT DIETS ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NORMAL AND GAMMA IRRADIATED ADULT MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY, CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-AKHDAR, E.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the sterile insect technique for controlling the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), experiments were carried out to test the effect of four new adult protein sources on the insect vitality. Different yeasts consisting of almost the same nutritive components but differ in the quantity of protein were mixed with sugar as carbohydrate sources (2:3) and compared to the standard adult diet (enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3). Adults reared on each diet were evaluated biologically for their response to gamma radiation (90 Gy). The weight and size of the produced pupae from parents fed on the tested diets, percent of adult emergence, sex ratio, adults survival, egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) for the following generations were taken as monitors for the insect vitality. The results showed that adult male and female survival for 5, 10 and 15 days from emergence, percent egg hatchability and male mating competitiveness value (C.V.) showed no sharp differences between three tested diets D3(Af), D4(YE300) and D5(YE00) as compared to the standard diet D1(YH, enzymatic yeast hydrolysate : sugar, 1:3) for parents and F1 progeny. However, when the second tested diet D2(Ay150) was used, the results showed a significant decreases in most of the tested biological aspects, especially in the male mating competitiveness value (C.V.), which is considered the most important monitor for male insect vitality

  16. Ruminal pH and temperature, papilla characteristics, and animal performance of fattening calves fed concentrate or maize silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bodas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding systems can play an important role, not only in beef farm profitability but also in animal health and performance. Fourteen Avilena-Negra Iberica bulls, with an initial weight of 270 kg (SE 22.6 kg and aged 223 d (SE 16.2 were used to study the effect of two feeding systems on ruminal pH and temperature and animal performance when calves were kept in loose housing conditions. Feeding systems were barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grain-based concentrate plus barley straw (CONC and maize (Zea mays L. silage-based total mixed ration (TMR. Internal wireless boluses were used to collect pH and temperature values every 10 min throughout the measurement period (15 d. Diet did not modify (P > 0.10 average daily gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, ruminal mucosa color, or papilla counts. Papilla width and papilla width/lamina propria thickness were significantly lower (P 0.10. Although animal performance is not affected, feeding fattening calves on a concentrate plus barley straw diet can result in better rumen conditions than using maize silage-based TMR.

  17. [Evaluation of influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on lipids and lipoprtoteins concentration in female rat serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    The influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on the intake of feeding stuff increase, changes of body mass, accumulation of fat tissue, lipids and lipoproteins concentration in the blood of female rats were under research. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups (8 persons each) and fed ad libitum with granulated Labofeed B type mix. Group I with the basic mix containing among other things whole grain, Group II with a modified mix, where whole grain was replaced by wheat flour and saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with chosen vitamins of B group. This experiment took 6 weeks during which the amount of consumed feed was currently evaluated, and the body mass was controlled weekly. After finishing the experiment in the obtained serum the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol with enzyme method and the content of cholesterol fractions with electrophoretic separation method were determined. Analysis of fat content in muscles and livers was conducted and the amount of round the bodily organ fat was determined. It was ascertained that change of the content of the feed and its supplementation with the chosen B group vitamins did not influence in a substantial way its intake and the increase of body mass, however it had influenced substantially, in animals fed with the modified feed the accumulation of round the organ fat and in supplemented the intramuscular fat. Analysis of the results enabled the ascertainment that the diet supplementation with chosen ingredients of the B group vitamins corrects the negative effect of accumulation of the visceral fat tissue as a result of the change of its contents, caused substantial increase in the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol and its fractions VLDL- and LDL- with simultaneous decrease of the concentration of cholesterol HDL- fractions.

  18. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  19. Estimation of Median Lethal Concentration of Three Isolates of Beauveria bassiana for Control of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Bioassayed on Solid Lygus spp. Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Maribel; Jones, Walker; Perera, Omaththage; Seiter, Nick; Greene, Jeremy; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-06-30

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used. Younger adults (eight days after collection) were treated with NI8 and GHA and older adult (50 days after collection) were treated with NI8, GHA and KUDSC. Higher concentrations (n × 10⁶, n × 10⁷) of NI8 and GHA caused kudzu bug mortality two days after treatment in younger adults and similar concentrations of NI8, GHA, and KUDSC caused mortality one day after treatment in older adults. Lower concentrations (n × 10⁴, n × 10⁵) were not significantly different in mortality between strains. LS50 values of the KUDSC were significantly lower than NI8 and GHA values in older adults. This is the first available information on median lethal concentration of B. bassiana on kudzu bug adults bioassayed on artificial diet. It was determined that B. bassiana (KUDSC and NI8) are highly effective for young adults at very low doses (LC50 1.98-4.98 viable spores per mm²).

  20. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyuk Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Results Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05 for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01 with increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. Litter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10 for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Conclusion Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  1. Equilibrium sampling of environmental pollutants in fish: Comparison with lipid- normalized concentrations and homogenization effects on chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    of the equilibrium sampling technique, while at the same time confirming that the fugacity capacity of these lipid-rich tissues for PCBs was dominated by the lipid fraction. Equilibrium sampling was also applied to homogenates of the same fish tissues. The PCB concentrations in the PDMS were 1.2 to 2.0 times higher...... in the homogenates (statistically significant in 18 of 21 cases, phomogenization increased the chemical activity of the PCBs and decreased the fugacity capacity of the tissue. This observation has implications for equilibrium sampling and partition coefficients determined using tissue...... homogenates....

  2. First and third trimester serum concentrations of adropin and copeptin in gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Filip A; Jarmużek, Patrycja; Gondek, Agata; Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska, Agnieszka; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disease diagnosed in 1.7% up to 11.6% pregnancies. The prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome is significantly higher in the case of early onset of diabetes mellitus. Adropin is a hormone promoting carbohydrate oxidation over fat oxidation, and influence nitric oxide synthase. Copeptin is a cleavage product of the vasopressin precursor recently correlated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine maternal serum adropin and copeptin concentrations in women with early and late manifestation of GDM and to discuss their potential role as biochemical markers of insulin resistance. Case-control study on 58 pregnant Caucasian women. Serum levels of adropin and copeptin were assessed in patients with early onset (GDM1) and classical gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM2). Complications such as macrosomia and hypotrophy were evaluated. There was no significant difference between the study and the control group (age, BMI, parity). Fetal growth disturbance rate was 37.5% in GDM1, 11% in GDM2 and 6% in controls. Adropin concentration in GDM patients was significantly higher than in control group (p gestational diabetes mellitus.

  3. Temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of plutonium with americium under normal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiovkin, Yu. Yu.; Povzner, A. A.; Tsiovkina, L. Yu.; Dremov, V. V.; Kabirova, L. R.; Dyachenko, A. A.; Bystrushkin, V. B.; Ryabukhina, M. V.; Lukoyanov, A. V.; Shorikov, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical resistivity for alloys of americium with plutonium are analyzed in terms of the multiband conductivity model for binary disordered substitution-type alloys. For the case of high temperatures ( T > ΘD, ΘD is the Debye temperature), a system of self-consistent equations of the coherent potential approximation has been derived for the scattering of conduction electrons by impurities and phonons without any constraints on the interaction intensity. The definitions of the shift and broadening operator for a single-electron level are used to show qualitatively and quantitatively that the pattern of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity for alloys is determined by the balance between the coherent and incoherent contributions to the electron-phonon scattering and that the interference conduction electron scattering mechanism can be the main cause of the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity observed in some alloys involving actinides. It is shown that the great values of the observed resistivity may be attributable to interband transitions of charge carriers and renormalization of their effective mass through strong s-d band hybridization. The concentration and temperature dependences of the resistivity for alloys of plutonium and americium calculated in terms of the derived conductivity model are compared with the available experimental data.

  4. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans. PMID:25028461

  5. Decrease by 50% of plasma IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody concentrations within 2 months after start of gluten-free diet in children with celiac disease used as a confirming diagnostic test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hermansen, Mette N; Pedersen, Merete F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histological examination of small bowel biopsies is normally the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the rate of decreases in elevated plasma IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA-tTG) and/or IgG deamidated...... gliadin peptides antibody (IgG - DGP) concentrations could be used as a confirming test for CD in children on a gluten-free diet (GFD) when biopsy was omitted in the diagnostic process. METHODS: In this retrospective study we compared children (≤18 years old) with a CD-confirming biopsy (n = 16......) to children without a biopsy (n = 18). After initiation of GFD the antibody half-life (the time (T½) when the antibody concentration is 50% decreased) was determined in all children. RESULTS: Children with a biopsy (IgA-tTG, T½ = 1.9 months; IgG - DGP, T½ = 2.2 months) and children without a biopsy (Ig...

  6. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  7. Detection of Normal Aging Effects on Human Brain Metabolite Concentrations and Microstructure with Whole-Brain MR Spectroscopic Imaging and Quantitative MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eylers, V V; Maudsley, A A; Bronzlik, P; Dellani, P R; Lanfermann, H; Ding, X-Q

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of age-related physiological changes in the human brain is a prerequisite to identify neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, in this study whole-brain (1)H-MRS was used in combination with quantitative MR imaging to study the effects of normal aging on healthy human brain metabolites and microstructure. Sixty healthy volunteers, 21-70 years of age, were studied. Brain maps of the metabolites NAA, creatine and phosphocreatine, and Cho and the tissue irreversible and reversible transverse relaxation times T2 and T2' were derived from the datasets. The relative metabolite concentrations and the values of relaxation times were measured with ROIs placed within the frontal and parietal WM, centrum semiovale, splenium of the corpus callosum, hand motor area, occipital GM, putamen, thalamus, pons ventral/dorsal, and cerebellar white matter and posterior lobe. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Aging resulted in decreased NAA concentrations in the occipital GM, putamen, splenium of the corpus callosum, and pons ventral and decreased creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations in the pons dorsal and putamen. Cho concentrations did not change significantly in selected brain regions. T2 increased in the cerebellar white matter and decreased in the splenium of the corpus callosum with aging, while the T2' decreased in the occipital GM, hand motor area, and putamen, and increased in the splenium of the corpus callosum. Correlations were found between NAA concentrations and T2' in the occipital GM and putamen and between creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations and T2' in the putamen. The effects of normal aging on brain metabolites and microstructure are region-dependent. Correlations between both processes are evident in the gray matter. The obtained data could be used as references for future studies on patients. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  9. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  10. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: I. Animal Performance and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Beldman, G.; Delen, van J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the growth performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred male calves were used in a complete

  11. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk factors in normal-weight rabbits fed high fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Analia; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina; Medina, Mirta; Jerez, Susana

    2016-01-20

    Biomarkers for cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors would be important tools to maximize the effectiveness of dietary interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FA) ratio as biomarkers of CMR induced by feeding rabbits on high fat diets (HFDs). Rabbits were fed either regular diet or 18 % fat in regular diet (HFD) or 1 % cholesterol diet (HD) or diet containing 1 % cholesterol and 18 % fat (HFD-HD) during 6 weeks. Body weights (BW), blood pressure, visceral abdominal fat (VAF) and glucose tolerance test were determined. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), and FA levels from plasma were measured. SCD indexes were calculated as product/precursor ratios of individual FA. BW was similar in all diet groups. HD increased TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. HFD increased TG, VAF and FG, and decreased HDL-C. The addition of HFD to HD joined to dyslipidemia increased VAF and FG. SCD indexes were increased and n-6/n-3 was unchanged in HD. SCD indexes were reduced and n-6/n-3 FA ratio was increased in HFD and HFD-HD. CMR factors were correlated positively with n-6/n-3 FA ratio. Although VAF had a stronger correlation with n-6/n-3 FA ratio than with SCD indexes, VAF was associated independently to both markers. HFD simulating lipid composition of the average Western-style diet induced experimental rabbit models of normal-weight metabolic syndrome (MS). SCD indexes and n-6/n-3 were modified according to the type of dietary fat. Considering that VAF and CMR factors appear to be stronger associated to n-6/n-3 FA ratio than to SCD indexes, n-6/n-3 FA ratio may be a better biomarker of MS and CMR in normal-weight subjects than SCD indexes.

  12. A Ketone Ester Diet Increases Brain Malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling Proteins 4 and 5 while Decreasing Food Intake in the Normal Wistar Rat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M. Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain l-glutamate by 15–20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain. PMID:20529850

  13. A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Pawlosky, Robert; Markis, William; King, M Todd; Bergman, Christian; Srivastava, Shireesh; Murray, Andrew; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2010-08-20

    Three groups of male Wistar rats were pair fed NIH-31 diets for 14 days to which were added 30% of calories as corn starch, palm oil, or R-3-hydroxybutyrate-R-1,3-butanediol monoester (3HB-BD ester). On the 14th day, animal brains were removed by freeze-blowing, and brain metabolites measured. Animals fed the ketone ester diet had elevated mean blood ketone bodies of 3.5 mm and lowered plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin. Despite the decreased plasma leptin, feeding the ketone ester diet ad lib decreased voluntary food intake 2-fold for 6 days while brain malonyl-CoA was increased by about 25% in ketone-fed group but not in the palm oil fed group. Unlike the acute effects of ketone body metabolism in the perfused working heart, there was no increased reduction in brain free mitochondrial [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio nor in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis, which was compatible with the observed 1.5-fold increase in brain uncoupling proteins 4 and 5. Feeding ketone ester or palm oil supplemented diets decreased brain L-glutamate by 15-20% and GABA by about 34% supporting the view that fatty acids as well as ketone bodies can be metabolized by the brain.

  14. Effect of dietary calcium concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis incidence in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hyunjung; Pitargue, Franco Martinez; Han, Gi Ppeum; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/kg in diets. The concentrations of NPP in all diets were maintained at 3.0 g/kg, and phytase was supplemented to all diets at the level of 1,000 fytase units (FTU)/kg. At the end of the 14-d feeding trial, birds were euthanized for tibia sampling, and litter samples were collected from 3 areas in the cage. The FPD incidence was measured based on a 6-point scoring system. Dietary Ca concentrations had no effect on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, a tendency (linear, p = 0.05) for decreased feed efficiency was observed as dietary Ca concentrations were increased. The concentrations of Ca and P in the tibia of broiler chickens increased (linear and quadratic, pLitter pH, moisture, and N contents were not affected by increasing Ca concentrations in low NPP diets containing phytase. However, a tendency (quadratic, p = 0.10) for increased FPD incidence with increasing dietary Ca concentrations was observed. Dietary Ca concentrations from 4.0 to 9.0 g/kg in low NPP diets containing phytase have little effects on growth performance of growing broiler chickens. However, Ca and P concentrations in the tibia are decreased if dietary Ca concentrations are less than 5.0 g/kg. The FPD incidence for growing broiler chickens may be decreased if less than 9.0 g/kg of Ca is included in diets.

  15. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (sigma DDT) and and sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigma PBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney -tocopherol and sigma PCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were...

  16. Effect of essential oil from Cordia verbeancea on the fermentation of a high concentrate diet by using the in vitro gas production technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V [ESALQ, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Abdalla, A.L. [CENA, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rcanonenco@hotmail.com (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Studies with plant secondary metabolites as rumen fermentation modifiers have increased as an attempt to reproduce the effects of ionophores. Cordia verbenacea D.C. is a Brazilian bush with antimicrobial properties attributed to its essential oil (EO). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of C. verbenacea EO on the ruminal fermentation by using an in vitro gas production system. Treatments were defined as: Control - without addition of monensin or EO; MON - addition of monensin (Sigma Aldrich Inc.) at 3 {mu}M as a positive control; COR37.5 . addition of 37.5 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid; COR75 - addition of 75 {mu}L of EO in 75 mL of buffered rumen fluid. A complete randomized design was utilized with six replicates for gas production (mL/g OM{sub incub}) and three replicates for all other variables. Two conditions were independently assessed: a) Coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay (89.2% DM, 9.7% CP, 1.3% EE, 7.9% ash, 60.2% NDF, and 30.6% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep on pasture; b) 80:20 concentrate:forage diet (20.0% Coastcross hay, 62.7% corn, 15.0% soybean meal, 1.0% limestone, and 1.3% mineral premix on DM basis; 91.5% DM, 15.7% CP, 3.3% EE, 4.3% ash, 20.3% NDF, and 8.8% ADF) as substrate + inoculum of sheep adapted to this diet. Two different inocula for each condition were used as source of variation. In each flask (160 mL), 0.5 g of substrate was incubated with 50 mL of incubation medium and 25 mL of rumen fluid at 39 deg C. Incubation time was 24 h for the hay and 16 h for the high-concentrate diet. Flasks without substrate (blanks) and flasks containing standard hay were also included. According to the GC-MS analysis, the major compounds of C. verbenacea EO were: transcaryophyllene (28.19%), alpha-pinene (23.58%), aloaromadendrene (6.90%), and alpha-humulene (4.54%). Considering both substrates, MON reduced gas and methane productions, increased propionate concentration, and decreased acetate:propionate ratio

  17. Hypothalamic kappa opioid receptor mediates both diet-induced and melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver damage through inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Kalló, Imre; Chee, Melissa J; Porteiro, Begoña; Al-Massadi, Omar; Contreras, Cristina; Fernø, Johan; Senra, Ana; Gallego, Rosalia; Folgueira, Cintia; Seoane, Luisa M; van Gestel, Margriet; Adan, Roger A; Liposits, Zsolt; Dieguez, Carlos; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was inhibited by pharmacological (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) and genetic (overexpression of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) approaches. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by histological techniques and western blot. We show that in the LHA κOR directly controls hepatic lipid metabolism through the parasympathetic nervous system, independent of changes in food intake and body weight. κOR colocalizes with melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) in the LHA, and genetic disruption of κOR reduced melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver steatosis. The functional relevance of these findings was given by the fact that silencing of κOR in the LHA attenuated both methionine choline-deficient, diet-induced and choline-deficient, high-fat diet-induced ER stress, inflammation, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, whereas overexpression of κOR in this area promoted liver steatosis. Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa in the liver abolished hypothalamic κOR-induced steatosis by reducing hepatic ER stress. This study reveals a novel hypothalamic-parasympathetic circuit modulating hepatic function through inflammation and ER stress independent of changes in food intake or body weight; these findings might have implications for the clinical use of opioid receptor antagonists. (Hepatology 2016;64:1086-1104). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on

  18. Changes in fibre-adherent and fluid-associated microbial communities and fermentation profiles in the rumen of cattle fed diets differing in hay quality and concentrate amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevenhusen, Fenja; Petri, Renee M; Kleefisch, Maria-Theresia; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-09-01

    The rumen microbiota enable important metabolic functions to the host cattle. Feeding of starch-rich concentrate feedstuffs to cattle has been demonstrated to increase the risk of metabolic disorders and to significantly alter the rumen microbiome. Thus, alternative feeding strategies like the use of high-quality hay, rich in sugars, as an alternative energy source need to be explored. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in rumen microbial abundances in the liquid and solid-associated fraction of cattle fed two hay qualities differing in sugar content with graded amounts of starchy concentrate feeds using Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Operational taxonomic units clustered separately between the liquid and the solid-associated fraction. Phyla in the liquid fraction were identified as mainly Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas main phyla of the fibre-associated fraction were Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres and Firmicutes. Significant alterations in the rumen bacterial communities at all taxonomic levels as a result of changing the hay quality and concentrate proportions were observed. Several intermicrobial correlations were found. Genera Ruminobacter and Fibrobacter were significantly suppressed by feeding sugar-rich hay, whereas others such as Selenomonas and Prevotella proliferated. This study extends the knowledge about diet-induced changes in ruminal microbiome of cattle. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

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    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  20. Effects of Biotin Supplementation in the Diet on Adipose Tissue cGMP Concentrations, AMPK Activation, Lipolysis, and Serum-Free Fatty Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Villa, Daniel; Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Miranda-Cervantes, Adriana; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Adipose tissue plays a central role in lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of biotin supplementation in adipose tissue on signaling pathways and critical proteins that regulate lipid metabolism, as well as on lipolysis. In addition, we assessed serum fatty acid concentrations. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (control: 1.76 mg biotin/kg; supplemented: 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) over 8 weeks postweaning. Compared with the control group, biotin-supplemented mice showed an increase in the levels of adipose guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) (control: 30.3±3.27 pmol/g wet tissue; supplemented: 49.5±3.44 pmol/g wet tissue) and of phosphorylated forms of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 65.2%±1.06%), acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), carboxylase-1 (196%±68%), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 (78.1%±18%). Serum fatty acid concentrations were decreased (control: 1.12±0.04 mM; supplemented: 0.91±0.03 mM), and no change in lipolysis was found (control: 0.29±0.05 μmol/mL; supplemented: 0.33±0.08 μmol/mL). In conclusion, 8 weeks of dietary biotin supplementation increased adipose tissue cGMP content and protein expression of the active form of AMPK and of the inactive forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2. Serum fatty acid levels fell, and no change in lipolysis was observed. These findings provide insight into the effects of biotin supplementation on adipose tissue and support its use in the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  1. Urinary sugars biomarker relates better to extrinsic than to intrinsic sugars intake in a metabolic study with volunteers consuming their normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, N; Runswick, S A; Welch, A A; McTaggart, A; Bingham, S A

    2009-05-01

    Sugars in diet are very difficult to measure because of the unreliability of self-reported dietary intake. Sucrose and fructose excreted in urine have been recently suggested as a biomarker for total sugars intake. To further characterize the use of this biomarker, we investigated whether urinary sugars correlated better to extrinsic compared to intrinsic sugars in the diet. Seven male and six female healthy participants were living for 30 days in a metabolic suite under strictly controlled conditions consuming their usual diet as assessed beforehand from four consecutive 7-day food diaries kept at home. During the 30-day study, all 24 h urine specimens were collected, validated for their completeness and analysed for sucrose and fructose. The mean total sugars intake in the group was 202+/-69 g day(-1). Daily intake of extrinsic, intrinsic and milk sugars contributed 60.1, 34.4 and 5.5%, to the total sugars intake, respectively. The individuals' 30-day mean sugars excretion levels were significantly correlated with the 30-day means of extrinsic sugars (r=0.84; Psugars intake (r=0.43; P=0.144). In the regression, only extrinsic sugars intake explained a significant proportion of the variability in sugars excretion (adjusted R(2)=0.64; P=0.001); daily excretion of 100 mg sucrose and fructose in urine predicted 124 g of extrinsic total sugars in the diet. Using fewer urinary and dietary measurements in the analysis did not change the overall trend of the findings. In this group of volunteers, sucrose and fructose in urine better correlated to extrinsic than to intrinsic sugars intake.

  2. Intraoperative radiotherapy in combination with misonidazole. In special reference to the drug concentration in tumors and normal tissues and to the initial effect of the treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masaji; Ono, Kouji; Hamanaka, Daizaburo; Dodo, Yoshihiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1983-03-01

    A hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, misonidazole, was applied to 28 patients with carcinoma who received intraoperative radiotherapy. A single dose of 2-3g/m/sup 2/ of the drug was given orally to each patient three hours prior to the start of general anesthesia. The levels of misonidazole and its metabolite, desmethylmisonidazole, in blood, tumors and normal tissues taken from excised materials were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the concentration levels of misonidazole and desmethylmisonidazole in blood correlated neither to oral doses of 2-3g/m/sup 2/ nor to the function of time after drug ingestion until eight hours. The mean value of blood levels was 77.1 +- 10.9..mu..g/ml. A wide range of 10-96% of the blood level was found in tumors. High levels were observed in gastric cancer and brain tumor (glioblastoma) but not in colorectal cancer and osteosarcoma. It was, however, likely that the concentrations in tumors depended on tumor sizes and/or necrotic areas rather than histologic types and/or sites of tumors. It was also noted that the concentration in normal tissues ranged widely from 11 to 87% of the blood level. Higher concentrations showing more than 75% were found in the ulnar nerve, the stomach and the skin. However, 3 of 4 materials for the stomach and 2 of 3 materials for the skin showed low levels of less than 30% and less than 22% respectively. In 27 of 28 cases different doses of 28-50 Gy with different energies of electrons were delivered intraoperatively. It is impossible so far to derive conclusive results of this study, really because of the short period of observation following the treatment.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  4. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  5. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the increase of the carotenoid antioxidant concentration in human skin after a 1-week diet with ecological eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2009-03-01

    Skin aging is mainly caused by the destructive action of free radicals, produced by the UV light of the sun. The human skin has developed a protection system against these highly reactive molecules in the form of the antioxidative potential. Carotenoids are one of the main components of the antioxidants of the human skin. From former studies, it is known that skin aging is reduced in individuals with high levels of carotenoids. Because most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism, they must be up taken by nutrition. Using noninvasive Raman spectroscopic measurements it is demonstrated that not only fruits and vegetables but also eggs contain high concentrations of antioxidants including carotenoids, which are even doubled in the case of ecological eggs. After a 1-week diet with ecological eggs performed by six volunteers, it is found that the concentration of the carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers increased by approx. 20%. Our study does not intend to recommend exorbitant egg consumption, as eggs also contain harmful cholesterol. But in the case of egg consumption, ecological eggs from hens kept on pasture should be preferred to also receive a benefit for the skin.

  7. Effect of diet and 677 C-->T 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in slovak adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslová, K; Bederová, A; Gasparovic, J; Blazícek, P; Smolková, B

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet and 677 C-->T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in an adolescent population (113 males, age: 14.2+/-2.4 years; 202 females, age: 14.9+/-2.1 years) from a region characterized by high cardiovascular mortality. Homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ between males and females (9.4+/-3.5 and 8.9+/-3.1 micromol/l, respectively). The homozygosity for the 677 C-->T MTHFR mutation was found in 4.6 % of subjects. No differences in homocyst(e)ine levels were found between MTHFR genotypes. Analysis of the diet composition which was performed on a 24-hour daily recall basis and a food frequency questionnaire showed a low daily intake of vitamin B6 (males: 1.13 mg/66% RDA; females: 0.92 mg/61% RDA). Daily folic acid intake was 0.21 g/105% RDA in males and 0.23 g/115% RDA in females. The results of our study show that the high homocyst(e)ine levels in the adolescent population were not affected by the 677 C-->T MTHFR mutation. We conclude that an insufficient dietary intake of vitamin B6 and folic acid is responsible for this finding. This is in accord with the recommendation that the dietary allowances for folate should be reset to the originally prescribed levels of 0.4 g/day which should be sufficient to control the homocysteine levels.

  8. Ceftriaxone attenuates ethanol drinking and restores extracellular glutamate concentration through normalization of GLT-1 in nucleus accumbens of male alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujan C; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Hristov, Alexandar M; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Alteration of glutamatergic-neurotransmission is a hallmark of alcohol dependence. We have previously reported that chronic ethanol-drinking downregulated glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in male P rats in a manner that was reversed by ceftriaxone treatment. However, the effect of ceftriaxone on extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc after chronic ethanol-drinking has not yet been studied. In the present study, male P rats were treated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five consecutive days following five-weeks of free choice ethanol (15% and 30%) drinking. In vivo microdialysis was performed to measure the extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc and the effect of blockade of GLT-1 with dihydrokainic acid (DHK) on extracellular glutamate in NAc of ceftriaxone-treated rats was determined. Ceftriaxone treatment attenuated ethanol intake as well as ethanol preference. Extracellular glutamate was significantly higher in NAc after five-weeks of ethanol drinking in saline-treated compared to water control rats. Ceftriaxone treatment blocked the increase extracellular glutamate produced by ethanol intake. Blockade of GLT-1 by DHK reversed the effects of ceftriaxone on glutamate and implicated the role of GLT-1 in the normalization of extracellular glutamate by ceftriaxone. In addition, GLT-1 protein was decreased in ethanol exposed animals and ceftriaxone treatment reversed this deficit. Ceftriaxone treatment also increased glutamine synthetase activity in NAc but not in PFC as compared to ethanol drinking saline-treated rats. Our present study demonstrates that ceftriaxone treatment prevents ethanol drinking in part through normalization of extracellular glutamate concentrations in NAc of male P rats via GLT-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of high-protein or normal-protein diet on weight loss, body composition, hormone, and metabolic profile in southern Brazilian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscani, Mariana K; Mario, Fernanda M; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Wiltgen, Denusa; Matos, Maria Cristina; Spritzer, Poli Maria

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a high protein (HP) and a normal protein (NP) diet on patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index-matched controls in a sample of southern Brazilian women. This 8-week randomized trial was carried out at a university gynecological endocrinology clinic and included 18 patients with PCOS and 22 controls. Changes in weight, body composition, hormone, and metabolic profile were analyzed in women randomized to receive HP (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate, and 30% lipid) or NP (15% protein, 55% carbohydrate, and 30% lipid). The energy content was estimated for each participant at 20-25 kcal/kg current weight/day. Physical activity, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, and fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin remained stable during the intervention in PCOS and controls, even in the presence of weight loss. There were no changes in lipid profile in either group. In contrast, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percent of body fat, and sum of trunk skinfolds decreased significantly after both diets in both groups. Total testosterone also decreased in PCOS and controls regardless of diet. In conclusion, calorie reduction, rather than protein content, seemed to affect body composition and hormonal profile in this short-term study. These findings emphasize the role of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce weight and ameliorate the anthropometric and clinical phenotype in PCOS.

  10. Monensin and a blend of castor oil and cashew nut shell liquid used in a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, C A; Silva, A P; Carvalho, R; Marino, C T; Rodrigues, P H M; Silva, L F P; McAllister, T A; Leme, P R

    2017-09-01

    Monensin and functional oils (FO) were supplemented to a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to 12 ruminally cannulated Zebu steers to study their effects on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and , , and relative population. A randomized complete block design with repeated measures over time within 2 experimental periods of 21 d each was used. Treatments were a control (CTR; with no additives), FO (included at 400 mg/kg), and monensin included at 30 mg/kg (M30) or 40 mg/kg (M40). All steers were fed the same high-concentrate basal diet, which consisted of 92.25% concentrate. The first 60 h after transition showed a treatment and hour interaction for ruminal propionate proportion ( = 0.028), and no change in acetate molar proportion ( = 0.633), rumen pH ( = 0.370), and time the rumen pH remained below 5.6 ( = 0.242) were observed. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased ( = 0.020) when monensin was fed in both concentrations (2.30 for the M30 treatment and 2.32 for the M40 treatment) compared with when the CTR was fed (2.85), without being different when the FO (2.71) treatment was fed. Only the M30 treatment did not show pH below 5.2 (P=0.047) over the 60 h after the abrupt transition. Within the entire period, DMI ( = 0.008) and mean ruminal pH ( = 0.040) as well as molar proportions of propionate ( = 0.034) and valerate ( = 0.031) had significant interactions between treatment and day. Total VFA concentration was greater ( = 0.017) for the M30 (117.36 m) and CTR treatments (115.77 m) compared with the M40 treatment (105.02 m), without being different for the FO treatment (111.55 m). Treatments did not change feed behavior parameters. Blood HCO ( = 0.006) and total carbon dioxide ( = 0.003) were greater for the M30 (27.8 and 29.3 mmol/L, respectively) and FO treatments (28.3 and 29.7 mmol/L, respectively) compared with the CTR treatment (25.7 and 26.9 mmol/L, respectively). ( protozoa genera, the greatest ( protozoa counts were observed for the CTR treatment

  11. The effect of CP concentration in the diet on urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea in cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Valadares Filho, S C; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares, R F D

    2017-08-01

    In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach. Treatment mean values were compiled from 25 studies with ruminants (beef cattle, dairy cows and sheep) which were published from 2001 to 2016, totalling 107 treatment means. The data set was analyzed according to meta-analysis techniques using linear or non-linear mixed models, taking into account the random variations among experiments. Urea N synthesized in the liver (UER) and urea N recycled to the gut (GER) linearly increased (PCP concentration and the ratio of CP to digestible OM (CP:DOM). Maximum curvature analyses identified 17% dietary CP as the point where there was a prominent increase in hepatic synthesis of urea N, likely due to an excess of dietary N leading to greater ammonia absorption. The GER:UER decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration (PCP⩾19%, GER:UER reached near minimal values. The fraction of UER eliminated as urinary urea N and the contribution of urea N to total urinary N were positively associated with dietary CP (PCP was 17%. The fractions of GER excreted in the feces and utilized for anabolism decreased, whereas the fraction of GER returned to the ornithine cycle increased with dietary CP concentration (PCP and CP:DOM increased (PCP/kg DOM. The models obtained in this study contribute to the knowledge on N utilization, and they could be used in feeding models to predict urea recycling and thus to improve formulation of diets to reduce N losses that contribute to air and water pollution.

  12. Serum preadipocyte factor-1 concentrations in females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of very low calorie diet, acute hyperinsulinemia, and fenofibrate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalkova, P; Touskova, V; Roubicek, T; Trachta, P; Urbanova, M; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Mraz, M; Novak, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinova, Z; Haluzik, M

    2013-10-01

    Appropriate differentiation capacity of adipose tissue significantly affects its ability to store lipids and to protect nonadipose tissues against lipid spillover and development of insulin resistance. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is an important negative regulator of preadipocyte differentiation. The aim of our study was to explore the changes in circulating Pref-1 concentrations in female subjects with obesity (OB) (n=19), females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=22), and sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects (C) (n=22), and to study its modulation by very low calorie diet (VLCD), acute hyperinsulinemia during isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and 3 months' treatment with PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate. At baseline, serum Pref-1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2DM compared to control group, while only nonsignificant trend towards higher levels was observed in OB group. 3 weeks of VLCD decreased Pref-1 levels in both OB and T2DM group, whereas 3 months of fenofibrate treatment had no significant effect. Hyperinsulinemia during the clamp significantly suppressed Pref-1 levels in both C and T2DM subjects and this suppression was unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. In a combined population of all groups, circulating Pref-1 levels correlated positively with insulin, leptin and glucose levels and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index. We conclude that elevated Pref-1 concentrations in T2DM subjects may contribute to impaired adipose tissue differentiation capacity associated with insulin resistance in obese patients with T2DM. The decrease of Pref-1 levels after VLCD may be involved in the improvement of metabolic status and the amelioration of insulin resistance in T2DM patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Blood concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in an avian predator endemic to southern Africa: Associations with habitat, electrical transformers and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Arroyo, Beatriz; Simmons, Robert E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Mougeot, Francois

    2018-01-01

    Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s. Polychlorinated biphenyl (ΣPCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT, for p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) were detected in 79% and 84% of sampled individuals, respectively, with varying concentrations among demographic groups: nestlings had significantly higher ΣPCB and p,p'-DDT concentrations than adults, while adults had higher levels of p,p'-DDE than nestlings. Levels of ΣPCB significantly increased with an index of electric transformer density, a measure of the number and power of electric transformers around active nests. We propose this index as a useful tool for assessing ΣPCB exposure risk in other wildlife. Levels of p,p'-DDE significantly increased with the proportion of wetlands within the breeding territory, and also with the proportion of bird biomass in the diet. No association was found between OC levels and the protected area status of nesting sites. Physiological effects of contaminants were also manifest in increased white blood cell counts with higher p,p'-DDT levels. Heterophil to lymphocyte ratio increased with higher ΣPCB levels, suggesting increased physiological stress and reduced immunity in contaminated individuals. Our results suggest that OCs are still a current cause of concern for endangered Black Harriers, as well as other sympatric predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl 2 ) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg -1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on alfalfa nutrient degradation characteristics and rumen microbial populations of steers fed diets with different concentrate-to-forage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gengzhi; Chang, Ying; Zhao, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Ren, Liping; Meng, Qingxiang

    2014-01-01

    Live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) constitutes an effective additive for animal production; its probiotic effect may be related to the concentrate-to-forage ratio (CTFR). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of S. cerevisiae (SC) on fiber degradation and rumen microbial populations in steers fed diets with different levels of dietary concentrate. Ten Simmental × Local crossbred steers (450 ± 50 kg BW) were assigned to a control group or an SC group. Both groups were fed the same basal diet but the SC group received SC supplementation (8 × 10(9) cfu/h/d through the ruminal fistula) following a two-period crossover design. Each period consisted of four phases, each of which lasted 17 d: 10 d for dietary adaptation, 6 d for degradation study, and 1 d for rumen sample collection. From the 1(st) to the 4(th) phase, steers were fed in a stepwise fashion with increasing CTFRs, i.e., 30:70, 50:50, 70:30, and 90:10. The kinetics of dry matter and fiber degradation of alfalfa pellets were evaluated; the rumen microbial populations were detected using real-time PCR. The results revealed no significant (P > 0.05) interactions between dietary CTFR and SC for most parameters. Dietary CTFR had a significant effect (P trend for these parameters. SC supplementation significantly (P trend of rumen fungi and protozoa in SC group (P < 0.1); copies of total bacteria in SC group were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Additionally, percentage of Ruminobacter amylophilus was significantly lower (P < 0.05) but percentage of Selenomonas ruminantium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the SC group. In a word, dietary CTFR had a significant effect on degradation characteristics of forage and rumen microbial population. S. cerevisiae had positive effects on DM and NDF degradation rate or effective degradability of forage; S. cerevisiae increased rumen total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and lactate-utilizing bacteria but reduced

  16. Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate and of DL-methionine supplementation in high-energy, extruded diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, M; Roem, A J; Carvèdi, J P; Lallès, J P; Kaushik, S J

    1999-11-01

    Our objectives were to test the potential replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate (SPC) in high-energy, extruded diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to evaluate the efficiency of DL-methionine supplementation of soy-based diets. Groups of trout (initial BW 103 to 106 g) were fed to visual satiety with isonitrogenous (6.6% DM) high-energy (22.8 MJ/kg DM gross energy), extruded diets, in which fish meal was progressively replaced with SPC (0, 50, 75, and 100%). Three 100% SPC diets were formulated to be either unsupplemented or supplemented with DL-methionine, so that total methionine content was .8 or 1.0% of DM. The quality of the SPC source used was assessed by measuring the antitryptic and antigenic activities and the concentrations of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Apparent digestibility of the diets was determined using the indirect method. A growth trial was conducted over 90 d at a water temperature of 18 degrees C. In addition to body composition analysis, plasma amino acid concentrations, anti-soy protein antibodies in the serum, and isoflavone concentrations in the bile were measured. The SPC source tested exhibited low antitryptic and antigenic activities, but it contained high concentrations of isoflavones (1,990 and 5,903 ppm for daidzein and genistein, respectively). Protein digestibility was high (92%) and was unaffected either the proportion of SPC in the diet or by DL-methionine supplementation. This was also true for the availability of amino acids, except phenylalanine. Digestibility of lipid and energy was reduced by 19% when SPC totally replaced fish meal. Growth rate was reduced when more than 50% of the dietary protein was of soy origin (daily growth coefficient of 3.2 and 2.1% for the control and the unsupplemented 100% SPC diet, respectively). The effect on growth was mainly explained by a general decline in feed intake (13.7 and 12.0 g DM x kg BW(-1) x d(-1) for the control and the unsupplemented 100

  17. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention - A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Gerdle

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention.All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined.FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance.This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished, and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral.

  18. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P blood serum concentration was lesser in insulated rams (P = 0.03). Thus, the difference of 1.12 °C between RT and testicular temperature impacts semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. Moreover, this study shows that rams can recover testes temperature efficiently toward IN and that infrared thermography is an efficient tool to identify differences on SSMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentration is not a predictive factor in IVF outcomes before the first cycle of GnRH agonist administration in women with normal ovarian reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kunicki

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS concentration and the models incorporating it could help clinicians to predict IVF outcomes in women with normal ovarian reserve undergoing their first long protocol.We performed a retrospective analysis of 459 women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI for the first time in a long GnRH agonist protocol.Embryo transfer was performed in 407 women (88.7%. The fertilisation rate was 78.6%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44.8% per started cycle and 50.6% per embryo transfer. Our univariate model revealed that the best predictors of clinical pregnancy were the number of mature oocytes, the number of embryos transferred and the number of good quality embryos, account for the clinical parameters that reflect ovarian reserve the best being AMH level and AFC. DHEAS did not predict clinical pregnancy (OR 1.001, 95% CI, 0.999-1.004. After adjusting for the number of embryos transferred and class of embryos in a multivariate model, the best predictors were age (OR 0.918, 95% CI, 0.867-0.972 and AFC (OR 1.022, 95% CI, 0.992-1.053. Serum DHEAS levels were positively correlated with AFC (r = 0.098, P<0.039 and testosterone levels (r = 0.371, P<0.001, as well as the number of mature oocytes (r = 0.109, P<0.019; serum DHEAS levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.220, P<0.001, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, (r = -0.116, P<0.015 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, (r = -0.193, P<0.001.DHEAS concentration (in addition to the known factors of ovarian reserve does not predict clinical pregnancy in women with normal ovarian reserve who are undergoing ICSI.

  20. Passage kinetics of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre through the gastro-intestinal tract of growing beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet measured with internal ð13C and external markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, J.B.; Laar, van H.; Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) are fundamental in feed evaluation systems for ruminants to predict the extent of nutrient degradation. Data on passage kinetics of growing beef cattle fed high-concentrate diets are scarce and mainly rely on external passage markers which do not provide

  1. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth

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    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT in obese and normal-weight subjects. Methods: Nine overweight/obese (OG and 9 normal-weight (NWG young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Results: Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052. Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03 and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04. There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06 and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09. However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p Conclusions: HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity.

  2. Determination of total concentration of chemically labeled metabolites as a means of metabolome sample normalization and sample loading optimization in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2012-12-18

    -labeled individual sample and the (13)C-labeled pooled urine standard were mixed for LC-MS analysis. This way of concentration normalization among different samples with varying concentrations of total metabolites was found to be critical for generating reliable metabolome profiles for comparison.

  3. Loss of circadian rhythm of circulating insulin concentration induced by high-fat diet intake is associated with disrupted rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Hikosaka, Maki; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral clock genes show a circadian rhythm is correlated with the timing of feeding in peripheral tissues. It was reported that these clock genes are strongly regulated by insulin action and that a high-fat diet (HFD) intake in C57BL/6J mice for 21days induced insulin secretion during the dark phase and reduced the circadian rhythm of clock genes. In this study, we examined the circadian expression patterns of these clock genes in insulin-resistant animal models with excess secretion of insulin during the day. We examined whether insulin resistance induced by a HFD intake for 80days altered blood parameters (glucose and insulin concentrations) and expression of mRNA and proteins encoded by clock and functional genes in the liver using male ICR mice. Serum insulin concentrations were continuously higher during the day in mice fed a HFD than control mice. Expression of lipogenesis-related genes (Fas and Accβ) and the transcription factor Chrebp peaked at zeitgeber time (ZT)24 in the liver of control mice. A HFD intake reduced the expression of these genes at ZT24 and disrupted the circadian rhythm. Expression of Bmal1 and Clock, transcription factors that compose the core feedback loop, showed circadian variation and were synchronously associated with Fas gene expression in control mice, but not in those fed a HFD. These results indicate that the disruption of the circadian rhythm of insulin secretion by HFD intake is closely associated with the disappearance of circadian expression of lipogenic and clock genes in the liver of mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  5. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  6. The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178 and gilts (N = 2,274 were fed either high energy (HE or low energy (LE diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CWB of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was B where Diet = −0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. cut weight = (1+bD(Diet A(CW Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = −0.003, −0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, −0.0025, respectively. Diet affected ham weight (bD = −0.0046, p = 0.01, belly weight (bD = 0.0188, p = 0.001 three-muscle ham weight (bD = −0.014, p = 0.001, boneless loin weight (bD = −0.010, p = 0.001, tenderloin weight (bD = −0.023, p = 0.001, sirloin weight (bD = −0.009, p = 0.034, and fat-free lean mass (bD = −0.0145, p = 0.001. Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

  7. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  8. Dietary sugarcane bagasse and coarse particle size of corn are beneficial to performance and gizzard development in broilers fed normal and high sodium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter. A 3-way particle size × Na × SB interaction (P litter quality and bird welfare were observed, but higher Na increased litter moisture and footpad dermatitis (FPD) scores (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that SB independently or in combination with CC improves performance in older birds regardless of Na level in diets, possibly through improved gizzard development and gut microflora of birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  10. Effects of Housing Systems and the Diet Supplements on the Slaughter Value and Concentration of Mineral Elements in the Loin Muscle of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabryszuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance system as well as the effect of Se, Zn, and vitamin E supplementation of ram-lambs on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs. The experiment was conducted on 72 Polish Merino ram-lambs divided into three groups: group C, indoor with no supplement, 19 lambs; S, indoor with supplement, 23 lambs; G, outdoor with no supplement, 30 lambs. From birth all the lambs were maintained indoor with their dams and then weaned at the age of 8 weeks. The rams from group C and S were placed in individual straw-bedded pens and fattened individually with concentrate mixture offered ad libitum until the age of 16 weeks. The lambs from group G were grazed every day from May to July (2 months. During the fattening period each lamb from the supplemented group S was administered per os 1 mL 0.1% Na2SeO4 (Se, 0.42 mg, 3 mL 10% ZnSO4 (Zn, 68 mg, and 1 mL premix protect vitamin E (0.1 g α-tocopherol, 5 mg lysine, 5 mg methionine daily. A comparison of half carcasses across the groups has shown no difference between the control group and the one with supplements, while the weight of half carcasses in the grazing group was smaller in comparison with groups C and S (p<0.001. The meat content in the pelvic limb showed no differences across all groups under study. The pelvic limb of grazing lambs contained less fat compared to the control and supplemented groups (p<0.001. The concentrations of Se and Zn in the blood plasma of ram-lambs from the supplemented group were significantly higher than for the control and grazing lambs. Inorganic Se and Zn supplementation with vitamin E to the diet of lambs increased Se and Zn levels in loin muscle (p<0.001 to 0.46 μg/g and 32.9 μg/g in fresh tissue, respectively.

  11. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  12. Effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology in lactating cows fed diets containing a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kairenius, P; Ahvenjärvi, S; Crosley, L K; Muetzel, S; Huhtanen, P; Vanhatalo, A; Toivonen, V; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2013-04-01

    The effect of forage conservation method on ruminal lipid metabolism and microbial ecology was examined in 2 complementary experiments in cows. Treatments comprised fresh chopped grass, barn-dried hay, or untreated (UTS) or formic acid-treated silage (FAS) prepared from the same grass sward. Preparation of conserved forages coincided with the collection of samples from cows offered fresh grass. In the first experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (229 d in milk) were used to compare the effects of feeding diets based on grass followed by hay during 2 consecutive 14-d periods separated by a 5-d transition during which extensively wilted grass was fed. In the second experiment, 5 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (53 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 2 blocks and allocated treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 14-d periods to compare the effects of hay, UTS, and FAS. Cows received 7 or 9 kg/d of the same concentrate in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Conservation of grass by drying, but not ensiling, decreased forage fatty acid content primarily due to losses of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Compared with grass, feeding hay had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH, or fermentation characteristics, other than increasing ammonia content, but lowered whole-tract organic matter and fiber digestibility (experiment 1). Relative to hay, silage increased DMI, rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and molar proportions of butyrate, and decreased molar acetate proportions (experiment 2). Compared with UTS, FAS increased DMI, had no effect on rumen ammonia or VFA concentrations, but tended to lower rumen pH and the molar ratio of lipogenic to glucogenic VFA. Conservation method had no substantial effect on ruminal or whole-tract digestibility coefficients. Compared with fresh grass and silages, hay decreased lipolysis and biohydrogenation (BH) of dietary unsaturates in the rumen, resulting in similar flows of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3

  13. Evaluation the short term effects on serum creatinine concentration in patients with normal renal function, mild and moderate renal insufficiency after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Liu Jing; Wang Xiaoying; Yang Xuedong; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of gadopentetate dimeglumine injection on renal function. Methods: The study included 623 consecutive patients. Their serum creatinine concentrations before and within 3 days after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine were analyzed. Their eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups according to their injection dose: group received single dose and group received double dose. Patients in each group were subdivided into three subgroups according to their eGFR: subgroup of normal renal function, subgroup of mild renal insufficiency and subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency. Paried sample t test and group design paired sample Rank Sum test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no adverse reaction or occurrence of acute renal insufficiency. The mean level of serum creatinine dropped from (74.0± 17.2) μmol/L to (71.5±19.0) μmol/L (t=5.39, P 0.05) in subgroup of mild renal insufficiency under group received double dose and increased from (118.3±15.3) μmol/L to (135.7±8.5) μmol/L (t=2.02, P<0.05) in subgroup of moderate renal insufficiency under group received double dose, the mean level of serum creatinine dropped in all other subgroups. Conclusions: Single dose gadopentetate dimeglumine is safe for patients with normal renal function and mild, moderate renal insufficiency in short term, but patients with abnormal renal function should be followed up after double dose injection. (authors)

  14. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Bezrati, Ikram; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese and normal-weight subjects. Nine overweight/obese (OG) and 9 normal-weight (NWG) young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052). Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04). There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06) and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09). However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p < 0.01) increased in OG (359 ± 138 to 455 ± 126 ng/ml) and NWG men (470 ± 114 to 572 ± 115 ng/ml). In parallel, the cardiometabolic profile has improved with a significant decrease of HOMA-IR in OG. HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  16. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  17. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  18. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Letcher, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-(Σ-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, Σ DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); β-HCH increased (+ 8.3%/year); and Σ PCB and Σ chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (> 1 ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+ 3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). Σ chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, Σ mirex, Σ MeSO 2 -PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing Σ PBDE levels (+ 13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-(α)-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or 'weathering' of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with dietary tracers and biological group, but only PCB and CHL patterns were correlated with year

  19. Concentrado proteico do soro melhora a qualidade sensorial de sobremesa láctea diet Whey protein concentrate improves the sensory quality of free-fat dairy desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos isentos ou de baixo nível de gordura constituem um desafio para a indústria de alimentos. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da adição de concentrado proteico de soro (CPS nas características sensoriais e aceitabilidade de sobremesas lácteas sem gordura. Quatro formulações foram desenvolvidas com diferentes concentrações de CPS (0%, 1,5%, 3,0% e 4,5% m v-1 e caracterizadas sensorialmente por meio da Análise Descritiva. A aceitabilidade das formulações foi avaliada por 94 consumidores que utilizaram escala hedônica de nove pontos. As sobremesas foram caracterizadas por oito atributos sensoriais: cor, firmeza, resistência ao corte, brilho, consistência, gomosidade, aroma e sabor de baunilha. As formulações contendo 3,0 e 4,5% de CPS apresentaram maior intensidade de todos os atributos sensoriais. A adição de CPS foi efetiva na composição da textura das sobremesas lácteas diet, além de realçar a cor, sabor e aroma do produto. As formulações contendo 1,5 e 3,0% de CPS foram as mais aceitas, evidenciando que a utilização do CPS nessas concentrações favoreceu a aceitabilidade do produto, proporcionando características sensoriais agradáveis aos consumidores.Foods free or low-fat constituted are a challenge for the food industry. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC in the sensory profile and acceptability of dairy desserts free-fat. Four formulations had been developed with different WPC concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% or 4.5%, mass% and sensory characterized by Descriptive Analysis. The acceptability of the formulations was evaluated by 94 consumers who had used the nine-point hedonic scale. Dairy desserts were characterized by eight sensory attributes: color, firmness, resistance to cut, brightness, thickness, gumminess, aroma and vanilla flavor. The formulations containing 3.0 and 4.5% of WPC presented

  20. Pattern of tissue deposition, gain and body composition of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at maintenance or ad libitum with two levels of concentrate in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty 18-month-old steers (20 Nellore, 20 F1 Simmental × Nellore and 20 F1 Angus × Nellore with average body weight of 265.6±6.4 kg; 325.3±4.7 kg and 324.6±6.0 kg, respectively were used. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on physical carcass composition, empty body composition, composition of the gain, as well as the pattern of tissue deposition were evaluated in this trial. The interaction between genetic group and feeding regime was not significant for any variable evaluated. Animals fed at the maintenance level produced carcass with larger proportions of bones and muscle than the animals fed ad libitum and Nellore animals had larger muscle portion and smaller adipose tissue portion on the carcass than the crossbred animals. Nellore animals and those fed at maintenance had smaller amount of total fat in the carcass than the crossbred animals and those fed ad libitum, respectively. Fat was deposited more pronouncedly in the intermuscular depot, followed by the visceral depot. The rate of deposition of the carcass tissues was smaller in the Nellore animals and in the animals fed the diet with concentrate allowance equivalent to 1% body weight (except for subcutaneous fat tissue, when compared with the crossbred animals and those fed the diet with 2% BW on concentrate, respectively. The rate of fat deposition on the visceral depot was larger in the F1 Angus × Nellore animals and on those fed the 2% of BW of concentrate diet when compared with F1 Simmental × Nellore animals and those fed the diet with the lowest concentrate allowance (1% BW.

  1. Leptin administration to overweight and obese subjects for 6 months increases free leptin concentrations but does not alter circulating hormones of the thyroid and IGF axes during weight loss induced by a mild hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Greeshma K; Matarese, Giuseppe; Magkos, Faidon; Moon, Hyun-Seuk; Liu, Xiaowen; Brennan, Aoife M; Mylvaganam, Geetha; Sykoutri, Despina; Depaoli, Alex M; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-08-01

    Short-term energy deprivation reduces leptin concentrations and alters the levels of circulating hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axis in lean subjects. Whether the reduction in leptin concentration during long-term weight loss in obese individuals is linked to the same neuroendocrine changes seen in lean, leptin-sensitive subjects remains to be fully clarified. In this study, 24 overweight and obese adults (16 women and eight men; body mass index (BMI): 27.5-38.0 kg/m(2)) were prescribed a hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/day) and were randomized to receive recombinant methionyl leptin (n=18, metreleptin, 10 mg/day self-injected s.c.) or placebo (n=6, same volume and time as metreleptin) for 6 months. Metreleptin administration did not affect weight loss beyond that induced by hypocaloric diet alone (P for interaction=0.341) but increased the serum concentrations of total leptin by six- to eight-fold (Phypocaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and morphology of adult Wistar rats fed either low or normal protein-energy diets and orally dosed with aqueous Cuscuta australis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omirinde, J O; Ozegbe, P C; Oyeyemi, M O

    2014-06-19

    Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are commonly used as dietary supplements in a maize-meal, "Ogi", by the local population for the management of male and female reproductive dysfunctions. This study, as a part of on-going efforts, therefore, evaluated and compared the effects of Low Protein-energy (LP) and Normal Protein-energy (NP) diets on the sperm morphology and characteristics of adult Wistar rats orally dosed aqueous extracts of C. australis seed (LPSE and NPSE) and stem (LPST and NPST), 300 mg of extract/kg body weight of rat/day, for seven days. The control groups (LPWA and NPWA) received vehicle, water. Live-dead ratio and percentage of sperms with curved tail were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in the NPST relative to the NPWA, LPWA, LPST, NPSE and LPSE. Total abnormal sperm counts, acephalic sperms and tailless head sperms were significantly decreased (p<0.001, p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) in the LPST and NPST relative to LPSE, NPSE, LPWA and NPWA. The LPSE, LPST and NPST showed significantly decreased (p<0.05) percentages of sperms with either bent mid-piece or curved mid-piece relative to the LPWA. Significantly decreased (p<0.05) percentage of sperms with curved mid-piece was also observed in the NPSE relative to LPWA. Protein-energy diet significantly influenced (at least p<0.05) the effect of each extract on sperm motility and percentage of sperms with curved tail. Stem extract significantly decreased (p<0.01) the percentages of acephalic sperms and tailless head sperms. Diet-stem extract interaction significantly influenced (p<0.05) live-dead ratio. Our data suggest that orally administered aqueous extracts of C. australis generally enhanced the sperm morphology and characteristics of the male Wistar rat and that the stem extract maintained sperm morphology better than the seed extract. It also showed that the stem extract decreased live-dead ratio and that the efficacy of orally administered aqueous C. australis stem extract

  3. Effects of administration of potassium- and sodiumchlorides on faecal excretions and salivary and alimentary concentrations of, Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg and P in reindeer fed a lichen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the effects of administration of 350 mmol d-1 of KC1 or NaCl on faecal excretions, salivary concentrations and concentrations and pools of Na, K, 134Cs, Ca, Mg, P, and water in the alimentary tract of reindeer was carried out using three groups of three 10 months old reindeer fed a lichen diet. One group was used as a control group with no mineral supplementation. The level of K supplementation mimicked K intakes from summer pastures. NaCl was given at a rate which would mimic intake from salt licks by domestic ruminants of similar body size. Treatment with KC1 increased the salivary and alimentary concentrations and the alimentary pool sizes of K and faecal excretion of K increased. A decrease in l34Cs concentrations in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract indicated greater absorption of 134Cs during the KC1 treatment than in NaCl treated and control animals. Increased intake of Na or K had no significant effect on the digestibility of the lichen diet, but urine production increased. Little effects on pools or concentrations of Ca, Mg and P were observed. NaCl treatment increased urinary and faecal excretion of Na, but did not affect the metabolism of any of the other studied minerals.

  4. A fish oil diet does not reverse insulin resistance despite decreased adipose tissue TNF-alpha protein concentration in ApoE-3*Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muurling, Martin; Mensink, Ronald P.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary interventions with fish oil have been found to protect against the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and to decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. However, the effect of fish oil administration on preexisting insulin resistance is subject to

  5. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  6. Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se concentrations by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in different Brazilian regional diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Maihara, V.A.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Cozzolino, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of seven elements: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se in different Brazilian regional diets are described. In the case of the elements As, Hg, Sb and Se, the procedure was based on retention in inorganic exchanger TFO (tin dioxide) and determination of Hg by extraction with Ni(DDC) 2 . For determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Se the procedure chosen was based on retention in inorganic exchanger HMD (hydrated manganese dioxide) and extraction of Cu and Cd as diethyldithiocarbamate compounds. The accuracy and precision of the methods studied were tested by means of analyses of different reference materials-Due to the lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs and diets, these methods were applied to determination of these elements in different Brazilian regional diets. These s were supplied by the Food and Experimental Nutrition Department of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Sao Paulo. The daily intake values for these diets are presented for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb and Se. (author) 21 refs.; 6 tabs

  7. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of mannanoligosaccharide or antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal development, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Ferket, P R; Zhao, X

    2009-11-01

    The effects of 2 levels of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) in feed were compared with antibiotic growth promoters on growth performance, intestinal morphology, cecal and litter microbial populations, and carcass parameters in broilers raised in a sanitary environment. Dietary treatments included: 1) antibiotic growth promoter-free diet (control), 2) VIRG (diet 1 + 16.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin), 3) BACT (diet 1 + 55 mg/kg of bacitracin), 4) LMOS (diet 1 + 0.2% MOS), and 5) HMOS (diet 1 + 0.5% MOS). Birds were randomly assigned to 3 replicate pens/treatment (n = 55/pen). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly throughout 38 d. At d 14, 24, and 34, a 1-cm segment of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was used in morphological analysis (n = 9 birds/d per treatment). At the same bird ages, cecal contents were assayed for lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli, whereas litter was analyzed for Salmonella, Campylobacter, and E. coli. Carcass yields (breast fillet and tenders, thigh, drumstick, and wing) were determined at d 38. Body weight, feed conversion, and carcass yields did not differ among treatments. In contrast to birds fed VIRG or BACT, LMOS and HMOS consistently increased (P litter from all treatments were free of Salmonella. At d 14 and 24, cecal E. coli and Campylobacter counts were not different among treatments. In comparison to birds fed control, at d 34, BACT, LMOS, and HMOS significantly reduced (P Litter bacterial counts were not altered by dietary treatments. In conclusion, under conditions of this study, MOS conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving its morphological development and microbial ecology. But, there were no additional benefits of the higher MOS dosage.

  8. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25992839

  9. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  10. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W.; Zerfass, Kristy M.; Heckstall, Ebony M.; Evans, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. Methods: We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Results: Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p diet-induced increases in insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin. PMID:26445641

  11. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  12. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  13. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation; Perkiraan Dosis Thyroid Melalui Pengukuran WBC dan Perhitungan dengan Konsentrasi I-131 Di Daerah Kerja Pada Operasi Normal Produksi Radioisotop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjasari, R S; Lubis, E [Radioactive-Waste Management Technology Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia(Indonesia)

    1996-07-01

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake.

  14. An investigation of normal urine with a creatinine concentration under the cutoff of 20 mg/dL for specimen validity testing in a toxicology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Brad; Guice, Erica A

    2014-05-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories, one commonly used method for urine specimen validity testing is creatinine concentration. In this study, workplace guidelines are examined to determine their relevance to forensic and clinical toxicology samples. Specifically, it investigates the occurrence of urine creatinine concentrations under 20 mg/dL and notes potential issues with factors influencing creatinine concentration by utilizing a simple, novel method consisting of cation-paring high-pressure liquid chromatography in tandem with ultraviolet detection to determine the creatinine concentration in 3019 donors. Of the 4227 sample population in this study, 209 (4.94%) were below the cutoff value of 20 mg/dL for dilute urine. Because there are many factors that can influence the urinary creatinine concentration, samples that have creatinine under the 20 mg/dL cutoff do not always implicate sample adulteration. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Qualidade da carne de cordeiros confinados recebendo diferentes relações de volumoso: concentrado na dieta Quality of meat of confined lambs receiving different concentrate: voluminous ratios in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silvio Bonilha Pinheiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros terminados em regime de confinamento que receberam dietas com diferentes teores de concentrado. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês não castrados, com peso inicial de aproximadamente 15 kg, distribuídos em dois lotes, representados pelo tratamento 1 (T1 animais que receberam na dieta relação volumoso:concentrado de 35:65 e (T2 cordeiros que receberam relação volumoso:concentrado de 65:35 até atingirem 32 kg de peso corporal em regime de confinamento, peso pré-determinado para o abate dos animais. Os cordeiros do tratamento 1 e 2 apresentaram valores similares de pH, força de cisalhamento, perdas por cocção e capacidade de retenção de água da carne, com valores médios de 5,70, 1,03 kgf/cm², 35,20 e 59,31%, respectivamente. A relação volumoso:concentrado não influenciou na qualidade centesimal da carne dos cordeiros alimentados com dietas mais concentradas ou mais volumosas, para umidade, proteína, extrato etéreo e matéria mineral. Concluiu-se que os cordeiros terminados em confinamento recebendo diferentes teores de concentrado na dieta apresentaram qualidade da carne similar; portanto, a escolha da dieta vai depender do custo dos ingredientes no momento do confinamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of lambs terminated in confinement and fed diets with different concentrate contents. 18 non-castrated ½ Ile de France ½ Santa Inês lambs were used. Their initial weight was approximately 15 kg and they were divided into two separate groups represented by Treatment 1 (T1 - animals fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 35:65 - and Treatment 2 (T2 - lambs fed with diets containing the ratio voluminous:concentrate 65:35 until reaching 32 kg of body weight in confinement, which is the pre-established weight for slaughtering. T1 and T2 lambs presented similar values for pH, shear

  16. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  17. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  18. Ileostomy and your diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that collects it. You will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. People who have had an ileostomy can most often eat a normal diet. But some foods may cause problems. Foods that may ... Your pouch should be sealed well enough to ...

  19. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for 48 h, in a random, counterbalanced order. After the assigned diet period (48 h), the supramaximal cycling exercise bout (115% maximal oxygen consumption) to exhaustion was repeated. The low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion when compared with both the control and the high-CHO diet (-19 and -32%, respectively, p diet was accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%) compared with the high-CHO diet (p 0.05). The low-CHO diet was associated with a lower blood lactate concentration (p 0.05). In conclusion, a low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise. As peak K(+) concentration was similar, but time to exhaustion shorter, the low-CHO diet was associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

  20. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  1. Diet-induced increases in chemerin are attenuated by exercise and mediate the effect of diet on insulin and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jesse W; Zerfass, Kristy M; Heckstall, Ebony M; Evans, Kristin A

    2015-10-01

    Chemerin concentrations are elevated in obesity and associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Exercise improves insulin sensitivity, which may be facilitated by changes in chemerin. We explored the effects of chronic exercise on chemerin levels in diet-induced obese mice. We divided 40 mice into 4 groups: high-fat diet/exercise, high-fat diet/sedentary, normal diet/exercise, and normal diet/sedentary. A 9-week dietary intervention was followed by a 12-week exercise intervention (treadmill run: 11 m/min for 30 min, 3×/week). We analyzed blood samples before and after the exercise intervention. We used t-tests and linear regression to examine changes in chemerin, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers, and associations between changes in chemerin and all other biomarkers. Chemerin increased significantly across all mice over the 12-week intervention (mean ± SD = 40.7 ± 77.8%, p = 0.01), and this increase was smaller in the exercise versus sedentary mice (27.2 ± 83.9% versus 54.9 ± 70.5%, p = 0.29). The increase among the high-fat diet/exercise mice was ~44% lower than the increase among the high-fat diet/sedentary mice (55.7 ± 54.9% versus 99.8 ± 57.7%, p = 0.12). The high-fat diet mice showed significant increases in insulin (773.5 ± 1286.6%, p HOMA-IR; 846.5 ± 1723.3%, p HOMA-IR. Chronic exercise may attenuate diet-driven increases in circulating chemerin, and the insulin resistance associated with a high-fat diet may be mediated by diet-induced increases in chemerin.

  2. Effects of a specific blend of essential oils on apparent nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and rumen microbial populations in sheep fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khateri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO, containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. Methods Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control, 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites. Animals were fed with a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet. Results Ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, acetate: propionate ratio and methane production were not affected with MEO. Relative to the control, Small peptides plus amino acid nitrogen and large peptides nitrogen concentration in rumen fluid were not affected with MEO supplementation; while, rumen fluid ammonia nitrogen concentration at 0 and 6 h after morning feeding in sheep fed with 1.6 mL/d of MEO was lower (p<0.05 compared to the control and 0.8 mL/d of MEO. At 0 h after morning feeding, ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher (p<0.05 in sheep fed 0.8 mL/d of MEO relative to 1.6 mL/d and control diet. Ruminal protozoa and hyper ammonia producing (HAP bacteria counts were not affected by addition of MEO in the diet. Relative to the control, no changes were observed in the red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentration. Apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude proten, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by MEO supplementation. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that supplementation of MEO may have limited effects on apparent

  3. Effects of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) supplemented to diet (forage: concentrate ratios of 60:40) on the basic ruminal fermentation and methane emissions in in vitro condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aemiro, Ashagrie; Watanabe, Shota; Suzuki, Kengo; Hanada, Masaaki; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) on CH4 production, dry matter (DM) digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia N(NH3-N) concentration as well as on the protozoa population. The treatments considered were Euglena at concentrations of 0.0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the substrate (60:40 forage: concentrate ratio) incubated for 24 and 96 h using an in vitro continuous gas producti...

  4. Combined Treatment with Low Concentrations of Decitabine and SAHA Causes Cell Death in Leukemic Cell Lines but Not in Normal Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Brodská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapy reverting aberrant acetylation or methylation offers the possibility to target preferentially tumor cells and to preserve normal cells. Combination epigenetic therapy may further improve the effect of individual drugs. We investigated combined action of demethylating agent decitabine and histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (Vorinostat on different leukemic cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood lymphocytes. Large decrease of viability, as well as huge p21WAF1 induction, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptotic features due to combined decitabine and SAHA action were detected in leukemic cell lines irrespective of their p53 status, while essentially no effect was observed in response to the combined drug action in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors. p53-dependent apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to participate in the wtp53 CML-T1 leukemic cell line response, while significant influence of reactive oxygen species on viability decrease has been detected in p53-null HL-60 cell line.

  5. Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, D. A.; Hessvik, N. P.; Nikolić, N.; Aas, V.; Hanssen, K. F.; Bøhn, S. K.; Thoresen, G. H.; Rustan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) on glucose and lipid metabolism and gene expression in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) incubated for 4 days under normal (5.5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic (20 mM glucose) conditions. Myotubes established from lean, healthy volunteers were treated with benfotiamine for 4 days. Glucose and lipid metabolism were studied with labeled precursors. Gene expression was measu...

  6. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  7. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  8. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  9. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  10. Beef quality traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at the maintenance level or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate some beef quality attributes of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers finished on feedlot. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on shear force, thawing losses, cooking (leak + evaporation losses, total losses and muscle fiber type, as well as carcass pH and temperature during 24 h of chilling were evaluated. There was a genetic group effect on shear force, where the beef from F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore animals had lower values than Nellore animals. Beef of the animals fed the diets with 1% and 2% of body weight on concentrated lost more liquid than the meat of the animals fed at maintenance during thawing and when considering total losses. During cooking there was a difference among the feeding regimes for drip losses which were greater on the animals fed the diet of 1% of body weight on concentrate, followed by the 2% diet and, finally, by the animals fed at maintenance. The muscle of the Nellore steers had larger proportion of intermediate fibers and lower proportion of oxidative fibers than the crossbred animals. The proportion of glycolytic fibers was not influenced by genetic group. The Nellore animals had larger proportion of fibers of fast contraction and smaller proportion of fibers of slow contraction when compared with the crossbred animals. Feeding regime did not influence the proportion of muscular fibers or shear force. Nellore cattle produce tougher beef than crossbred Simmental × Nellore or Angus × Nellore, although all of them have the potential to produce an acceptable beef when slaughtered at young age. Feed restriction up to 90 days is not enough to cause modification on muscle fiber frequencies, then not affecting beef quality.

  11. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Im; Han, Chan-Kyu; Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Hee-Do

    2012-01-01

    The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A), acidic polysaccharide (B) groups, and a control group (C). A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL) and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL). In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels. PMID:22312280

  12. Effects of Acidic Polysaccharides from Gastrodia Rhizome on Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Do Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acidic polysaccharides purified from Gastrodia rhizome on blood pressure and serum lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Acidic polysaccharides were purified from crude polysaccharides by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. Thirty-six male SHR were randomly divided into three groups: Gastrodia rhizome crude polysaccharide (A, acidic polysaccharide (B groups, and a control group (C. A 5-week oral administration of all treatment groups was performed daily in 3- to 8-week-old SHRs with a dose of 6 mg/kg of body weight/day. After 5 weeks of treatment, total cholesterol in the acidic polysaccharide group, at 69.7 ± 10.6 mg/dL, was lower than in the crude polysaccharide group (75.0 ± 6.0 mg/dL and the control group (89.2 ± 7.4 mg/dL. In addition, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the acidic polysaccharide group were lower than in the crude polysaccharide and control groups. The atherogenic index of the acidic polysaccharide group was 46.3% lower than in the control group. Initial blood pressure after the initial three weeks on the high-fat diet averaged 195.9 ± 3.3 mmHg among all rats. Compared with the initial blood pressure, the final blood pressure in the control group was increased by 22.8 mmHg, whereas it decreased in the acidic polysaccharide group by 14.9 mmHg. These results indicate that acidic polysaccharides from Gastrodia rhizome reduce hypertension and improve serum lipid levels.

  13. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  14. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  15. Fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    Latin square design (treatment x period. The animals were housed in individual stalls and full fed diets (DM basis containing 30.0, 45.0, 60.0, 75,0 and 90.0% of concentrate.The diets were based on coast-cross grass hay as forage and soybean meal and corn ground grain in the concentrate. The pH values were affected by the concentrate levels of the diets, and , 11.3 hours post-feeding, the minimum values of 6.10, 5.89, 5.67, 5.46, and 5.24, respectively, were estimated for the diets with 30.0, 45.0, 60.0, 75.0 e 90.0% of concentrate in the diets, respectively. The ruminal ammonia concentration linearly decreased, in function of post-feeding time and showing quadratic behavior, with a minimum values of 6.84, 7.14, 7,40, 7.63, 7.82, 8.09, and 8.00 mg/dL, for 86.31, 84.86, 83.41, 80,50, 81.95, 77.59, and 68.86% of concentrate in the diets. The number of ruminal protozoa linearly reduced as the dietary concentrate levels increased. The efficiency of microbial nitrogenous compound synthesis linearly increased, as the concentrate levels in the diets increased.

  16. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  17. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  18. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  19. Molecular Genetic Diversity and Quantitation of Methanogen in Ruminal Fluid of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Fed Ration (Wheat Straw and Concentrate Mixture Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High roughage diet causes more methane emissions; however, the total methanogen abundance is not influenced by roughage proportion. Technologies to reduce methane emissions are lacking, and development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on present knowledge of the methanogens. In this work, we have investigated molecular diversity of rumen methanogens of Surti buffalo. DNA from rumen fluid was extracted, and 16S rRNA encoding genes were amplified using methanogen specific primer to generate 16S rDNA clone libraries. Seventy-six clones were randomly selected and analysed by RFLP resulting in 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. BLAST analysis with available sequences in database revealed sequences of 13 OTUs (55 clones showing similarity with Methanomicrobium sp, 3 OTUs (15 clones with Methanobrevibacter sp. The remaining 5 OTUs (6 clones belonged to uncultured archaea. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that methanogenic communities found in the library were clustered in the order of Methanomicrobiales (18 OTUs and Methanobacteriales (3 OTUs. The population of Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanococcales were also observed, accounting for 1.94%, 0.72%, and 0.47% of total archaea, respectively.

  20. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  1. Benfotiamine increases glucose oxidation and downregulates NADPH oxidase 4 expression in cultured human myotubes exposed to both normal and high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D A; Hessvik, N P; Nikolić, N; Aas, V; Hanssen, K F; Bøhn, S K; Thoresen, G H; Rustan, A C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the effects of benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) on glucose and lipid metabolism and gene expression in differentiated human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes) incubated for 4 days under normal (5.5 mM glucose) and hyperglycemic (20 mM glucose) conditions. Myotubes established from lean, healthy volunteers were treated with benfotiamine for 4 days. Glucose and lipid metabolism were studied with labeled precursors. Gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and microarray technology. Benfotiamine significantly increased glucose oxidation under normoglycemic (35 and 49% increase at 100 and 200 μM benfotiamine, respectively) as well as hyperglycemic conditions (70% increase at 200 μM benfotiamine). Benfotiamine also increased glucose uptake. In comparison, thiamine (200 μM) increased overall glucose metabolism but did not change glucose oxidation. In contrast to glucose, mitochondrial lipid oxidation and overall lipid metabolism were unchanged by benfotiamine. The expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) was significantly downregulated by benfotiamine treatment under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that befotiamine increased peroxisomal lipid oxidation and organelle (mitochondrial) membrane function. In conclusion, benfotiamine increases mitochondrial glucose oxidation in myotubes and downregulates NOX4 expression. These findings may be of relevance to type 2 diabetes where reversal of reduced glucose oxidation and mitochondrial capacity is a desirable goal.

  2. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  3. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  5. Elevation of Fasting Ghrelin in Healthy Human Subjects Consuming a High-Salt Diet: A Novel Mechanism of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Fenxia; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Chu, Chao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Wang, Jun-Kui; Guan, Gong-Chang; Ren, Ke-Yu; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-05-26

    Overweight/obesity is a chronic disease that carries an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and premature death. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between salt intake and obesity, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ghrelin, which regulates appetite, food intake, and fat deposition, becomes elevated when one consumes a high-salt diet, contributing to the progression of obesity. We, therefore, investigated fasting ghrelin concentrations during a high-salt diet. Thirty-eight non-obese and normotensive subjects (aged 25 to 50 years) were selected from a rural community in Northern China. They were sequentially maintained on a normal diet for three days at baseline, a low-salt diet for seven days (3 g/day, NaCl), then a high-salt diet for seven days (18 g/day). The concentration of plasma ghrelin was measured using an immunoenzyme method (ELISA). High-salt intake significantly increased fasting ghrelin levels, which were higher during the high-salt diet (320.7 ± 30.6 pg/mL) than during the low-salt diet (172.9 ± 8.9 pg/mL). The comparison of ghrelin levels between the different salt diets was statistically-significantly different (p diet elevates fasting ghrelin in healthy human subjects, which may be a novel underlying mechanism of obesity.

  6. Changes in the concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutritional status of pregnant women across pregnancy trimesters in Trujillo, Peru, 2004–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. Methods The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. Results None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p Peruvian women was expected. It was surprising though not to find deficiencies in other nutrients. The results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of women throughout pregnancy for iron deficiency which could be caused by increasing fetal needs and/or inadequate iron intake as pregnancy

  7. Changes in the concentrations of biochemical indicators of diet and nutritional status of pregnant women across pregnancy trimesters in Trujillo, Peru, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D Kevin; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Cassidy, Brandon E; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Needham, Larry L; Rathbun, Stephen L; Vena, John E; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-06-11

    In developing countries, deficiencies in essential micronutrients are common, particularly in pregnant women. Although, biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition are useful to assess nutritional status, few studies have examined such indicators throughout pregnancy in women in developing countries. The primary objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of 78 Peruvian women throughout pregnancy for 16 different nutritional indicators including fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids, iron-status indicators, and selenium. Venous blood samples from which serum was prepared were collected during trimesters one (n = 78), two (n = 65), three (n = 62), and at term via the umbilical cord (n = 52). Questionnaires were completed to determine the demographic characteristics of subjects. Linear mixed effects models were used to study the associations between each maternal indicator and the demographic characteristics. None of the women were vitamin A and E deficient at any stage of pregnancy and only 1/62 women (1.6%) was selenium deficient during the third trimester. However, 6.4%, 44% and 64% of women had ferritin levels indicative of iron deficiency during the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Statistically significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) throughout pregnancy were noted for 15/16 nutritional indicators for this Peruvian cohort, with little-to-no association with demographic characteristics. Three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and trans-lycopene) were significantly associated with education status, while trans-lycopene was associated with age and beta-cryptoxanthin with SES (p pregnancy in these Peruvian women was expected. It was surprising though not to find deficiencies in other nutrients. The results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of women throughout pregnancy for iron deficiency which could be caused by increasing fetal needs and/or inadequate iron intake as pregnancy progresses.

  8. Novel brominated flame retardants in food composites and human milk from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011: Concentrations and a dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhixiong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the fifth Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2011, the dietary exposure of the Chinese population to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) was assessed. Six NBFRs were determined in 80 composite samples from four animal origin food groups and 29 pooled human milk samples. Based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) analysis, the levels of the total NBFRs ranged from human milk samples. Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean levels of 9.03ng/g lw in food composites and 8.06ng/g lw in human milk, was the most abundant compound in the total NBFRs. No obvious spatial distribution patterns in China were observed in food samples or human milk. The average estimated daily intake (EDI) of total NBFRs via food consumption for a "standard Chinese man" was 4.77ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day, with a range of 0.681 to 18.9ng/kgbw/day. Meat and meat products were the main dietary source of NBFRs, although levels of NBFRs in aquatic food were found to be the highest among the four food groups. The average EDI of total NBFRs for nursing infants was 38.4ng/kgbw/day, with a range of 17.4 to 113ng/kgbw/day, which was approximately eight-fold higher than the EDI for adults, suggesting the heavy body burden of NBFRs on nursing infants. The levels and EDI of DBDPE in the present study were similar to or higher than those of legacy BFRs (i.e., PBDEs and HBCD) in the TDS 2007, indicating that DBDPE, as a main alternative to PBDEs, might have become the primary BFR used in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of low calcium plus high aluminum diet on magnesium and calcium contents in spinal cord and trabecular bone of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and high aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally duplicated in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 60 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca diet with high Al. Magnesium concentration was determined in spinal cord and trabecular bone using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) and the calcium concentration was determined using neutron activation method. In the group maintained on low Ca high Al diet, magnesium content of the spinal cord was lower than the group fed standard diet. Also, magnesium content of lumbar bone showed lower values in the unbalanced diet group fed low Ca high Al diet than those in the standard diet and low Ca diet groups. Calcium content of spinal cord was highest in rats maintained on low Ca high Al diet. Calcium content in lumbar bone of rats significantly decreased in rats maintained on the low Ca diet (group B and C) compared to rats given a standard diet (group A). Our data indicate that low Ca and high Al dietary intake influence Mg concentration in bone and central nervous system (CNS) tissues and that low Ca and high Al diet diminish Mg in bone and CNS tissues, thereby inducing loss of calcification in bone and degeneration of CNS tissues due to disturbance of the normal biological effects of Mg. (author)

  10. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M.; Jenssen, M.T.S.; Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Brantsæter, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B ln 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B ln 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different elements • The

  11. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: Results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisdottir, B.E.; Knutsen, H.K.; Haugen, M.; Gjelstad, I.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Jenssen, M.T.S. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Ellingsen, D.G.; Thomassen, Y. [National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo (Norway); Alexander, J. [Office of the Director-General, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Meltzer, H.M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Brantsæter, A.L., E-mail: Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n = 111), and a random sample of controls (n = 76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B{sub ln} 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B{sub ln} 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. - Highlights: • A study on interplay and sources of six different

  12. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  13. Analisis Diet pada Pasien Pascabedah Sectio Caesarea di RSUD Sidikalang

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Veronika Mayasari

    2012-01-01

    Diet provided to post-surgical of caesarea sectio patients is post-surgery diet and high in calorie and high in protein diet. Post-surgery diet is food given to the patient after surgical in form of diet I, II, III, and IV. Diet with high in calorie and high in protein is contained energy and protein above the normal requirements. Both of these diet are important to support the recovering process of post-surgical of caesarea sectio patients. The main nutrient components of these diet are ener...

  14. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  15. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  16. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  19. Design and development of a radio-ecological domestic user friendly code for calculation of radiation doses and concentration due to airborn radionuclides release during the accidental and normal operation in nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shad, A. Haghighi; Allaf, M. Athari [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Masti, D. [Azad Univ., Boushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Research and Developement in BNPP-1; Sepanloo, K. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor and Nuclear Safety School; Feghhi, S.A.H. [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Khodadadi, R. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Science and Research Branch

    2018-02-15

    A domestic user friendly dynamic radiological dose and model has been developed to estimate radiation doses and stochastic risks due to atmospheric and liquid discharges of radionuclides in the case of a nuclear reactor accident and normal operation. In addition to individual doses from different pathways for different age groups, collective doses and stochastic risks can be calculated by the developed domestic user friendly KIANA Advance Computational Computer Code and model. The current Code can be coupled to any long-range atmospheric dispersion/short term model which can calculate radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground and in the water surfaces predetermined time intervals or measurement data.

  20. Design and development of a radio-ecological domestic user friendly code for calculation of radiation doses and concentration due to airborn radionuclides release during the accidental and normal operation in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad, A. Haghighi; Allaf, M. Athari; Masti, D.; Sepanloo, K.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Khodadadi, R.

    2018-01-01

    A domestic user friendly dynamic radiological dose and model has been developed to estimate radiation doses and stochastic risks due to atmospheric and liquid discharges of radionuclides in the case of a nuclear reactor accident and normal operation. In addition to individual doses from different pathways for different age groups, collective doses and stochastic risks can be calculated by the developed domestic user friendly KIANA Advance Computational Computer Code and model. The current Code can be coupled to any long-range atmospheric dispersion/short term model which can calculate radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground and in the water surfaces predetermined time intervals or measurement data.

  1. Limiting oxygen concentration for extinction of upward spreading flames over inclined thin polyethylene-insulated NiCr electrical wires with opposed-flow under normal- and micro-gravity

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Longhua

    2016-10-02

    Materials, such as electrical wire, used in spacecraft must pass stringent fire safety standards. Tests for such standards are typically performed under normal gravity conditions and then extended to applications under microgravity conditions. The experiments reported here used polyethylene (PE)-insulated (thickness of 0.15 mm) Nichrome (NiCr)-core (diameter of 0.5 mm) electrical wires. Limiting oxygen concentrations (LOC) at extinction were measured for upward spreading flame at various forced opposed-flow (downward) speeds (0−25 cm/s) at several inclination angles (0−75°) under normal gravity conditions. The differences from those previously obtained under microgravity conditions were quantified and correlated to provide a reference for the development of fire safety test standards for electrical wires to be used in space exploration. It was found that as the opposed-flow speed increased for a specified inclination angle (except the horizontal case), LOC first increased, then decreased and finally increased again. The first local maximum of this LOC variation corresponded to a critical forced flow speed resulted from the change in flame spread pattern from concurrent to counter-current type. This critical forced flow speed correlated well with the buoyancy-induced flow speed component in the wire\\'s direction when the flame base width along the wire was used as a characteristic length scale. LOC was generally higher under the normal gravity than under the microgravity and the difference between the two decreased as the opposed-flow speed increases, following a reasonably linear trend at relatively higher flow speeds (over 10 cm/s). The decrease in the difference in LOC under normal- and microgravity conditions as the opposed-flow speed increases correlated well with the gravity acceleration component in the wire\\'s direction, providing a measure to extend LOC determined by the tests under normal gravity conditions (at various inclination angles and opposed

  2. Effect of ghrelin receptor agonist and antagonist on the activity of arcuate nucleus tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons in C57BL/6 male mice exposed to normal or high fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirník, Z.; Majerčíková, Z.; Holubová, Martina; Pirník, R.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kiss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2014), s. 477-486 ISSN 0867-5910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : growth hormone secretagogue receptor * ghrelin receptor agonist * ghrelin receptor antagonist * high fat diet * tyrosine hydroxylase * arcuate nucleus * food intake Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2014

  3. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  4. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A K.S.; Hasan, S S

    1986-12-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures.

  5. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nut rition and Allergies ) , 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the c onsum ption of 2 g/day of plant stanols (as plant stanol ester s ) as part of a diet low in saturated fat and a two - fold greater, reduction in blood LDL - chol esterol concentrations compared to the consumption of a diet low in saturated fat alone pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from McNeil Nutritionals and Raisio Nutrition Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the consumption of 2 g/day of plant stanols (as plant stanol esters) as part of a diet low in saturated fat and a two-fold greater reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the consumption of a diet low...... an evaluation of the quantitative effects of diets low in saturated fat per se on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Therefore, the effect of consuming 2 g/day plant stanols as part of a diet low in saturated fat relative to the effect of consuming a diet low in saturated fat alone cannot be determined...

  7. Mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein in normal pregnancies: a prospective evaluation according to parity, gestational age, and fetal gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Christian; Fotopoulou, Christina; Linder, Mattea; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Henrich, Wolfgang; Kalache, Karim

    2011-07-01

    To assess mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in pregnancies with normal outcome and correlate them with gestational week (GW), parity, and fetal gender. Cytokine concentrations were measured within a week of amniocentesis during GW 15+0 to 20+6 and correlated with GW at birth, parity, and fetal gender. After exclusion of women with an adverse pregnancy outcome or those lost to follow-up, 273 consecutive patients were evaluated (median parity: 1; range: 0-5). Ranges for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and LBP were 4.9-2620 pg/mL, 36.2-5843 pg/mL, 8.0-28.2 pg/mL, and 0.06-1.9 μg/mL, respectively. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP values did not respectively differ among time points, but TNF-α values did between the 15(th) and 16(th) and the 15(th) and 18(th) weeks of gestation (Pparity or fetal gender were identified. Cytokine concentrations in amniotic fluid during the mid-trimester did not differ with parity or fetal gender. IL-6, IL-8, and LBP levels appeared stable with GW, whereas GW significantly influenced TNF-α concentrations. Further analyses are warranted to establish the role of cytokines in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão sexual Cassava leaf protein concentrate in Nile tilapia diets during sex reversal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bohnenberger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a inclusão de concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão sexual. Durante o período experimental, que durou 28 dias, foram utilizadas 300 larvas de tilápia com 7 dias de idade, distribuídas em 20 aquários com capacidade para 30 L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com cinco níveis do concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca (0; 5; 10; 15 e 20%, cada um com quatro repetições, considerando unidade experimental um aquário com 15 larvas. As cinco rações foram isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, com 38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.300 kcal de ED/kg de ração. Os valores médios de temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido e condutividade elétrica da água dos aquários durante o período experimental foram de 23,90 ± 1,35ºC; 7,23 ± 0,30; 5,15 ± 0,84 mg/L; e 105,91 ± 4,73 μS/cm, respectivamente. Ao final do período experimental, não foram observadas diferenças significativas no peso, no comprimento final, no ganho de peso nem na taxa de sobrevivência das larvas alimentadas com o concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca. A utilização de concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca em níveis de até 20% em rações para tilápia-do-nilo na fase de reversão sexual não prejudica o desempenho nem a sobrevivência dos animais.This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion of cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC in Nile tilapia diets during sex reversal phase. During the experiment, which lasted for 28 days, 300 tilapia larvae at 7 days of age were distributed into 20 aquarium tanks with 30 L of water capacity in a complete randomized design, with 5 levels of cassava leaf protein concentrate (0; 5; 10; 15; and 20%, each one with four replicates. One aquarium with 15 larvae was considered the experimental unit. The five rations were iso-proteic and iso-energetic containing 38.6% of digestible protein and 3

  9. Ranking descriptive analysis in the sensory characterization of strawberry flavored diet yogurt enriched with whey protein concentrate / Análise descritiva por ordenação na caracterização sensorial de iogurte diet sabor morango enriquecido com concentrado protéico do soro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Minim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sensory characteristics of diet strawberry flavored yogurt enriched with whey protein concentrate (WPC. Three formulations containing 0,5%, 1% and 1.5% of WPC (F2, F3 and F4 in order of increasing concentration and a controlled formulation without the addition of WCP (F1 were developed and evaluated by Ranking Descriptive Analysis. Twenty selected and trained panelists evaluated the samples characterized by attributes: pink color, viscosity, characteristic aroma of strawberry yogurt, characteristic flavor of strawberry yogurt, sweet taste, sour taste and consistency. The formulations differed significantly (p Este estudo avaliou as características sensoriais de iogurte diet sabor morango enriquecidos com concentrado protéico de soro (CPS. Três formulações contendo 0,5%, 1% e 1,5% de CPS (F2, F3 e F4 em ordem crescente de concentração e uma formulação controle sem adição de CPS (F1 foram desenvolvidas e avaliadas por meio da Análise Descritiva por Ordenação. Vinte provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram as amostras caracterizadas pelos atributos: cor rosa, viscosidade, aroma característico de iogurte de morango, sabor característico de iogurte de morango, gosto doce, gosto ácido e consistência. As formulações diferiram significativamente (p < 0.05 nos atributos gosto doce e consistência. As amostras F3 e F4 apresentaram maior consistência confirmando a eficiência do CPS no aumento da consistência.

  10. Desempenho de leitões na fase de creche alimentados com rações contendo proteína concentrada de soja=Piglet performance in nursing phase when fed diets containing soybean protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lourenço Guidoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com os objetivos de avaliar os efeitos da proteína concentrada de soja nas dietas de leitões no desempenho e viabilidade econômica durante a fase de creche. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos em dietas pré-inicial (25 a 37 dias de idade, inicial I (37 a 50 dias de idade e inicial II (50 a 64 dias de idade: FS a base de milho e farelo de soja Hypro; PCS-60% proteína concentrada de soja; PCSH-2h com PCS hidrolisada com enzima protease por um período de 2 horas; PCSH-8h com PCS hidrolisada com enzima protease por um período de 8 horas. No período entre 25-50 dias foi observada diferença significativa para a receita diária (p = 5,1% e para a margem bruta (p = 2,1%. Os tratamentos PCS-60%, PCSH-2h e PCSH-8h apresentaram os menores valores para receita diária e margem bruta, porém, em ambos os casos, o tratamento PCS-60% não diferiu do FS. A inclusão da PCS-60%, PCSH-2h e PCSH-8h em dietas para leitões na fase de creche não influenciou (p > 0,05 o desempenho dos animais e a viabilidade econômica. As três PCS podem ser consideradas como opção de ingredientes proteicos viáveis no ponto de vista de desempenho em dietas para leitões na fase de creche.The experiment was developed in order to evaluate the effects of soy protein concentrate on performance and economic viability of piglets in nursery phase. We evaluated the following treatments in pre-starter diets (25 to 37 days old, initial I (37 to 50 days age and initial II diets (50 to 64 days old: FS with corn and Hypro soybean meal, PCS-60% with corn and usual soy protein concentrate; PCSH-2h with corn and using PCS hydrolized by protease enzyme during 2 hours; PCSH-8h with corn and using PCS hydrolized by protease enzyme during 8 hours. In the period between 25-50 days were observed differences for the daily gross income (p = 5.1% and gross margin (p = 2.1%. Treatments PCS-60% and PCSH(2h or 8h showed the lowest values for daily gross income

  11. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  12. Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Normal and Pathological Human Endometrial Biopsies and In Vitro Regulation of Gene Expression by Metals in the Ishikawa and Hec-1b Endometrial Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Guyot

    Full Text Available It is well known that several metals, such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and vanadium, can mimic the effects of estrogens (metallo-estrogens. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that have assessed the effects of toxic metals on the female genital tract and, in particular, endometrial tissue. In this context, we measured the concentrations of several trace elements in human endometrial tissue samples from individuals with hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma and in normal tissues. Hyperplasic endometrial tissue has a 4-fold higher concentration of mercury than normal tissue. Mercury can affect both the AhR and ROS signaling pathways. Thus, we investigated the possible toxic effects of mercury by in vitro studies. We found that mercury increases oxidative stress (increased HO1 and NQO1 mRNA levels and alters the cytoskeleton in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line and to a lesser extent, in the "less-differentiated" human endometrial Hec-1b cells. The results might help to explain a potential link between this metal and the occurrence of endometrial hyperplasia.

  13. Determination of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Normal and Pathological Human Endometrial Biopsies and In Vitro Regulation of Gene Expression by Metals in the Ishikawa and Hec-1b Endometrial Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Céline; Leblanc, Alix; Pierre, Stéphane; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Lecuru, Fabrice; Poupon, Joël; Barouki, Robert; Aggerbeck, Martine; Coumoul, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that several metals, such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and vanadium, can mimic the effects of estrogens (metallo-estrogens). Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that have assessed the effects of toxic metals on the female genital tract and, in particular, endometrial tissue. In this context, we measured the concentrations of several trace elements in human endometrial tissue samples from individuals with hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma and in normal tissues. Hyperplasic endometrial tissue has a 4-fold higher concentration of mercury than normal tissue. Mercury can affect both the AhR and ROS signaling pathways. Thus, we investigated the possible toxic effects of mercury by in vitro studies. We found that mercury increases oxidative stress (increased HO1 and NQO1 mRNA levels) and alters the cytoskeleton in the human endometrial Ishikawa cell line and to a lesser extent, in the “less-differentiated” human endometrial Hec-1b cells. The results might help to explain a potential link between this metal and the occurrence of endometrial hyperplasia. PMID:26600472

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  15. Quality of diets with fludized bed combustion residue treatment: II. Swine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsel, T.J.; Reid, R.L.; Stout, W.L.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Growing pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) were fed for an 8-wk period in two trials on diets produced on soils treated with fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) or limestone. Diets contained corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mixtures with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) meal, supplemented with vegetables, fruits, and meat. Pigs were fed ad libitum and effects of diet treatment on rate of gain, N balance, blood composition, and element composition of the carcass and organs were determined. The FBCR diet caused a decrease (P<0.05 in Trial 1, P <0.07 in Trial 2) in body weight gains of pigs, but increased (P<0.05) N retention in one trial. Blood composition was not influenced markedly by diet treatment, with small but significant differences in serum Ca, triglycerides, certain amino acids, and whole blood Pb concentrations; effects were not consistent between trials. Urinary As concentration was slightly higher for pigs on FBCR diets. Analysis of the carcass and organs of pigs slaughtered posttrial showed significant differences in element levels from those of pretrial animals, but differences in tissue mineral concentrations related to diet treatment were few and inconsistent. Element concentrations in the organs of pigs were within normal ranges. No explanation for the depression in weight gain of pigs fed FBCR-treated diets was found. Except for the weight response, results support data from other trials with laboratory animals showing no apparent adverse effects of FBCR application to soils on nutritive quality of foods. 24 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  16. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  17. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  18. C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Level of Physical Activity in Men and Women With Normal and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Margareta I; Larsson, Charlotte A; Daka, Bledar; Petzold, Max; Jansson, Per-Anders; Lindblad, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to explore the association between self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in men and women with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a cross-sectional study, a random sample (n = 2,816) was examined with an oral glucose tolerance test, CRP and information about LTPA. Those with IGT or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and CRP value ≤10 mg/L were selected (n = 2,367) for the study. An inverse association between LTPA and CRP concentrations was observed in the population (P men with IGT (P = .023) and in women with NGT. Men with IGT, reporting slight physical activity up to 4 hours a week presented significantly higher CRP concentrations than normoglycemic men (Δ0.6 mg/L, P = .004). However, this difference could not be found in men with IGT reporting more intense physical activity (Δ0.01 mg/L, P = .944). Physical inactivity seems to have greater inflammatory consequences for men (vs. women) with IGT. More importantly, although 4 hours of physical activity per week is more than the usual minimum recommendation, an even greater intensity of LTPA appears to be required to limit subclinical inflammation in men with IGT.

  19. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  20. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  2. Subclinical ketosis in post-partum dairy cows fed a predominantly pasture-based diet: defining cut-points for diagnosis using concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and determining prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    Firstly, to define, in dairy cows in the first 5 weeks post-calving fed a predominantly pasture-based diet, cut-points of concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood, above which there were associations with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), reduced pregnancy rates (PR) and decreased milk production, in order to better define subclinical ketosis (SCK) in such cattle; and secondly, to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for SCK. An observational field study was conducted in 565 cows from 15 spring-calving and predominantly pasture-fed dairy herds in two regions of New Zealand during the 2010- 2011 dairy season. Within each herd, a cohort of randomly selected cows (approximately 40 per herd) was blood sampled to determine concentrations of BHBA on six occasions at weekly intervals starting within 5 days of calving. The key outcome variables were the presence/absence of PVD at 5 weeks post-calving, PR after 6 weeks (6-week PR) and after the completion of the breeding season (final PR), and mean daily milk solids production. Two cut-points for defining SCK were identified: firstly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L within 5 days post-calving, which was associated with an increased diagnosis of PVD (24 vs. 8%); and secondly concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L at any stage within 5 weeks post-calving, which was associated with decreased 6-week PR (78 vs. 85%). The mean herd-level incidence of SCK within 5 weeks post-calving was 68 (min 12; max 100)% and large variations existed between herds in peak prevalence of SCK and the interval post-calving at which such peaks occurred. Cows>8 years of age and cows losing body condition were at increased risk of SCK within 5 weeks of calving. Cows with concentration of BHBA in blood≥1.2 mmol/L in early lactation had a higher risk of PVD and lower 6-week PR. Cow and herd-level prevalence of SCK varied widely in early lactation. Subclinical ketosis is common and is significantly

  3. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  4. Efeitos do exercício crônico sobre a concentração circulante da leptina e grelina em ratos com obesidade induzida por dieta Effects of the chronic exercise on the circulating concentration of leptin and ghrelin in rats With diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eguchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade vem se tornando uma das maiores epidemias mundiais, dessa forma, conhecer sua etiologia e mecanismos que regulam seu desenvolvimento é de grande relevância para o seu Tratamento. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da obesidade exógena induzida pela dieta de cafeteria e da atividade física crônica em ratos, sobre a adiposidade e a concentração sérica dos hormônios reguladores do balanço energético (leptina e grelina. Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar machos, divididos em quatro grupos: Sedentário alimentado com dieta padrão (SN, sedentário alimentado com dieta de cafeteria (SC, treinado alimentado com dieta padrão (TN e treinado alimentado com dieta de cafeteria (TC. A dieta de cafeteria aumentou significativamente a adiposidade central (RET e visceral (EPI (pObesity is becoming one of the biggest worldwide epidemics. Therefore, knowing its etiology and mechanisms that regulate its development is of great relevance for its treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of obesity induced by the palatable hyperlipidic diet and of the chronic physical activity in rats, on the adiposity and the serum concentration of regulating hormones of the energy balance (leptin and ghrelin. 32 male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: Sedentary fed with chow diet (SN, sedentary fed with cafeteria diet (SC, trained fed with chow diet (TN and trained fed with cafeteria diet (TC. The cafeteria diet led to a significant increase of central (RET and visceral (EPI adiposity (p<0.05. Conversely,the exercise training minimized the effect of the cafeteria diet, diminishing the central and visceral adiposity. Leptin was also increased in the groups fed with the cafeteria diet, suggesting increase of the resistance to the action of this hormone. Chronic physical activity did not hinder the development of hyperleptinemia. Reduction in the serum ghrelin concentration was observed only in

  5. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  6. Moringa oleifera-based diet protects against nickel-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Adeyemi, Oluyomi; Sokolayemji Aroge, Cincin; Adewumi Akanji, Musbau

    2017-01-01

    Multiple health-promoting effects have been attributed to the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves, as part of diet without adequate scientific credence. This study evaluated the effect of M. oleifera-based diets on nickel (Ni) - induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male rats assigned into six groups were given oral administration of 20 mg/kg body weight nickel sulfate in normal saline and either fed normal diet orM. oleifera-based diets for 21 days. All animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 24 hours after the last treatment. Ni exposure elevated the rat plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase significantly. Ni exposure also raised the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol while depleting the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Further, Ni exposure raised rat plasma malondialdehyde but depleted reduced glutathione concentrations. The histopathological presentations revealed inflammation and cellular degeneration caused by Ni exposure. We show evidence thatM. oleifera-based diets protected against Ni-induced hepatotoxicity by improving the rat liver function indices, lipid profile as well as restoring cellular architecture and integrity. Study lends credence to the health-promoting value ofM. oleifera as well as underscores its potential to attenuate hepatic injury. PMID:28808207

  7. Protein source in a high-protein diet modulates reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Jennifer L; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinghong; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    High-protein diets are being promoted to reduce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the effect of protein source in high-protein diets on reducing insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was examined. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided normal-protein (15% of energy) casein, high-protein (35% of energy) casein, high-protein soy, or high-protein mixed diets with animal and plant proteins. The high-protein mixed diet reduced area under the curve for insulin during glucose tolerance testing, fasting serum insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, homeostatic model assessment index, insulin to glucose ratio, and pancreatic islet cell area. The high-protein mixed and the high-protein soy diets reduced hepatic lipid concentrations, liver to body weight ratio, and hepatic steatosis rating. These improvements were observed despite no differences in body weight, feed intake, or adiposity among high-protein diet groups. The high-protein casein diet had minimal benefits. A high-protein mixed diet was the most effective for modulating reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of weight loss, indicating that the source of protein within a high-protein diet is critical for the management of these metabolic syndrome parameters. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  8. Desempenho produtivo de bovinos Nelore de diferentes classes sexuais alimentados com dietas contendo dois níveis de oferta de concentrado Productive performance of Nellore cattle of different gender fed diets containing two levels of concentrate allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2008-06-01

    fed during 112 days, and slaughtered at the end of the trial with a reference group slaughtered at the beginning of the trial. The young bulls were more efficient and had heavier body weight (BW and empty body weight (EBW, as a result of their increased growth rate in relation to the heifers, with the steers presenting intermediate values. The relative intakes (% BW of dry matter and of all other nutrients were superior in the heifers in relations to the young bulls, while the steers showed intermediate values. The digestibilities, except EE, were unaffected by sexual class. The digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for the diet with concentrate allowance of 1.2% BW. Sexual class affected the growth and the intake capacity of the animals, however with no effect on the digestibility of the nutrients of the diet. Concentrate allowance levels of 0.6 and 1.2% BW were not sufficient to elicit difference in the performance of Nellore cattle, independently of sex class.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  10. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  11. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  12. Dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal abnormalities in a murine model of tumoral calcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Austin, Anthony M; Gray, Amie K; Allen, Matthew R; Econs, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene cause tumoral calcinosis characterized by ectopic calcifications due to persistent hyperphosphatemia. We recently developed Galnt3 knockout mice in a mixed background, which had hyperphosphatemia with increased bone mineral density (BMD) and infertility in males. To test the effect of dietary phosphate intake on their phenotype, Galnt3 knockout mice were generated in the C57BL/6J strain and fed various phosphate diets: 0.1% (low), 0.3% (low normal), 0.6% (normal), and 1.65% (high). Sera were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, blood urine nitrogen, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23). Femurs were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dynamic histomorphometry, and/or microcomputed tomography. Galnt3 knockout mice in C57BL/6J had the same biochemical phenotype observed in our previous study: hyperphosphatemia, inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level, decreased alkaline phosphatase activity, and low intact Fgf23 concentration but high Fgf23 fragments. Skeletal analyses of their femurs revealed significantly high BMD with increased cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume. On all four phosphate diets, Galnt3 knockout mice had consistently higher phosphorus levels and lower alkaline phosphatase and intact Fgf23 concentrations than littermate controls. The low-phosphate diet normalized serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and areal BMD but failed to correct male infertility in Galnt3 knockout mice. The high-phosphate diet did not increase serum phosphorus concentration in either mutant or control mice due to a compensatory increase in circulating intact Fgf23 levels. In conclusion, dietary phosphate restriction normalizes biochemical and skeletal phenotypes of Galnt3 knockout mice and, thus, can be an effective therapy for tumoral calcinosis.

  13. The effects of dietary iron concentration on gastrointestinal and branchial assimilation of both iron and cadmium in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.A. [Division of Health and Life Sciences, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.cooper@ex.ac.uk; Handy, R.D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Health and Life Sciences, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-23

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed either a diet containing 33 mg Fe kg{sup -1} (low) or 95 mg Fe kg{sup -1} (normal) for 10 weeks, after which short-term Cd and Fe uptake by the gastrointestinal tract and gill was assessed. Carcass metal content and transcript levels of the iron importer, Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1) and an iron exporter, ferroportin1, in both the gastrointestinal tract and gill were also measured. Fish fed the low Fe diet accumulated 13 times more Cd into their livers via the gastrointestinal tract than those fed the normal Fe diet. However, no significant increase in liver Fe accumulation was measured. Concomitantly, when exposed to 48 nmol Cd L{sup -1} fish fed the low Fe diet exhibited a {approx}4-fold increase in Cd accumulation on the gill and in the liver, compared to those fed a normal diet. In addition, fish fed the low Fe diet also significantly accumulated more Fe on the gill (nine-fold increase) and into the carcass (four-fold increase) when exposed to 96 nmol Fe L{sup -1}, compared to fish fed a normal diet. Surprisingly, carcass Fe, Ca and Mg concentrations were increased in fish fed the low Fe diet, which suggests that Fe body levels may not be a good indicator of whether a fish is more or less susceptible to increased non-essential metal accumulation via an Fe uptake pathway. However, significantly elevated transcript levels of DMT1 and ferroportin1 (2.7- and 3.8-fold induction, respectively) were seen in the gastrointestinal tract, and DMT1 in the gills (1.8-fold induction) of zebrafish fed a low Fe diet. The correlation between Cd uptake and DMT1 expression suggests that one route of uptake of Cd, either from the diet or from the water, could be via DMT1.

  14. The effects of dietary energy and protein concentrations on ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were investigated of energy and protein concentrations (with associated amino acid concentrations) in ostrich diets on leather quality of the skins of 50 ostriches. Energy concentrations were 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 MJ ME/kg diet and protein concentrations were 130, 150 and 170 g/kg diet. The physical leather ...

  15. Evaluación de indicadores productivos en conejas mestizas con una dieta basada en forraje y pienso criollo Evaluation of productive indicators in crossbred does with a diet based on forage and homemade concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de conejas mestizas se utilizaron un total de 24 reproductoras, entre 10 y 18 meses de edad, con un peso promedio superior a los 3,0 kg durante cuatro meses. Las reproductoras consumieron una dieta constituida por: forraje de morera (Morus alba: 0,30 kg; caña (Saccharum officinarum molida: 0,25 kg, glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg y pienso criollo: 0,06 kg. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, a los 20 y a los 45 días de edad. En las reproductoras se controló las crías nacidas vivas y destetadas por parto. Se obtuvo como promedio 6,4 gazapos vivos por parto con 0,054 kg de PV al nacimiento y se destetaron 5,4 crías a los 45 días de edad con un peso de 0,694 kg. Además, se encontró un 84,4% de supervivencia durante la etapa de lactación. La ganancia media diaria durante la lactancia fue de 0,014 kg/animal/día. Los resultados evidenciaron que con la dieta propuesta se obtuvieron indicadores productivos alentadores en reproductoras mestizas.With the objective of evaluating the productive performance of crossbred does, a total of 24 animals were used, between 10 and 18 months old, with average weight higher than 3,0 kg, during four months. The does ate a diet constituted by mulberry (Morus alba forage: 0,30 kg; ground sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum: 0,25 kg; glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg and homemade concentrate: 0,06 kg. The young rabbits were weighed at birth, 20 and 45 days after birth. In the does the offspring born alive and weaned per parturition, were controlled. As average, 6,4 live rabbits were obtained per parturition, with 0,054 kg LW at birth and 5,4 rabbits were weaned being 45 days old and weighing 0,694 kg. In addition, 84,4% survival was found during the lactation stage. The mean daily gain during lactation was 0,014 kg/animal/day. The results proved that with the proposed diet encouraging productive indicators were obtained in crossbred does.

  16. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group experienced greater gains in total body LTM (0.45 kg; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.84 kg), leg LTM (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.42 kg), and muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P < 0.05). The RT+Meat group also experienced a 10% greater increase in serum insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) and a 16% greater reduction in the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05) after 4 mo. There were no between-group differences for the change in blood lipids or blood pressure. A protein-enriched diet equivalent to ∼1.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ achieved through lean red meat is safe and effective for enhancing the effects of PRT on LTM and muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  17. Feedlot finishing cull cows fed diets with different levels of concentrateTerminação em confinamento de vacas de descarte recebendo dietas com diferentes teores de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryon Guilherme Strack

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass quality and beef and cull cow subjected to diets with two levels of concentrate (1.08 and 1.62% of body weight, whith base in dry matter durind the feedlot finishing. In this study were used twenty cull cows of the breed Aberdeen Angus, Charolais, Caracu, Canchim and Charolais x Caracu whith a mean age of 7.2 years. The average weight gain during the termination was similar between levels 1.08 and 1.62% (1.81 and 2.00 kg/day, respectively. However, animals in the 1.62% group consumed much digestible energy (46.13 Mcal / day compared to the lowest level (38.32 Mcal / day, showing similarity (P > 0.01 in the values of conversion food (6.78 and 6.93 kg dry matter / kg weight gain and energy efficiency (21.68 and 23.40 between the two groups. In feedlot finishing cull cows with an average age of 7.5 years, the increase of the concentrate from 1.08 to 1.62% of body weight based on dry matter based on corn silage, no benefits productive performance of cows nor the quality characteristics of meat. Increasing the concentrate level in the diet of this category can cause greater haunch thickness and better carcass conformation in feedlot finishing.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte submetidas a dietas com dois teores de concentrado (1,08 e 1,62% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca durante o processo de terminação em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas de descarte, de raça mestiça, que compõem a formação do composto Purunã, Aberdeen Angus, Charolês, Caracu, Canchim e Caracu x Charolês com idade média de 7,2 anos. Independente do nível de concentrado o ganho de peso médio durante a terminação foi semelhante entre os teores 1,08 e 1,62% (1,81 e 2,00 kg/ dia, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais do grupo 1,62% consumiram maior quantidade energia digestível (46,13Mcal/dia em relação ao

  18. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  19. Effect of Herbal Acupuncture with Sang-hwang(Phellinus linteus on High Fat Diet-induced Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has fairly good weight-reducing effect in treating simple obesity due to the neuroendocrine regulation. In this study, the anti-obesity effects of herbal acupuncture (HA with Sang-hwang (Phellinus linteus at Fuai (SP16 were investigated in the rat fed on high-fat (HF diet. Sang-hwang mushroom has been proven to have anti-carcinogenic effects and Sang-hwang extracts are highly effective in treatment and preventive treatment of AIDS, diabetes and high blood-pressure. To determine whether the Sang-hwang herbal acupuncture may have the anti-obesity effect, male Sprague-Dawley (4-wk-old rats were fed a HF diet for 5 wk, which produced significant weight gain compared to rats were fed a normal diet, and then herbal acupuncture were treated for 3 wk in HF diet group. The body weight, food consumption, food effeciency ratio (FER, body fat mass, plasma nitric oxide (NO were investigated in rats fed on normal diet, HF diet, and HF diet with HA (HF-diet-HA groups. NO has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of food intake. In addition, the expression of appetite peptides such as orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY and the anorectic peptide cholecystokinin (CCK were observed in the hypothalamus. HF-HA group reduced body weight gain, FER, body fat contents and NO concentration compared to HF diet group. The expression of NPY was reduced in arcuate nucleus (ARC, and CCK was increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN after treatment of HA. In conclusion, Sang-hwang HA reduced adipocity, plasma NO and hypothalamic NPY, but increased CCK expression in the HF diet-induced obesity rat, therefore HA may have anti-obesity action through regulating body weight and appetite peptide of the central nervous system.

  20. New liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for routine TDM of vancomycin in patients with both normal and impaired renal functions and comparison with results of polarization fluoroimmunoassay in light of varying creatinine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, Hana; Kacířová, Ivana; Uřinovská, Romana; Šištík, Pavel; Grundmann, Milan

    2017-06-01

    A new LC-MS/MS method with simple sample extraction and a relatively short period of vancomycin analysis for routine therapeutic drug monitoring was developed and validated. 50μL serum was precipitated using 20μL 33% trichloroacetic acid and 0.5mol/L NH 4 OH was added to increase pH before analysis. A RP BEH C18, 1.7μm, 2.1×50mm column maintained at 30°C and tobramycin as internal standard were used. Mass detection was performed in positive electrospray mode. The results obtained with LC-MS/MS method were correlated with an FPIA assay (Abbott AxSYM) using mouse monoclonal antibody. Subjects were divided into three groups according to creatinine levels (53.5±19.1, 150.2±48.4, 471.7±124.7μmol/L) and Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare vancomycin concentrations. The results of subjects with both normal and higher creatinine levels correlated very well and the linear regression model equations were near ideal (LC-MS VAN =0.947×Abbott VAN +0.192 and LC-MS VAN =0.973×Abbott VAN -0.411 respectively). Dialyzed patients with the highest creatinine levels showed about 14% greater vancomycin concentration with the FPIA assay (LC-MS VAN =0.866×Abbott VAN +2.127). This overestimation probably due to the presence of the metabolite CDP ought not to be of clinical relevance owing to the wide range of recommended vancomycin concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Irradiation Maternal Diets on the Post-natal Development of Brain Rat Pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Full text: Effect of Protein-calorie malnutrition was studied on the pups born to mothers receiving either irradiated normal diet (consisted equal parts of gram and wheat) or irradiation low protein diet (consisted one part of normal diet and three parts of heat). Level of DNA, RNA and protein content were found markedly reduced in the brain of irradiated low protein diet fed pups than in the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was found lower while catalase and lipid peroxidation activity were higher in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, compared whit the pups fed irradiated normal diet. On the whole both the irradiated low protein diet as well as irradiated normal diet fed pups showed higher index of biochemical changes than in the unirradiated low protein diet fed pups. Post-natal mortality was 60% in the pups given irradiated low protein diet, whereas the pups fed on the irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet did not show any death. The study given evidence that feeding of the irradiated low protein diet interferes more with the development of brain compared with the pups fed on irradiated normal diet

  2. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  3. Small crumbled diet versus powdered diet in restricted feeding management of juvenile Nile tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nacélio Oliveira-Segundo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The pellet size of the diet can affect both fish growth performance and the water quality of the rearing units. The present work assessed the effects of feeding juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. a small crumbled diet (SCD; 0.8 mm on water quality and growth performance. Fish were reared for six weeks in twenty 250-L polyethylene outdoor tanks at a density of 10 juveniles tank-1 (40 fish m-3. There were two feeding rates (standard and restricted and two types of artificial fish diet (powdered and SCD. The standard feeding rates were reduced by 30% for restricted feeding. The concentrations of free CO2, reactive phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite were higher in the full-fed tanks relative to the restricted-fed tanks. In the standard feeding rate groups, those tanks fed SCD had lower TAN and nitrite concentrations than tanks fed a powdered diet. The final body weight and specific growth rate of fish fed a restricted SCD were higher than the full-fed tanks. The higher levels of food waste in the powdered-diet tanks lead to impairment of fish growth performance.  

  4. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and